An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers
Shimizu, Kenji
2010-03-01
An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers (BBLs) is proposed using eddy viscosity of a quadratic form. The common definition of friction velocity based on maximum bottom shear stress is found unsatisfactory for BBLs under rotating flows, and a possible extension based on turbulent kinetic energy balance is proposed. The model solutions show that the flow may slip at the top of the boundary layer due to capping by the water surface or stratification, reducing the bottom shear stress, and that the Earth's rotation induces current and bottom shear stress components perpendicular to the interior flow with a phase lag (or lead). Comparisons with field and numerical experiments indicate that the model predicts the essential characteristics of the velocity profiles, although the agreement is rather qualitative due to assumptions of quadratic eddy viscosity with time-independent friction velocity and a well-mixed boundary layer. On the other hand, the predicted linear friction coefficients, phase lead, and veering angle at the bottom agreed with available data with an error of 3%-10%, 5°-10°, and 5°-10°, respectively. As an application of the model, the friction coefficients are used to calculate e-folding decay distances of progressive internal waves with a semidiurnal frequency.
Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review
2016-03-01
formation during an energetic storm. They noted that the sedi- ment first became dilated due to water entrainment, followed by erosion during the most...suggested by Businger et al. (1971), who developed their eddy viscosity for thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layers, was shown to be valid for
A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dag Myrhaug
1988-07-01
Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.
PIV measurements of the bottom boundary layer under nonlinear surface waves
Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A. J H M; Ruessink, B. G.; Stive, M. J F
2014-01-01
Sediment in the nearshore is largely mobilized in the wave bottom boundary layer (wbbl) hereby emphasizing the importance of this relatively thin layer to nearshore morphology. This paper presents a laboratory experiment where hydrodynamic properties of the wbbl were quantified by measuring flow vel
Kranenburg, W.M.; Ribberink, J.S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.
2012-01-01
The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under pr
Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.
2008-01-01
This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal
Structure of a bathtub vortex: importance of the bottom boundary layer
Yukimoto, Shinji; Niino, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Ryuji; Moulin, Frederic Y.
2010-03-01
A bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank rotating at a constant angular velocity Ω is studied by means of a laboratory experiment, a numerical experiment and a boundary layer theory. The laboratory and numerical experiments show that two regimes of vortices in the steady-state can occur depending on Ω and the volume flux Q through the drain hole: when Q is large and Ω is small, a potential vortex is formed in which angular momentum outside the vortex core is constant in the non-rotating frame. However, when Q is small or Ω is large, a vortex is generated in which the angular momentum decreases with decreasing radius. Boundary layer theory shows that the vortex regimes strongly depend on the theoretical radial volume flux through the bottom boundary layer under a potential vortex : when the ratio of Q to the theoretical boundary-layer radial volume flux Q b (scaled by {2π R^2 ( Ω ν )^1/2}) at the outer rim of the vortex core is larger than a critical value (of order 1), the radial flow in the interior exists at all radii and Regime I is realized, where R is the inner radius of the tank and ν the kinematic viscosity. When the ratio is less than the critical value, the radial flow in the interior nearly vanishes inside a critical radius and almost all of the radial volume flux occurs only in the boundary layer, resulting in Regime II in which the angular momentum is not constant with radius. This criterion is found to explain the results of the laboratory and numerical experiments very well.
Bacterial diversity in the bottom boundary layer of the inner continental shelf of Oregon, USA
Bertagnolli, AD
2011-06-21
There have been few studies of the bacterial community within the bottom boundary layer (BBL) the turbulent region of the water column above the benthos in shallow seas. Typically, the BBL has large amounts of particulate organic matter suspended by turbulence, and it is often the first region of the water column to become hypoxic when oxygen declines. Communities at the surface (5 m) and in the BBL (1 to 10 m above the sea floor) were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM)) indicated that the microbial community of the BBL is distinct from the surface community. ANOSIM supported the distinction between surface and BBLs (R values 0.427 and 0.463, based on analysis with restriction enzymes BsuR1 and Hin6I, respectively, p < 0.1%). Six terminal restriction fragments showed an increase in abundance with depth. Cloning, screening and sequencing identified these as a novel environmental clade (Eastern North Pacific Chromatiales (ENPC) clade), the ARTIC96BD-19 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, the 6N14 and Agg8 clades of the phylum Planctomycetes, the OM60/NOR5 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, and uncultivated members of the Roseobacter clade in the MB11C09 and ULA23 subgroups. To the best of our knowledge, this analysis is the first to focus on the unique composition of microbial communities of the BBL in shallow, inner-shelf regions off the coast of Oregon, USA, and the first to report that an uncharacterized clade of Chromatiales is indigenous in this habitat.
Turbulent structures dependent on tidal currents in the bottom boundary layer of the Venice Lagoon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavazzoni, S.; Crosera, F.
The time series of horizontal and vertical turbulent velocity fluctuations u', w' have been recorded by means of an electromagnetic currentmeter in proximity of the bottom of a channel feeding the Venetian Lagoon. Simultaneous surface gradients have been recorded at two tide gauge stations, one upstream and the other downstream of the chosen test site. The time series of u', w' and u'w' values have been analysed using standard digital methods and, for each record, spectra, cross-spectra, co-spectra, quadrature spectra, phase and coherence of u' and w' have been computed. This analysis allows us to determine temporal and spatial dimensions of turbulent structures that give the greatest contribution to Reynolds stress (- rhoanti u'anti w', where rho is the water density). These structures that seem to be dependent on longitudinal surface gradients are primarily responsible for vertical momentum transport and, consequently, for the lift-up and transport of sediments. Statistic distributions of u', w' and u'w' values indicate that the greatest turbulent structures are those with u'w'<0 and with u'<0 predominating.
Calantoni, Joseph; Holland, K Todd; Drake, Thomas G
2004-09-15
Sediment transport in oscillatory boundary layers is a process that drives coastal geomorphological change. Most formulae for bed-load transport in nearshore regions subsume the smallest-scale physics of the phenomena by parametrizing interactions amongst particles. In contrast, we directly simulate granular physics in the wave-bottom boundary layer using a discrete-element model comprised of a three-dimensional particle phase coupled to a one-dimensional fluid phase via Newton's third law through forces of buoyancy, drag and added mass. The particulate sediment phase is modelled using discrete particles formed to approximate natural grains by overlapping two spheres. Both the size of each sphere and the degree of overlap can be varied for these composite particles to generate a range of non-spherical grains. Simulations of particles having a range of shapes showed that the critical angle--the angle at which a grain pile will fail when tilted slowly from rest--increases from approximately 26 degrees for spherical particles to nearly 39 degrees for highly non-spherical composite particles having a dumbbell shape. Simulations of oscillatory sheet flow were conducted using composite particles with an angle of repose of approximately 33 degrees and a Corey shape factor greater than about 0.8, similar to the properties of beach sand. The results from the sheet-flow simulations with composite particles agreed more closely with laboratory measurements than similar simulations conducted using spherical particles. The findings suggest that particle shape may be an important factor for determining bed-load flux, particularly for larger bed slopes.
Frank, D. P.; Foster, D. L.; Chou, P.; Kao, Y.
2012-12-01
In-situ measurements of incipient motion within the mobile bed layer were conducted with state-of-the-art micro-electronic machines (MEMs). These devices were embedded in coarse-gravel sized Delrin enclosures, which have been scaled with the mobility criteria for small-scale wave flumes. The role of shear stress and pressure gradient on incipient motion of an intermittently mobile sediment bed was investigated under various oscillatory flows. Experiments conducted in a large-scale wave flume demonstrated a rocking motion before the ePebble rolled at incipient motion. The underwater video camera recorded the movement of the balls and the sensors resolved the accelerations at incipient motion. Complementary measurements with acoustic Doppler velocimeters were made to determine the hydrodynamics in the test section. The results suggest evidence of pressure gradient influenced incipient motion; in contrast with the more commonly used threshold for sediment motion based on the bed shear stress. The motion of the ePebbles correspond temporally to peaks in the pressure gradient. Calculated values of the Sleath parameter, used to quantify the effects of the pressure gradients, were comparable with field observations of pressure gradient induced plug flow by Foster et al (2006). The current configuration of the ePebble helps to identify the characteristics of incipient motion and determine orientation. These mobile nodes make a significant step towards resolving the Lagrangian dynamics of individual coarse gravel-sized particles within the mobile bed layer in the nearshore. On a larger scale, they will reduce the effects of beach erosion by improving beach nourishment design.
Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia
2016-01-01
variability in the internal tide, as well as transport of near-bottom sediment in the mid-self mud belt during the relatively quiescent summer months.
Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.
2016-06-01
in the internal tide, as well as transport of near-bottom sediment in the mid-self mud belt during the relatively quiescent summer months.
河口底边界层湍流信号的噪声干扰实验%Noise Experiments of Turbulence in Estuarine Bottom Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶智豪; 刘欢
2014-01-01
基于河口底边界层实测湍流资料，选取了高斯白噪声、线性趋势项和周期项3种不同类型的噪声，讨论了各种噪声对湍流信号的影响。结果表明：①3种类型的噪声对湍流信号的概率分布影响不大，但对能谱曲线有较显著的影响。其中，白噪声对能谱值的影响最大，趋势项对能谱值的影响不明显，周期项仅对特定频率的能谱值有影响。②对于湍流强度、脉动能量和湍动能耗散率这3个湍流特征参数，白噪声和周期项对3种参数均有影响，而趋势项仅对湍强和脉动能量有影响。当湍流信号叠加上3种类型的噪声后，会使湍流特征参数有增大的趋势。%In this paper , the effect of various noises on the turbulence was discussed based on the field observation data in estuarine bottom boundary layer , and choosing three kinds of noise , the white Gaussi-an noise , the linear trend , and the periodic signal .The following results have been obtained:( 1 ) The energy spectrum of the turbulence is more obviously affected than the probability distribution .The influ-ence of white Gaussian noise on the energy spectrum is the largest , the influence of linear trend is not no-table, and the periodic signal only makes effects on specific frequency .(2) White Gaussian noise and periodic signal both have influence on these three turbulent parameters:turbulent intensity , turbulent en-ergy and turbulent energy dissipation rate , but the linear trend only has influence on turbulent intensity and turbulent energy .Adding noises to the turbulence will make the turbulent parameters increase .
Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann
2017-01-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Phase modulated solitary waves controlled by bottom boundary condition
Mukherjee, Abhik
2014-01-01
A forced KdV equation is derived to describe weakly nonlinear, shallow water surface wave propagation over non trivial bottom boundary condition. We show that different functional forms of bottom boundary conditions self-consistently produce different forced kdV equations as the evolution equations for the free surface. Solitary wave solutions have been analytically obtained where phase gets modulated controlled by bottom boundary condition whereas amplitude remains constant.
Boundary layer transition studies
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1995-02-01
A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated
Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.
2010-10-01
The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.
Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography
Dell, R. W.
2015-03-25
Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.
The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Carpenter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate
Hurricane Boundary-Layer Theory
2010-01-01
2501. Kundu PK. 1990. Fluid Mechanics . Academic Press: San Diego, USA. Kuo HL. 1982. Vortex boundary layer under quadratic surface stress. Boundary...identification of two mechanisms for the spin-up of the mean tangential circulation of a hurricane. The first involves convergence of absolute angular...momentum above the boundary layer, where this quantity is approximately conserved. This mechanism acts to spin up the outer circulation at radii
Boundary layers in stochastic thermodynamics.
Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo
2012-02-01
We study the problem of optimizing released heat or dissipated work in stochastic thermodynamics. In the overdamped limit these functionals have singular solutions, previously interpreted as protocol jumps. We show that a regularization, penalizing a properly defined acceleration, changes the jumps into boundary layers of finite width. We show that in the limit of vanishing boundary layer width no heat is dissipated in the boundary layer, while work can be done. We further give an alternative interpretation of the fact that the optimal protocols in the overdamped limit are given by optimal deterministic transport (Burgers equation).
Wave boundary layer hydrodynamics during onshore bar migration
Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.; Ruessink, G.; Stive, M.J.F.
2010-01-01
To study onshore bar migration and the accompanying intra-wave sediment transport a wave flume experiment was conducted. The wave flume had a rigid bottom with a single bar profile. The focus of the experiment was to measure the hydrodynamics in the wave bottom boundary layer. The results show that
Controlling near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions
Mukherjee, Abhik; Kundu, Anjan
2016-01-01
Instead of taking the usual passive view for warning of near shore surging waves including extreme waves like tsunamis, we aim to study the possibility of intervening and controlling nonlinear surface waves through the feedback boundary effect at the bottom. It has been shown through analytic result that the controlled leakage at the bottom may regulate the surface solitary wave amplitude opposing the hazardous variable depth effect. The theoretical results are applied to a real coastal bathymetry in India.
On the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles
Suzuki, Sakie
2011-01-01
The universal sl_2 invariant of bottom tangles has a universality property for the colored Jones polynomial of links. Habiro conjectured that the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles takes values in certain subalgebras of the completed tensor powers of the quantized enveloping algebra U_h(sl_2) of the Lie algebra sl_2. In the present paper, we prove an improved version of Habiro's conjecture. As an application, we prove a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of boundary links.
Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers
Cousteix, Jean
2007-01-01
This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1987-01-01
The asymptotic formulations of the nonparallel linear stability of incompressible growing boundary layers are critically reviewed. These formulations can be divided into two approaches. The first approach combines a numerical method with either the method of multiple scales, or the method of averaging, of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation; all these methods yield the same result. The second approach combined a multi-structure theory with the method of multiple scales. The first approach yields results that are in excellent agreement with all available experimental data, including the growth rates as well as the neutral stability curve. The derivation of the linear stability of the incompressible growing boundary layers is explained.
the Martian atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
2011-01-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...
Stability of Boundary Layer Flow.
1980-03-01
and Teske (1975). We can conclude (as in the case of ducting) that theoretical models of boundary layer structure and associated radar structure...FI33 (Secret). Hitney, (1978) "Surface Duct Effects," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif., Report No. TD144. Lewellen, W. S., and M. E. Teske
Shockwave-boundary layer interactions
Glepman, R.
2014-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are a very common feature in both transonic and supersonic flows. They can be encountered on compressor and turbine blades, in supersonic jet inlets, on transonic wings, on the stabilization fins of missiles and in many more situations. Because of their major i
Stability of compressible boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1989-01-01
The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.
Transition in hypersonic boundary layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanhong Zhang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.
WAVE BOTTOM LAYERS DYNAMIC WITH SUSPENDED SEDIMENT OVER VORTEX RIPPLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Chang-bo; BAI Yu-chuan; ZHAO Zi-dan; ZHANG Hong-wu
2004-01-01
Vortex ripple is widely formed in the coastal region, and the dynamic of vortex is quite important because it is responsible for sediment transport. The flow structure around the vortex ripples can be modeled as 2D flow due to the geometry of the flow boundaries. In this paper, 2D Large-Ed dy-Simulation (LES) method was used to predict the flow structure and the dynamic of vortex in the bottom layers under the action of the wave, the numerical simulation results show a completely process of vortex formation, evolvement and disappearance. Based on the study of flow structure, the suspended sediment transport was modeled in present paper. The simulated sediment concentrations were compared to measurements from the literature. The agreement between the time averaged simulated concentration profiles and measurements is satisfactory. For a high setting velocity, the suspended sediment is confined to the vicinity of the bed, and it is dominated by the local bottom shear stress. For a small setting velocity,the suspension is more dominated by the characteristic of vor tex. There are two suspended sediment transport peaks observed in the cross-section at the trough and crest in the half period, the second peak is due to the separation bubble taking the sediment.
Nagata, Kouji; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Komori, Satoru
2011-01-01
Effects of weak, small-scale freestream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with and without thermal convection are experimentally investigated using a wind tunnel. Two experiments are carried out: the first is isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence, and the second is non-isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence. Both boundary layers develop under a small favorable pressure gradient. For the latter case, the bottom wall of the test section is heated...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁远征; 吴加学; 刘欢
2012-01-01
The bottom boundary layer (BBL) flows are the important processes in estuarine and coastal dynamics and sediment transport. A high-frequency acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) has become the most effective tool in the BBL turbulence observations. Unfortunately, the filed observations are frequently interfered by the status of ADV-attached frame stability, and raw data is significantly contaminated by ambient waves and currents, bedforms and so on. To date, the post-processing procedure for turbulence parameters is far from being a standard method. On the basis of previous works, the paper proposed a compre-hensive technical method for the post-processing, including status check, data quality control, coordinate rotation, despiking and filtering. Some potential errors arisen from these processing processes were analyzed in a greater detail,and the evaluation in accuracy of post-processing was discussed. The present contribution may provide a technical support for the ground-truth investigation of turbulent mixing and sediment transport in the coastal ocean.%河口底边界层过程是河口海岸研究与工程应用中的重要内容.三维点式高频流速仪(ADV)已经成为湍流现场观测的最有效的工具之一,然而受测量状态、复杂的波流环境、底床几何结构等因素的影响,湍流观测的后处理目前还不成熟.在前人工作的基础上,提出了河口底边界层湍流观测后处理的综合技术方法,包括测量状态判断、数据质量检测、坐标系旋转、去除毛刺及滤波,探讨了这些处理方法中的某些步骤及处理顺序对湍流参数估算可能产生的影响,提出了综合后处理技术的准确性评估方法.该研究对于近岸海洋湍流混合、泥沙输运等重要问题的解决可以提供较为扎实的技术支持.
2016-06-07
attenuation using the Zaneveld and Pegau (2001) algorithm: 4.8/(cpg650*1.18+0.081). Visibility was always lowest, from ~1 to 6 m, in the ubiquitous ...Visibility was always lowest, from ~1 to 6 m, in the ubiquitous bottom boundary layer. During the full water column mixing events, the entire water
Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.
Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu
2003-01-01
A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...... with a smooth bed. The boundary layer process is described over the entire range of the Reynolds number (Re from practically nil to Re = O(107)), from the laminar regime to the transitional regime and to the fully developed turbulent regime. The third section focuses on the effect of the boundary roughness...
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re
Introduction to computational techniques for boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blottner, F.G.
1979-09-01
Finite-difference procedures to solve boundary layer flows in fluid mechanics are explained. The governing equations and the transformations utilized are described. Basic solution techniques are illustrated with the similar boundary layer equations. Nonsimilar solutions are developed for the incompressible equations. Various example problems are solved, and the numerical results in the Fortran listing of the computer codes are presented.
Magnetohydrodynamic cross-field boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. B. Ingham
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate in the presence of a constant ambient magnetic field is examined. A numerical integration of the MHD boundary layer equations from the leading edge is presented showing how the asymptotic solution described by Sears is approached.
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... with a smooth bottom. Turbulence was generated ´externally´ as the flow in the oscillator was passed through a series of grids, that extended from the cover of the water tunnel to about mid-depth. Two different types of grid porosities were used. Direct measurements of the bed shear stress and velocity...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...
Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms
Yu, J.; Maas, L.R.M.
2016-01-01
A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluidsover a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformaltransformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, forthe dispersion relation between wave frequency and general
Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms
Yu, Jie; Maas, L.R.M.
2016-01-01
A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and gene
Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers
Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2014-11-01
Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.
Groh, Jannis; Vanderborght, Jan; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry
2014-05-01
table may change with changing climate. In a 'second-order' approach, the effect of changing climate conditions on these bottom boundaries is evaluated. Therefore, other hydrogeological properties that determine lateral groundwater flow such as the depth of an impermeably layer and the distance between surface water structures that drain groundwater have to be considered in the approach as well. We will present a comparison of these approaches using water balance results derived by numerical simulation with the software HYDRUS 1-D.
The inner core thermodynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer
Williams, Gabriel J.
2016-10-01
Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the inner-core dynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL), our knowledge of the inner-core thermodynamics of the TCBL remains limited. In this study, the inner-core budgets of potential temperature (θ), specific humidity ( q), and reversible equivalent potential temperature (θ _e) are examined using a high-resolution multilevel boundary layer model. The potential temperature budgets show that the heat energy is dominated by latent heat release in the eyewall, evaporative cooling along the outer edge of the eyewall, and upward surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the underlying warm ocean. It is shown that the vertical θ advection overcompensates the sum of radial advective warming from the boundary layer outflow jet and latent heating for the development of cooling in the eyewall within the TCBL. The moisture budgets show the dominant upward transport of moisture in the eyewall updrafts, partly by the boundary-layer outflow jet from the bottom eye region, so that the eyewall remains nearly saturated. The θ _e budgets reveal that the TCBL is maintained thermodynamically by the upward surface flux of higher-θ _e air from the underlying warm ocean, the radial transport of low-θ _e air from the outer regions of the TCBL, and the dry adiabatic cooling associated by eyewall updrafts. These results underscore the significance of vertical motion and the location of the boundary layer outflow jet in maintaining the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL.
Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.
Baker, Glenn Leslie
A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).
The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances
Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.
2006-12-01
The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2012-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...
The forced vibrations of three-layer orthotropic plate at incomplete contact between bottom layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aghalovyan L. A.
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The three-dimensional dynamic problem of the elasticity theory on forced vibration of orthotropic plate at incomplete contact between bottom layers and at full contact between the top layers is solved by the asymptotic method. The bottom obverse surface is subject to external dynamic influences, and top - is rigidly fixed. The common asymptotic solution of the problem is found. The closed solution for particular type of problems is found. It is known, that constant tangential displacements acting to the third layer do not influence in stress-strain state of the first and second layer. The resonance arising conditions are established.
Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)
1996-04-01
Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.
Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence
Cheskidov, Alexey
We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.
THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER IN CFB BOILER RISER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinwei; Wang; Xinmu; Zhao; Yu; Wang; Xing; Xing; Jiansheng; Zhang; Guangxi; Yue
2006-01-01
Measurement of temperature profiles of gas-solid two-phase flow at different heights in commercial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers was carried out. Experimental results showed that the thickness of thermal boundary layer was generally independent of the distance from the air distributor, except when close to the riser outlet. Through analysis of flow and combustion characteristics in the riser, it was found that the main reasons for the phenomena were: 1) the hydrodynamic boundary layer was thinner than the thermal layer and hardly changed along the CFB boiler height, and 2) both radial and axial mass and heat exchanges were strong in the CFB boiler. Numerical simulation of gas flow in the outlet zone confirmed that the distribution of the thermal boundary layer was dominated by the flow field characteristics.
1997-09-30
bed micromorphology and the rate of scour and deposition of sediments. The influence of significant sea states on a stratified bottom boundary layer...techniques, so that sidescan sonar information on bottom topography is available. Independent information on bottom micromorphology will also be
Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers
Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.
1994-01-01
The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.
Boundary layer physics over snow and ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Anderson
2007-06-01
Full Text Available A general understanding of the physics of advection and turbulent mixing within the near surface atmosphere assists the interpretation and predictive power of air chemistry theory. The theory of the physical processes involved in diffusion of trace gas reactants in the near surface atmosphere is still incomplete. Such boundary layer theory is least understood over snow and ice covered surfaces, due in part to the thermo-optical properties of the surface. Polar boundary layers have additional aspects to consider, due to the possibility of long periods without diurnal forcing and enhanced Coriolis effects.
This paper provides a review of present concepts in polar boundary layer meteorology, which will generally apply to atmospheric flow over snow and ice surfaces. It forms a companion paper to the chemistry review papers in this special issue of ACP.
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-10-15
The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.
Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Modeling and Parameterization
Holtslag, A.A.M.
2015-01-01
In this contribution we deal with the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for modeling studies of weather, climate, and air quality. As such we review the major characteristics of the ABL, and summarize the basic parameterizations for the description of atmospheric turbulence and
Boundary layer control device for duct silencers
Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.
Astrophysical Boundary Layers: A New Picture
Belyaev, Mikhail; Rafikov, Roman R.; Mclellan Stone, James
2016-04-01
Accretion is a ubiquitous process in astrophysics. In cases when the magnetic field is not too strong and a disk is formed, accretion can proceed through the mid plane all the way to the surface of the central compact object. Unless that compact object is a black hole, a boundary layer will be formed where the accretion disk touches its surfaces. The boundary layer is both dynamically and observationally significant as up to half of the accretion energy is dissipated there.Using a combination of analytical theory and computer simulations we show that angular momentum transport and accretion in the boundary layer is mediated by waves. This breaks with the standard astrophysical paradigm of an anomalous turbulent viscosity that drives accretion. However, wave-mediated angular momentum transport is a natural consequence of "sonic instability." The sonic instability, which we describe analytically and observe in our simulations, is a close cousin of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. However, it is very vigorous in the boundary layer due to the immense radial velocity shear present at the equator.Our results are applicable to accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs, protostars, and protoplanets.
Comments on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition
1990-09-01
laver transition results from instabilities as described by linear stability theory, then the disturbance growth historias follow a prescribed...mechanism by which boundary-layer disturbance growth is generally initiated and establishes the initial distur- banca amplitude at the onset of disturbance
Evaluation of the heat flux on the bottom boundary in shallow waters
Debolskaya, Elena; Ivanov, Alexandre
2014-05-01
is so small compared to the turbulent one) at different wind velocities W , will in any case not too low values of depths where the influence of the upper boundary condition is essential. It is easy to calculate that the effect of diurnal variations of temperature at the upper boundary depends on the wind velocity as follows: at W=0.5m/s K0=10-5m2/s, H=1.6 m; at W=1 m/s K0=2.6•10-4 m2/s, H=5m; at W=5 m/s K0=3•10-3 m2/s, H=16m. Further we can estimate the ability of the soil to respond to water temperature changes and to effect on the heat content of the overlying column of fluid, i.e., to serve as a source of stored heat. We consider a set of factors, that support such accumulation, namely, the shallow water with strong winds and calculate the relation of the temperature on the surface of the reservoir with depth H = 0.5 m and on the bottom during the daily fluctuation of temperature and upon the action of the wind with velocity of W = 5m / s. We obtain T(H,t)=0.95 T0, i.e. almost the whole water column warmed uniformly. Let us consider now the soil layer, on the surface of which there is a periodic variation of temperature of the overlying water with amplitude T(H,t)=0.95 T0. This problem is also described by the one-dimensional heat conduction equation with periodic boundary conditions at the upper boundary. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity of the soil at least one order of magnitude less than that of water. Let us find the value of soil depth (distance from the boundary "bottom -water"), where decrease in the amplitude of heat exposure is 10 times at daily fluctuations. We use the expression obtained above for water column and at the value of thermal diffusivity 10-7 m2/s and daily temperature variations with 86400 s, we obtain H = 0.12m. Below this depth the temperature remains relatively constant and heat flux is absent. Thus, the daily fluctuations of temperature, even for very small and well-mixed reservoir, can not propagate in depth of sediments to
Global stability analysis of axisymmetric boundary layers
Vinod, N
2016-01-01
This paper presents the linear global stability analysis of the incompressible axisymmetric boundary layer on a circular cylinder. The base flow is parallel to the axis of the cylinder at inlet. The pressure gradient is zero in the streamwise direction. The base flow velocity profile is fully non-parallel and non-similar in nature. The boundary layer grows continuously in the spatial directions. Linearized Navier-Stokes(LNS) equations are derived for the disturbance flow quantities in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The LNS equations along with homogeneous boundary conditions forms a generalized eigenvalues problem. Since the base flow is axisymmetric, the disturbances are periodic in azimuthal direction. Chebyshev spectral collocation method and Arnoldi's iterative algorithm is used for the solution of the general eigenvalues problem. The global temporal modes are computed for the range of Reynolds numbers and different azimuthal wave numbers. The largest imaginary part of the computed eigenmodes are nega...
Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics
Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.
2010-06-01
Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.
Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability
Malik, M. R.
1990-01-01
Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces
2013-05-10
Figure 1 were a highly viscous fluid, such as honey , the boundary layer would be thick while if the fluid were water, a low-viscosity fluid, the boundary...drag has become even more important. In response to this need, and with the benefit of modern technology, the drag-reduction field is replete with...manufactured with “riblets,” small ridges on the order of fractions of millimeters, built-into the hull or skin that seek to reduce frictional drag. The
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Particulate plumes in boundary layers with obstacles
Petrosyan, Arakel; Karelsky, Kirill
2013-04-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by non-slip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of big wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations.We deal with describing big field
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
Verzijlbergh, R.A.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Heus, T.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2009-01-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary
Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers
Chen, Xi
2016-01-01
Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ($x$) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions are the friction velocity $u_\\tau$: ${ U_e/u_\\tau }\\approx 2.22\\ln Re_x+2.86-3.83\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the boundary layer thickness $\\delta_e$: $x/\\delta_e \\approx 7.27\\ln Re_x-5.18-12.52\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the momentum thickness Reynolds number: $Re_x/Re_\\theta=4.94[{(\\ln {{\\mathop{\\rm Re}\
Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates
Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro
2016-11-01
This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.
Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer: DNS and RANS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jing-Lei; MA Hui-Yang
2007-01-01
We assess the performance of a few turbulence models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of supersonic boundary layers, compared to the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, carried out by Gao et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1709] and Huang et al. [Sci.Chin. 48 (2005) 614], as well as some available experimental data. The assessment is made for two test cases, with incoming Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers M = 2.25, Re = 365, 000/in, and M = 4.5, Re - 1.7 × 107/m,respectively. It is found that in the first case the prediction of RANS models agrees well with the DNS and the experimental data, while for the second case the agreement of the DNS models with experiment is less satisfactory.The compressibility effect on the RANS models is discussed.
MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations...
Active control of ionized boundary layers
Mendes, R V
1997-01-01
The challenging problems, in the field of control of chaos or of transition to chaos, lie in the domain of infinite-dimensional systems. Access to all variables being impossible in this case and the controlling action being limited to a few collective variables, it will not in general be possible to drive the whole system to the desired behaviour. A paradigmatic problem of this type is the control of the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer of fluid motion. By analysing a boundary layer flow for an ionized fluid near an airfoil, one concludes that active control of the transition amounts to the resolution of an generalized integro-differential eigenvalue problem. To cope with the required response times and phase accuracy, electromagnetic control, whenever possible, seems more appropriate than mechanical control by microactuators.
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.
Experimental studies on transitional separated boundary layers
Serna Serrano, José
2013-01-01
Separated transitional boundary layers appear on key aeronautical processes such as the flow around wings or turbomachinery blades. The aim of this thesis is the study of these flows in representative scenarios of technological applications, gaining knowledge about phenomenology and physical processes that occur there and, developing a simple model for scaling them. To achieve this goal, experimental measurements have been carried out in a low speed facility, ensuring the flow homogeneity and...
2007 Program of Study: Boundary Layers
2008-06-01
PM Coalescence of charged water droplets Andrew Belmonte, Pennsylvania State University August 9 - 10:30 AM Multiscale analysis of strongly...Properties of Helium Near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point. J. low Temp. Phys. 46, 115-135. [15] Polezhaev, V. I. and Soboleva, E. B. 2004 Rayleigh...through which potassium permanganate was added in most of the experiments in order to detect a possible appearance of boundary layer separation and
Instabilities and transition in boundary layers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Vinod; Rama Govindarajan
2005-03-01
Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ultimately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a `by-pass' route is more likely. Our recent work shows that spot birth is related to the pattern of secondary instability in either route.
Transitional boundary layers in low-Prandtl-number convection
Schumacher, Jörg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet D.
2016-12-01
The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough, the dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes, and an interior region away from the side walls. The latter is dominated by the shear of the large-scale circulation (LSC) roll, which fills the whole cell and continuously varies its orientation. The working fluid is liquid mercury or gallium at a Prandtl number Pr=0.021 for Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105≤Ra≤4 ×108 . The generated turbulent momentum transfer corresponds to macroscopic flow Reynolds numbers with 1.8 ×103≤Re≤4.6 ×104 . In highly resolved spectral element direct numerical simulations, we present the mean profiles of velocity, Reynolds stress, and temperature in inner viscous units and compare our findings with convection experiments and channel flow data. The complex three-dimensional and time-dependent structure of the LSC in the cell is compensated by a plane-by-plane symmetry transformation which aligns the horizontal velocity components and all its derivatives with the instantaneous orientation of the LSC. As a consequence, the torsion of the LSC is removed, and a streamwise direction in the shear flow can be defined. It is shown that the viscous boundary layers for the largest Rayleigh numbers are highly transitional and obey properties that are directly comparable to transitional channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers Reτ≲102 . The transitional character of the viscous boundary layer is also underlined by the strong enhancement of the fluctuations of the wall stress components with increasing Rayleigh number. An extrapolation of our analysis data suggests that the friction Reynolds number Reτ in the velocity boundary
A global boundary-layer height climatology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)
Leaky waves in boundary layer flow
Pralits, Jan
2005-11-01
Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->∞, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.
Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2008-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...... and regular ping-pong balls the size 3.6cm in the other. The orbital-motion-amplitude-to-roughness ratio at the bed was rather small, in the range a/ks=0.6-3. The mean and turbulence properties of the boundary-layer flow were measured. Various configurations of the roughness elements were used in the ping......-pong ball experiments to study the influence of packing pattern, packing density, number of layers and surface roughness of the roughness elements. The results show that the friction factor seems to be not extremely sensitive to these factors. The results also show that the friction factor for small values...
Aerosol fluxes in the marine boundary layer
Petelski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Tymon; Makuch, Przemysław; Kowalczyk, Jakub; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Drozdowska, Violetta; Piskozub, Jacek
2010-05-01
We present aerosol emission fluxes and concentrations calculated from in-situ measurement in the Nordic Sea from R/V Oceania. We compare vertical fluxes calculated with the eddy correlation and gradient methods. We use the results to test the hypothesis that marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clear the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. As the emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore marine aerosol has many features of rain meaning that the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. We have estimated the effectiveness of the process using our own measurements of vertical aerosol fluxes in the Nordic Seas. This process could explain observed phenomenon of lower Arctic aerosol optical thickness (AOT) when the air masses moved over open sea than over sea-ice. We show a negative correlation between the sea-ice coverage in the seas adjacent to Svalbard and monthly AOT values in Ny Alesund.
A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul G. A. CIZMAS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.
Stability of three-dimensional boundary layers
Nayfeh, A. H.
1979-01-01
A theory is presented for the three-dimensional stability of boundary layers. Equations are derived for the evolution of a disturbance having a given frequency and originating at a given curve. These equations are used to determine the rays along which the disturbance energy propagates. It is shown that the results can be obtained by using the saddle-point method, or kinematic wave theory, or the method of multiple scales. Extension of the theory to the case of a wave packet is also presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Elipot
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Spectral characteristics of the oceanic boundary-layer response to wind stress forcing are assessed by comparing surface drifter observations from the Southern Ocean to a suite of idealized models that parameterize the vertical flux of horizontal momentum using a first-order turbulence closure scheme. The models vary in their representation of vertical viscosity and boundary conditions. Each is used to derive a theoretical transfer function for the spectral linear response of the ocean to wind stress.
The transfer functions are evaluated using observational data. The ageostrophic component of near-surface velocity is computed by subtracting altimeter-derived geostrophic velocities from observed drifter velocities (nominally drogued to represent motions at 15-m depth. Then the transfer function is computed to link these ageostrophic velocities to observed wind stresses. The traditional Ekman model, with infinite depth and constant vertical viscosity is among the worst of the models considered in this study. The model that most successfully describes the variability in the drifter data has a shallow layer of depth O(30–50 m, in which the viscosity is constant and O(100–1000 m^{2} s^{−1}, with a no-slip bottom boundary condition. The second best model has a vertical viscosity with a surface value O(200 m^{2} s^{−1}, which increases linearly with depth at a rate O(0.1–1 cm s^{−1} and a no-slip boundary condition at the base of the boundary layer of depth O(10^{3}m. The best model shows little latitudinal or seasonal variability, and there is no obvious link to wind stress or climatological mixed-layer depth. In contrast, in the second best model, the linear coefficient and the boundary layer depth seem to covary with wind stress. The depth of the boundary layer for this model is found to be unphysically large at some latitudes and seasons, possibly a consequence of the inability of
Compressibility Effects in Turbulent Boundary Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Yu-Hui; PEI Jie; CHEN Jun; SHE Zhen-Su
2008-01-01
Local cascade (LC) scheme and space-time correlations are used to study turbulent structures and their convection behaviour in the near-wall region of compressible boundary layers at Ma = 0.8 and 1.3. The convection velocities of fluctuating velocity components u (streamwise) and v (vertical) are investigated by statistically analysing scale-dependent ensembles of LC structures. The results suggest that u is convected with entropy perturbations while v with an isentropic process. An abnormal thin layer distinct from the conventional viscous sub-layer is discovered in the immediate vicinity of the wall (y+≤1) in supersonic flows. While in the region 1 ＜ y+ ＜ 30,streamwise streaks dominate velocity, density and temperature fluctuations, the abnormal thin layer is dominated by spanwise streaks in vertical velocity and density fluctuations, where pressure and density fluctuations are strongly correlated. The LC scheme is proven to be effective in studying the nature of supersonic flows and compressibility effects on wall-bounded motions.
Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer: Observables and Consequences
Mishin, Evgeny
2014-10-01
In situ satellite observations reveal strong lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves in the substorm subauroral geospace at and earthward of the electron plasmasheet boundary. These coincide with subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the plasmasphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ~10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasma jet (injection fronts over the plasmasphere. Plasma turbulence leads to the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. As a result, a turbulent boundary layer forms between the inner edge of the electron plasmasheet and plasmasphere. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions inside the plasmasphere. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Turbulent boundary layer over a chine.
Panchapakesan, N. R.; Joubert, P. N.
1999-11-01
The flow over an edge aligned with the streamwise direction is studied as a representative of the turbulent boundary layers developing over hard chines found on the hulls of ships and catamarans. We present results of a traditional experimental investigation of this geometry in a wind tunnel with pitot tubes and hot-wires. The chine model consisted of two surfaces made of varnished fibre boards with leading edges of airfoil sections and a 90 degree corner. The boundary layer was tripped with wires close to the leading edge. The model was housed in a test section of length 6.5 m in a closed circuit wind tunnel. The experiments were conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 680,000 /m corresponding to a nominal free stream velocity of 10 m/s. The mean velocity field and the associated integral parameters obtained with pitot tube measurements are presented for different streamwise locations from 0.2 to 4.7 m from the trip wire. The flow at the two farthest locations were also studied with single and 'x' hot-wires. The secondary mean flow and the turbulence field in the corner region are described with these measurements.
Nagata, Kouji; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Komori, Satoru
2011-06-01
Effects of weak, small-scale freestream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with and without thermal convection are experimentally investigated using a wind tunnel. Two experiments are carried out: the first is isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence, and the second is non-isothermal boundary layers with and without grid turbulence. Both boundary layers develop under a small favorable pressure gradient. For the latter case, the bottom wall of the test section is heated at a constant wall temperature to investigate the effects of thermal convection under the effects of freestream turbulence. For both cases, the turbulence intensity in the freestream is Tu = 1.3% ˜ 2.4%, and the integral length scale of freestream turbulence, L∞, is much smaller than the boundary layer thickness δ, i.e., L∞/δ ≪1. The Reynolds numbers Reθ based on the momentum thickness and freestream speed U∞ are Reθ = 560, 1100, 1310, and 2330 in isothermal boundary layers without grid turbulence. Instantaneous velocities, U and V, and instantaneous temperature T are simultaneously measured using a hot-wire anemometry and a constant-current resistance thermometer. The results show that the rms velocities and Reynolds shear stress normalized by the friction velocity are strongly suppressed by the freestream turbulence throughout the boundary layer in both isothermal and non-isothermal boundary layers. In the non-isothermal boundary layers, the normalized rms temperature and vertical turbulent heat flux are also strongly suppressed by the freestream turbulence. Turbulent momentum and heat transfer at the wall are enhanced by the freestream turbulence and the enhancement is notable in unstable stratification. The power spectra of u, v, and θ and their cospectra show that motions of almost all scales are suppressed by the freestream turbulence in both the isothermal and non-isothermal boundary layers.
Vortex tubes in the wave bottom boundary layer
Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ruessink, B.G.; Stive, M.J.F.
2012-01-01
The cause of sediment suspension events during flow reversal under waves in the nearshore is not well understood. Vortex tubes and horizontal pressure gradients have been suggested to be the cause of the suspension events. A medium sized wave flume experiment has been conducted to give insight in th
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow
1988-09-29
8/a and x/a were estimated based on information presented in each paper. The studies listed are in order of decreasing curvature ratio, &a. The...boundar) layer is fundamental, yet difficult. Very little information is available on the structure of turbulence in a cylindrical boundary layer, although...Engineering Science Company, Pasadena, CA, 1962.) 4. B. C. Sakiadis, "Boundary-Layer Behavoir on Continuous Solid Surfaces: Ill. The Boundary Layer on a
Possible management of near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions
Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S.; Kundu, Anjan
2017-03-01
We propose an alternative way for managing near shore surging waves, including extreme waves like tsunamis, going beyond the conventional passive measures like the warning system. We study theoretically the possibility of influencing the nonlinear surface waves through a leakage boundary effect at the bottom. It has been found through analytic result, that the controlled leakage at the bottom might regulate the amplitude of the surface solitary waves. This could lead to a possible decay of the surging waves to reduce its hazardous effects near the shore. Our theoretical results are estimated by applying it to a real coastal bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal in India.
Linear Controllers for Turbulent Boundary Layers
Lim, Junwoo; Kim, John; Kang, Sung-Moon; Speyer, Jason
2000-11-01
Several recent studies have shown that controllers based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in turbulent flows, suggesting that a linear mechanism may play an important role even in turbulent flows. It has been also shown that non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations is an essential characteristic in the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures in turbulent boundary layers. A few controllers designed to reduce the role of different linear mechanisms, including that to minimize the non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, have been developed and applied to a low Reynolds nubmer turbulent channel flow. A reduced-order model containing the most controllable and observables modes is derived for each system. Other existing control schemes, such as Choi et al's opposition control, have been examined from the point of a linear system control. Further discussion on controller design, such as choice of cost function and other control parameters, will be presented.
Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers
Savas, O.
1980-01-01
Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.
Large Eddy Simulation of Transitional Boundary Layer
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2009-11-01
A sixth order compact finite difference code is employed to investigate compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of subharmonic transition of a spatially developing zero pressure gradient boundary layer, at Ma = 0.2. The computational domain extends from Rex= 10^5, where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and sub-harmonic modes, to fully turbulent stage at Rex= 10.1x10^5. Numerical sponges are used in the neighborhood of external boundaries to provide non-reflective conditions. Our interest lies in the performance of the dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model [1] in the transition process. It is observed that in early stages of transition the eddy viscosity is much smaller than the physical viscosity. As a result the amplitudes of selected harmonics are in very good agreement with the experimental data [2]. The model's contribution gradually increases during the last stages of transition process and the dynamic eddy viscosity becomes fully active and dominant in the turbulent region. Consistent with this trend the skin friction coefficient versus Rex diverges from its laminar profile and converges to the turbulent profile after an overshoot. 1. Moin P. et. al. Phys Fluids A, 3(11), 2746-2757, 1991. 2. Kachanov Yu. S. et. al. JFM, 138, 209-247, 1983.
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.
2009-02-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion - a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.
Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer
Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2013-01-01
Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation
Yuan, Jing
2016-04-01
A full-scale experimental study of turbulent boundary layer flows under irregular waves and currents is conducted with the primary objective to investigate the equivalent-wave concept by Madsen (1994). Irregular oscillatory flows following the bottom-velocity spectrum under realistic surface irregular waves are produced over two fixed rough bottoms in an oscillatory water tunnel, and flow velocities are measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry. The root-mean-square (RMS) value and representative phase lead of wave velocities have vertical variations very similar to those of the first-harmonic velocity of periodic wave boundary layers, e.g., the RMS wave velocity follows a logarithmic distribution controlled by the physical bottom roughness in the very near-bottom region. The RMS wave bottom shear stress and the associated representative phase lead can be accurately predicted using the equivalent-wave approach. The spectra of wave bottom shear stress and boundary layer velocity are found to be proportional to the spectrum of free-stream velocity. Currents in the presence of irregular waves exhibit the classic two-log-profile structure with the lower log-profile controlled by the physical bottom roughness and the upper log-profile controlled by a much larger apparent roughness. Replacing the irregular waves by their equivalent sinusoidal waves virtually makes no difference for the coexisting currents. These observations, together with the excellent agreement between measurements and model predictions, suggest that the equivalent-wave representation adequately characterizes the basic wave-current interaction under irregular waves.
Study of interaction between shock wave and unsteady boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董志勇; 韩肇元
2003-01-01
This paper reports theoretical and experimental study of a new type of interaction of a moving shock wave with an unsteady boundary layer. This type of shock wave-boundary layer interaction describes a moving shock wave interaction with an unsteady boundary layer induced by another shock wave and a rarefaction wave. So it is different from the interaction of a stationary shock wave with steady boundary layer, also different from the interaction of a reflected moving shock wave at the end of a shock tube with unsteady boundary layer induced by an incident shock. Geometrical shock dynamics is used for the theoretical analysis of the shock wave-unsteady boundary layer interaction, and a double-driver shock tube with a rarefaction wave bursting diaphragm is used for the experimental investigation in this work.
Boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in air
Puits, Ronald du; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André
2012-01-01
The boundary layer flow in a Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection cell of rectangular shape has been visualized in this fluid dynamics video. The experiment has been undertaken in air at a Rayleigh number $Ra=1.3\\times 10^{10}$ and a Prandtl number $Pr=0.7$. Various sequences captured at selected positions of the heating plate show that the boundary layer is a very transient flow region characterized by coherent structures that permanently evolve. It becomes fully turbulent in the areas where the large-scale circulation impinge or leave the bottom plate.
A Cautionary Note on the Thermal Boundary Layer Similarity Scaling for the Turbulent Boundary Layer
Weyburne, David
2016-01-01
Wang and Castillo have developed empirical parameters for scaling the temperature profile of the turbulent boundary layer flowing over a heated wall in the paper X. Wang and L. Castillo, J. Turbul., 4, 1(2003). They presented experimental data plots that showed similarity type behavior when scaled with their new scaling parameters. However, what was actually plotted, and what actually showed similarity type behavior, was not the temperature profile but the defect profile formed by subtracting the temperature in the boundary layer from the temperature in the bulk flow. We show that if the same data and same scaling is replotted as just the scaled temperature profile, similarity is no longer prevalent. This failure to show both defect profile similarity and temperature profile similarity is indicative of false similarity. The nature of this false similarity problem is discussed in detail.
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction
Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.
The Boundary Layer Interaction with Shock Wave and Expansion Fan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MaratA.Goldfeld; RomanV.Nestoulia; 等
2000-01-01
The results of experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on compression and expansion surfaces are presented.They include the study of the shock wave and /or expansion fan action upon the boundary layer,boundary layer sepqartion and its relaxation.Complex events of paired interactions and the flow on compression convex-concave surfaces were studied.The posibility and conditions of the boundary layer relaminarization behind the expansion fan and its effect on the relaxation length are presented.Different model configurations for wide range conditions were investigated.Comparison of results for different interactions was carried out.
Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer
Belson, Brandt A.
This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we
Characteristics of the boundary layer of magnetic clouds and a new definition of the cloud boundary
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI; Fengsi(魏奉思); LIU; Rui(刘睿); FAN; Quanlin(范全林); FENG; Xueshang(冯学尚)
2003-01-01
Based on the analysis of the boundaries of 70 magnetic clouds from 1967 to 1998, and relatively complete spacecraft observations, it is indicated that the magnetic cloud boundaries are boundary layers formed through the interaction between the magnetic clouds and the ambient medium. Most of the outer boundaries of the layers, with relatively high proton temperature, density and plasma β, are magnetic reconnection boundaries, while the inner boundaries, with low proton temperature, proton density and plasma β, separate the main body of magnetic clouds, which has not been affected by the interaction, from the boundary layers. The average time scale of the front boundary layer is 1.7 h and that of the tail boundary layer 3.1 h. It is also found that the magnetic probability distribution function undergoes significant changes across the boundary layers. This new definition, supported by the preliminary numerical simulation in principle, could qualitatively explain the observations of interplanetary magnetic clouds, and could help resolve the controversy in identifying the boundaries of magnetic clouds. Our concept of the boundary layer may provide some understanding of what underlies the observations, and a fresh train of thought in the interplanetary dynamics research.
Turbulence in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Fernando, Harindra; Kit, Eliezer; Conry, Patrick; Hocut, Christopher; Liberzon, Dan
2016-11-01
During the field campaigns of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program, fine-scale measurements of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were made using a novel sonic and hot-film anemometer dyad (a combo probe). A swath of scales, from large down to Kolmogorov scales, was covered. The hot-film was located on a gimbal within the sonic probe volume, and was automated to rotate in the horizontal plane to align with the mean flow measured by sonic. This procedure not only helped satisfy the requirement of hot-film alignment with the mean flow, but also allowed in-situ calibration of hot-films. This paper analyzes a period of nocturnal flow that was similar to an idealized stratified parallel shear flow. Some new phenomena were identified, which included the occurrence of strong bursts in the velocity records indicative of turbulence generation at finer scales that are not captured by conventional sonic anemometers. The spectra showed bottleneck effect, but its manifestation did not fit into the framework of previous bottleneck-effect theories and was unequivocally related to bursts of turbulence. The measurements were also used to evaluate the energetics of stratified shear flows typical of the environment. ONR # N00014-11-1-0709; NSF # AGS-1528451; ISF 408/15.
Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
Large eddy simulation of an arbitrary wind farm is studied in the neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary Layer. Large eddy simulations of industrial flows usually requires full resolution of the flow near the wall and this is believed to be one of the main deficiencies of LES because...... layer. In the current study, another approach has been implemented to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on Immersed Boundary Method and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer. An initial boundary layer is enforced...... height and the flow development is seen based on the temperature variations and wind turbine wake generations and interactions of wakes occurs as soon as the wakes of the upwind turbine reach the downwind turbines. References: [1] U. Piomelli, Wall-layer models for large-eddy simulations, Progress...
Behavior of Boundary Layer in Supersonic Flow with Applied Lorentz Force
Udagawa, Keisuke; Saito, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki
Experimental study on behavior of boundary layer in supersonic flow with applied Lorentz force was carried out. In the experiment, Mach 1.5 supersonic wind tunnel driven by a shock-tube was used. At the test section, the current from the external DC power supply and the magnetic field of 2.4 Tesla were applied to the boundary layer developing on the bottom wall. Argon seeded with cesium was used as an electrically conducting gas. Effect of the direction of the Lorentz force on static pressure distribution was investigated, and the remarkable increase of static pressure at the test section was observed for the decelerating Lorentz force. It is noted that the acceleration of the flow inside the boundary layer was demonstrated for the first time without accelerating the main flow when the accelerating Lorentz force was applied. At the same time, the acceleration efficiency defined by a ratio of work done by the Lorentz force to energy input into the flow was found 54-61%. These results have suggested the possibility of the boundary layer separation control by applying the accelerating Lorentz force. In the case of the decelerating Lorentz force, the significant reduction of Mach number was observed not only inside the boundary layer but also in the main flow. The reduction of Mach number could be ascribed to the growth of the boundary layer due to gas heating inside the boundary layer. When the direction of the current was changed, the difference of light emission from the discharge inside the boundary layer was observed, and this was due to the difference of the electromotive force induced in the supersonic flow.
Hydrodynamic resistance of concentration polarization boundary layers in ultrafiltration
Wijmans, J.G.; Nakao, S.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Troelstra, F.R.; Smolders, C.A.
1985-01-01
The influence of concentration polarization on the permeate flux in the ultrafiltration of aqueous Dextran T70 solutions can be described by (i) the osmotic pressure model and (ii) the boundary layer resistance model. In the latter model the hydrodynamic resistance of the non-gelled boundary layer i
Langevin equation model of dispersion in the convective boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasstrom, J S
1998-08-01
This dissertation presents the development and evaluation of a Lagrangian stochastic model of vertical dispersion of trace material in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This model is based on a Langevin equation of motion for a fluid particle, and assumes the fluid vertical velocity probability distribution is skewed and spatially homogeneous. This approach can account for the effect of large-scale, long-lived turbulent structures and skewed vertical velocity distributions found in the CBL. The form of the Langevin equation used has a linear (in velocity) deterministic acceleration and a skewed randomacceleration. For the case of homogeneous fluid velocity statistics, this ""linear-skewed" Langevin equation can be integrated explicitly, resulting in a relatively efficient numerical simulation method. It is shown that this approach is more efficient than an alternative using a "nonlinear-Gaussian" Langevin equation (with a nonlinear deterministic acceleration and a Gaussian random acceleration) assuming homogeneous turbulence, and much more efficient than alternative approaches using Langevin equation models assuming inhomogeneous turbulence. "Reflection" boundary conditions for selecting a new velocity for a particle that encounters a boundary at the top or bottom of the CBL were investigated. These include one method using the standard assumption that the magnitudes of the particle incident and reflected velocities are positively correlated, and two alternatives in which the magnitudes of these velocities are negatively correlated and uncorrelated. The constraint that spatial and velocity distributions of a well-mixed tracer must be the same as those of the fluid, was used to develop the Langevin equation models and the reflection boundary conditions. The two Langevin equation models and three reflection methods were successfully tested using cases for which exact, analytic statistical properties of particle velocity and position are known, including well
Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges
Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.
2004-02-01
The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.
Boundary Layer to a System of Viscous Hyperbolic Conservation Laws
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the large-time behavior of solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for nxn hyperbolic system of conservation laws with artificial viscosity in the half line (0, ∞). We first show that a boundary layer exists if the corresponding hyperbolic part contains at least one characteristic field with negative propagation speed. We further show that such boundary layer is nonlinearly stable under small initial perturbation. The proofs are given by an elementary energy method.
The Organizational and Operational Boundaries of Triple Bottom Line Reporting: A Survey
Archel, Pablo; Fernández, Manuel; Larrinaga, Carlos
2008-01-01
This article responds to Gray’s (2002) call for normative research on social and environmental accounting (SEA) and Parker’s (2005) call for active engagement in the process of designing SEA systems. More specifically, our investigation focuses on the study of boundary setting for triple bottom line (TBL) reporting, an issue that has been given more attention by practitioners than by researchers. The study reviews the consequences of boundary setting for the discharge of organizational accountability, from which it develops a framework to investigate TBL reporting boundaries and then reports on an empirical survey of best practice. It concludes that organizations are strategically setting and disclosing their boundaries instead of discharging their accountability and argues that such strategies have far-reaching consequences, because reporting boundaries are not only reflective of organizations but also have a constitutive role in their definition. A further consequence is that it calls into question the use of voluntary labeling, such as “in accordance” with Global Reporting Initiative; one implication being that further research into technical developments in TBL reporting could contribute to the discharge of organizational accountability.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Gupta; R G Shandil
2011-11-01
We utilize the reformulated equations of the classical theory, as derived by Banerjee et al.(J. Math. Anal. Appl. 175 (1993) 458), to establish mathematically, the existence of hydrodynamic instability in single diffusive bottom heavy systems, when considered in the more general framework of the boundary conditions of the type specified by Beavers and Joseph (J. Fluid Mech. 30 (1967) 197), in the parameter regime $T_0_2>1$, where $T_0$ and 2 being some properly chosen mean temperature and coefficient of specific heat (at constant volume) variation due to temperature variation respectively.
Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.
Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong
2013-05-20
Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.
Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements
Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong
2013-01-01
Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.
Boundary Layer Ventilation Processes During a High Pressure Event
Gray, S. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Belcher, S. E.
2006-12-01
It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer is weak during high pressure events. But is this always true? Here we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a high pressure event that occured on the 9 May 2005 using the UK Met Office Unifed Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include a sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing across the top of the boundary layer followed by large-scale ascent, and shallow convection. Vertical distributions of tracer are validated with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree impressively well. Budget calculations of tracers are performed in order to determine the relative importance of these ventilation processes. The sea breeze circulation was found to ventilate 26% of the boundary layer tracer by sunset of which 2% was above 2km. A combination of the sea breeze circulation and turbulent mixing ventilated 46% of the boundary layer tracer, of which 10% was above 2km. Finally, the sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing and shallow convection processes together ventilated 52% of the tracer into the free troposphere, of which 26% was above 2km. Hence this study shows that signicant ventilation of the boundary layer can occur during high pressure events; turbulent mixing and convection processes can double the amount of pollution ventilated from the boundary layer.
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.
Boundary-layer predictions for small low-speed contractions
Mehta, Rabindra D.; Bell, James H.
1989-01-01
The present scheme for the prediction of boundary-layer development in small, low-speed wind tunnel contraction sections proceeds by calculating the wall pressure distributions, and hence the wall velocity distributions, by means of a three-dimensional potential-flow method. For the family of contractions presently treated, the assumption of a laminar boundary layer appears to be justified; the measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of the four contractions were found to lie within 10 percent of predicted values.
Transient thermal response of turbulent compressible boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Hongwei; Nalim, M. Razi; Merkle, Charles L.
2011-01-01
. In turbulent flow as in laminar, the transient heat transfer rates are very different from that obtained from quasi-steady analysis. It is found that the time scale for response of the turbulent boundary layer to far-field temperature changes is 40% less than for laminar flow, and the turbulent local Nusselt......A numerical method is developed with the capability to predict transient thermal boundary layer response under various flow and thermal conditions. The transient thermal boundary layer variation due to a moving compressible turbulent fluid of varying temperature was numerically studied on a two...
Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-03-01
The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.
On the numerical resolution of the bottom layer in simulations of oceanic gravity currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Laanaia
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The role of an increased numerical vertical resolution, leading to an explicit resolution of the bottom Ekman layer dynamics, is investigated. Using the hydrostatic ocean model NEMO-OPA9, we demonstrate that the dynamics of an idealised gravity current (on an inclined plane, is well captured when a few (around five sigma-coordinate levels are added near the ocean floor. Such resolution allows to considerably improve the representation of the descent and transport of the gravity current and the Ekman dynamics near the ocean floor, including the important effect of Ekman veering, which is usually neglected in today's simulations of the ocean dynamics.
Results from high resolution simulations (with σ and z-coordinates are compared to simulations with a vertical resolution commonly employed in today's ocean models. The latter show a downslope transport that is reduced by almost an order of magnitude and the decrease in the along slope transport is reduced six-fold. We strongly advocate for an increase of the numerical resolution at the ocean floor, similar to the way it is done at the ocean surface and at the lower boundary in atmospheric models.
On the numerical resolution of the bottom layer in simulations of oceanic gravity currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Laanaia
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The role of an increased numerical vertical resolution, leading to an explicit resolution of the bottom Ekman layer dynamics, is investigated. Using the hydrostatic ocean model NEMO-OPA9, we demonstrate that the dynamics of an idealised gravity current (on an inclined plane, is well captured when a few (around five sigma-coordinate levels are added near the ocean floor. Such resolution allows to considerably improve the representation of the descent and transport of the gravity current and the Ekman dynamics near the ocean floor, including the important effect of Ekman veering, which is usually neglected in today's simulations of the ocean dynamics.
Results from high resolution simulations (with σ and z-coordinates are compared to simulations with a vertical resolution commonly employed in today's ocean models. The latter show a downslope transport that is reduced by almost an order of magnitude and the decrease in the along slope transport is reduced six-fold. We strongly advocate for an increase of the numerical resolution at the ocean floor, similar to the way it is done at the ocean surface and at the lower boundary in atmospheric models.
Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1996-04-01
Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.
Boundary Layer Ventilation by Convection and Coastal Processes
Dacre, H.
2008-12-01
Several observational studies measuring aerosol in the atmosphere have found multiple aerosol layers located above the marine boundary layer. It is hypothesized that the existence of these layers is influenced by the diurnal variation in the structure of the upwind continental boundary layer. Furthermore, collision between a sea breeze and the prevailing wind can result in enhanced convection at the coast which can also lead to elevated layers of pollution. In this study we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer near the coast using the UK Met Office Unified Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include shallow convection, a sea breeze circulation and coastal outflow. Vertical distributions of tracer at the coast are validated qualitatively with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree well.
Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burbank, John
2016-05-01
more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates
Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
, is newly extended to incorporate a transitional variant of the standard two-equation k–ω turbulence closure. The developed numerical model is successfully validated against recent experimental measurements involving transient solitary wave boundary layers as well as for oscillatory flows, collectively......This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...
Microprobe of structure of crystal/liquid interface boundary layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The molecular structures and its evolutive regularities within the boundary layers in the crystal growth of KDP and DKDP have been studied in real time by using holography and Raman microprobe. The experiments show that the molecular structure of mother solution within the boundary layers is distinctly different from that of the solutions alone. In this paper, the effects of cations within the boundary layers on the structure of solution are considered. Within the characteristic boundary layers, the effects of cations cause the changes in O-P-O bond angle, electronic density redistribution of the phosphate groups, and significant changes in the bond intensity, thus leading to the breaking of partial hydrogen bonds of the phosphate associations, the readjustment of geometry of anionic phosphate groups and desolvation, and the forming of the smectic ordering structure of the anions_cations. Finally, the crystallization unit of anion_cation should be formed at the proximate interface.
DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer over a blunt wedge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xinliang; FU Dexun; MA Yanwan
2005-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of spatially evolving compressible boundary layer over a blunt wedge is performed in this paper. The free-stream Mach number is 6 and the disturbance source produced by wall blowing and suction is located downstream of the sound-speed point. Statistics are studied and compared with the results in incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The mean pressure gradient effects on the vortex structure are studied.
A Compilation of Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layer Experimental Data,
1981-11-01
HIRSCH KITAet ai, GOSTELOW EHERENSBERGER LU HO & CHEN KOBASHI & HAYAKAWA MAINARDI & PANDAY MARVIN* LORBER & COVERT MIZUSHINA I SAXENA RAMAPRIAN & TU...Laminar Boundary Layer by a Moving Belt. AIAA Paj_2r 69-40, New York, N.Y., 1969. (LT) Mainardi , H. and Panday, P. K.: A Study of Turbulent Pulsating...Flow in a (-cular Pipe. Eurovisc 77 - Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layers and Shear Flows, Toulouse, France, Jar,. 2977. (TE-D) Mainardi , H. and Panday
A note on boundary-layer friction in baroclinic cyclones
Boutle, I A; Belcher, S E; Plant, R S
2008-01-01
The interaction between extratropical cyclones and the underlying boundary layer has been a topic of recent discussion in papers by Adamson et. al. (2006) and Beare (2007). Their results emphasise different mechanisms through which the boundary layer dynamics may modify the growth of a baroclinic cyclone. By using different sea-surface temperature distributions and comparing the low-level winds, the differences are exposed and both of the proposed mechanisms appear to be acting within a single simulation.
CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ying-zheng; KE Feng; CHEN Han-ping
2005-01-01
The spatio-temporal characteristics of the velocity fluctuations in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow was investigated using hotwire. A low-speed wind tunnel was established. The experimental data was extensively analyzed in terms of continuous wavelet transform coefficients and their auto-correlation. The results yielded a potential wealth of information on inherent characteristics of coherent structures embedded in turbulent boundary layer flow. Spatial and temporal variations of the low- and high- frequency motions were revealed.
Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude
Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim
2013-04-01
Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).
LES model intercomparisons for the stable atmospheric boundary layer
Moene, A.F.; Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Basu, S.
2011-01-01
Model intercomparisons are one possible method to gain confidence in Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) as a viable tool to study turbulence in the atmospheric boundary-layer. This paper discusses the setup and some results of two intercomparison cases focussing on the stably stratified nocturnal boundary-
BOUNDARY LAYER AND VANISHING DIFFUSION LIMIT FOR NONLINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭艳
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider an initial-boundary value problem for some nonlinear evolution equations with damping and diffusion. The main purpose is to investigate the boundary layer effect and the convergence rates as the diffusion parameterαgoes to zero.
Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines
Gabard, Gwénaël
2016-10-01
The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.
2016-06-07
NUSC Technical Memorandum 851103 85lllil3 lillillN 21 June 1985 Calculations of Turbulent Boundary Layer (TBL) Pressure Fluctuations Transmitted...into a Viscoelastic Layer Sung H. Ko Howard H. Schloemer Submarine Sonar Department ~ - ~ • .-L ....... ’t’-~-~ ::?,$~.. \\ I I •• "’.e. !{ ft...Calculations of Turbulent Boundary Layer (TBL) Pressure Fluctuations Transmitted into a Viscoelastic Layer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.
Numerical Study on Mechanism of Small Vortex Generation in Boundary Layer Transition
Lu, Ping
2014-01-01
The small vortex generation is a key issue of the mechanism for late flow transition and turbulence generation. It was widely accepted that small length vortices were generated by large vortex breakdown. According to our recent DNS, we find that the hairpin vortex structure is very stable and never breaks down to small pieces. On the other hand, we recognize that there are strong positive spikes besides the ring neck in the spanwise direction. The strongly positive spikes are caused by second sweeps which are generated by perfectly circular and perpendicularly standing vortex rings. The second sweep brings energy from the invisid region downdraft to the bottom of the boundary layers, which generates high shear layers around the positive spikes.Since the high shear layer is not stable, all small length scales (turbulence) are generated around high shear layers especially near the wall surface (bottom of boundary layers). This happens near the ring neck in the streamwise direction and besides the original vorte...
Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Gong, Yuefeng; Wu, Liangcai; Feng, Songlin; Chen, Bomy
2008-11-05
A phase change memory cell with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode is investigated. The crystalline tungsten trioxide heating layer promotes the temperature rise in the Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) layer which causes the reduction in the reset voltage compared to a conventional phase change memory cell. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are applied to understand the thermal effect of the tungsten trioxide heating layer/electrode. The improvement in thermal efficiency of the PCM cell mainly originates from the low thermal conductivity of the crystalline tungsten trioxide material.
Multiple paths to subharmonic laminar breakdown in a boundary layer
Zang, Thomas A.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1990-01-01
Numerical simulations demonstrate that laminar breakdown in a boundary layer induced by the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves to three-dimensional subharmonic disturbancews need not take the conventional lambda vortex/high-shear layer path.
EFFECT OF CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AT BOTTOM WALL ON NATURAL CONVECTIONS IN A SQUARE CAVITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ASWATHA
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Simulations were carried out for natural convection in a square cavity using finite volume based computational procedure with biased quadratic elements to investigate the influence of convective boundary conditions at bottom wall. Parametric study has been carried out for a wide range of Rayleigh number (Ra (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 108, Prandtl number (Pr (0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 17 and heat transfer coefficient (h (0.1 ≤ h ≤ 104 W/m2 K. It is observed from the present study that the heat transfer is primarily due to conduction for Rayleigh number up to 104. Convection dominant heat transfer is observed at higher Ra values. The intensity of circulation increases with increase in Ra number. The average heat transfer rate at the bottom wall is found to be invariant for all values of heat transfer coefficient for Ra up to 104. The power law correlations between average Nusselt number and Rayleigh numbers are presented for convection dominated regimes.
Catalyst-Free Bottom-Up Synthesis of Few-Layer Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets
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Shena M. Stanley
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel catalyst-free methodology has been developed to prepare few-layer hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using a bottom-up process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (both high and low resolution exhibit evidence of less than ten layers of nanosheets with uniform dimension. X-ray diffraction pattern and other additional characterization techniques prove crystallinity and purity of the product.
Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.;
2007-01-01
In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...
Plasma boundary layer and magnetopause layer of the earth's magnetosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eastman, T.E.
1979-06-01
IMP 6 observations of the plasma boundary layer (PBL) and magnetopause layer (MPL) of the earth's magnetosphere indicate that plasma in the low-latitude portion of the PBL is supplied primarily by direct transport of magnetosheath plasma across the MPL and that this transport process is relatively widespread over the entire sunward magnetospheric boundary.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2010-01-01
This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...
Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2011-01-01
is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....
Boundary-layer control by electric fields A feasibility study
Mendes, R V
1998-01-01
A problem of great concern in aviation and submarine propulsion is the control of the boundary layer and, in particular, the methods to extend the laminar region as a means to decrease noise and fuel consumption. In this paper we study the flow of air along an airfoil when a layer of ionized gas and a longitudinal electric field are created in the boundary layer region. By deriving scaling solutions and more accurate numerical solutions we discuss the possibility of achieving significant boundary layer control for realistic physical parameters. Practical design formulas and criteria are obtained. We also discuss the perspectives for active control of the laminar-to-turbulent transition fluctuations by electromagnetic field modulation.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
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Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Breaking the boundary layer symmetry in turbulent convection using wall geometry
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S
2014-01-01
We systematically probe the interaction of the boundary layer with the core flow during two-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection using numerical simulations and scaling theory. The boundary layer/core flow interaction is manipulated by configuring the top plate with a sinusoidal geometry and breaking the symmetry between the top and bottom thermal boundary layers. At long wavelength the planar results are recovered. However, at intermediate wavelengths, and for Rayleigh numbers ($Ra$) such that the amplitude of the roughness elements is larger than the boundary layer thickness, there is enhanced cold plume production at the tips of the elements. It is found that, while the interior of the flow is well mixed as in the classical theory of Malkus, the mean temperature is lower than that in the planar case. For a Prandtl number of unity and $Ra = 10^6$ to $2.5 \\times 10^9$ we find a Nusselt number ($Nu$) scaling law of $Nu = 0.052 \\times Ra^{0.34}$, in good agreement with recent experiments. The c...
Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings
Brambley, E. J.
2013-08-01
Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.
An investigation of streaklike instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames
Miller, Colin; Finney, Mark; Forthofer, Jason; McAllister, Sara; Gollner, Michael
2016-11-01
Observations of coherent structures in boundary layer flames, particularly wildland fires, motivated an investigation on flame instabilities within a boundary layer. This experimental study examined streaklike structures in a stationary diffusion flame stabilized within a laminar boundary layer. Flame streaks were found to align with pre-existing velocity perturbations, enabling stabilization of these coherent structures. Thermocouple measurements were used to quantify streamwise amplification of flame streaks. Temperature mapping indicated a temperature rise in the flame streaks, while the region in between these streaks, the trough, decreased in temperature. The heat flux to the surface was measured with a total heat flux gauge, and the heat flux below the troughs was found to be higher at all measurement locations. This was likely a function of the flame standoff distance, and indicated that the flame streaks were acting to modify the spanwise distribution of heat flux. Instabilities in boundary layer combustion can have an effect on the spanwise distribution of heat transfer. This finding has significant implications for boundary layer combustion, indicating that instantaneous properties can vary significantly in a three-dimensional flow field.
Secondary instability in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1979-01-01
The stability of a secondary Tollmien-Schlichting wave, whose wavenumber and frequency are nearly one half those of a fundamental Tollmien-Schlichting instability wave is analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Under these conditions, the fundamental wave acts as a parametric exciter for the secondary wave. The results show that the amplitude of the fundamental wave must exceed a critical value to trigger this parametric instability. This value is proportional to a detuning parameter which is the real part of k - 2K, where k and K are the wavenumbers of the fundamental and its subharmonic, respectively. For Blasius flow, the critical amplitude is approximately 29% of the mean flow, and hence many other secondary instabilities take place before this parametric instability becomes significant. For other flows where the detuning parameter is small, such as free-shear layer flows, the critical amplitude can be small, thus the parametric instability might play a greater role.
Volume budget of the eastern boundary layer off the Iberian Peninsula
Mazé, J. P.; Arhan, M.; Mercier, H.
1997-09-01
Data from a hydrographic array carried out in May 1989 offshore of the Iberian Peninsula are used to determine the vertical distribution of zonal transports near the ocean eastern boundary (the so-called eastern boundary kinematic condition). Eastward transports of Central Water, Bottom Water and, more surprisingly, of Mediterranean Water, are found, complemented by westward flows at the deep-intermediate and deep levels. The top-to-bottom integrated estimate is 2 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 (±1.2 × 10 6 m 3 s -1) eastward across the studied 5° long meridional segment at 12°30'W. The meridional transports in the 300 km wide boundary layer are northward at all levels, and their vertical integral amounts to six times the zonal one. The finding of a net poleward flow of Central Water is discussed with regard to the notion of a southward Portugal Current. Seasonality of the eastern boundary processes is proposed as a clue to the apparent contradiction and is also suggested to influence the phenomenon of eastern boundary ventilation sometimes invoked in, or inferred from, theoretical studies. The pronounced bathymetric features of the region have strong effects on the details of the boundary layer circulation. At intermediate levels, three meridional advective paths carry the Mediterranean Water away from the west Iberian region: the northward slope undercurrent off Cape Finisterre and two branches in opposing directions west of the Galicia and Gorringe Banks. The meridionally averaged zonal transport of this water mass being eastward, it is argued that a direct entry of Mediterranean Water into the ocean interior can occur, at Iberian latitudes, only through westward meddy propagation. Hydrographic estimates of the eddy salinity transport across 12°30'W are indeed westward. A scaling analysis of the advection-diffusion equation of salinity at the level of Mediterranean Water is proposed, which includes these elements.
Sound from boundary layer flow over steps and gaps
Ryan Catlett, M.; Devenport, William; Glegg, Stewart A. L.
2014-09-01
This study is concerned with the radiated sound from boundary layer flows over small forward and backward steps and gap configurations of similar dimension. These measurements were performed in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for step heights that ranged from approximately 10 percent to 100 percent of the incoming boundary layer height. The results show the influence of step height and boundary layer edge velocity on the far-field sound from forward and backward steps. Neither source shows clear dipole directivity and at least the larger step heights considered in this study are shown to not be acoustically compact. A new mixed scaling normalization is proposed for the far-field spectra from both types of step. Backward steps are shown to be much weaker producers of far-field sound than similarly sized forward steps. The implications of this behavior are discussed with respect to the far-field sound measured from various gap flows.
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence....... This is in contrast to velocity fluctuations that are diffusive, so they can also contain residual turbulence from the previous half cycle until they are dissipated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mean value of conditionally averaged vertical pressure gradient (for −∂p∗/∂x∗ 2 > 0) is compared to the submerged...
On the interaction between turbulence grids and boundary layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irps Thomas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulence grids are widely used in wind tunnels to produce representative turbulence levels when testing aerodynamic phenomena around models. Although the purpose of the grid is to introduce a desired turbulence level in the freestream flow, the wall boundary layers of the tunnel are subjected to modification due to the presence of such grids. This could have major implications to the flow around the models to be tested and hence there is a need to further understand this interaction. The study described in this paper examines wind tunnel wall boundary layer modification by turbulence grids of different mesh sizes and porosities to understand the effect of these parameters on such interaction. Experimental results are presented in the form of pressure loss coefficients, boundary layer velocity profiles and the statistics of turbulence modification.
Localized travelling waves in the asymptotic suction boundary layer
Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M
2016-01-01
We present two spanwise-localized travelling wave solutions in the asymptotic suction boundary layer, obtained by continuation of solutions of plane Couette flow. One of the solutions has the vortical structures located close to the wall, similar to spanwise-localized edge states previously found for this system. The vortical structures of the second solution are located in the free stream far above the laminar boundary layer and are supported by a secondary shear gradient that is created by a large-scale low-speed streak. The dynamically relevant eigenmodes of this solution are concentrated in the free stream, and the departure into turbulence from this solution evolves in the free stream towards the walls. For invariant solutions in free-stream turbulence, this solution thus shows that that the source of energy of the vortical structures can be a dynamical structure of the solution itself, instead of the laminar boundary layer.
Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)
1991-04-01
We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).
Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers
Kreilos, Tobias; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S; Eckhardt, Bruno
2016-01-01
The spatio-temporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly fitted from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.
Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers
Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno
2016-08-01
The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.
Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. Jones
2011-03-01
Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.
We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the “well-mixed cloud thickness”, defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling. In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100% boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.
Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2015-11-01
The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.
Calculation of a boundary layer with phase transformations
Dorosh, N. D.; Kharitonov, A. A.
A method for the analysis of a laminar boundary layer with phase transformations is developed. It is noted that volume gas condensation can occur in the case of flow past a cooled surface, drops becoming aggregated in groups in the process of condensation. The concept of group density and concentration is proposed, and this approach is used to investigate a boundary layer near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional blunt body in a flow of molecular oxygen. Profiles of temperature, stream function, and concentration of liquid-oxygen droplet groups are determined for various values of the condensation rate.
Turbulent boundary layer on perforated surfaces with vector injection
Eroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Klimov, A. A.; Ianovskii, L. S.; Kondratev, V. I.
1980-10-01
The paper presents an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on perforated plates with uniform vector injection at various angles to gas flow. It was shown that with strong injection at angles oriented in the flow direction the intensity of turbulent pulsation is decreased, while injection at angles in the opposite direction increase the intensity. A relationship was established between the critical parameters of the boundary layer injection angles; it was concluded that the asymptotic theory of Kutateladze and Leontiev can be used for determining the coefficient of friction of vector injection.
Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers
Kim, Pilbum
Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
2015-01-01
This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers. .
Axisymmetric fundamental solutions for a finite layer with impeded boundaries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程泽海; 陈云敏; 凌道盛; 唐晓武
2003-01-01
Axisymmetrie fundamental solutions that are applied in the consolidation calculations of a finite clay layer with impeded boundaries were derived. Laplace and Hankel integral transforms were utilized with respect to time and radial coordinates, respectively in the analysis. The derivation of fundamental solutions considers two boundary-value problems involving unit point loading and ring loading in the vertical. The solut-ions are extended to circular distributed and strip distributed normal load. The computation and analysis of set-tlements, vertical total stress and excess pore pressure in the consolidation layer subject to circular loading are presented.
Axisymmetric fundamental solutions for a finite layer with impeded boundaries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程泽海; 陈云敏; 凌道盛; 唐晓武
2003-01-01
Axisymmetric fundamental solutions that are applied in the consolidation calculations of a finite clay layer with impeded boundaries were derived. Laplace and Hankel integral transforms were utilized with respect to time and radial coordinates, respectively in the analysis. The derivation of fundamental solutions considers two boundary-value problems involving unit point loading and ring loading in the vertical. The solutions are extended to circular distributed and strip distributed normal load. The computation and analysis of settlements, vertical total stress and excess pore pressure in the consolidation layer subject to circular loading are presented.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.;
2010-01-01
in an oscillating water tunnel. Two kinds of measurements were made: bed shear stress measurements and velocity measurements. The experiments show that the solitary-motion boundary layer experiences three kinds of flow regimes as the Reynolds number is increased: (i) laminar regime; (ii) laminar regime where...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...
Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer
Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.
DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition
Liu, Chaoqun
2014-01-01
This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory with five steps, i.e. receptivity, linear instability, large vortex formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. We have also proposed a new theory about turbulence generation. The new theory shows that all small length scales (turbulence) are generated by shear layer instability which is produced by large vortex structure with multiple level vortex rings, multiple level sweeps and ejections, and multiple level negative and positive spikes near the laminar sub-layers.Therefore,...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yoichi Kinoue; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko; Mamun Mohammad; Masahiro Inoue
2003-01-01
An experimental apparatus was developed to study the three dimensional separated flow with spiral-foci. The internal decelerating flow was generated by the air suction from a side wall to produce the separation on an opposite-side wall. The relation between the upstream boundary layer and the generation of spiral-foci in the separation region was observed by a tuft method. As a result, it was clarified that the spiral-focus type separation could be produced on the side wall and its behavior was closely related to the vortices supplied into the separation region from the boundary layer developing along top wall or bottom one.
An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer
Sternberg, R.W.; Johnson, R.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.
1986-01-01
An instrument system has been constructed that can monitor and sample suspended sediment distributions in the benthic boundary layer. It consists of miniature nephelometers and suspended sediment samplers placed within one meter of the seabed. The system is capable of continuously monitoring suspended sediment profiles at eight levels between 14 and 100 cm above the seabed and collecting suspended sediment samples at four levels (20, 50, 70 and 100 cm) at three times during a deployment period. The suspended sediment system is designed to fit onto the instrumented tripod GEOPROBE which contains four electromagnetic current meters, pressure sensor, bottom stereo camera, two temperature sensors, transmissometer, and a Savonius rotor current meter. Sensor operation, data recording, and sediment sampling events are synchronized. Thus detailed measurements of the near-bottom flow conditions are made concurrently with suspended sediment measurements. The combined system has been used in sediment transporting environments within San Francisco Bay, California, and Puget Sound, Washington. ?? 1986.
Clear-air radar observations of the atmospheric boundary layer
Ince, Turker
2001-10-01
This dissertation presents the design and operation of a high-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM- CW) radar system to study the structure and dynamics of clear-air turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This sensitive radar can image the vertical structure of the ABL with both high spatial and temporal resolutions, and provide both qualitative information about the morphology of clear-air structures and quantitative information on the intensity of fluctuations in refractive-index of air. The principles of operation and the hardware and data acquisition characteristics of the radar are described in the dissertation. In October 1999, the radar participated in the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES'99) Experiment to characterize the temporal structure and evolution of the boundary-layer features in both convective and stable conditions. The observed structures include clear-air convection, boundary layer evolution, gravity waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, stably stratified layers, and clear-air turbulence. Many of the S-band radar images also show high- reflectivity returns from Rayleigh scatterers such as insects. An adaptive median filtering technique based on local statistics has, therefore, been developed to discriminate between Bragg and Rayleigh scattering in clear-air radar observations. The filter is tested on radar observations of clear air convection with comparison to two commonly used image processing techniques. The dissertation also examines the statistical mean of the radar-measured C2n for clear-air convection, and compares it with the theoretical predictions. The study also shows that the inversion height, local thickness of the inversion layer, and the height of the elevated atmospheric layers can be estimated from the radar reflectivity measurements. In addition, comparisons to the radiosonde-based height estimates are made. To examine the temporal and spatial structure of C2n , the dissertation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khairy Zaimi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns with the boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a viscous fluid, with the bottom surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid. The partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are converted into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically. The effects of the suction, convection and stretching/shrinking parameters on the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are examined and graphically illustrated. Dual solutions are found to exist for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The numerical results also show that suction widens the range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists.
Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition
Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.
2015-01-01
In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of
Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics
Videler, J.J.
1995-01-01
Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, sca
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickinson, B T, E-mail: btdickinson@lifetime.oregonstate.ed [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542 (United States)
2010-03-15
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.
Dickinson, B T
2010-03-01
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
The boundary layer growth in an urban area
Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Comerón, A.; Rocadenbosch, F.
2004-01-01
The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in the distribution of atmospheric constituents, especially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the ABL has a direct impact on the concentration and transformation of pollutants. In this work, in order to a
DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer around a sharp cone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI XinLiang; FU DeXun; MA YanWen
2008-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer over a sharp cone with 20° cone angle (or 10° half-cone angle) is performed by using the mixed seventh-order up-wind biased finite difference scheme and sixth-order central difference scheme.The free stream Mach number is 0.7 and free stream unit Reynolds number is 250000/inch.The characteristics of transition and turbulence of the sharp cone boundary layer are compared with those of the flat plate boundary layer,Statistics of fully developed turbulent flow agree well with the experimental and theoretical data for the turbulent flat-plate boundary layer flow.The near wall streak-like structure is shown and the average space between streaks (normalized by the local wall unit) keeps approximately invariable at different streamwise locations,The turbulent energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate is given and turbulent en-ergy budget is studied.The computed results show that the effect of circumferen-tial curvature on turbulence characteristics is not obvious.
Drizzle and Turbulence Variability in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers
Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Szyrmer, W.
2015-12-01
Marine stratocumulus clouds frequently produce light precipitation in the form of drizzle. The drizzle rate at the cloud base (RCB) dictates the impact of drizzle on the boundary layer turbulence and cloud organization. Here, synergistic observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site located on Graciosa Island in the Azores are used to investigate the relationship between RCB, and boundary layer turbulence and dynamics. The ARM ENA site is a heavily instrumented ground-based facility that offers new measurement capabilities in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers (STBL). The RCB is retrieved using a radar-lidar algorithm. The STBL turbulent structure is characterized using the Doppler lidar and radar observations. The profiling radar/lidar/radiometer observations are used to describe the cloud fraction and morphology. Finally, surface-based aerosol number concentration measurements are used to investigate the connection between the boundary layer turbulence, cloud morphology and aerosol loading. Preliminary correlative relationships between the aforementioned variables will be shown.
Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders
Gleyzes, C.
1988-01-01
Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.
The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo
2017-01-01
A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...
Two Phases of Coherent Structure Motions in Turbulent Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jian-Hua; JIANG Nan
2007-01-01
Two phases of coherent structure motion are acquired after obtaining conditional phase-averaged waveforms for longitudinal velocity of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer based on Harr wavelet transfer. The correspondences of the two phases to the two processes (i.e. ejection and sweep) during a burst are determined.
Entrainment process of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2004-01-01
Aircraft and surface measurements of turbulent thermodynamic variables and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken above a grassland in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were analyzed to assess the importance of the entrainment process for the distribution and evolution of carbon dio
Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna
2014-01-01
By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressur...
Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes
Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.
2011-01-01
In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change
Boundary-Layer Wind Structure in a Landfalling Tropical Cyclone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of the radial component is greater in the offshoreflow side and the tangential component is greater over the sea, slightly offshore, therefore the greater total wind speed occurs in the offshore-flow side over the sea. The budget analysis suggests that: (1) a greater surface friction over land produces a greater inflow and the nonlinear effect advects the maximum inflow downstream, and (2) a smaller surface friction over the sea makes the decrease of the tangential wind component less than that over land. Moreover, the boundary layer wind structures in a tropical cyclone are related to the locations of the tropical cyclone relative to the coastline due to the different surface frictions. During tropical cyclone landfall, the impact of rough terrain on the cyclone increases, so the magnitude of the radial component of wind speed increases in the offshore-flow side and the tangential component outside the radius of maximum wind speed decreases gradually.
Spatially developing turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate
Lee, J H; Hutchins, N; Monty, J P
2012-01-01
This fluid dynamics video submitted to the Gallery of Fluid motion shows a turbulent boundary layer developing under a 5 metre-long flat plate towed through water. A stationary imaging system provides a unique view of the developing boundary layer as it would form over the hull of a ship or fuselage of an aircraft. The towed plate permits visualisation of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer as it develops from the trip to a high Reynolds number state ($Re_\\tau \\approx 3000$). An evolving large-scale coherent structure will appear almost stationary in this frame of reference. The visualisations provide an unique view of the evolution of fundamental processes in the boundary layer (such as interfacial bulging, entrainment, vortical motions, etc.). In the more traditional laboratory frame of reference, in which fluid passes over a stationary body, it is difficult to observe the full evolution and lifetime of turbulent coherent structures. An equivalent experiment in a wind/water-tunnel would requ...
Stability of the laminar boundary layer for an imperfect gas
Gasperas, G.
The linear perturbation equations are derived for the general case of a compressible imperfect gas characterized by an equation of state utilizing a compressibility factor. The specific case of the Beattie-Bridgeman gas is chosen for calculation. Amplification curves calculated using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state for two representative flat plate boundary layers are presented.
Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F;
2015-01-01
Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...
DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2012-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2014-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles
Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2012-04-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Transportation of particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles
Petrosyan, A.; Karelsky, K.; Smirnov, I.
2010-05-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Transport of Particulates in Boundary Layer with Obstacles
Karelsky, Kirill; Petrosyan, Arakel
2014-05-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Magnetic Domination of Recollimation Boundary Layers in Relativistic Jets
Kohler, Susanna
2012-01-01
We study the collimation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jets by the pressure of an ambient medium, in the limit where the jet interior loses causal contact with its surroundings. This follows up a hydrodynamic study in a previous paper, adding the effects of a toroidal magnetic field threading the jet. As the ultrarelativistic jet encounters an ambient medium with a pressure profile with a radial scaling of p ~ r^-eta where 2
Yao, Jun; Chen, Luxi; Zhu, Huayue; Shen, Dongsheng; Qiu, Zhanhong
2017-03-09
Simulated landfill was operated for 508 days to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash layer on the migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia when it was used as the intermediate layer in the landfill. The result suggested that the MSWI bottom ash layer could capture the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the leachate. The adsorption of the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia on the MSWI bottom ash layer was saturated at the days 396, 34, and 97, respectively. Afterwards, the nitrogen species were desorbed from the MSWI bottom ash layer. Finally, the adsorption and desorption could reach the equilibrium. The amounts of adsorbed nitrate and nitrite on the MSWI bottom ash layer were 1685.09 and 7.48 mg, respectively, and the amount of the adsorbed and transformed ammonia was 13,773.19 mg, which was much higher than the desorbed. The water leaching test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) results showed that the leachable nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia in the MSWI bottom ash were greatly increased after the landfill operation, suggesting that the adsorbed nitrogen could be finally leached out. Besides, the results also showed that MSWI bottom ash layer could affect the release of nitrate and ammonia at the initial stage of the landfill. However, it had little effect on the release of nitrite.
Reduced growth temperature of Bi6FeCoTi3O18 thin films by conductive bottom layers
Yun, Yu; Huang, Haoliang; Meng, Dechao; Cui, Zhangzhang; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin
2016-11-01
The Aurivillius layered oxide homologous series attract wide interests due to their room temperature multiferroic properties. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such layered oxide epitaxial thin films has been a major challenge owing to the occurrence of growth defects and narrow growth temperature window. To obtain high quality epitaxial Bi6FeCoTi3O18 (BFCTO) thin films, the effects of insulating and conductive bottom layers were studied by laser molecular beam epitaxy. We found that the optimal deposition temperature for growth on conductive bottom layers is more than 90 °C lower than that on insulating bottom layers, which indicates the interface between BFCTO and conductive bottom layers has smaller interfacial energy than the interface between BFCTO and insulating bottom layers. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the optimized BFCTO thin films on insulating substrate and conductive bottom layers were studied. This study is important to control the growth of complex layered oxide thin films and exploit the applications for future room temperature multiferroic devices.
Jähn, M.; Muñoz-Esparza, D.; Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Knoth, O.; Haarig, M.; Ansmann, A.
2016-01-01
Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude potential temperature perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind and Raman lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ≈ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the downwind vertical wind structure. Additionally, the model results accurately reproduce the
On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.
1996-01-01
We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gryning, S.E.
2005-11-01
The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer
Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Eliáš
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson’s ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves.
Study on Shock Wave and Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions in a Square Duct at Mach 2 and 4
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hiromu SUGIYAMA; Ryojiro MINATO; Kazuhide MIZOBATA; Akira TOJO; Yohei MUTO
2006-01-01
In this paper, the outline of the Mach 4 supersonic wind runnel for the investigation of the supersonic internal flows in ducts was firstly described. Secondly, the location, structure and characteristics of the Mach 2 and Mach 4 pseudo-shock waves in a square duct were investigated by color schlieren photographs and duct wall pressure fluctuation measurements. Finally, the wall shear stress distributions on the side, top and bottom walls of the square duct with the Mach 4 pseudo-shock wave were investigated qualitatively by the shear stress-sensitive liquid crystal visualization method. The side wall boundary layer separation region under the first shock is narrow near the top wall, while the side wall boundary layer separation region under the first shock is very wide near the bottom wall.
Boundary-layer model of pattern formation in solidification
Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
A model of pattern formation in crystal growth is proposed, and its analytic properties are investigated. The principal dynamical variables in this model are the curvature of the solidification front and the thickness (or heat content) of a thermal boundary layer, both taken to be functions of position along the interface. This model is mathematically much more tractable than the realistic, fully nonlocal version of the free-boundary problem, and still recaptures many of the features that seem essential for studying dendritic behavior, for example. Preliminary numerical solutions produce snowflakelike patterns similar to those seen in nature.
Studies of stability of blade cascade suction surface boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Xue-zhi; YAN Pei-gang; HAN Wan-jin
2007-01-01
Compressible boundary layers stability on blade cascade suction surface was discussed by wind tunnel experiment and numerical solution. Three dimensional disturbance wave Parabolized Stability Equations(PSE) of orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in compressible flow was deducted. The surface pressure of blade in wind tunnel experiment was measured. The Falkner-Skan equation was solved under the boundary conditions of experiment result, and velocity, pressure and temperature of average flow were obtained. Substituted this result for discretization of the PSE Eigenvalue Problem, the stability problem can be solved.
Boundary-Value Problem for Two-Dimensional Fluctuations in Boundary Layers
1985-07-01
inviscid analysis by P. Durbin "Distortion of turbulence by a constant-shear layer adjacent to a wall," private communication (1977). (l.2e) 2-D...vortices near a boundary," ~ of the Americ~ p ~ ~ , Volume 20, Number 9 (November 1975). 21. Hultgren, Lennart S. and Gustavsson, L. Hakan, " Algebraic
Oblique Water Wave Scattering by Bottom Undulation in a Two-layer Fluid Flowing Through a Channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Smrutiranjan Mohapatra; Swaroop Nandan Bora
2012-01-01
The problem of oblique wave (internal wave) propagation over a small deformation in a channel flow consisting of two layers was considered.The upper fluid was assumed to be bounded above by a rigid lid,which is an approximation for the free surface,and the lower one was bounded below by an impermeable bottom surface having a small deformation; the channel was unbounded in the horizontal directions.Assuming irrotational motion,the perturbation technique was employed to calculate the first-order corrections of the velocity potential in the two fluids by using Green's integral theorem suitably with the introduction of appropriate Green's functions.Those functions help in calculating the reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function c(x) representing the bottom deformation.Three-dimensional linear water wave theory was utilized for formulating the relevant boundary value problem.Two special examples of bottom deformation were considered to validate the results.Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples (having the same wave number) shows that the reflection coefficient is an oscillatory function of the ratio of twice the x-component of the wave number to the ripple wave number.When this ratio approaches one,the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and the interface,and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of tipples.High reflection of incident wave energy occurs if this number is large.Similar results were observed for a patch of sinusoidal tipples having different wave numbers.It was also observed that for small angles of incidence,the reflected energy is greater compared to other angles of incidence up to π / 4.These theoretical observations are supported by graphical results.
On the global existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonstationary boundary layer system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Jianwen; ZHAO; Junning
2006-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of boundary layer for nonstationary flows of viscous incompressible fluids. There are some open problems in the field of boundary layer. The method used here is mainly based on a transformation which reduces the boundary layer system to an initial-boundary value problem for a single quasilinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of weak solutions to the modified nonstationary boundary layer system. Moreover, the stability and uniqueness of weak solutions are discussed.
A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer
Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn
2013-01-01
The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...
Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin
Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.
1988-01-01
Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.
Lumley decomposition of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers
Tutkun, Murat; George, William K.
2017-02-01
The decomposition proposed by Lumley in 1966 is applied to a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. The experimental database was created by a hot-wire rake of 143 probes in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. The Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness (Reθ) are 9800 and 19 100. Three-dimensional decomposition is performed, namely, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in the inhomogeneous and bounded wall-normal direction, Fourier decomposition in the homogeneous spanwise direction, and Fourier decomposition in time. The first POD modes in both cases carry nearly 50% of turbulence kinetic energy when the energy is integrated over Fourier dimensions. The eigenspectra always peak near zero frequency and most of the large scale, energy carrying features are found at the low end of the spectra. The spanwise Fourier mode which has the largest amount of energy is the first spanwise mode and its symmetrical pair. Pre-multiplied eigenspectra have only one distinct peak and it matches the secondary peak observed in the log-layer of pre-multiplied velocity spectra. Energy carrying modes obtained from the POD scale with outer scaling parameters. Full or partial reconstruction of turbulent velocity signal based only on energetic modes or non-energetic modes revealed the behaviour of urms in distinct regions across the boundary layer. When urms is based on energetic reconstruction, there exists (a) an exponential decay from near wall to log-layer, (b) a constant layer through the log-layer, and (c) another exponential decay in the outer region. The non-energetic reconstruction reveals that urms has (a) an exponential decay from the near-wall to the end of log-layer and (b) a constant layer in the outer region. Scaling of urms using the outer parameters is best when both energetic and non-energetic profiles are combined.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
Huang, Yu Li
2015-02-17
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman
to the atmospheric boundary-layer, are mostly ignored so far. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include atmospheric stability and the Coriolis effect. Within the present work a RANS model framework is developed and implemented......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface-layer. Physical processes like the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, that are important...
Three-dimensional stability of growing boundary layers
Nayfeh, A. H.
1980-01-01
A theory is developed for the linear stability of three-dimensional growing boundary layers. The method of multiple scales is used to derive partial-differential equations describing the temporal and spatial evolution of the complex amplitudes and wavenumbers of the disturbances. In general, these equations are elliptic unless certain conditions are satisfied. For a monochromatic disturbance, these conditions demand that the ratio of the components of the complex group velocity be real and thereby relate the direction of growth of the disturbance to the disturbance wave angle. For a nongrowing boundary layer, this condition reduces to d-alpha/d-beta being real, in agreement with the result obtained by using the saddle-point method. For a wavepacket, these conditions demand that the components of the group velocity be real.
Nonlinear interaction of two waves in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1980-01-01
First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that the spatial detuning wipes out resonant interactions unless the initial amplitudes are very large. Thus, a wave having a moderate amplitude has little influence on its subharmonic although it has a strong influence on its second harmonic. Moreover, two waves having moderate amplitudes have a strong influence on their difference frequency. The results show that the difference frequency can be very unstable when generated by the nonlinear interaction, even though it may be stable when introduced by itself in the boundary layer.
Goertler instability. [for boundary layer flow over curved walls
Ragab, S. A.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1981-01-01
Goertler instability for boundary-layer flows over generally curved walls is considered. The full-linearized disturbance equations are obtained in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. A perturbation procedure to account for second-order effects is used to determine the effects of the displacement thickness and the variation of the streamline curvature on the neutral stability of the Blasius flow. The streamwise pressure gradient in the mean flow is accounted for by solving the nonsimilar boundary-layer equations. Growth rates are obtained for the actual mean flow and compared with those for the Blasius flow and the Falkner-Skan flows. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the streamwise pressure gradient and the nonsimilarity of the basic flow on the stability characteristics.
Anisotropic Boundary Layer Adaptivity of Multi-Element Wings
Chitale, Kedar C; Sahni, Onkar; Shephard, Mark S; Jansen, Kenneth E
2014-01-01
Multi-element wings are popular in the aerospace community due to their high lift performance. Turbulent flow simulations of these configurations require very fine mesh spacings especially near the walls, thereby making use of a boundary layer mesh necessary. However, it is difficult to accurately determine the required mesh resolution a priori to the simulations. In this paper we use an anisotropic adaptive meshing approach including adaptive control of elements in the boundary layers and study its effectiveness for two multi-element wing configurations. The results are compared with experimental data as well as nested refinements to show the efficiency of adaptivity driven by error indicators, where superior resolution in wakes and near the tip region through adaptivity are highlighted.
Small Scale Forcing in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Lorkowski, Thomas; Rathnasingham, Ruben; Breuer, Kenneth S.
1996-11-01
In order to understand the effect of small scale forcing on turbulent flows and its implications on control, an experimental investigation is made into the forcing of the inertial scales in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. A wall-mounted resonant actuator is used to produce a local vortical structure in the streamwise direction which is convected downstream by the boundary layer flow. The frequency associated with this structure is governed by the resonant frequency of the device and falls in the range of the inertial scales at the Reynolds number of the experiment (Re_θ = 2000). Hot-wire anemometry is used to map the velocity field at several stations downstream of the actuator. The signals are also conditioned to identify the effect of the actuator on different scales in the flow. Amplitude and modulation effects are also discussed. ^*Supported by ONR Grant N00014-92-J-1910.
Turbulence measurements in high Reynolds number boundary layers
Vallikivi, Margit; Smits, Alexander
2013-11-01
Measurements are conducted in zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers for Reynolds numbers from Reθ = 9,000 to 225,000. The experiments were performed in the High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF) at Princeton University, which uses compressed air as the working fluid. Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probes (NSTAPs) are used to acquire data with very high spatial and temporal precision. These new data are used to study the scaling behavior of the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer and make comparisons with the scaling of other wall-bounded turbulent flows. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257 (program manager Henning Winter).
Temporally optimized spanwise vorticity sensor measurements in turbulent boundary layers
Morrill-Winter, C.; Klewicki, J.; Baidya, R.; Marusic, I.
2015-12-01
Multi-element hot-wire anemometry was used to measure spanwise vorticity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers. Smooth wall boundary layer profiles, with very good spatial and temporal resolution, were acquired over a Kármán number range of 2000-12,700 at the Melbourne Wind Tunnel at the University of Melbourne and the University of New Hampshire's Flow Physics Facility. A custom hot-wire probe was necessary to simultaneously obtain velocity and spanwise vorticity measurements centered at a fixed point in space. A custom calibration/processing scheme was developed to utilize single-wall-parallel wires to optimize the accuracy of the measured wall-normal velocity fluctuations derived from the sensor's ×-array.
Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool
Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.
Stereoscopic PIV measurement of boundary layer affected by DBD actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Procházka Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of ionic wind generated by plasma actuator on developed boundary layer inside a narrow channel was investigated recently. Since the main investigated plane was parallel to the channel axis, the description of flow field was not evaluated credibly. This paper is dealing with cross-section planes downstream the actuator measured via 3D time-resolved PIV. The actuator position is in spanwise or in streamwise orientation so that ionic wind is blown in the same direction as the main flow or in opposite direction or perpendicularly. The interaction between boundary layer and ionic wind is evaluated for three different velocities of main flow and several parameters of plasma actuation (steady and unsteady regime, frequency etc.. Statistical properties of the flow are shown as well as dynamical behaviour of arising longitudinal vortices are discussed via phase-locked measurement and decomposition method.
Optimal control of wind turbines in a turbulent boundary layer
Yilmaz, Ali Emre; Meyers, Johan
2016-11-01
In recent years, optimal control theory was combined with large-eddy simulations to study the optimal control of wind farms and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer. The individual turbine's induction factors were dynamically controlled in time with the aim of increasing overall power extraction. In these studies, wind turbines were represented using an actuator disk method. In the current work, we focus on optimal control on a much finer mesh (and a smaller computational domain), representing turbines with an actuator line method. Similar to Refs., optimization is performed using a gradient-based method, and gradients are obtained employing an adjoint formulation. Different cases are investigated, that include a single and a double turbine case both with uniform inflow, and with turbulent-boundary-layer inflow. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).
Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik
2016-01-01
Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various...... of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day−1 to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence statistics in the boundary layer....
Numerical study of the laminar shock boundary layer interaction
Katzer, E.
1985-02-01
The interaction of an oblique shock wave with a laminar boundary layer on an adiabatic flat plate was analyzed numerically with solutions of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using McCormack's explicit finite volume method. The agreement between numerical calculations and experimental results is good. Local and global properties of the interaction region are discussed regarding shock strength, separation bubble length using a similarity law, and separation environment. The asymetrical structure inside the separation bubble produces an asymetrical shape of the wall shear stress distribution. The calculation speed was increased by algorithm vectorization on a CRAY 1S supercomputer. Further investigations for determination of a similarity law in interaction with turbulent boundary layer, of the physical mechanisms of the laminar interaction, and for study of the wall temperature transfer are recommended.
Influence of localised double suction on a turbulent boundary layer
Oyewola, O.; Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.
2007-07-01
The effects of localised suction applied through a pair of porous wall strips on a turbulent boundary layer have been quantified through the measurements of mean velocity and Reynolds stresses. The results indicate that the use of second strip extends the pseudo-relaminarisation zone but also reduces the overshoot in the longitudinal and normal r.m.s. velocities. While the minimum r.m.s. occurs at x/δo=3.0 (one strip) and x/δo=12 (two strips), the reduction observed for the latter case is larger. Relative to no suction, the turbulence level is modified by suction and the effect is enhanced with double suction. This increased effectiveness reflects the fact that the second strip acts on a boundary layer whose near-wall active motion has been seriously weakened by the first strip.
New Algebraic Approaches to Classical Boundary Layer Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Ping XU
2011-01-01
Classical non-steady boundary layer equations are fundamental nonlinear partial differential equations in the boundary layer theory of fluid dynamics. In this paper, we introduce various schemes with multiple parameter functions to solve these equations and obtain many families of new explicit exact solutions with multiple parameter functions. Moreover, symmetry transformations are used to simplify our arguments. The technique of moving frame is applied in the three-dimensional case in order to capture the rotational properties of the fluid. In particular, we obtain a family of solutions singular on any moving surface, which may be used to study turbulence. Many other solutions are analytic related to trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, which reflect various wave characteristics of the fluid. Our solutions may also help engineers to develop more effective algorithms to find physical numeric solutions to practical models.
Neutral stability calculations for boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Padhye, A.
1980-01-01
An analysis is presented of the parallel neutral stability of three-dimensional incompressible, isothermal boundary-layer flows. A Taylor-series expansion of the dispersion relation is used to derive the general eigenvalues. These equations are functions of the complex group velocity. These relations are verified by numerical results obtained for two- and three-dimensional disturbances in two- and three-dimensional flows.
Imaging the transient boundary layer on a free rotating disc.
Matijasević, Branimir; Guzović, Zvonimir; Martinis, Vinko
2002-10-01
This report presents a visual study of the transition process of the laminar boundary layer (BL) in a turbulent BL on a free rotating disc. The imaging is based on an experimental investigation that aimed to analyze the structure of the BL by relating it to the ratio between turbulent energy and vortex energy, the critical and the transient Reynolds numbers (Re), the vortex numbers and their dependence on Re, and on the distance from the rotating disc.
Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development
Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.
2016-05-01
Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.
Extreme Vertical Gusts in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
2015-07-01
with tornadogenesis [Mueller and Carbone (1987), Wilson (1986) and McCaul and Bluestein (1986)], although tornadoes are part of the hazard of...Burns, C. Nappo, R. Banta, R. Newsom and J. Cuxart (2002). CASES-99: A comprehensive investigation of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. Bulletin of...Meteorology 64(1-2): 55-74. Wilson , J. W. (1986). Tornadogenesis by nonprecipitation induced wind shear lines. Monthly Weather Review 114(2): 270-284
Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers
2015-10-01
index. In the boundary layer, atmospheric temperature fluctuations are primarily responsible for the variations in refractive index at ultraviolet...parameterization of the atmospheric emissivity, in the early 1980s a parallel study of the SEB was conducted by the US Army Waterways Experiment Station...period of rotation of the atmosphere can be defined as TI = 2π/fc. At most mid- latitude locations this period is approximately 17 h. This quantity is
Transport of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiongping Luo; Shiyi Chen
2005-01-01
A program incorporating the parallel code of large eddy simulation (LES) and particle transportation model is developed to simulate the motion of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer (ATBL). A model of particles of 100-micrometer order coupling with large scale ATBL is proposed. Two typical cases are studied, one focuses on the evolution of particle profile in the ATBL and the landing displacement of particles, whereas the other on the motion of particle stream.
Evolution and formation of shear layers in a developing turbulent boundary layer
Lee, Junghoon; Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nicholas
2016-11-01
The evolution and formation mechanism of shear layers in the outer region of a turbulent boundary layer are investigated using time-resolved PIV datasets of a developing turbulent boundary layer from inception at the trip up to Reτ = 3000 . An analysis of a sequence of instantaneous streamwise velocity fluctuation fields reveals that strong streamwise velocity gradients are prevalent along interfaces where low- and high-speed regions interact. To provide an insight on how such regions are associated with the formation of shear layers in the outer regions, we compute conditional averages of streamwise velocity fluctuations based on a strong shear layer. Our results reveal that one possible mechanism for the generation of shear layers in the outer region is due to the mismatch in the convection velocities between low- and high-speed regions. The results also indicate that the angle of the inclined shear layer is developing in time. In addition, the conditionally averaged velocity fluctuations exhibit a local instability along these shear layers, leading to a shear layer roll-up event as the layers evolve in time. Based on these findings, we propose a conceptual model which describes dynamic interactions of shear layers and their associated large-scale coherent motions. The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Research Council.
A Bottom-Up Approach for Automatically Grouping Sensor Data Layers by their Observed Property
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steve H.L. Liang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Sensor Web is a growing phenomenon where an increasing number of sensors are collecting data in the physical world, to be made available over the Internet. To help realize the Sensor Web, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC has developed open standards to standardize the communication protocols for sharing sensor data. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs are systems that have been developed to access, process, and visualize geospatial data from heterogeneous sources, and SDIs can be designed specifically for the Sensor Web. However, there are problems with interoperability associated with a lack of standardized naming, even with data collected using the same open standard. The objective of this research is to automatically group similar sensor data layers. We propose a methodology to automatically group similar sensor data layers based on the phenomenon they measure. Our methodology is based on a unique bottom-up approach that uses text processing, approximate string matching, and semantic string matching of data layers. We use WordNet as a lexical database to compute word pair similarities and derive a set-based dissimilarity function using those scores. Two approaches are taken to group data layers: mapping is defined between all the data layers, and clustering is performed to group similar data layers. We evaluate the results of our methodology.
Turbulent thermal boundary layers subjected to severe acceleration
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano
2013-11-01
Favorable turbulent boundary layers are flows of great importance in industry. Particularly, understanding the mechanisms of quasi-laminarization by means of a very strong favorable streamwise pressure gradient is indeed crucial in drag reduction and energy management applications. Furthermore, due to the low Reynolds numbers involved in the quasi-laminarization process, abundant experimental investigation can be found in the literature for the past few decades. However, several grey zones still remain unsolved, principally associated with the difficulties that experiments encounter as the boundary layer becomes smaller. In addition, little attention has been paid to the heat transfer in a quasi-laminarization process. In this investigation, DNS of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers with prescribed very strong favorable pressure gradients (K = 4 × 10-6) are performed. Realistic inflow conditions are prescribed based on the Dynamic Multi-scale Approach (DMA) [Araya et al. JFM, Vol. 670, pp. 581-605, 2011]. In this sense the flow carries the footprint of turbulence, particularly in the streamwise component of the Reynolds stresses.
Using UAV's to Measure the Urban Boundary Layer
Jacob, R. L.; Sankaran, R.; Beckman, P. H.
2015-12-01
The urban boundary layer is one of the most poorly studied regions of the atmospheric boundary layer. Since a majority of the world's population now lives in urban areas, it is becoming a more important region to measure and model. The combination of relatively low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles and low-cost sensors can together provide a new instrument for measuring urban and other boundary layers. We have mounted a new sensor and compute platform called Waggle on an off-the-shelf XR8 octo-copter from 3DRobotics. Waggle consists of multiple sensors for measuring pressure, temperature and humidity as well as trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A single board computer running Linux included in Waggle on the UAV allows in-situ processing and data storage. Communication of the data is through WiFi or 3G and the Waggle software can save the data in case communication is lost during flight. The flight pattern is a deliberately simple vertical ascent and descent over a fixed location to provide vertical profiles and so flights can be confined to urban parks, industrial areas or the footprint of a single rooftop. We will present results from test flights in urban and rural areas in and around Chicago.
Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms
Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles
2014-01-01
We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...
Minnowbrook II 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines
LaGraff John E. (Editor); Ashpis, David E. (Editor)
1998-01-01
The volume contains materials presented at the Minnowbrook II - 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines, held at Syracuse University Minnowbrook Conference Center, New York, on September 7-10, 1997. The workshop followed the informal format at the 1993 Minnowbrook I workshop, focusing on improving the understanding of late stage (final breakdown) boundary layer transition, with the engineering application of improving design codes for turbomachinery in mind. Among the physical mechanisms discussed were hydrodynamic instabilities, laminar to turbulent transition, bypass transition, turbulent spots, wake interaction with boundary layers, calmed regions, and separation, all in the context of flow in turbomachinery, particularly in compressors and high and low pressure turbines. Results from experiments, DNS, computation, modeling and theoretical analysis were presented. Abstracts and copies of viewgraphs, a specifically commissioned summation paper prepared after the workshop, and a transcript of the extensive working group reports and discussions are included in this volume. They provide recommendations for future research and clearly highlight the need for continued vigorous research in the technologically important area of transition in turbomachines.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer
Sohn, K. H.; Reshotko, E.; O'Brien, J. E.
Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researches and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jähn
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulations (LES are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ~ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the formation of the daytime convective plume and the mean vertical wind structure.
Velocity-vorticity correlation structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer
Chen, Jun; Li, Shi-Yao; She, Zhen-Su
2016-11-01
A velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) analysis is applied to analyze data of 3-dimensional (3-D) direct numerical simulations (DNS), to investigate the quantitative properties of the most correlated vortex structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer (CTBL) at Mach numbers, Ma = 2 . 25 and 6 . 0 . It is found that the geometry variation of the VVCS closely reflects the streamwise development of CTBL. In laminar region, the VVCS captures the instability wave number of the boundary layer. The transition region displays a distinct scaling change of the dimensions of VVCS. The developed turbulence region is characterized by a constant spatial extension of the VVCS. For various Mach numbers, the maximum correlation coefficient of the VVCS presents a clear multi-layer structure with the same scaling laws as a recent symmetry analysis proposed to quantifying the sublayer, the log-layer, and the wake flow. A surprising discovery is that the wall friction coefficient, Cf, holds a "-1"-power law of the wall normal distance of the VVCS, ys. This validates the speculation that the wall friction is determined by the near-wall coherent structure, which clarifies the correlation between statistical structures and the near-wall dynamics. Project 11452002 and 11172006 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dongxiao; LIU Xiongbin; WANG Wenzhi; DU Yan; ZHOU Weidong
2004-01-01
The large-scale upper circulations and meridional overturning in the upper layer of the South China Sea (SCS) with idealized bottom topography in winter and summer are investigated. Simulations with the GFDL general circulation model are carried out under the conditions of open or enclosed boundary regarding transport in the Luzon Strait. The intrusion area of Kuroshio, its impact on the meridional overturning in the upper layer of the SCS and seasonal characteristic of this impact are explored, respectively. The model is forced by climatological wind stress and relaxed to monthly mean climatological temperature and salinity. The resultant meridional overturning is non-enclosed, with transporting from north to south in the surface and returning to north at the depth of about 500 m in winter, about 200 m in summer, with amplitudes of 105 m3/s. It shows the transporting path of intermediate water of the SCS and offers an idealized reference for further study on dynamics of wind-driven and thermohaline circulation of the SCS.
Evidence of tropospheric layering: interleaved stratospheric and planetary boundary layer intrusions
2007-01-01
International audience; We present a case study of interleaving in the free troposphere of 4 layers of non-tropospheric origin, with emphasis on their residence time in the troposphere. Two layers are stratospheric intrusions at 4.7 and 2.2 km altitude with residence times of about 2 and 6.5 days, respectively. The two other layers at 7 and 3 km altitude were extracted from the maritime planetary boundary layer by warm conveyor belts associated with two extratropical lows and have residence t...
Spina, Eric F.
1995-01-01
The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic
PIV-based pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer
Ghaemi, Sina; Ragni, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio
2012-12-01
The unsteady pressure field is obtained from time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) measurement within a fully developed turbulent boundary layer at free stream velocity of U ∞ = 9.3 m/s and Reθ = 2,400. The pressure field is evaluated from the velocity fields measured by Tomo-PIV at 10 kHz invoking the momentum equation for unsteady incompressible flows. The spatial integration of the pressure gradient is conducted by solving the Poisson pressure equation with fixed boundary conditions at the outer edge of the boundary layer. The PIV-based evaluation of the pressure field is validated against simultaneous surface pressure measurement using calibrated condenser microphones mounted behind a pinhole orifice. The comparison shows agreement between the two pressure signals obtained from the Tomo-PIV and the microphones with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.6 while their power spectral densities (PSD) overlap up to 3 kHz. The impact of several parameters governing the pressure evaluation from the PIV data is evaluated. The use of the Tomo-PIV system with the application of three-dimensional momentum equation shows higher accuracy compared to the planar version of the technique. The results show that the evaluation of the wall pressure can be conducted using a domain as small as half the boundary layer thickness (0.5δ99) in both the streamwise and the wall normal directions. The combination of a correlation sliding-average technique, the Lagrangian approach to the evaluation of the material derivative and the planar integration of the Poisson pressure equation results in the best agreement with the pressure measurement of the surface microphones.
Grain-boundary layering transitions and phonon engineering
Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.
2016-09-01
We employ semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to investigate layering transitions at grain boundaries in a prototypical binary alloy. We demonstrate the existence of such transitions among various interfacial states and examine the role of elastic fields in dictating state equilibria. The results of these studies are summarized in the form of diagrams that highlight interfacial state coexistence in this system. Finally, we examine the impact of layering transitions on the phononic properties of the system, as given by the specific heat and, by extension, the thermal conductivity. Thus, it is suggested that by inducing interfacial layering transitions via changes in temperature or pressure, one can thereby engineer thermodynamic and transport properties in materials.
A numerical-physical planetary boundary layer model
Padro, Jacob
1983-07-01
A numerical-physical model for the planetary boundary layer has been formulated for the purpose of predicting the winds, temperatures and humidities in the lowest 1600 m of the atmosphere. An application of the model to the synoptic situation of 30 August, 1972, demonstrates its ability to produce useful forecasts for a period of 24 h. Results are illustrated in terms of horizontal maps and time-height sections of winds and temperatures. The model is divided in the vertical direction into three layers that are governed, respectively, by different physical formulations. At the lowest level, which is the surface of the earth, forecasts of temperature and humidity are computed from empirical relations. In the first layer, the surface layer, application is made of the similarity theories of Monin-Obukhov, Monin-Kazanski and Businger’s form of the universal functions. The second layer, the Ekman layer, is 1550 m deep and is governed by diagnostic momentum and time-dependent thermodynamic and humidity equations. External input to the model are large-scale pressure gradients and middle-level cloudiness. Cressman’s objective analysis procedure is applied to conventional surface and upper air data over a horizontal region of about 2500 km by 2500 km, centered about Lake Ontario. With a grid distance of 127 km and a time interval of 30 min, the computer time required on Control Data Cyber 76 for a 24 h forecast for the case study is less than two minutes.
The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea
Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio
2009-06-01
In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.
Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor- tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θ to the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of θ accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im- plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θ R of typical LCS. θ R first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of θ saturates at y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around y+=100. The ensem- ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla- tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(y) ac- cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down- stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond.
Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Chong; WANG JinJun; ZHANG Cao
2009-01-01
Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor-tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θto the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of # accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im-plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θR of typical LCS. θR first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of 8 saturates at Y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around Y+=100. The ensem-ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla-tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(Y) ac-cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down-stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond.
The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers
Brzek, Brian G.
The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 component shows the largest influence of roughness, where the high peak near the wall was decreased and became nearly flat for the fully rough regime profiles. In addition, the Reynolds stresses in outer variables show self-similarity for fixed experimental conditions. However, as the roughness parameter, k +, increases, all Reynolds stress
Thermographic analysis of turbulent non-isothermal water boundary layer
Znamenskaya, Irina A
2015-01-01
The paper is devoted to the investigation of the turbulent water boundary layer in the jet mixing flows using high-speed infrared (IR) thermography. Two turbulent mixing processes were studied: a submerged water jet impinging on a flat surface and two intersecting jets in a round disc-shaped vessel. An infrared camera (FLIR Systems SC7700) was focused on the window transparent for IR radiation; it provided high-speed recordings of heat fluxes from a thin water layer close to the window. Temperature versus time curves at different points of water boundary layer near the wall surface were acquired using the IR camera with the recording frequency of 100 Hz. The time of recording varied from 3 till 20 min. The power spectra for the temperature fluctuations at different points on the hot-cold water mixing zone were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The obtained spectral behavior was compared to the Kolmogorov "-5/3 spectrum" (a direct energy cascade) and the dual-cascade scenario predicted for...
On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hones, E.W. Jr. (Mission Research Corp., Los Alamos, NM (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1990-01-01
The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.
Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.
Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi
2013-07-01
Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.
Large Eddy Simulation and Study of the Urban Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苗世光; 蒋维楣
2004-01-01
Based on a pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) model, an LES model with an anisotropy turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure model and an explicit multi-stage third-order Runge-Kutta scheme is established. The modeling and analysis show that the LES model can simulate the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with a uniform underlying surface under various stratifications very well. Then, similar to the description of a forest canopy, the drag term on momentum and the production term of TKE by subgrid city buildings are introduced into the LES equations to account for the area-averaged effect of the subgrid urban canopy elements and to simulate the meteorological fields of the urban boundary layer (UBL). Numerical experiments and comparison analysis show that: (1) the result from the LES of the UBL with a proposed formula for the drag coefficient is consistent and comparable with that from wind tunnel experiments and an urban subdomain scale model; (2) due to the effect of urban buildings, the wind velocity near the canopy is decreased, turbulence is intensified, TKE, variance, and momentum flux are increased, the momentum and heat flux at the top of the PBL are increased, and the development of the PBL is quickened; (3) the height of the roughness sublayer (RS) of the actual city buildings is the maximum building height (1.5-3 times the mean building height), and a constant flux layer (CFL) exists in the lower part of the UBL.
Zhang, M. Y.; Li, Y. S.
1997-08-01
A third-generation wind wave model based on the energy balance equation taking into account the effects of time-varying currents and coupled dynamically with a semi-implicit three-dimensional hydrodynamic model incorporating the influences of time- and space-varying vertical eddy viscosity, bottom topography and wave-current interactions is presented in this paper. The wave model is synchronously coupled with the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model through the surface atmospheric turbulent boundary layer and the bottom boundary layer. The theory of Janssen (1991) (in Journal of Physical Oceanography21, 1631-1642) is used to incorporate the effects of waves on the surface boundary layer, while the theory of Grant and Maddsen (1979) [in Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)84, 1797-1808], which was used by Signell et al. (1990) (in Journal of Geophysical Research95, 9671-9678) on the bottom boundary layer for constant waves, is modified for the inclusion of time-varying waves. The mutual influences between waves and currents are investigated through an idealized continental shelf case and hindcastings of storm events in the sea area adjacent to Hong Kong in the northern South China Sea. Calculations are compared with other computed results and observations. Calculations show that the wave-dependent surface stress incorporated in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has significant impact on water surface velocities and surface elevations (over 10% higher). The inclusion of wave-dependent bottom stress also shows some effects; however, in the presence of the wave-dependent surface stress, its effect on surge levels becomes negligible. The effect of currents on waves amounts to the reduction of the significant wave height by about 8% and less for wave mean periods. However, the inclusion of the wave-dependent bottom stress in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has little effect on wave characteristics whether or not the wave-dependent surface stress is
Three-Dimensional Waves in Tilt Thermal Boundary Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAO Jian-Jun; YUAN Xiang-Jiang
2009-01-01
We numerically and theoretically study the stabilities of tilt thermal boundary layers immersed in stratified air. An interesting phenomenon is revealed: the stationary longitudinal-roll mode becomes unstable to some oscillating state even when the Grashof number is smaller than its corresponding critical value. By stability analysis, this phenomenon is explained in terms of a new three-dimensional wave mode. The effect of the tilt angle on the stability of the boundary flows is investigated. Since the new three-dimensional wave is found to be the most unstable mode when the title angle is between 30° and 64°, it is expected to play an important role in the transition to turbulence.
Modified boundary layer analysis for a mode III crack problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beom, Hyeon Gyu; Kim, Yu Hwan; Cho, Chong Du; Kim, Chang Boo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-04-15
A modified boundary layer problem of a semi-infinite crack in an elastic-perfectly plastic material under a Mode III load is analyzed. The analytic solution of elastic fields is derived by using complex function theory. It is found that the size and the shape of the plastic zone near the crack tip depend on the elastic T-stress given on the remote boundary. A method for determining higher order singular solutions of elastic fields is also proposed. In order to determine the higher order singular solutions of the elastic fields, Williams expansion of the solution is used. Higher order terms in the Williams expansion are obtained through simple mathematical manipulation. The coefficients of each term in the Williams expansion are also calculated numerically with the J-based mutual integral
Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br
2008-05-01
During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.
Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.
Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer
Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.
2014-12-01
Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.
Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators
Geerts, Jonathan Simon
Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Song, Jiyun; Wang, Zhi-Hua
2016-05-01
Urban land-atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study, we use an advanced stochastic approach to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of a coupled numerical framework for urban land-atmosphere interactions. It is found that the development of urban boundary layer is highly sensitive to surface characteristics of built terrains. Changes of both urban land use and geometry impose significant impact on the overlying urban boundary layer dynamics through modification on bottom boundary conditions, i.e., by altering surface energy partitioning and surface aerodynamic resistance, respectively. Hydrothermal properties of conventional and green roofs have different impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to different surface energy partitioning mechanisms. Urban geometry (represented by the canyon aspect ratio), however, has a significant nonlinear impact on boundary layer structure and temperature. Besides, managing rooftop roughness provides an alternative option to change the boundary layer thermal state through modification of the vertical turbulent transport. The sensitivity analysis deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of urban land-atmosphere interactions and provides useful guidance for urban planning under challenges of changing climate and continuous global urbanization.
Research on Fractal-Scanning Path for Arbitrary Boundary Layer in Layered Manufacturing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
阳佳; 宾鸿赞; 等
2002-01-01
The fractal curve is proposed as a novel scanning-path used in Layered Manufacturing.Aiming at a limitation that the fractal curve can only fill a square region,a method is developed to realize the trimming of fractal curve in arbitrary boundary layer by means of undging intersection points between parameterized arbitrary boundary and a FASS(space-filling,self-avoiding,simple and self-similar)fractal curve.Accordingly,the related algorithm concerning with determining intersection points has been investigated according to the recursion reature of the fractal curve,and in the process of the fractal curve traversed,the rule of udging intersection points is ascertained as well,so that the laser-scanning beam can “walk” along the fractal curve inside the desired boundary,and arbitrary contour components are fabricated.
Perfectly-matched-layer boundary integral equation method for wave scattering in a layered medium
Lu, Wangtao; Qian, Jianliang
2016-01-01
For scattering problems of time-harmonic waves, the boundary integral equation (BIE) methods are highly competitive, since they are formulated on lower-dimension boundaries or interfaces, and can automatically satisfy outgoing radiation conditions. For scattering problems in a layered medium, standard BIE methods based on the Green's function of the background medium must evaluate the expensive Sommefeld integrals. Alternative BIE methods based on the free-space Green's function give rise to integral equations on unbounded interfaces which are not easy to truncate, since the wave fields on these interfaces decay very slowly. We develop a BIE method based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique. The PMLs are widely used to suppress outgoing waves in numerical methods that directly discretize the physical space. Our PML-based BIE method uses the Green's function of the PML-transformed free space to define the boundary integral operators. The method is efficient, since the Green's function of the PML-tran...
Effect of roughness on the stability of boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman
1987-01-01
An analysis is conducted on the effect of imperfections consisting of humps and dips on the stability of incompressible flows over flat plates. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers. Linear quasiparallel spatial stability is used to calculate the growth rates and mode shapes of two-dimensional disturbances. Then, the amplification factor is computed. A search for the most dangerous frequency is conducted based on an amplification factor of 9 in the shortest distance. Correlations are made with the transition experiment of Walker and Greening using the e sup 9 method.
Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Příhoda J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.
Calculation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using the Dissipation Integral Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MatthiasBuschmann
1999-01-01
This paper gives an introduction into the dissipation integral method.The general integral equations for the three-dimensional case are derved.It is found that for a practical calculation algorithm the integral monentum equation and the integral energy equation are msot useful.Using Two different sets of mean velocity profiles the hyperbolical character of a dissipation integral method is shown.Test cases for two-and three-dimensional boundary layers are analysed and discussed.The paper concludes with a discussion of the advantages and limits of dissipation integral methods.
Heat and Moisture Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.
1987-01-05
rapid distortion theory by considering the ’image’ of the eddies in the boundary (Goldstein & Durbin , 1980). The same techniques could be applied to...Fitzjarald, D.J. (1983) Katabatic wind in opposing flow NCAR3123-83/1 Goldstein, M.E. & Durbin , P.A. (1980) J. Fluid Mech. 98, 473. Geiger, R. (1965) The...Foldvick (1962), S -S (2.6a) or algebraically : S - SO (h m/Z) where N0 and U are the values at the height hm of the mid- dle layer, and hi is the vertical
STUDY OF SWEPT SHOCK WAVE AND BOUNDARY LAYER INTERACTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
This paper presents briefly the recent progress on study of swept shock wave/boundary layer interactions with emphasis on application of zonalanalysis and correlation analysis to them. Based on the zonal analysis an overall framework of complicated interaction flow structure including both surface flowfield and space flowfield is discussed. Based on correlation analysis the conical interactions induced by four families of shock wave generators have been discussedin detail. Some control parameter and physical mechanism of conical interaction have been revealed. Finally some aspects of the problem and the prospects for future work are suggested.
Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael;
Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... turbulence measurements from a sonic anemometer, showing high agreement. In this study, a conical scanning lidar is used to derive the momentum flux, which compares well to the estimations from the bulk-derived method, but it also shows a filtering effect due to the large spatial-averaging volume...
Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2006-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... size. The results indicate that the large eddies develop in the resolved scale, corresponding to fluid with an effective viscosity decided by the sum of the kinematic and subgrid viscosity. Regarding case 2, the results are qualitatively in accordance with experimental findings. Injection generally...... significantly. Ventilation therefore results in a net current, even in symmetric waves....
Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik
2016-01-01
Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various...
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers
Wang, Ting
2007-01-01
Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.
Notes on an Internal Boundary-Layer Height Formula
Savelyev, Sergiya.; Taylor, Petera.
The derivation of the Panofsky-Dutton internal boundary-layer(IBL) height formula has been revisited. We propose that the upwindroughness length (rather than downwind) should be used in theformula and that a turbulent vertical velocity (w) ratherthan the surface friction velocity (u*) should be considered asthe appropriate scaling for the rate of propagation ofdisturbances into the turbulent flow. A published set ofwind-tunnel and atmospheric data for neutral stratification hasbeen used to investigate the influence of the magnitude ofroughness change on the IBL height.
Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation
Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.
Transition in Hypersonic Boundary Layers: Role of Dilatational Waves
Zhu, Yiding; Yuan, Huijing; Wu, Jiezhi; Chen, Shiyi; Lee, Cunbiao; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second instability acoustic mode is the key modulator of the transition process. The second mode experiences a rapid growth and a very fast annihilation due to the effect of bulk viscosity. The second mode interacts strongly with the first vorticity mode to directly promote a fast growth of the latter and leads to immediate transition to turbulence.
Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow
Canli, Eyüb; Özgören, Muammer; Dogan, Sercan; Hilmi Aksoy, Muharrem; Akilli, Huseyin
2014-03-01
Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms) values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres actually determines the
Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Canli Eyüb
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres
THE EFFECT OF BOUNDARY SHAPE ON BOUNDARY LAYER OF P-MODEL PLATEPROBLEMS WITH HARD SIMPLY SUPPORT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LILIKANG; CHENJIUHUA
1996-01-01
The paper shows that: for a unit circular plate: Reissner-Mindlin plate model with hardsimply support does not capture the boundary, layer behaviour for the bending moment whenthe load is independent of θ, where (r,θ) is the polar coordinates in plane. In contrast p-modelshows this boundary layer, which is proved theoretically and numerically. But for the case whenthe boundary is a straight line, the boundary layer for p-model is weak and disappears as thePlate thickness tends to zero.
Blay-Carreras, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Darbieu, C.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pietersen, H.P.
2014-01-01
Observations, mixed-layer theory and the Dutch Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote s
Effect of bulges on the stability of boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman A.
1988-01-01
The instability of flows around hump and dip imperfections is investigated. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for viscous/inviscid interaction and separation bubbles. Then, the two-dimensional linear stability of this flow is analyzed, and the amplification factors are computed. Results are obtained for several height/width ratios and locations. The theoretical results have been used to correlate the experimental results of Walker and Greening (1942). The observed transition locations are found to correspond to amplification factors varying between 7.4 and 10.0, consistent with previous results for flat plates. The method accounts for both viscous and shear-layer instabilities. Separation is found to increase significantly the amplification factor.
Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)
1997-10-01
In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Characteristics during BOBMEX-Pilot Experiment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G S Bhat; S Ameenulla; M Venkataramana; K Sengupta
2000-06-01
The atmospheric boundary layer characteristics observed during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment are reported. Surface meteorological data were acquired continuously through an automatic weather monitoring system and manually every three hours. High resolution radiosondes were launched to obtain the vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere. The study area was convectively active, the SSTs were high, surface air was warm and moist, and the surface air moist static energy was among the highest observed over the tropical oceans. The mean sea air temperature difference was about 1.25°C and the sea skin temperature was cooler than bucket SST by 0.5°C. The atmospheric mixed layer was shallow, fluctuated in response to synoptic conditions from 100 m to 900 m with a mean around 500 m.
Large Eddy Simulation of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.
2007-11-01
The development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and contamination of natural plant populations enhanced the importance of understanding wind dispersion of airborne pollen. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using large eddy simulation. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of great importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. The velocity field is discretized using a pseudospectral approach. However the application of the same discretization scheme to the pollen equation generates unphysical solutions (i.e. negative concentrations). The finite-volume bounded scheme SMART is used for the pollen equation. A conservative interpolation scheme to determine the velocity field on the finite volume surfaces was developed. The implementation is validated against field experiments of point source and area field releases of pollen.
Thermal boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a cylindrical sample
Stevens, Richard J A M; Grossmann, Siegfried; Verzicco, Roberto; Xia, Ke-Qing; Lohse, Detlef
2011-01-01
We numerically investigate the structures of the near-plate temperature profiles close to the bottom and top plates of turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard flow in a cylindrical sample at Rayleigh numbers $Ra=10^8$ to $Ra=2\\times10^{12}$ and Prandtl numbers Pr=6.4 and Pr=0.7 thus extending previous results for quasi-2-dimensional systems to 3D systems for the first time. The results show that the instantaneous temperature profiles scaled by the dynamical frame method [Q. Zhou and K.-Q. Xia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 104301 (2010)] agree well with the classical Prandtl-Blasius laminar boundary layer (BL) profiles, especially for low Ra and high Pr. The agreement is slightly less, but still good, for lower Pr, where the thermal BL is more exposed to the bulk fluctuations due to the thinner kinetic BL, and higher Ra, where more plumes are passing the measurement location.
NUMERICAL MODELLING OF FREE-SURFACE FLOWS WITH BOTTOM AND SURFACE-LAYER PRESSURE TREATMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LIU Gang
2009-01-01
A new non-hydrostatic numerical model with the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on structured grids was constructed and discussed. The algorithm is based upon a staggered finite difference Crank-Nicholson scheme on a Cartesian grid. The eddy viscosity coefficient was calculated by the efficient k-ε turbulence model. A new surface-layer non-hydrostatic treatment and a local cell bottom treatment were introduced so that the three-dimensional model is fully non-hydrostatic and is free of any hydrostatic assumption. The developed model is second-order accuracy in both time and space when semi-implicit coefficient is set to 0.5. The validity of the present solution algorithm was demonstrated from its application to the three-dimension channel flow and the wave propagation over a submerged bar problems.
Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions
Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio
2017-02-01
The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).
Experimental Study of Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer
Turner v, John; Wosnik, Martin
2014-11-01
Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter, conducted in the turbulent boundary layer of the 6.0 m wide × 2.7 m tall × 72.0 m long test section of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, are reported. The study aims to address two questions. First, for a given configuration (turbine spacing, initial conditions, etc.), when will the model wind farm reach a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Second, how is kinetic energy transported in the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Measurements in the fully developed WTABL can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. Previous experimental studies with smaller model wind farms were unable to reach the fully developed condition. Due to the size of the UNH facility and the current model array, the fully developed WTABL condition can be achieved. The wind turbine array was simulated by a combination of drag-matched porous disks, used in the upstream part of the array, and by a smaller array of realistic, scaled 3-bladed wind turbines immediately upstream of the measurement location.
Geostrophic convective turbulence: The effect of boundary layers
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Kunnen, Rudie P J; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2014-01-01
This Letter presents results of the first direct numerical simulations of rotating Rayleigh--B\\'enard convection in the so-called geostrophic regime, (hence very small Ekman numbers $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-7})$ and high Rayleigh numbers~$Ra=10^{10}$ and~$5\\cdot 10^{10}$), employing the \\emph{full} Navier--Stokes equations. In the geostrophic regime the criteria of very strong rotation and large supercriticality are met simultaneously, which is true for many geophysical and astrophysical flows. Until now, numerical approaches of this regime have been based on \\emph{reduced} versions of the Navier--Stokes equations (cf. Sprague \\emph{et al.} J. Fluid Mech., \\textbf{551}, 141 (2006)), omitting the effect of the viscous (Ekman) boundary layers. By using different velocity boundary conditions at the plates, we study the effect of these Ekman layers. We find that the formation of large-scale structures (Rubio \\emph{et al.} (Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{112} (2014)), which indicates the presence of an inverse energy cascade, ...
Scaling of pressure spectrum in turbulent boundary layers
Patwardhan, Saurabh S.; Ramesh, O. N.
2014-04-01
Scaling of pressure spectrum in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers is discussed. Spatial DNS data of boundary layer at one time instant (Reθ = 4500) are used for the analysis. It is observed that in the outer regions the pressure spectra tends towards the -7/3 law predicted by Kolmogorov's theory of small-scale turbulence. The slope in the pressure spectra varies from -1 close to the wall to a value close to -7/3 in the outer region. The streamwise velocity spectra also show a -5/3 trend in the outer region of the flow. The exercise carried out to study the amplitude modulation effect of the large scales on the smaller ones in the near-wall region reveals a strong modulation effect for the streamwise velocity, but not for the pressure fluctuations. The skewness of the pressure follows the same trend as the amplitude modulation coefficient, as is the case for the velocity. In the inner region, pressure spectra were seen to collapse better when normalized with the local Reynolds stress than when scaled with the local turbulent kinetic energy
On the development of turbulent boundary layer with wall transpiration
Ferro, Marco; Downs, Robert S., III; Fallenius, Bengt E. G.; Fransson, Jens H. M.
2015-11-01
An experimental study of the development of the transpired boundary layer in zero pressure gradient is carried out on a 6.4 m long hydrodynamically smooth and perforated plate. The relatively longer development length of the present perforated plate compared to the ones used in previous studies allows us to investigate whether an asymptotic suction boundary layer with constant thickness is achieved for the turbulent state, analogously to what happens in the laminar state. Velocity profiles are obtained via hot-wire anemometry while the wall shear stress is measured at several streamwise locations with hot-film and wall-wire probes as well as with oil-film interferometry. The threshold suction coefficient above which relaminarization starts to occur is examined. The scaling of the mean velocity and of higher order velocity moments is discussed in light of the measured wall shear stress data. Support from the European Research Council of the Advanced Fluid Research On Drag reduction in Turbulence Experiments (AFRODITE) is acknowledged.
Retrievals of boundary layer methane and isotope fractionation on Titan
Adamkovics, Mate; Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.
2016-10-01
The amount of methane in the boundary layer on Titan is an interesting diagnostic of whether or not it might be seeping out of the regolith. We know that kinetic fractionation of methane isotopes can be diagnostic of evaporation at the surface and condensation in the atmosphere. If a parcel is constrained to follow a moist adiabat while condensation occurs, we can predict the amount of fractionation that is expected (Ádámkovics & Mitchell, 2016). We will present our most recent efforts to measure boundary layer methane abundance and isotopic composition, which include our recently published Keck NIRSPAO observations from 17 July 2014 (Ádámkovics et al., 2016), as well as preliminary results from follow-up measurements made on 15 May 2016. Our measurements are tantalizingly close to being able to distinguish between different hydrological parameterizations of the polar regions in the Titan Atmospheric Model (Lora & Ádámkovics, 2016). We will discuss the systematic uncertainties that can be evaluated with the combination of these two datasets and the prospects for exceptionally high S/N observations via particularly deep integrations over multiple nights.
Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions
Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio
2016-06-01
The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).
Sonic eddy model of the turbulent boundary layer
Breidenthal, Robert; Dintilhac, Paul; Williams, Owen
2016-11-01
A model of the compressible turbulent boundary layer is proposed. It is based on the notion that turbulent transport by an eddy requires that information of nonsteady events propagates across the diameter of that eddy during one rotation period. The finite acoustic signaling speed then controls the turbulent fluxes. As a consequence, the fluxes are limited by the largest eddies that satisfies this requirement. Therefore "sonic eddies" with a rotational Mach number of about unity would determine the skin friction, which is predicted to vary inversely with Mach number. This sonic eddy model contrasts with conventional models that are based on the energy equation and variations in the density. The effect of density variations is known to be weak in free shear flows, and the sonic eddy model assumes the same for the boundary layer. In general, Mach number plays two simultaneous roles in compressible flow, one related to signaling and the other related to the energy equation. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and DNS results from the literature.
Optimizing EDMF parameterization for stratocumulus-topped boundary layer
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Witek, M. L.; Suselj, K.
2014-12-01
We present progress in the development of an Eddy Diffusion / Mass Flux (EDMF) turbulence parameterization, with the goal of improving the representation of the cloudy boundary layer in NCEP's Global Forecast System (GFS), as part of a multi-institution Climate Process Team (CPT). Current GFS versions substantially under-predict cloud amount and cloud radiative impact over much of the globe, leading to large biases in the surface and top of atmosphere energy budgets. As part of the effort to correct these biases, the CPT is developing a new EDMF turbulence scheme for GFS, in which local turbulent mixing is represented by an eddy diffusion term while nonlocal shallow convection is represented by a mass flux term. The sum of both contributions provides the total turbulent flux. Our goal is for this scheme to more skillfully simulate cloud radiative properties without negatively impacting other measures of weather forecast skill. One particular challenge faced by an EDMF parameterization is to be able to handle stratocumulus regimes as well as shallow cumulus regimes. In order to isolate the behavior of the proposed EDMF parameterization and aid in its further development, we have implemented the scheme in a portable MATLAB single column model (SCM). We use this SCM framework to optimize the simulation of stratocumulus cloud top entrainment and boundary layer decoupling.
Kruppa, Tobias; Neuhaus, Tim; Messina, René; Löwen, Hartmut
2012-04-01
A binary mixture of particles interacting via long-ranged repulsive forces is studied in gravity by computer simulation and theory. The more repulsive A-particles create a depletion zone of less repulsive B-particles around them reminiscent to a bubble. Applying Archimedes' principle effectively to this bubble, an A-particle can be lifted in a fluid background of B-particles. This "depletion bubble" mechanism explains and predicts a brazil-nut effect where the heavier A-particles float on top of the lighter B-particles. It also implies an effective attraction of an A-particle towards a hard container bottom wall which leads to boundary layering of A-particles. Additionally, we have studied a periodic inversion of gravity causing perpetuous mutual penetration of the mixture in a slit geometry. In this nonequilibrium case of time-dependent gravity, the boundary layering persists. Our results are based on computer simulations and density functional theory of a two-dimensional binary mixture of colloidal repulsive dipoles. The predicted effects also occur for other long-ranged repulsive interactions and in three spatial dimensions. They are therefore verifiable in settling experiments on dipolar or charged colloidal mixtures as well as in charged granulates and dusty plasmas.
New Findings by High-Order DNS for Late Flow Transition in a Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper serves as a summary of new discoveries by DNS for late stages of flow transition in a boundary layer. The widely spread concept “vortex breakdown” is found theoretically impossible and never happened in practice. The ring-like vortex is found the only form existing inside the flow field. The ring-like vortex formation is the result of the interaction between two pairs of counter-rotating primary and secondary streamwise vortices. Following the first Helmholtz vortex conservation law, the primary vortex tube rolls up and is stretched due to the velocity gradient. In order to maintain vorticity conservation, a bridge must be formed to link two Λ-vortex legs. The bridge finally develops as a new ring. This process keeps going on to form a multiple ring structure. The U-shaped vortices are not new but existing coherent vortex structure. Actually, the U-shaped vortex, which is a third level vortex, serves as a second neck to supply vorticity to the multiple rings. The small vortices can be found on the bottom of the boundary layer near the wall surface. It is believed that the small vortices, and thus turbulence, are generated by the interaction of positive spikes and other higher level vortices with the solid wall. The mechanism of formation of secondary vortex, second sweep, positive spike, high shear distribution, downdraft and updraft motion, and multiple ring-circle overlapping is also investigated.
FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change
Djolov, G.; Esau, I.
2010-05-01
One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities
Cooper, B. P., Jr.
1979-01-01
A model for the boundary layer at the exit plane of a rocket nozzle was developed which, unlike most previous models, includes the subsonic sublayer. The equations for the flow near the nozzle exit plane are presented and the method by which the subsonic sublayer transitions to supersonic flow in the plume is described. The resulting model describes the entire boundary layer and can be used to provide a startline for method-of-characteristics calculations of plume flowfields. The model was incorporated into a method of characteristics computer program and comparisons of computed results to experimental data show good agreement. The data used in the comparisons were obtained in tests in which mass fluxes from a 22.2-N (5 lbf) thrust engine were measured at angles off the nozzle centerline of up to 150 deg. Additional comparisons were made with data obtained during tests of a 0.89-N (0.2 lbr) monopropellant thruster and from the OH-64 space shuttle heating tests. The agreement with the data indicates that the model can be used for calculating plume backflow properties.
A Lagrangian Study of Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds
Painter, Gallia
concentration which extend far offshore into regions of normally very clean cloud. We use Lagrangian trajectories to investigate the source of the high droplet concentrations of the mesoscale "hooks", and evaluate whether boundary layer transport of coastal pollutants alone can account for their extent. We find that boundary layer trajectories past 85 W do not pass sufficiently close to the coastline to explain high aerosol concentrations offshore.
Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds
Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.
2016-05-01
Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence
The influence of boundary layers on supersonic inlet flow unstart induced by mass injection
Do, Hyungrok; Im, Seong-Kyun; Mungal, M. Godfrey; Cappelli, Mark A.
2011-09-01
A transverse jet is injected into a supersonic model inlet flow to induce unstart. Planar laser Rayleigh scattering from condensed CO2 particles is used to visualize flow dynamics during the unstart process, while in some cases, wall pressure traces are simultaneously recorded. Studies conducted over a range of inlet configurations reveal that the presence of turbulent wall boundary layers strongly affect the unstart dynamics. It is found that relatively thick turbulent boundary layers in asymmetric wall boundary layer conditions prompt the formation of unstart shocks; in symmetric boundary conditions lead to the propagation of pseudo-shocks; and in both cases facilitate fast inlet unstart, when compared with thin, laminar boundary layers. Incident shockwaves and associated reflections are found to affect the speed of pressure disturbances. These disturbances, which induce boundary layer separation, are found to precede the formation of unstart shocks. The results confirm the importance of and need to better understand shock-boundary layer interactions in inlet unstart dynamics.
A NEW MEASURE FOR DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE BED SHEAR STRESS OF WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER IN WAVE FLUME
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this article, a shear plate was mounted on the bottom in a wave flume and direct measurements of the smooth and rough bed shear stress under regular and irregular waves were conducted with the horizontal force exerted on the shear plates by the bottom shear stress in the wave boundary layer. Under immobile bed condition, grains of sand were glued uniformly and tightly onto the shear plate, being prevented from motion with the fluid flow and generation of sand ripples. The distribution of the bottom mean shear stress varying with time was measured by examining the interaction between the shear plate and shear transducers. The relation between the force measured by the shear transducers and its voltage is a linear one. Simultaneous measurements of the bottom velocity were carried out by an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), while the whole process was completely controlled by computers, bottom shear stress and velocity were synchronously measured. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that (1) the friction coefficient groews considerably with the increase of the Reynolds number, (2) the shear stress is a function varying with time and linearly proportional to the velocity. Compared with theoretical results and previous experimental data, it is shown that the experimental method is feasible and effective, A further study on the bed shear stress under regular or irregular waves can be carried out. And applicability to the laboratory studies on the initiation of sediments and the measurement of the shear stress after sediment imigration.
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer with application to wind farm dynamics
Waggy, Scott B.
With the recent push for renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a candidate to replace some of the power produced by traditional fossil fuels. Recent studies, however, have indicated that wind farms may have a direct effect on local meteorology by transporting water vapor away from the Earth's surface. Such turbulent transport could result in an increased drying of soil, and, in turn, negatively affect the productivity of land in the wind farm's immediate vicinity. This numerical study will analyze four scenarios with the goal of understanding turbulence transport in the wake of a turbine: the neutrally-stratified boundary layer with system rotation, the unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, and wind turbine simulations of these previous two cases. For this work, the Ekman layer is used as an approximation of the atmospheric boundary layer and the governing equations are solved using a fully-parallelized direct numerical simulation (DNS). The in-depth studies of the neutrally and unstably-stratified boundary layers without introducing wind farm effects will act to provide a concrete background for the final study concerning turbulent transport due to turbine wakes. Although neutral stratification rarely occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is useful to study the turbulent Ekman layer under such conditions as it provides a limiting case when unstable or stable stratification are weak. In this work, a thorough analysis was completed including turbulent statistics, velocity and pressure autocorrelations, and a calculation of the full turbulent energy budget. The unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer was studied under two levels of heating: moderate and vigorous. Under moderate stratification, both buoyancy and shearing contribute significantly to the turbulent dynamics. As the level of stratification increases, the role of shearing is shown to diminish and is confined to the near-wall region only. A recent, multi
Heat Flux in the Strong-Wind Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Mahrt, L.
2016-11-01
Sonic anemometer measurements are analyzed from two primary field programs and 12 supplementary sites to examine the behaviour of the turbulent heat flux near the surface with high wind speeds in the nocturnal boundary layer. On average, large downward heat flux is found for high wind speeds for most of the sites where some stratification is maintained in spite of relatively intense vertical mixing. The stratification for high wind speeds is found to be dependent on wind direction, suggesting the importance of warm-air advection, even for locally homogenous sites. Warm-air advection is also inferred from a large imbalance of the heat budget of the air for strong winds. Shortcomings of our study are noted.
On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where...... with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified...
The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph
2014-01-01
at the Høvsøre site in Denmark, which is a flat farmland area with a nearly homogeneous easterly upstream sector. Therefore, within that sector, the turning of the wind is caused by a combination of atmospheric stability, Coriolis, roughness, horizontal pressure gradient and baroclinity effects. Atmospheric......Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed...... stability was measured using sonic anemometers placed at different heights on the mast. Horizontal pressure gradients and baroclinity are derived from outputs of a numerical weather prediction model and are used to estimate the geostrophic wind. It is found, for these specific and relatively short periods...
THE UNSTABLE MODES OF NATURAL CONVECTION BOUNDARY LAYER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Jianjun; Zhuang Fenggan; Yan Dachun
2000-01-01
The instability of natural convection boundary layer around a vertical heated flat plate is analyzed theoretically in this paper. The results illustrate that the “loop” in the neutral curve is not a real loop but a twist of the curve is the frequencywave number-Grashof number space, and there is only one unstable mode at small Prandtl numbers. Specially, when the Prandtl number is large enough two unstable modes will be found in the “loop” region. Along the amplifying surface intersection the two unstable modes have the same Grashof number, wave number and frequency but different amplifying rates. Their instability characteristics are analyzed and the criterion for determining the existence of the multi-unstable modes is also discussed.
Aerodynamic Heating in Hypersonic Boundary Layers:\\ Role of Dilatational Waves
Zhu, Yiding; Wu, Jiezhi; Chen, Shiyi; Lee, Cunbiao; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed
2016-01-01
The evolution of multi-mode instabilities in a hypersonic boundary layer and their effects on aerodynamic heating are investigated. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering flow visualization, fast-response pressure sensors, fluorescent temperature-sensitive paint (TSP), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Calculations are also performed based on both parabolized stability equations (PSE) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). It is found that second-mode dilatational waves, accompanied by high-frequency alternating fluid compression and expansion, produce intense aerodynamic heating in a small region that rapidly heats the fluid passing through it. As a result, the surface temperature rapidly increases and results in an overshoot over the nominal transitional value. When the dilatation waves decay downstream, the surface temperature decreases gradually until transition is completed. A theoretical analysis is provided to interpret the temperature distribution affected by ...
Logarithmic boundary layers in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Huisman, Sander G; Cierpka, Christian; Kahler, Christian J; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to $\\text{Ta}=6.2 \\times 10^{12}$ using high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von K\\'arm\\'an log law $u^+ = \\frac 1\\kappa \\ln y^+ +B$. The von K\\'arm\\'an constant $\\kappa$ is found to depend on the driving strength $\\text{Ta}$ and for large $\\text{Ta}$ asymptotically approaches $\\kappa \\approx 0.40$. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around $y^+ \\approx 12$ and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log-dependence of $y^+$ as also found for channel and pipe flows [1,2].
Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers on a Strongly Heated Wall
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1993-01-01
This paper concerns the theoretical and experimental modelling of the flat wall,highly heated,compressible turbulent boundary layer.Its final objective is to develop a numerical Navier-Stokes solver and to conclude on its capability to correctly represent complex aerothermic viscous flows near the wall.The paper presents a constructed numerical method with particular attention given to the turbulence modelling at low Reynolds number and comparisons with supersonic and transonic experimental data.For the transonic experiment,very high wall temperature(Tw=1100K)is realized.The method of this difficult experimental set up is discussed.The comparison between experimental and computational data conducts to the first conclusion and gives some indications for the future work.
Coherent vorticity extraction in turbulent boundary layers using orthogonal wavelets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Yen, Romain Nguyen van [Institut fuer Mathematik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Kai [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, Marseille (France); Farge, Marie, E-mail: khujadze@fdy.tu-darmstadt.de [LMD-IPSL-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France)
2011-12-22
Turbulent boundary layer data computed by direct numerical simulation are analyzed using orthogonal anisotropic wavelets. The flow fields, originally given on a Chebychev grid, are first interpolated on a locally refined dyadic grid. Then, they are decomposed using a wavelet basis, which accounts for the anisotropy of the flow by using different scales in the wall-normal direction and in the planes parallel to the wall. Thus the vorticity field is decomposed into coherent and incoherent contributions using thresholding of the wavelet coefficients. It is shown that less than 1% of the coefficients retain the coherent structures of the flow, while the majority of the coefficients corresponds to a structureless, i.e., noise-like background flow. Scale-and direction-dependent statistics in wavelet space quantify the flow properties at different wall distances.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERISTICS OVER STREAMWISE RIBLETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Zhi-yong; DONG Shou-ping; DU Ya-nan
2004-01-01
Measurements of characteristics by means of a two-component Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) were carried out in turbulent boundary layers over both a symmetric V-shaped ribbed plate and a smooth one in a low speed wind tunnel. The present results clearly indicate that the logarithmic velocity profile over the riblets surface is shifted upward with a 30.9% increase in the thickness of the viscous sublayer. Also a change in the log-law region is found. And the maximum value of streamwise velocity fluctuations is reduced by approximately 17%. The skewness and flatness factors do not show any change besides those in the region of y+＜0.6. It is evident that the Reynolds shear stress over the riblets is reduced. Further more, in log-law region, the Reynolds shear stress has a larger reduction of up to 18%.
Footprints of funnel vortices in a turbulent boundary layer
Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Hetsroni, Gad
2003-11-01
The topology of large scale funnel structures in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume is investigated experimentally. The large scale structure is reconstructed from the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenmodes, calculated from the two-dimensional projections of the fluctuated vorticity field realizations. The instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field realizations are obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The dominant funnel structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of 8 degrees, streamwise length of 1000 wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. The spatial characteristics of the funnel structure, measured in the streamwise - wall normal plane of the flume, has been found to be independent of the Reynolds number. The identification technique is based on all the data set and provide a statistical descrition of the structure footprint.
Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid
Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.
1979-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.
Dynamics of boundary layer electrons around a laser wakefield bubble
Luo, J.; Chen, M.; Zhang, G.-B.; Yuan, T.; Yu, J.-Y.; Shen, Z.-C.; Yu, L.-L.; Weng, S.-M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.
2016-10-01
The dynamics of electrons forming the boundary layer of a highly nonlinear laser wakefield driven in the so called bubble or blowout regime is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that when the driver pulse intensity increases or the focal spot size decreases, a significant amount of electrons initially pushed by the laser pulse can detach from the bubble structure at its tail, middle, or front and form particular classes of waves locally with high densities, referred to as the tail wave, lateral wave, and bow wave. The tail wave and bow wave correspond to real electron trajectories, while the lateral wave does not. The detached electrons can be ejected transversely, containing considerable energy, and reducing the efficiency of the laser wakefield accelerator. Some of the transversely emitted electrons may obtain MeV level energy. These electrons can be used for wake evolution diagnosis and producing high frequency radiation.
Concentration Boundary Layer Model of Mortar Corrosion by Sulfuric Acid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Zhigang; ZHANG Xuesong; MIN Hongguang
2011-01-01
A long time immersion experiment of mortar specimens is carried out to investigate their degradation mechanism by sulfuric acid. Water-cement ratios of mortar are ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and the pH value of sulfuric acid is 3.5 and 4.0 respectively. The pH meter is used to monitor the soak solution and the titration sulfuric acid with given concentration is added to maintain original pH value, through which the acid consumption of mortar is recorded. A theoretical reaction rate model is also proposed based on concentration boundary layer model. The results show that theoretical model fits the experimental results well and the corrosion mechanism can be modeled by a diffusion process accompanied with an irreversible chemical reaction when pH value of soak solution is no less than 3.5.
A Qualitative Description of Boundary Layer Wind Speed Records
Kavasseri, R G; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan
2006-01-01
The complexity of the atmosphere endows it with the property of turbulence by virtue of which, wind speed variations in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) exhibit highly irregular fluctuations that persist over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Despite the large and significant body of work on microscale turbulence, understanding the statistics of atmospheric wind speed variations has proved to be elusive and challenging. Knowledge about the nature of wind speed at ABL has far reaching impact on several fields of research such as meteorology, hydrology, agriculture, pollutant dispersion, and more importantly wind energy generation. In the present study, temporal wind speed records from twenty eight stations distributed through out the state of North Dakota (ND, USA), ($\\sim$ 70,000 square-miles) and spanning a period of nearly eight years are analyzed. We show that these records exhibit a characteristic broad multifractal spectrum irrespective of the geographical location and topography. The rapi...
ON NONLINEAR STABILITY IN NONPARALLEL BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Deng-bin; WANG Wei-zhi
2004-01-01
The nonlinear stability problem in nonparallel boundary layer flow for two-dimensional disturbances was studied by using a newly presented method called Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). A series of new modes generated by the nonlinear interaction of disturbance waves were tabulately analyzed, and the Mean Flow Distortion (MFD) was numerically given. The computational techniques developed, including the higher-order spectral method and the more effective algebraic mapping, increased greatly the numerical accuracy and the rate of convergence. With the predictor-corrector approach in the marching procedure, the normalization condition was satisfied, and the stability of numerical calculation could be ensured. With different initial amplitudes, the nonlinear stability of disturbance wave was studied. The results of examples show good agreement with the data given by the DNS using the full Navier-Stokes equations.
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban planetary boundary layer
Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.
1977-01-01
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban atmosphere is studied using a dynamic model. The diurnal nature of radiative transfer for summer conditions is simulated for an urban area 40 km in extent and the effects of various parameters arising in the problem are investigated. The results of numerical computations show that air pollution has the potential of playing a major role in the radiative regime of the urban area. Absorption of solar energy by aerosols in realistic models of urban atmosphere are of the same order of magnitude as that due to water vapor. The predicted effect of the air pollution aerosol in the city is to warm the earth-atmosphere system, and the net effect of gaseous pollutant is to warm the surface and cool the planetary boundary layer, particularly near the top.
Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Trip Development for Hyper-X
Berry, Scott A.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Dilley, Authur D.; Calleja, John F.
2000-01-01
Boundary layer trip devices for the Hper-X forebody have been experimentally examined in several wind tunnels. Five different trip configurations were compared in three hypersonic facilities, the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, the LaRC 31 -Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, and in the HYPULSE Reflected Shock Tunnel at GASL. Heat transfer distributions, utilizing the phosphor thermography and thin-film techniques, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 2-deg, and 4-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 1.2 to 15.4 million: and inlet cowl door simulated in both open and closed positions. Comparisons of transition due to discrete roughness elements have led to the selection of a trip configuration for the Hyper-X Mach 7 flight vehicle.
Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows
Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.
2003-01-01
Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.
Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer
Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N.; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph
2016-04-01
Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A ‘renoxification’ process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth’s surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.
Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction in Forced Shock Oscillations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Piotr Doerffer; Oskar Szulc; Franco Magagnato
2003-01-01
The flow in transonic diffusers as well as in supersonic air intakes becomes often unsteady due to shock wave boundary layer interaction. The oscillations may be induced by natural separation unsteadiness or may be forced by boundary conditions. Significant improvement of CFD tools, increase of computer resources as well as development of experimental methods have again.drawn the attention of researchers to this topic.To investigate the problem forced oscillations of transonic turbulent flow in asymmetric two-dimensional Laval nozzle were considered. A viscous, perfect gas flow, was numerically simulated using the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes solver SPARC, employing a two-equation, eddy viscosity, turbulence closure in the URANS approach.For time-dependent and stationary flow simulations, Mach numbers upstream of the shock between 1.2 and 1.4 were considered. Comparison of computed and experimental data for steady states generally gave acceptable agreement. In the case of forced oscillations, a harmonic pressure variation was prescribed at the exit plane resulting in shock wave motion. Excitation frequencies between 0 Hz and 1024 Hz were investigated at the same pressure amplitude.The main result of the work carried out is the relation between the amplitude of the shock wave motion and the excitation frequency in the investigated range. Increasing excitation frequency resulted in decreasing amplitude of the shock movement. At high frequencies a natural mode of shock oscillation (of small amplitude) was observed which is not sensitive to forced excitement.
Turbulence transition in the asymptotic suction boundary layer
Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M; Veble, Gregor; Duguet, Yohann; Schlatter, Philipp; Henningson, Dan S; Eckhardt, Bruno
2015-01-01
We study the transition to turbulence in the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) by direct numerical simulation. Tracking the motion of trajectories intermediate between laminar and turbulent states we can identify the invariant object inside the laminar-turbulent boundary, the edge state. In small domains, the flow behaves like a travelling wave over short time intervals. On longer times one notes that the energy shows strong bursts at regular time intervals. During the bursts the streak structure is lost, but it reforms, translated in the spanwise direction by half the domain size. Varying the suction velocity allows to embed the flow into a family of flows that interpolate between plane Couette flow and the ASBL. Near the plane Couette limit, the edge state is a travelling wave. Increasing the suction, the travelling wave and a symmetry-related copy of it undergo a saddle-node infinite-period (SNIPER) bifurcation that leads to bursting and discrete-symmetry shifts. In wider domains, the structures loc...
The Stokes boundary layer for a thixotropic or antithixotropic fluid
McArdle, Catriona R.
2012-10-01
We present a mathematical investigation of the oscillatory boundary layer in a semi-infinite fluid bounded by an oscillating wall (the so-called \\'Stokes problem\\'), when the fluid has a thixotropic or antithixotropic rheology. We obtain asymptotic solutions in the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, and we use numerical integration to validate the asymptotic solutions and to explore the behaviour of the system for larger-amplitude oscillations. The solutions that we obtain differ significantly from the classical solution for a Newtonian fluid. In particular, for antithixotropic fluids the velocity reaches zero at a finite distance from the wall, in contrast to the exponential decay for a thixotropic or a Newtonian fluid.For small amplitudes of oscillation, three regimes of behaviour are possible: the structure parameter may take values defined instantaneously by the shear rate, or by a long-term average; or it may behave hysteretically. The regime boundaries depend on the precise specification of structure build-up and breakdown rates in the rheological model, illustrating the subtleties of complex fluid models in non-rheometric settings. For larger amplitudes of oscillation the dominant behaviour is hysteretic. We discuss in particular the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate at the oscillating wall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Evolution of vortex-surface fields in transitional boundary layers
Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yaomin; Xiong, Shiying
2016-11-01
We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), a Lagrangian-based structure-identification method, to the DNS database of transitional boundary layers. The VSFs are constructed from the vorticity fields within a sliding window at different times and locations using a recently developed boundary-constraint method. The isosurfaces of VSF, representing vortex surfaces consisting of vortex lines with different wall distances in the laminar stage, show different evolutionary geometries in transition. We observe that the vortex surfaces with significant deformation evolve from wall-parallel planar sheets through hairpin-like structures and packets into a turbulent spot with regeneration of small-scale hairpins. From quantitative analysis, we show that a small number of representative or influential vortex surfaces can contribute significantly to the increase of the drag coefficient in transition, which implies a reduced-order model based on VSF. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472015, 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.
Evidence of tropospheric layering: interleaved stratospheric and planetary boundary layer intrusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Brioude
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We present a case study of interleaving in the free troposphere of 4 layers of non-tropospheric origin, with emphasis on their residence time in the troposphere. Two layers are stratospheric intrusions at 4.7 and 2.2 km altitude with residence times of about 2 and 6.5 days, respectively. The two other layers at 7 and 3 km altitude were extracted from the maritime planetary boundary layer by warm conveyor belts associated with two extratropical lows and have residence times of about 2 and 5.75 days, respectively. The event took place over Frankfurt (Germany in February 2002 and was observed by a commercial airliner from the MOZAIC programme with measurements of ozone, carbon monoxide and water vapour. Origins and residence times in the troposphere of these layers are documented with a trajectory and particle dispersion model. The combination of forward and backward simulations of the Lagrangian model allows the period of time during which the residence time can be assessed to be longer, as shown by the capture of the stratospheric-origin signature of the lowest tropopause fold just about to be completely mixed above the planetary boundary layer. This case study is of interest for atmospheric chemistry because it emphasizes the importance of coherent airstreams that produce laminae in the free troposphere and that contribute to the average tropospheric ozone. The interleaving of these 4 layers also provides the conditions for a valuable case study for the validation of global chemistry transport models used to perform tropospheric ozone budgets.
Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection
Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2012-01-01
The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the inferr
Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)
2014-11-24
The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.
Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer
Garai, Anirban
Solar heating of the surface causes the near surface air to warm up and with sufficient buoyancy it ascends through the atmosphere as surface-layer plumes and thermals. The cold fluid from the upper part of the boundary layer descends as downdrafts. The downdrafts and thermals form streamwise roll vortices. All these turbulent coherent structures are important because they contribute most of the momentum and heat transport. While these structures have been studied in depth, their imprint on the surface through energy budget in a convective atmospheric boundary layer has received little attention. The main objective of the present study is to examine the turbulence-induced surface temperature fluctuations for different surface properties and stratification. Experiments were performed to measure atmospheric turbulence using sonic anemometers, fine wire thermocouples and LIDAR; and surface temperature using an infra-red camera over grass and artificial turf fields. The surface temperature fluctuations were found to be highly correlated to the turbulent coherent structures and follow the processes postulated in the surface renewal theory. The spatio-temporal scales and advection speed of the surface temperature fluctuation were found to match with those of turbulent coherent structures. A parametric direct numerical simulation (DNS) study was then performed by solving the solid-fluid heat transport mechanism numerically for varying solid thermal properties, solid thickness and strength of stratification. Even though there were large differences in the friction Reynolds and Richardson numbers between the experiments and numerical simulations, similar turbulent characteristics were observed. The ejection (sweep) events tend to be aligned with the streamwise direction to form roll vortices with unstable stratification. The solid-fluid interfacial temperature fluctuations increase with the decreases in solid thermal inertia; and with the increase in solid thickness to
Surface layer similarity in the nocturnal boundary layer: the application of Hilbert-Huang transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Hong
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Turbulence statistics such as flux-variance relationship is critical information in measuring and modeling carbon, water, energy, and momentum exchanges at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Using a recently proposed mathematical technique, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT, this study highlights its possibility to quantify impacts of non-turbulent flows on turbulence statistics in the stable surface layer. The HHT is suitable for the analysis of non-stationary and intermittent data and thus very useful for better understanding of the interplay of the surface layer similarity with complex nocturnal environment. Our analysis showed that the HHT can successfully sift non-turbulent components and be used as a tool to estimate the relationships between turbulence statistics and atmospheric stability in complex environment such as nocturnal stable boundary layer.
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Zilitinkevich
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I. N.; Baklanov, A.
2005-03-01
Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow). It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral) or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions) depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S were overlooked
The effects of forcing on a single stream shear layer and its parent boundary layer
Haw, Richard C.; Foss, John F.
1990-01-01
Forcing and its effect on fluid flows has become an accepted tool in the study and control of flow systems. It has been used both as a diagnostic tool, to explore the development and interaction of coherent structures, and as a method of controlling the behavior of the flow. A number of forcing methods have been used in order to provide a perturbation to the flow; among these are the use of an oscillating trailing edge, acoustically driven slots, external acoustic forcing, and mechanical piston methods. The effect of a planar mechanical piston forcing on a single stream shear layer is presented; it can be noted that this is one of the lesser studied free shear layers. The single stream shear layer can be characterized by its primary flow velocity scale and the thickness of the separating boundary layer. The velocity scale is constant over the length of the flow field; theta (x) can be used as a width scale to characterize the unforced shear layer. In the case of the forced shear layer the velocity field is a function of phase time and definition of a width measure becomes somewhat problematic.
An Analysis of the Characteristics of the Thermal Boundary Layer in Power Law Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the heat transfer for the boundary layer flow on a continuous moving surface in power law fluid. The expressions of the thermal boundary layer thickness with the different heat conductivity coefficients are obtained according to the theory of the dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. And the numerical results of CFD agree well with the proposed expressions. The estimate formulas can be successfully applied to giving the thermal boundary layer thickness.
The high frequency acoustic radiation from the boundary layer of an axisymmetric body
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Fuxin; MA Lin; MA Zhiming
2001-01-01
The mechanism of acoustic radiation from the boundary layer of an axisymmetric body is analyzed, and its sound pressure spectrum is predicted. It is shown that the acoustic radiation results from the transition region and the turbulent boundary layer; and that the acoustic radiation from transition region is predominant at low frequencies; while the turbulent boundary layer has the decisive effect on acoustic radiation at high frequencies. The calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannesdottir, Asta; Hansen, Aksel Walle
One year of data from ceilometer measurements is used to estimate the atmospheric boundary-layer height at the coastal site Høvsøre in western Denmark. The atmospheric boundary-layer height is a fundamental parameter for the evaluation of the wind speed profile, and an essential parameter in atmo...... for easterly winds it is seldom possible. The ceilometer data shows potential to be used to perform extensive studies of the boundary layer....
Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2006-03-15
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)
Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.
1979-01-01
Measurements have been made of the heat transfer through a turbulent boundary layer on a convexly curved isothermal wall and on a flat plate following the curved section. Data were taken for one free-stream velocity and two different ratios of boundary layer thickness to radius of curvature delta/R = 0.051 and delta/R = 0.077. Only small differences were observed in the distribution of heat transfer rates for the two boundary layer thicknesses tested, although differences were noted in the temperature distributions within the boundary layer
Gelled propellant flow: Boundary layer theory for power-law fluids in a converging planar channel
Kraynik, Andrew M.; Geller, A. S.; Glick, J. H.
1989-10-01
A boundary layer theory for the flow of power-law fluids in a converging planar channel has been developed. This theory suggests a Reynolds number for such flows, and following numerical integration, a boundary layer thickness. This boundary layer thickness has been used in the generation of a finite element mesh for the finite element code FIDAP. FIDAP was then used to simulate the flow of power-law fluids through a converging channel. Comparison of the analytic and finite element results shows the two to be in very good agreement in regions where entrance and exit effects (not considered in the boundary layer theory) can be neglected.
Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX-Pilot using NCMRWF model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Swati Basu
2000-06-01
A global spectral model (T80L18) that is operational at NCMRWF is utilized to study the structure of the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot period. The vertical profiles of various meteorological parameters within the boundary layer are studied and verified against the available observations. The diurnal variation of various surface fields are also studied. The impact of non-local closure scheme for the boundary layer parameterisation is seen in simulation of the flow pattern as well as on the boundary layer structure over the oceanic region.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the magnetopause-boundary layer region
Lee, L. C.; Albano, R. K.; Kan, J. R.
1981-01-01
The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the magnetopause-boundary layer region is studied on the basis of an idealized model which consists of three uniform plasma regions: the magnetosheath, the boundary layer, and the magnetosphere. There are two unstable modes in the magnetopause-boundary layer region: one is excited at the magnetopause (the magnetopause mode) and the other is excited at the inner surface of the boundary layer (the inner mode). The inner mode is found to be unstable most of the time, while the excitation of the magnetopause mode depends on the magnetic field in the magnetosheath. The observed variation of the boundary layer thickness can be attributed to the unstable inner mode. Possible relationships between the Pc 3-5 geomagnetic pulsations and the surface waves excited on the magnetospheric boundary are also discussed.
Nonlinear interaction of waves in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1979-01-01
First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed by using the method of multiple scales. For the case of two waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists if one of the frequencies w2 is twice the other frequency w1. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that this interaction mechanism is strongly destabilizing even in regions where either the fundamental or its harmonic is damped in the absence of the interaction. For the case of three waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists when w3 = w2- w1. This combination resonance causes the amplitude of the wave with the difference frequency w3 to multiply many times in magnitude in a short distance even if it is damped in the absence of the interaction. The initial amplitudes play a dominant role in determining the changes in the amplitudes of the waves in both of these mechanisms.
Disturbance amplification in boundary layers over thin wall films
Saha, Sandeep; Page, Jacob; Zaki, Tamer A.
2016-02-01
In single-fluid boundary layers, streaks can amplify at sub-critical Reynolds numbers and initiate early transition to turbulence. Introducing a wall film of different viscosities can appreciably alter the stability of the base flow and, in particular, the transient growth of the perturbation streaks. The formalism of seminorms is used to identify optimal disturbances which maximize the kinetic energy in the two-fluid flow. An examination of optimal growth over a range of viscosity ratios of the film relative to the outer flow reveals three distinct regimes of amplification, each associated with a particular combination of the eigenfunctions. In order to elucidate the underlying amplification mechanisms, a model problem is formulated: An initial value problem is solved using an eigenfunction expansion and is used to compute the evolution of pairs of eigenfunctions. By appropriately selecting the pair, the initial value problem qualitatively reproduces the temporal evolution of the optimal disturbance, and provides an unambiguous explanation of the dynamics. Two regimes of transient growth are attributed to the evolution of the interface mode along with free-stream vortical modes; the third regime is due to the evolution of the interface and a discrete mode. The results demonstrate that a lower-viscosity film can effectively reduce the efficacy of the lift-up mechanism and, as a result, transient growth of disturbances. However, another mechanism of amplification of wall-normal vorticity arises due to the deformation of the two-fluid interface and becomes dominant below a critical viscosity ratio.
NOx and NOy in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer
Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Read, Katie A.; Mendes, Luis N.
2016-04-01
Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) and their reservoir species (NOy) play a central role in determining the chemistry of the troposphere. Although their concentrations are low (1-100 ppt) in regions such as the remote marine boundary layer, they have a profound impact on ozone production and the oxidizing capacity. There are very few observations of NOx and NOy in remote oceanic regions due to the technical challenges of measuring such low concentrations, and thus our understanding of this background chemistry is incomplete. Here we present long term measurements of NOx (2006-2015) and more recent measurements of speciated NOy (total peroxyacetyl nitrates, PANs; alkyl nitrates, ANs; nitric acid; and aerosol analogues) made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO; 16° 51' N, 24° 52' W) located in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. We identify potential interferences in the NO2 and NOy measurements and methods to eliminate them. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are interpreted using a box model. We find a complex chemistry with interactions between organic and inorganic chemistry, between the aerosol and gas phase, and between the very local and large scales.
Iodine oxide in the global marine boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Prados-Roman
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Emitted mainly by the oceans, iodine is a halogen compound important for atmospheric chemistry due to its high ozone depletion potential and effect on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of iodine oxide (IO measurements in the open marine boundary layer (MBL made during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation. Results show IO mixing ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1 pmol mol−1 and, complemented with additional field campaigns, this dataset confirms through observations the ubiquitous presence of reactive iodine chemistry in the global marine environment. We use a global model with organic (CH3I, CH2ICl, CH2I2 and CH2IBr and inorganic (HOI and I2 iodine ocean emissions to investigate the contribution of the different iodine source gases to the budget of IO in the global MBL. In agreement with previous estimates, our results indicate that, globally averaged, the abiotic precursors contribute about 75% to the iodine oxide budget. However, this work reveals a strong geographical pattern in the contribution of organic vs. inorganic precursors to reactive iodine in the global MBL.
The decay of wake vortices in the convective boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Frech, M.; Doernbrack, A.
2000-03-01
The decay of three wake vortex pairs of B-747 aircraft in a convectively driven atmospheric boundary layer is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations (LES). This situation is considered as being hazardous as the updraft velocities of a thermal may compensate the induced descent speed of the vortex pair resulting in vortices stalled in the flight path. The LES results, however, illustrate that (i) the primary rectilinear vortices are rapidly deformed on the scale of the alternating updraft and downdraft regions; (ii) parts of the vortices stay on flight level but are quickly eroded by the enhanced turbulence of an updraft; (iii) longest living sections of the vortices are found in regions of relatively calm downdraft flow which augments their descent. Strip theory calculations are used to illustrate the temporal and spatial development of lift and rolling moments experienced by a following medium weight class B-737 aircraft. Characteristics of the respective distributions are analysed. Initially, the maximum rolling moments slightly exceed the available roll control of the B-737. After 60 seconds the probability of rolling moments exceeding 50% of the roll control, a value which is considered as a threshold for acceptable rolling moments, has decreased to 1% of its initial probability. (orig.)
Ion Beams in the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.
2015-12-01
We explore characteristics of energetic particles in the plasma sheet boundary layer associated with dipolarization events, based on simulations and observations. The simulations use the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. They are complemented by self-consistent fully electrodynamic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The test particle simulations confirm that crescent shaped earthward flowing ion velocity distributions with strong perpendicular anisotropy can be generated as a consequence of near tail reconnection, associated with earthward flows and propagating magnetic field dipolarization fronts. Both PIC and test particle simulations show that the ion distribution in the outflow region close to the reconnection site also consist of a beam superposed on an undisturbed population; this beam, however, does not show strong perpendicular anisotropy. This suggests that the crescent shape is created by quasi-adiabatic deformation from ion motion along the magnetic field toward higher field strength. The simulation results compare favorably with ``Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" (THEMIS) observations.
Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations
Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.
2015-01-01
A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.
Large Scale Organization of a Near Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer
Stanislas, Michel; Dekou Tiomajou, Raoul Florent; Foucaut, Jean Marc
2016-11-01
This study lies in the context of large scale coherent structures investigation in a near wall turbulent boundary layer. An experimental database at high Reynolds numbers (Re θ = 9830 and Re θ = 19660) was obtained in the LML wind tunnel with stereo-PIV at 4 Hz and hot wire anemometry at 30 kHz. A Linear Stochastic Estimation procedure, is used to reconstruct a 3 component field resolved in space and time. Algorithms were developed to extract coherent structures from the reconstructed field. A sample of 3D view of the structures is depicted in Figure 1. Uniform momentum regions are characterized with their mean hydraulic diameter in the YZ plane, their life time and their contribution to Reynolds stresses. The vortical motions are characterized by their position, radius, circulation and vorticity in addition to their life time and their number computed at a fixed position from the wall. The spatial organization of the structures was investigated through a correlation of their respective indicative functions in the spanwise direction. The simplified large scale model that arise is compared to the ones available in the literature. Streamwise low (green) and high (yellow) uniform momentum regions with positive (red) and negative (blue) vortical motions. This work was supported by Campus International pour la Sécurité et l'Intermodalité des Transports.
Wave mediated angular momentum transport in astrophysical boundary layers
Hertfelder, Marius
2015-01-01
Context. Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized stars leads to the formation of a boundary layer (BL) where the gas loses its excess kinetic energy and settles onto the star. There are still many open questions concerning the BL, for instance the transport of angular momentum (AM) or the vertical structure. Aims. It is the aim of this work to investigate the AM transport in the BL where the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is not operating owing to the increasing angular velocity $\\Omega(r)$ with radius. We will therefore search for an appropriate mechanism and examine its efficiency and implications. Methods. We perform 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations in a cylindrical coordinate system $(r, \\varphi)$ for a thin, vertically inte- grated accretion disk around a young star. We employ a realistic equation of state and include both cooling from the disk surfaces and radiation transport in radial and azimuthal direction. The viscosity in the disk is treated by the {\\alpha}-model; in the BL there is no v...
Plume meander and dispersion in a stable boundary layer
Hiscox, April L.; Miller, David R.; Nappo, Carmen J.
2010-11-01
Continuous lidar measurements of elevated plume dispersion and corresponding micrometeorology data are analyzed to establish the relationship between plume behavior and nocturnal boundary layer dynamics. Contrasting nights of data from the JORNADA field campaign in the New Mexico desert are analyzed. The aerosol lidar measurements were used to separate the plume diffusion (plume spread) from plume meander (displacement). Mutiresolution decomposition was used to separate the turbulence scale (90 s). Durations of turbulent kinetic energy stationarity and the wind steadiness were used to characterize the local scale and submesoscale turbulence. Plume meander, driven by submesoscale wind motions, was responsible for most of the total horizontal plume dispersion in weak and variable winds and strong stability. This proportion was reduced in high winds (i.e., >4 m s-1), weakly stable conditions but remained the dominant dispersion mechanism. The remainder of the plume dispersion in all cases was accounted for by internal spread of the plume, which is a small eddy diffusion process driven by turbulence. Turbulence stationarity and the wind steadiness are demonstrated to be closely related to plume diffusion and plume meander, respectively.
Lubrication approximation in completed double layer boundary element method
Nasseri, S.; Phan-Thien, N.; Fan, X.-J.
This paper reports on the results of the numerical simulation of the motion of solid spherical particles in shear Stokes flows. Using the completed double layer boundary element method (CDLBEM) via distributed computing under Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), the effective viscosity of suspension has been calculated for a finite number of spheres in a cubic array, or in a random configuration. In the simulation presented here, the short range interactions via lubrication forces are also taken into account, via the range completer in the formulation, whenever the gap between two neighbouring particles is closer than a critical gap. The results for particles in a simple cubic array agree with the results of Nunan and Keller (1984) and Stoksian Dynamics of Brady etal. (1988). To evaluate the lubrication forces between particles in a random configuration, a critical gap of 0.2 of particle's radius is suggested and the results are tested against the experimental data of Thomas (1965) and empirical equation of Krieger-Dougherty (Krieger, 1972). Finally, the quasi-steady trajectories are obtained for time-varying configuration of 125 particles.
Plasma structures inside boundary layers of magnetic clouds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Fengsi; FENG Xueshang; YANG Fang; ZHONG Dingkun
2004-01-01
We analyze the plasma structures for 50 magnetic cloud boundary layers (BLs) which were observed by the spacecraft WIND from February, 1995 to June 2003. Main discoveries are: (ⅰ) The BL is a non-pressure balanced structure, its total pressure, PT,L, (the thermal pressure, Pth,L, plus the magnetic pressure, PM,L) is generally less than the total pressure PT,S and PT,C of the front solar wind (SW) and the following magnetic clouds (MC), respectively. The rising of the Pth,L inside the BLs is often not enough to compensate the declining of PM,L; (ⅱ) The ratio of electron and proton temperatures, (Te/Tp)L, inside the BLs is offen less than (Te/Tp)s and (Te/Tp)c in the SW and the MC, respectively, because the heating of proton is more obvious than that of electron; and (ⅲ) The reversal jet is observed in 80% BLs investigated, in which the reversal jets from all of three directions (±Vx, ±Vy, ±Vz), were observed in ≈25% BLs. These basic characteristics could be associated with a possible magnetic reconnection process inside the BLs. The results above suggest that the cloud BL owns the plasma structures different from those in the SW and MC. It is a manifestation for the existing significant dynamic interaction between the magnetic cloud and the solar wind.
Footprint Characteristics of Scalar Concentration in the Convective Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Footprint characteristics for passive scalar concentration in the convective boundary layer (CBL)are investigated. A backward Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and a large eddy simulation (LES) model are used in the investigation. Typical characteristics of the CBL and their responses to the surface heterogeneity are resolved from the LES. Then the turbulence fields are used to drive the backward LS dispersion. To remedy the spoiled description of the turbulence near the surface, MoninObukhov similarity is applied to the lowest LES level and the surface for the modeling of the backward LS dispersion. Simulation results show that the footprint within approximately 1 km upwind predominates in the total contribution. But influence from farther distances also exists and is even slightly greater than that from closer locations. Surface heterogeneity may change the footprint pattern to a certain degree.A comparison to three analytical models provides a validation of the footprint simulations, which shows the possible influence of along-wind turbulence and the large eddies in the CBL, as well as the surface heterogeneity.
Sensitivity of African easterly waves to boundary layer conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lenouo
2008-06-01
Full Text Available A linearized version of the quasi-geostrophic model (QGM with an explicit Ekman layer and observed static stability parameter and profile of the African easterly jet (AEJ, is used to study the instability properties of the environment of the West African wave disturbances. It is found that the growth rate, the propagation velocity and the structure of the African easterly waves (AEW can be well simulated. Two different lower boundary conditions are applied. One assumes a lack of vertical gradient of perturbation stream function and the other assumes zero wind perturbation at the surface. The first case gives more realistic results since in the absence of horizontal diffusion, growth rate, phase speed and period have values of 0.5 day^{−1}, 10.83 m s^{−1} and 3.1 day, respectively. The zero wind perturbation at the surface case leads to values of these parameters that are 50 percent lower. The analysis of the sensitivity to diffusion shows that the magnitude of the growth rate decreases with this parameter. Modelled total relative vorticity has its low level maximum around 900 hPa under no-slip, and 700 hPa under free slip condition.
Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing
McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis
2013-11-01
Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.
Reactive chlorine chemistry in the boundary layer of coastal Antarctica
Zielcke, Johannes; Poehler, Denis; Friess, Udo; Hay, Tim; Eger, Philipp; Kreher, Karin; Platt, Ulrich
2015-04-01
A unique feature of the polar troposphere is the strong impact of halogen photochemistry, in which reactive halogen species are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. The source, however, as well as release and recycling mechanisms of these halogen species - for some species even abundances - are far from being completely known, especially of chlorine and iodine compounds. Here we present active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements conducted during austral spring 2012 at Ross Island, Antarctica, observing several species (BrO, O3, NO2, IO, ClO, OBrO, OClO, OIO, I2, CHOCHO, HCHO, HONO). For the first time, ClO was detected and quantified in the marine boundary layer of coastal Antarctica, with typical mixing ratios around 20 pptv and maxima around 50 pptv. Meteorological controls on the mixing ratio of ClO as well as the interplay with other halogen compounds will be discussed, such as the lack of observed OClO (< 1 pptv). The results seem to reflect previously in chamber studies observed dependences on ozone levels and solar irradiance.
The Layer Boundary Effect on Multi-Layer Mesoporous TiO2 Film Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Feng; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin
2016-10-01
Multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 prepared by screen printing is widely used for fabrication of high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compare the three types of ~10 um thick mesoporous TiO2 films, which were screen printed as 1-, 2- and 4-layers using the same TiO2 nanocrystal paste. The layer boundary of the multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 films was observed in the cross-section SEM. The existence of a layer boundary could reduce the photoelectron diffusion length with the increase of layer number. However, the photoelectron diffusion lengths of the Z907 dye sensitized solar cells based on these different layered mesoporous TiO2 films are all longer than the film thickness. Consequently, the photovoltaic performance seems to have little dependence on the layer number of the multi-layer TiO2 based DSSCs.
An experimental study on the planetary boundary layer transport of air pollutants over East Germany
Krautstrunk, M.; Neumann-Hauf, G.; Schlager, H.; Klemm, O.; Beyrich, F.; Corsmeier, U.; Kalthoff, N.; Kotzian, M.
The transport of atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer over East Germany was studied during the SADE-94 experiment using airborne and ground-based observations of meteorological and chemical parameters. Strong jump-like changes of the SO 2 and NO x mixing ratios measured at Melpitz, a rural site about 50 km northeast and 90 km west of two major lignite-coal mining and industrial areas, demonstrate the influence of high emissions and mesoscale transport on the air quality at a rural location. Data of two days with prevailing winds from east and southwest, respectively, were used to determine the origin of plumes from their characteristic species or their specific trace gas concentration ratios. An attempt has been made to establish emitter-receptor relationships between the emittants and the measured plumes of SO 2 and NO x. It is shown that not only in complex terrain, where trace gas dispersion is guided in many cases by the terrain structure but also over flat country sites the trace gases of single-point sources are traceable over distances of more than 100 km in the PBL. Furthermore 75 km downstream the source area surface concentrations of air pollutants caused by downdrafts are measured, which exceed 25% of the value registered direct in the lee of the source. Data of a third day describe the mixing ratio of air pollutants in the convective boundary layer at Melpitz. NO x and SO 2 are used to depict bottom-up and top-down mixing processes mainly in the entrainment zone. Under low-wind conditions, neutral or stable PBL and a capping inversion single air pollution plumes are detectable over long ranges in time (>6 h) and space (>100 km) over flat terrain. The characteristic features of the plumes keep unchanged during transport. So high stacks only displace the problem of near-surface air pollution from the source region to areas far downstream.
Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.
2006-12-01
Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the
Numerical Study of Winter Urban Boundary Layer Structure over Beijing Area
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiaoli; BI Baogui; LI Zechun
2005-01-01
Based on the successful simulation of a typical winter urban boundarylayer (UBL) process over Beijing area during the Beijing City Air Pollution Experiment (BECAPEX) in 2001 by the use of MM5 coupled with urban canopy parameterization, a series of simulation experiments are performed to investigate the effects of urban influence, surrounding terrain, and different extent of urbanization on urban boundary layer structures over Beijing area. The results of factor separation experiments of urban influence indicate that the total effect of urban influence, which is the synthetic effect of urban infrastructure on thermal and dynamic structures of atmosphere, is responsible for the formation of main UBL features over Beijing area. Meanwhile, the relative importance of thermal and mechanical factors of urban infrastructure and interaction between thermal and mechanical factors for the formation and evolution of UBL over the Beijing area are also explored. The results show that, during nighttime, mechanical factors are responsible for main characteristics of nocturnal urban boundary layer such as elevated inversion layer over downtown area,smaller wind speed and stronger turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its behavior with peak at the top of canopy layer, whereas in the daytime, thermal factors play dominant role in the structure of UBL, such as the intensity of mixed layer and temperature in the lower atmosphere in urban area. The interaction between mechanical and thermal factors plays an important role in the formation and evolution of UBL, but its specific characteristics of mechanisms are complex. The results of surrounding terrain experiment show that terrain surrounding Beijing area not only determines the characteristic of prevailing airflow over Beijing area, but also has obvious effect on thermal structure of UBL, such as the distribution of elevated inversion and urban heat island, and makes them with special localization feature. The results of different extent
MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; Swati Mukhopadhyay; G.C.Layek
2011-01-01
An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.%@@ An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented.A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method.In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs.Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented.Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Nan; ZHANG Jin
2005-01-01
@@ Multi-scale decomposition by wavelet transform has been performed to velocity time sequences obtained by fine measurements of turbulent boundary layer flow. A conditional sampling technique for detecting multi-scale coherent eddy structures in turbulent field is proposed by using multi-scale instantaneous intensity factor and flatness factor of wavelet coefficients. Although the number of coherent eddy structures in the turbulent boundary layer is very small, their energy percentage with respect to the turbulence kinetic energy is high. Especially in buffer layer, the energy percentages of coherent structures are significantly higher than those in the logarithmic layer, indicating that the buffer layer is the most active region in the turbulent boundary layer. These multi-scale coherent eddy structures share some common dynamical characteristics and are responsible for the anomalous scaling law in the turbulent boundary layer.
Influence of the incoming solar radiation on the boundary layer of an idealized valley.
Leukauf, Daniel; Wagner, Johannes; Posch, Christian; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias
2014-05-01
In recent years, the mechanisms of thermally-driven wind systems and the boundary layer over complex terrain have been investigated through real-case and idealized numerical simulations. However, these studies usually consider only one given latitude or one predefined surface forcing. The question remains how the evolution and structure of the valley boundary layer and the valley wind system depends on solar forcing. This question is fundamental if one aims at developing a parametrization of exchange processes based on bulk fluxes of heat, moisture and other properties from the valley to the free atmosphere evaluated from idealized simulations. One key goal is to determine the dependency of the vertical heat flux in a valley on the incoming solar radiation. For this purpose, we conducted large eddy simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in an idealized valley. An idealized radiation formulation has been used and simulations for different magnitude of incoming short-wave radiation were carried out. The chosen valley geometry consists of two sine-shaped mountain ridges which form a 20 km wide and 40 km long valley with a flat valley floor. As the terrain is homogeneous in the along-valley direction and periodic boundary conditions are used, only slope winds but no valley winds evolve. The incoming short-wave radiation is defined using a simple sine function with amplitude A during the day and a value of zero during the night, while long-wave outgoing radiation is calculated using the Angstrom formula. This gives the advantage to have a single parameter, the amplitude A to vary the incoming solar radiation instead of tree pa rameters (albedo, latitude and date) using a radiation scheme. However, control experiments using the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) were performed as well. Parametrizations for surface-atmosphere exchange processes were used and the initial vertical profiles are characterized by a constant buoyancy frequency, a
Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.
1981-01-01
Surface heat transfer rates have been measured for several different flows on an isothermal, convexly curved surface. The freestream velocity, boundary layer thickness, acceleration parameter, and unheated starting length were varied systematically, and both turbulent and transitional boundary layers were studied. The effect of convex curvature on heat transfer rates is significant with Stanton numbers reduced 20-25% below flat wall values for the same enthalpy thickness Reynolds number. Heat transfer rates recovered slowly on a flat wall downstream of the curved wall, and after 60 cm, the Stanton numbers were still 15-20% below flat wall values. The behavior of the boundary layer suggests the existence of an asymptotic condition. Boundary layer thickness, freestream velocity, and boundary layer maturity affect the initial response to the introduction of curvature and the rate at which the asymptotic state is approached. Convex curvature appears to increase the boundary layer's sensitivity to acceleration; it also delays and retards transition. Near-laminar or early-transitional boundary layers recover from curvature rapidly, whereas late-transitional and mature boundary layers recover slowly.
Experimental study of the boundary layer over an airfoil in plunging motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
F. Rasi Marzabadi; M. R. Soltani
2012-01-01
This is an experimental study on the boundary layer over an airfoil under steady and unsteady conditions.It specifically deals with the effect of plunging oscillation on the laminar/turbulent characteristics of the boundary layer.The wind tunnel measurements involved surfacemounted hot-film sensors and boundary-layer rake.The experiments were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.42 × 106 to 0.84 × 106 and the reduced frequency was varied from 0.01 to 0.1 1.The results of the quasi-wall-shear stress as well as the boundary layer velocity profiles provided important information about the state of the boundary layer over the suction surface of the airfoil in both static and dynamic cases.For the static tests,boundary layer transition occurred through a laminar separation bubble.By increasing the angle of attack,disturbances and the transition location moved toward the leading edge.For the dynamic tests,earlier transition occurred with increasing rather than decreasing effective angle of attack.The mean angle of attack and the oscillating parameters significantly affected the state of the boundary layer.By increasing the reduced frequency,the boundary layer transition was promoted to the upstroke portion of the equivalent angle of attack,but the quasi skin friction coefficient was decreased.
Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe
Koffi, E.N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fisher, R.E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H.A.; Williams, A.G.
2016-01-01
We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (^{222}Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 mo
Janssen, R.H.H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Jimenez, J.L.; Farmer, D.K.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Mammarella, I.
2012-01-01
We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the mod
Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer
Hooijdonk, van I.G.S.; Moene, A.F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.
2017-01-01
The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically
Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe
Koffi, E.N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fisher, R.E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H.A.; Williams, A.G.
2016-01-01
We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (222Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 model with obser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. L. McGrath-Spangler
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The response of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a given amount of surface flux is inversely proportional to the depth of the boundary layer. Overshooting thermals that entrain free tropospheric air down into the boundary layer modify the characteristics and depth of the lower layer through the insertion of energy and mass. This alters the surface energy budget by changing the Bowen ratio and thereby altering the vegetative response and the surface boundary conditions. Although overshooting thermals are important in the physical world, their effects are unresolved in most regional models. A parameterization to include the effects of boundary layer entrainment was introduced into a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere model (SiB-RAMS. The parameterization is based on a downward heat flux at the top of the boundary layer that is proportional to the heat flux at the surface. Results with the parameterization show that the boundary layer simulated is deeper, warmer, and drier than when the parameterization is turned off. These results alter the vegetative stress factors thereby changing the carbon flux from the surface. The combination of this and the deeper boundary layer change the concentration of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer.
The effect of baroclinicity on the wind in the planetary boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik
2015-01-01
using the wind lidar, was influenced by baroclinicity. For easterly winds at Høvsøre, the estimated gradient wind decreased rapidly with height, resulting in a mean low-level jet. The turning of the wind in the boundary layer, the boundary-layer height and the empirical constants in the geostrophic drag...
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment
Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical turbul
On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert
2011-01-01
The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory...
Khorsandi, Ehsan; Kollet, Stefan; Venema, Victor; Simmer, Clemens
2014-05-01
Heat and water fluxes are key variables affecting the atmosphere-land surface interactions as well as transpiration by plants and geochemical cycles. At climate timescales, the subsurface thermal regime may impact the land surface energy balance via the ground heat flux and associated temperature feedbacks. As a matter of fact, since there is no real lower energy boundary condition, except the natural geothermal heat flux, the subsurface may act as an infinite heat sink in case of a positive temperature trend at the surface. However, due to computational reasons, climate models incorporate a shallow subsurface domain, and thus a shallow temperature boundary condition, which generally is of the Neumann type. This leads to a cumulative ground heat flux of zero over large time scales, which is not realistic, in case of a trend in air temperature. Additionally, the convection term of heat transfer in the subsurface and the memory effect of soil moisture on energy transport is also neglected in climate models by simplified parameterizations. Single soil column model experiments were performed with ParflowE as a subsurface model, which incorporates the more complete heat equation coupled to variably saturated flow, to study the effect of bottom boundary condition placement on ground heat storage and propagated temperature signals over large time-scale with respect to the hydro dynamic process and energy balances. Simulations were carried out over one hundred years (2002-2101) using 4 simple soil columns with the same soil characteristic, lateral boundary conditions and atmosphere forcing, but differing in depth (12, 24, 75 and 150m). After a spin-up period, the models were forced with step-change air temperature and GCM model results namely the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenarios, in order to identify the climate change signals in the subsurface and the associated feedbacks at the land surface. While in the deep soil column, temperature profiles show a heat distribution which is
The Influence of Convergence Movement on Turbulent Transportation in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡隐樵; 左洪超
2003-01-01
Classical turbulent K closure theory of the atmospheric boundary layer assumes that the verticalturbulent transport flux of any macroscopic quantity is equivalent to that quantity's vertical gradienttransport flux. But a cross coupling between the thermodynamic processes and the dynamic processesin the atmospheric system is demonstrated based on the Curier-Prigogine principle of cross coupling oflinear thermodynamics. The vertical turbulent transportation of energy and substance in the atmosphericboundary layer is related not only to their macroscopic gradient but also to the convergence and the di-vergence movement. The transportation of the convergence or divergence movement is important for theatmospheric boundary layer of the heterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer.Based on this, the turbulent transportatiou in the atmospheric boundary layer, the energy budget of theheterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer, and the boundary layer parameteri-zation of land surface processes over the heterogeneous underlying surface are studied. This research offersclues not only for establishing the atmospheric boundary layer theory about the heterogeneous underlyingsurface, but also for overcoming the difficulties encountered recently in the application of the atmosphericboundary layer theory.
Atmospheric boundary layer investigations in the Laptev Sea area
Schwarz, Pascal; Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens; Makshtas, Alexander
2016-04-01
In the winter season 2014/2015 a field campaign at the Tiksi observatory (71°38'N, 128°52'E) was carried out by the University of Trier with support of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and the GEOMAR Kiel in framework of the interdisciplinary Transdrift project. One goal of the campaign is to help to improve the understanding of processes within the Arctic stable boundary layer (SBL). Within the SBL, there are several important phenomena and processes like low-level jets, surface and lifted inversions, the development of the mixing height or the determination of the energy balance, which can be best investigated with a mix of high-resolution ground-based remote sensing systems and flux tower measurements. We mainly used a SODAR/RASS, a scintillometer, a ceilometer as well as the local flux tower to investigate the SBL for the Arctic winter. Baroclinity is found to be the main driven mechanism for low-level jets with jet core heights above 200 m due to the strong temperature gradient between the Laptev Sea and the Siberian continent. Strong temperature changes at short time scale (few hours) were often closely related to a change of wind direction and therefore advection. LLJs with heights below 200 m are likely influenced by local topography. In addition, regional climate model simulations using the COSMO-CLM (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling - Climate Limited area Mode) driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis data have been performed. The COSMO-CLM simulations show a good agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis data and in-situ measurements (tower, soundings).
The Coupling State of an Idealized Stable Boundary Layer
Acevedo, Otávio C.; Costa, Felipe D.; Degrazia, Gervásio A.
2012-10-01
The coupling state between the surface and the top of the stable boundary layer (SBL) is investigated using four different schemes to represent the turbulent exchange. An idealized SBL is assumed, with fixed wind speed and temperature at its top. At the surface, two cases are considered, first a constant temperature, 20 K lower than the SBL top, and later a constant 2 K h-1 cooling rate is assumed for 10 h after a neutral initial condition. The idealized conditions have been chosen to isolate the influence of the turbulence formulations on the coupling state, and the intense stratification has the purpose of enhancing such a response. The formulations compared are those that solve a prognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and those that directly prescribe turbulence intensity as a function of atmospheric stability. Two TKE formulations are considered, with and without a dependence of the exchange coefficients on stability, while short and long tail stability functions (SFs) are also compared. In each case, the dependence on the wind speed at the SBL top is considered and it is shown that, for all formulations, the SBL experiences a transition from a decoupled state to a coupled state at an intermediate value of mechanical forcing. The vertical profiles of potential temperature, wind speed and turbulence intensity are shown as a function of the wind speed at the SBL top, both for the decoupled and coupled states. The formulation influence on the coupling state is analyzed and it is concluded that, in general, the simple TKE formulation has a better response, although it also tends to overestimate turbulent mixing. The consequences are discussed.
The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage
Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1987-02-01
The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.
Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.
1979-01-01
A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.
Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.
A method for calculating turbulent boundary layers and losses in the flow channels of turbomachines
Schumann, Lawrence F.
1987-01-01
An interactive inviscid core flow-boundary layer method is presented for the calculation of turbomachine channel flows. For this method, a one-dimensional inviscid core flow is assumed. The end-wall and blade surface boundary layers are calculated using an integral entrainment method. The boundary layers are assumed to be collateral and thus are two-dimensional. The boundary layer equations are written in a streamline coordinate system. The streamwise velocity profiles are approximated by power law profiles. Compressibility is accounted for in the streamwise direction but not in the normal direction. Equations are derived for the special cases of conical and two-dimensional rectangular diffusers. For these cases, the assumptions of a one-dimensional core flow and collateral boundary layers are valid. Results using the method are compared with experiment and good quantitative agreement is obtained.
Analytical solutions to a compressible boundary layer problem with heat transfer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liancun Zheng; Xinxin Zhang; Jicheng He
2004-01-01
The problem of momentum and heat transfer in a compressible boundary layer behind a thin expansion wave was solved by the application of the similarity transformation and the shooting technique. Utilizing the analytical expression of a two-point boundary value problem for momentum transfer, the energy boundary layer solution was represented as a function of the dimensionless velocity, and as the parameters of the Prandtl number, the velocity ratio, and the temperature ratio.
Linear theory of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the low-latitude boundary layer
Rajaram, R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Mcentire, R. W.
1991-01-01
The feasibility is examined of establishing characteristic profiles across the magnetospheric low-latitude boundary layer for the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode so that these profiles can be compared with satellite observations or a latitudinal chain of ground stations. An anisotropic collisionless fluid model is used instead of conventional MHD, and the finite thickness of the boundary layer and the thickness and position of the current layer are taken into account. The instability is found to be enhanced by a decrease in the thickness of the shear layer and of the current layer and by the proximity of the 'current layer' to the outer edge of the shear layer. The velocity threshold for the onset of instability is insensitive to the thickness. Characteristic profiles of the variation of plasma and field parameters across the boundary are obtained, and the importance of parameters specifying the current layer position and thickness is demonstrated.
Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junya Uchida
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height. Slow-manifold analysis is shown to apply to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus- capped boundary layer; simulations with different initial inversion heights collapse onto single relationships of cloud properties with inversion height. Depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the large-eddy simulations, these evolutions occur on two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced. Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship tracks are proposed.
Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan
2016-01-01
Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.
Grain boundary defect chemistry of acceptor-doped titanates: Space charge layer width
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollman, M.; Waser, R. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Aachen (Germany)
1994-01-01
The grain boundary space charge depletion layers in acceptor-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the time and frequency domain. Based on the layer and its dependence on the acceptor concentration, the temperature, and the oxygen partial pressure during annealing, a suggestion for a refined Schottky model is proposed. The local distribution of the donor type grain boundary states causing the depletion layer and the resulting band bending are discussed.
Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2011-01-01
-averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...
van Haren, H.
2015-01-01
The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the
Boundary layer photochemistry during a total solar eclipse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Fabian
2001-05-01
Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of radiation, photolysis frequencies, O3, CO, OH, PAN and NOx species were carried out in the boundary layer, along with pertinent meteorological parameters, under total solar eclipse conditions. This experiment performed at about 34 solar zenith angle and noontime conditions thus provided a case study about the interactions between radiation and photochemistry under fast ''day-night'' and ''night-day'' transitions, at high solar elevation. The results reveal a close correlation of photolysis frequencies jO(1D and jNO2with the UV radiation flux. All three parameters show, due to the decreasing fraction of direct radiation at shorter wavelengths, much weaker cloud shading effects than global solar radiation. NO and OH concentrations decrease to essentially zero during totality. Subsequently, NO and OH concentrations increased almost symmetrically to their decrease preceding totality. The NO/NO2 ratio was proportional to jNO2over 30 min before and after totality indicating that the partitioning of NOx species is determined by jNO2. Simple box model simulations show the effect of reduced solar radiation on the photochemical production of O3 and PAN. WÄhrend der totalen Sonnenfinsternis am 11. August 1999 wurden simultane und kontinuierliche Messungen von O3, CO, OH, PAN and NOx, Strahlung, Photolysefrequenzen und relevanten meteorologischen Parametern durchgefÜhrt. Dieses Experiment, durchgefÜhrt etwa am Mittag, bei 34 Zenithwinkel der Sonne, ermöglichte die Untersuchung der Interaktion von Strahlung und Photochemie fÜr schnelle Tag-Nacht und Nacht-Tag-ÜbergÄnge bei hohem Sonnenstand. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine enge Korrelation der Photolysefrequenzen jO(1D und jNO2 mit dem UV-Strahlungsfluss. Alle drei Parameter zeigen, wegen des abnehmenden Anteils direkter Sonnenstrahlung bei kurzen WellenlÄngen, erheblich geringere AbschwÄchung durch Wolken als die Globalstrahlung. NO und OH gehen wÄhrend der
Simultaneous profiling of the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Mayer, S.; Jonassen, M.; Reuder, J.
2009-09-01
The structure of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer (AABL) and the heat and moisture fluxes between relatively warm water and cold air above non-sea-ice-covered water (such as fjords, leads and polynyas) are of great importance for the sensitive Arctic climate system (e.g. Andreas and Cash, 1999). So far, such processes are not sufficiently resolved in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models (e.g. Tjernström et al., 2005). Especially for regions with complex topography as the Svalbard mountains and fjords the state and diurnal evolution of the AABL is not well known yet. Knowledge can be gained by novel and flexible measurement techniques such as the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). An UAV can perform vertical profiles as well as horizontal surveys of the mean meteorological parameters: temperature, relative humidity, pressure and wind. A corresponding UAV, called Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO), has been developed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Bergen in cooperation with Müller Engineering (www.pfump.org) and the Paparazzi Project (http://paparazzi.enac.fr). SUMO has been used under Arctic conditions at Longyear airport, Spitsbergen in March/April 2009. Besides vertical profiles up to 1500 m and horizontal surveys at flight levels of 100 and 200 m, SUMO could measure vertical profiles for the first time simultaneously in a horizontal distance of 1 km; one over the ice and snow-covered land surface and the other one above the open water of Isfjorden. This has been the first step of future multiple UAV operations in so called "swarms” or "flocks”. With this, corresponding measurements of the diurnal evolution of the AABL can be achieved with minimum technical efforts and costs. In addition, the Advanced Research Weather Forecasting model (AR-WRF version 3.1) has been run in high resolution (grid size: 1 km). First results of a sensitivity study where ABL schemes have been tested and compared with
Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design
Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.
2017-01-01
A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating
Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sander
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in bromine by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br_{2 } and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy
Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer
Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.
2008-12-01
Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some
Barnwell, R. W.; Dejarnette, F. R.; Wahls, R. A.
1987-01-01
A new turbulent boundary-layer method is developed which models the inner region with the law of the wall while the outer region uses Clauser's eddy viscosity in Matsuno's finite-difference method. The match point between the inner and outer regions as well as the wall shear stress are determined at each marching step during the computation. Results obtained for incompressible, two-dimensional flow over flat plates and ellipses are compared with solutions from a baseline method which uses a finite-difference method for the entire boundary layer. Since the present method used the finite-difference method in the outer region only, the number of grid points required was about half that needed for the baseline method. Accurate displacement and momentum thicknesses were predicted for all cases. Skin friction was predicted well for the flat plate, but the accuracy decreased significantly for the ellipses. Adding a wake functions to the law of the wall allows some of the pressure gradient effect to be taken into account thereby increasing the accuracy of the method.
Numerical investigation of non-equilibrium effects in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Kim, Pilbum; Kim, John; Zhong, Xiaolin; Eldredge, Jeff
2014-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of a spatially developing hypersonic boundary layer have been conducted in order to investigate thermal and chemical non-equilibrium effects in a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer. Two different flows, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen flows with specific total enthalpy, h0 ,O2 = 9 . 5017 MJ/kg and h0 ,N2 = 19 . 1116 MJ/kg, respectively, have been considered. The boundary edge conditions were obtained from a separate calculation of a flow over a blunt wedge at free-stream Mach numbers M∞ ,O2 = 15 and M∞ ,N2 = 20 . The inflow conditions were obtained from a simulation of a turbulent boundary layer of a perfect gas. Non-equilibrium effects on turbulence statistics and near-wall turbulence structures were examined by comparing with those obtained in a simulation of the same boundary layer with a perfect-gas assumption.
Boundary Layer for the Navier-Stokes-alpha Model of Fluid Turbulence
Cheskidov, A.
We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, which is an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. Matching these parameters with the skin-friction coefficient and the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, we get an agreement of the solutions with experimental data in the laminar and transitional boundary layers, as well as in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Ishihara, S.; Tamura, S.; Ishii, K.; Kataoka, H.
2016-09-01
To study the effects of the boundary layer on the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) process, the mixture behind an incident shock wave was ignited using laser breakdown. Ignition timing was controlled so that the interaction of the resulting flame with a laminar or turbulent boundary layer could be examined. In the case of the interaction with a laminar boundary layer, wrinkling of the flame was observed after the flame reached the corner of the channel. On the other hand, interaction with the turbulent boundary layer distorted the flame front and increased the spreading rate of the flame followed by prompt DDT. The inner structure of the turbulent boundary layer plays an important role in the DDT process. The region that distorted the flame within the turbulent boundary layer was found to be the intermediate region 0.01DDT was independent of the ignition position. The effect of the boundary layer on the propagating flame, thus, became relatively small after the accelerating flame was generated.
Effects of large-scale free stream turbulence on a turbulent boundary layer
Sharp, N. S.; Neuscamman, S.; Warhaft, Z.
2009-09-01
Results of a wind tunnel experiment in which there are systematic variations of free stream turbulence above a flat-plate boundary layer are presented. Upstream of the plate, an active grid generates free stream turbulence varying in intensity from 0.25% to 10.5%. The momentum thickness Reynolds number of the boundary layer varies from 550 to nearly 3000. In all cases, the ratio of the free stream turbulence length scale to the boundary layer depth is greater than unity. Hotwire measurements show that, at high turbulence intensities, the effects of the free stream turbulence extend deep into the boundary layer, affecting the wall stress as well as the small-scale (derivative) statistics. Premultiplied energy spectra show a double peak. At very low free stream turbulence intensities these peaks are associated with the inner and outer scales of the turbulent boundary layer, but at high turbulence intensities the free stream energy peak dominates over the boundary layer's outer scale. The implications of the effect of the large free stream turbulence scales on the small, near-wall scales is discussed with reference to recent high Reynolds number experiments in a turbulent boundary layer without free stream turbulence [Hutchins and Marusic, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 365, 647 (2007)].
Impacts of sea spray on the boundary layer structure of Typhoon Imbudo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Jie; LI Weibiao; CHEN Shumin; WANG Lei
2013-01-01
High winds in a typhoon over the ocean can produce substantial amounts of spray in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer, which can modify the transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. However, the consequent effects on the boundary layer structure and the evolution of the typhoon are largely unknown. The focus of this paper is on the role of sea spray on the storm intensity and the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. The case study is Typhoon Imbudo in July 2003. The results show that sea spray tends to intensify storms by increasing the sea surface heat fluxes. Moreover, the effects of sea spray are mainly felt in boundary layer. Spray evaporation causes the atmospheric boundary layer to experience cooling and moistening. Sea spray can cause significant effects on the structure of boundary layer. The boundary-layer height over the eyewall area east to the center of Typhoon Imbudo was increased with a maximum up to about 550 m due to sea spray, which is closely related with the enhancements of the heat fluxes, upward motions, and horizontal winds in this region due to sea spray.
Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part I: Theory and Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research that deal with the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. A new unsteady boundary layer transition model was developed based on a universal unsteady intermittency function. It accounts for the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow on the boundary layer transition. To establish the transition model, an inductive approach was implemented; the approach was based on the results of comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under a periodic unsteady wake flow, where the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.
Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus
2015-11-01
Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.
Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility
Taylor-Power, Gregory; Gilooly, Stephanie; Wosnik, Martin; Klewicki, Joe; Turner, John
2016-11-01
The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W =6.0m, H =2.7m, L =72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using upstream roughness arrays. The American Society for Civil Engineers defines standards for simulating ABLs for different terrain types, from open sea to dense city areas (ASCE 49-12). The standards require the boundary layer to match a power law shape, roughness height, and power spectral density criteria. Each boundary layer type has a corresponding power law exponent and roughness height. The exponent and roughness height both increase with increasing roughness. A suburban boundary layer was chosen for simulation and a roughness element fetch was created. Several fetch lengths were experimented with and the resulting boundary layers were measured and compared to standards in ASCE 49-12: Wind Tunnel Testing for Buildings and Other Structures. Pitot tube and hot wire anemometers were used to measure average and fluctuating flow characteristics. Velocity profiles, turbulence intensity and velocity spectra were found to compare favorably.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galmarini
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The combined effect of turbulent transport and radioactive decay on the distribution of 222Rn and its progeny in convective atmospheric boundary layers (CBL is investigated. Large eddy simulation is used to simulate their dispersion in steady state CBL and in unsteady conditions represented by the growth of a CBL within a pre-existing reservoir layer. The exact decomposition of the concentration and flux budget equations under steady state conditions allowed us to determine which processes are responsible for the vertical distribution of 222Rn and its progeny. Their mean concentrations are directly correlated with their half-life, e.g. 222Rn and 210Pb are the most abundant whereas 218Po show the lowest concentrations. 222Rn flux decreases linearly with height and its flux budget is similar to the one of inert emitted scalar, i.e., a balance between on the one hand the gradient and the buoyancy production terms, and on the other hand the pressure and dissipation at smaller scales which tends to destroy the fluxes. While 222Rn exhibits the typical bottom-up behavior, the maximum flux location of the daughters is moving upwards while their rank in the 222Rn progeny is increasing leading to a typical top-down behavior for 210Pb. We also found that the relevant radioactive decaying contributions of 222Rn short-lived daughters (218Po and 214Pb act as flux sources leading to deviations from the linear flux shape. In addition, while analyzing the vertical distribution of the radioactive decay contributions to the concentrations, e.g. the decaying zone, we found a variation in height of 222Rn daughters' radioactive transformations. Under unsteady conditions, the same behaviors reported under steady state conditions are found: deviation of the fluxes from the linear shape for 218Po, enhanced discrepancy in height of the radioactive transformation contributions for all the daughters. In addition, 222Rn and its progeny concentrations decrease due to the
Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...
Boundary Layer Flow of Second Grade Fluid in a Cylinder with Heat Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nadeem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to obtain the similarity solution of the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a second grade through a horizontal cylinder. The governing partial differential equations along with the boundary conditions are reduced to dimensionless form by using the boundary layer approximation and applying suitable similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear coupled system of ordinary differential equations subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of the physical parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the model are presented. The behavior of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt numbers is studied for different parameters.
Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2008-01-01
Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...
Bottom-up GGM algorithm for constructing multiple layered hierarchical gene regulatory networks
Multilayered hierarchical gene regulatory networks (ML-hGRNs) are very important for understanding genetics regulation of biological pathways. However, there are currently no computational algorithms available for directly building ML-hGRNs that regulate biological pathways. A bottom-up graphic Gaus...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Additional equations were found based on experiments for an algebraic turbulence model to improve the prediction of the behavior of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers by taking account of the effects of pressure gradient and the historical variation of eddy viscosity, so the model is with memory. Numerical calculation by solving boundary layer equations was carried out for the five pressure driven three dimensional turbulent boundary layers developed on flat plates, swept-wing, and prolate spheroid in symmetrical plane. Comparing the computational results with the experimental data, it is obvious that the prediction will be more accurate if the proposed closure equations are used, especially for the turbulent shear stresses.
Characteristics of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem
Ardema, M. D.
1976-01-01
In many singular perturbation solutions of optimal control problems, the most difficult numerical task is to solve the boundary-layer equations. However, these equations have a special structure that may often be used to expedite their solution. This paper begins by noting the general nature of the boundary-layer equations for optimal control problems. These results are then applied to the aircraft minimum time-to-climb problem. A specific numerical example is considered to illustrate the characteristics of the solution of the boundary-layer equations for this problem.
A model for turbulent dissipation rate in a constant pressure boundary layer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J DEY; P PHANI KUMAR
2016-04-01
Estimation of the turbulent dissipation rate in a boundary layer is a very involved process.Experimental determination of either the dissipation rate or the Taylor microscale, even in isotropic turbulence,which may occur in a portion of the turbulent boundary layer, is known to be a difficult task. For constant pressure boundary layers, a model for the turbulent dissipation rate is proposed here in terms of the local mean flow quantities. Comparable agreement between the estimated Taylor microscale and Kolmogorov length scale with other data in the logarithmic region suggests usefulness of this model in obtaining these quantitiesexperimentally
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav URUBA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.
Experimental studies on the stability and transition of 3-dimensional boundary layers
Nitschke-Kowsky, P.
1987-01-01
Three-dimensional unstable boundary layers were investigated as to their characteristic instabilities, leading to turbulence. Standing cross-flow instabilities and traveling waves preceding the transition were visualized with the hydrogen bubble technique in the boundary layer above the wall of a swept cylinder. With the sublimation method and hot film technique, a model consisting of a swept flat plate with a pressure-inducing displacement body in the 1 m wind tunnel was studied. Standing waves and traveling waves in a broad frequency are observed. The boundary layer of this model is close to the assumptions of the theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul;
2016-01-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent a......A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range....... The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation...
Kirillin, Georgiy; Aslamov, Ilya; Kozlov, Vladimir; Granin, Nikolay; Engelhardt, Christof; Förster, Josephine
2016-04-01
Seasonal lake ice is a highly changeable part of the cryosphere undergoing remarkable impact by global warming. Vertical heat transport across the boundary layer under ice affects strongly the growth and melting of lake ice cover. The existing models of ice cover dynamics focus basically on the dependence of the ice thickness on the air temperature with implicit account of the snow cover effects. The heat flux at the water-ice boundary, in turn, is usually neglected or parameterized in a very simplistic form. However, neglecting of the basal ice melting due to heat flux at the ice-water interface produces appreciable errors in the modeled ice cover duration. We utilize fine-structure observations taken during 2009-2015 in ice-water boundary layers of Lake Baikal and arctic Lake Kilpisjärvi to reveal the major physical drivers of the heat exchange at the ice bottom and to explain the high geographical, spatial, and temporal variability in the heat flux magnitudes. The methods provide first detailed estimations of the heat exchange beneath the ice cover, available previously only from bulk estimations. The fluxes in Lake Baikal have magnitudes of 101 W m-2 and vary strongly between different parts of the lake being influenced by large-scale horizontal circulation with current velocities amounting at up to 7 cm s-1. The shallow lake fluxes, while an order of magnitude weaker, are highly non-stationary, being affected by the turbulence due to oscillating currents under ice. Our results demonstrate the role played by the boundary layer mixing in the ice growth and melting, as well as characterize the physical processes responsible for the vertical heat exchange and provide a basis for an improved parameterization of ice cover in coupled lake-atmosphere models.
Spectral Gap Energy Transfer in Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Bhushan, S.; Walters, K.; Barros, A. P.; Nogueira, M.
2012-12-01
Experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence energy spectra show E(k) ~ k-3 slopes at synoptic scales (~ 600 km - 2000 km) and k-5/3 slopes at the mesoscales (transfer, energy arrest at macroscales must be introduced. The most commonly used turbulence models developed to mimic the above energy transfer include the energy backscatter model for 2D turbulence in the horizontal plane via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models, dissipative URANS models in the vertical plane, and Ekman friction for the energy arrest. One of the controversial issues surrounding the atmospheric turbulence spectra is the explanation of the generation of the 2D and 3D spectra and transition between them, for energy injection at the synoptic scales. Lilly (1989) proposed that the existence of 2D and 3D spectra can only be explained by the presence of an additional energy injection in the meso-scale region. A second issue is related to the observations of dual peak spectra with small variance in meso-scale, suggesting that the energy transfer occurs across a spectral gap (Van Der Hoven, 1957). Several studies have confirmed the spectral gap for the meso-scale circulations, and have suggested that they are enhanced by smaller scale vertical convection rather than by the synoptic scales. Further, the widely accepted energy arrest mechanism by boundary layer friction is closely related to the spectral gap transfer. This study proposes an energy transfer mechanism for atmospheric turbulence with synoptic scale injection, wherein the generation of 2D and 3D spectra is explained using spectral gap energy transfer. The existence of the spectral gap energy transfer is validated by performing LES for the interaction of large scale circulation with a wall, and studying the evolution of the energy spectra both near to and far from the wall. Simulations are also performed using the Advanced Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) for moist zonal flow over Gaussian ridge, and the energy spectra close
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫永祥
2015-01-01
According to the layout concept of classical Chinese private garden,starting from the aspect of mountain-orientated location selection, the paper explores the relationship of topographical features and bottom boundary of mountainous residential building,describes the bottom bound-ary of mountainous residential building combined with ground,and points out that:the bottom boundary is the artificial integrated region of natu-ral morphology and mountainous residential building,and is an important point for building mountainous residential building space boundary and limiting specific spatial morphology as well;furthermore,different bottom boundary embodies different spatial utilization features,which is not on-ly two-dimensional surface morphology but also multi-dimensional vertical concept.%根据中国古典私园的布局思想，从依山选址的角度探讨了地形特征与山地住宅底界面的关系，主要对与大地结合的山地住宅底界面进行了阐述，指出底界面是自然地形地貌与山地住宅人工空间的结合区域，也是构成山地住宅空间界面和限定具体的空间形态的一个重要环节，不同的底界面体现不同的空间使用特征，它不仅仅是二维的平面形态，更是多维度的立体概念。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Stratmann
2003-01-01
Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.
Space and Astrophysical Plasmas : Sun–Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G S Lakhina; B T Tsurutani; J K Arballo; C Galvan
2000-11-01
Boundary layers are the sites where energy and momentum are exchanged between two distinct plasmas. Boundary layers occurring in space plasmas can support a wide spectrum of plasma waves spanning a frequency range of a few mHz to 100 kHz and beyond. The main characteristics of the broadband plasma waves (with frequencies > 1 Hz) observed in the magnetopause, polar cap, and plasma sheet boundary layers are described. The rapid pitch angle scattering of energetic particles via cyclotron resonant interactions with the waves can provide sufﬁcient precipitated energy ﬂux to the ionosphere to create the diffused auroral oval. The broadband plasma waves may also play an important role in the processes of local heating/acceleration of the boundary layer plasma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Dongen, M.E.H.; van Eck, R.B.P.; Hagebeuk, H.J.L.; Hirschberg, A.; Hutten-Mansfeld, A.C.B.; Jager, H.J.; Willems, J.F.H. (Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven (Netherlands))
1981-08-01
A model for the unsteady thermal boundary-layer development at the end wall of a shock tube, in partially ionized atmospheric argon, is proposed. Consideration is given to ionization and thermal relaxation processes. In order to obtain some insight into the influence of the relaxation processes on the structure of the boundary layer, a study of the frozen and equilibrium limits has been carried out. The transition from a near-equilibrium situation in the outer part of the boundary layer towards a frozen situation near the wall is determined numerically. Experimental data on the electron and atom density profiles obtained from laser schlieren and absorption measurements are presented. A quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found for a moderate degree of ionization (3%). At a higher degree of ionization the structure of the boundary layer is dominated by the influence of radiation cooling, which has been neglected in the model.
Control Parameters for Boundary-Layer Instabilities in Unsteady Shock Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LaVar King Isaacson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents the computation of a set of control parameters for the deterministic prediction of laminar boundary-layer instabilities induced by an imposed unsteady shock interaction. The objective of the study is exploratory in nature by computing a supersonic flight environment for flow over a blunt body and the deterministic prediction of the spectral entropy rates for the boundary layer subjected to an unsteady pressure disturbance. The deterministic values for the spectral entropy rate within the instabilities are determined for each control parameter. Computational results imply that the instabilities are of a span-wise vortex form, that the maximum vertical velocity wave vector components are produced in the region nearest the wall and that extended transient coherent structures are produced in the boundary layer at a vertical location slightly below the mid-point of the boundary layer.
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
Symmetries of boundary layer equations of power-law fluids of second grade
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mehmet Pakdemirli; Yi(g)it Aksoy; Muhammet Y(u)r(u)soy; Chaudry Masood Khalique
2008-01-01
A modified power-law fluid of second grade is considered. The model is a combination of power-law and second grade fluid in which the fluid may exhibit normal stresses, shear thinning or shear thickening behaviors. The equations of motion are derived for two dimensional incom-pressible flows, and from which the boundary layer equations are derived. Symmetries of the boundary layer equations are found by using Lie group theory, and then group classifica-tion with respect to power-law index is performed. By using one of the symmetries, namely the scaling symmetry, the partial differential system is transformed into an ordinary differential system, which is numerically integrated under the classical boundary layer conditions. Effects of power-law index and second grade coefficient on the boundary layers are shown and solutions are contrasted with the usual second grade fluid solutions.
Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.
Raman Spectrum Analysis on the Solid-Liquid Boundary Layer of BGO Crystal Growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xia; YIN Shao-Tang; WAN Song-Ming; YOU Jing-Lin; CHEN Hui; ZHAO Si-Jie; ZHANG Qing-Li
2007-01-01
We study the Raman spectra of Bi4Ge3O12 crystal at different temperatures, as well as its melt. The structure characters of the single crystal, melt and growth solid-liquid boundary layer of BGO are investigated by their high-temperature Raman spectra for the first time. The rule of structure change of BGO crystal with increasing temperature is analysed. The results show that there exists [GeO4] polyhedral structure and Bi ion independently in BGO melt. The bridge bonds Bi-O-Bi and Bi-O-Ge appear in the crystal and at the boundary layer, but disappear in the melt. The structure of the growth solid-liquid boundary layer is similar to that of BGO crystal. In the melt, the long-range order structure of the crystal disappears. The thickness of the grovth solid-liquid boundary layer of BGO crystal is about 50 μm.
Large eddies induced by local impulse at wall of boundary layer with pressure gradients
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Changgen Lu; Weidong Cao; Yanmei Zhang; Jintao Peng
2008-01-01
Large eddies induced by local impulse at the wall with pressure gradients in the boundary layer was studied by direct numerical sim-ulations. The results show that the amplitude evolution, the high and low speed stripes, the formation of streamwise vortices, the ejection and sweeping, inflexions and distortion at the mean velocity profiles, as well as other characteristics, are consistent with the experimental and other numerical results. It is also found that large eddies are easy to be excited with adverse pressure gradient in the boundary layer,and the growth of amplitudes, formation of streamwise vortices and the influencing area etc., are much larger than those with favorable pressure gradient in the boundary layer. In contrast, large eddies are hardly to be induced through local impulse disturbance at the wall with favorable pressure gradients in the boundary layer.
On similarity and pseudo-similarity solutions of Falkner-Skan boundary layers
Guedda, Mohamed
2008-01-01
The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible,laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determinea family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer suchthat these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions, called Pseudo--similarity, where the external velocity varies inversely-linear with the distance along the surface $ (U_e(x) = U_\\infty x^{-1}). The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible, laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determine a family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer such that these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions. The analysis shows that solutions exist only for a lateral suction. For specified conditions, we establish the existence of an infinite number of solutions, including monotonic solutions and solutions which oscillate an infinite number of times and tend to a certain limit. The properties o...
RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna
2013-01-01
suspended sediment concentrations, (2) turbulence suppression due to density gradients in the water–sand mixture, (3) boundary layer streaming due to convective terms, and (4) converging–diverging effects due to a sloping bed. The present model therefore provides a framework for simultaneous inclusion...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... to investigate the importance of boundary layer streaming effects on sediment transport in selected velocity-skewed conditions. For the medium sand grain conditions considered, the model results suggest that streaming effects can enhance onshore sediment transport rates by asmuch as a factor of two...
A Nonlinear Stability Theory for Plane Boundary-Layer Flows
1980-07-01
flows , Poiseuille flows and Couette flows . For example, 3 for plane Polseutlle flow with...published results for plane Poiseuille flow and the Orr-Sonunerfeld solutions for ~lasius flow and a numerical solution of Navier-Stokes flow along a flat...TWO-POINT BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM .......... 21 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS ............................................. 44 4.1 Plane Poiseuille Flow
Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.
2002-01-01
-number estimates based on output from the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (a version of SMHI with a grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20 km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary...
High-resolution PIV measurements of a transitional shock wave-boundary layer interaction
Giepman, R. H. M.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; van Oudheusden, B. W.
2015-06-01
This study investigates the effects of boundary layer transition on an oblique shock wave reflection. The Mach number was 1.7, the unit Reynolds number was 35 × 106 m-1, and the pressure ratio over the interaction was 1.35. Particle image velocimetry is used as the main flow diagnostics tool, supported by oil-flow and Schlieren visualizations. At these conditions, the thickness of the laminar boundary layer is only 0.2 mm, and seeding proved to be problematic as practically no seeding was recorded in the lower 40 % of the boundary layer. The top 60 % could, however, still be resolved with good accuracy and is found to be in good agreement with the compressible Blasius solution. Due to the effects of turbulent mixing, the near-wall seeding deficiency disappears when the boundary layer transitions to a turbulent state. This allowed the seeding distribution to be used as an indicator for the state of the boundary layer, permitting to obtain an approximate intermittency distribution for the boundary layer transition region. This knowledge was then used for positioning the oblique shock wave in the laminar, transitional (50 % intermittency) or turbulent region of the boundary layer. Separation is only recorded for the laminar and transitional interactions. For the laminar interaction, a large separation bubble is found, with a streamwise length of 96. The incoming boundary layer is lifted over the separation bubble and remains in a laminar state up to the impingement point of the shock wave. After the shock, transition starts and a turbulent profile is reached approximately 80-90 downstream of the shock. Under the same shock conditions, the transitional interaction displays a smaller separation bubble (43), and transition is found to be accelerated over the separation bubble.
Performance of an Eddy Diffusivity-Mass Flux Scheme for Shallow Cumulus Boundary Layers
W. Angevine; Jiang, H.; Mauritsen, T.
2010-01-01
Comparisons between single-column (SCM) simulations with the total energy-mass flux boundary layer scheme (TEMF) and large-eddy simulations (LES) are shown for four cases from the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) 2006 field experiment in the vicinity of Houston, Texas. The SCM simulations were run with initial soundings and surface forcing identical to those in the LES, providing a clean comparison with the boundary layer scheme isolated from any other influe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Reza; Taghavi; Z.; Mahmood; Salary; Amir; Kolaei
2009-01-01
This article presents a linear eddy-viscosity turbulence model for predicting bypass and natural transition in boundary layers by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The model includes three transport equations, separately, to compute laminar kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation rate in a flow field. It needs neither correlations of intermittency factors nor knowledge of the transition onset. Two transition tests are carried out: flat plate boundary layer under zero ...
Effects of mass addition on blunt-body boundary-layer transition and heat transfer
Kaattari, G. E.
1978-01-01
The model bodies tested at Mach number 7.32 were hemispheres, blunt cones, and spherical segments. The mass addition consisted of air ejected through porous forward surfaces of the models. The experimental data consisted of heat transfer measurements from which boundary layer transitions were deduced. The data verified various applicable boundary layer codes in the laminar and transitional flow regimes. Empirical heating rate data correlations were developed for the laminar and turbulent flow regimes.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Tropical Convective Systems, the Boundary Layer, and Upper Ocean Coupling
2014-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large - Eddy Simulations of Tropical Convective Systems... large eddy simulation (LES) of organized convective systems, which resolve boundary layer eddy scales to mesoscale Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Large - Eddy Simulations of Tropical Convective Systems, the Boundary Layer, and Upper Ocean
Design and construction of a low-velocity boundary-layer temperature probe
Blackwell, B. F.; Moffat, R. J.
1974-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study performed to determine the probe geometry and thermal characteristics for a low-velocity boundary-layer temperature probe capable of eliminating conduction errors. Design curves for four common thermoelectric pairs are presented, and an experimental turbulent boundary-layer temperature profile is compared with the theoretical laminar sublayer equation to verify that the probe eliminates conduction errors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taha Aziz
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The simplest equation method is employed to construct some new exact closed-form solutions of the general Prandtl's boundary layer equation for two-dimensional flow with vanishing or uniform mainstream velocity. We obtain solutions for the case when the simplest equation is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. Prandtl's boundary layer equation arises in the study of various physical models of fluid dynamics. Thus finding the exact solutions of this equation is of great importance and interest.
Equations for a laminar boundary layer of a dilated liquid in a transverse magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samokhin, V.N.
1984-01-01
A system of equations is examined which describes the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer of a dilated liquid in a transverse magnetic field. The self modeling problem with an exponential law of change in the speed of the external stream and magnetic induction is studied. Localization of the perturbation in the liquid speed in the boundary layer is established and the change in the properties of the solution associated with this is shown.
Boundary layer flow and heat transfer to Carreau fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet
Masood Khan; Hashim
2015-01-01
This article studies the Carreau viscosity model (which is a generalized Newtonian model) and then use it to obtain a formulation for the boundary layer equations of the Carreau fluid. The boundary layer flow and heat transfer to a Carreau model over a nonlinear stretching surface is discussed. The Carreau model, adequate for many non-Newtonian fluids, is used to characterize the behavior of the fluids having shear thinning properties and fluids with shear thickening properties for numerical ...
2014-12-16
Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows FA9550-11-1-0203 Dr. Charles E. Tinney, Aerospace Engineering and Engineering...Low-Dimensional Dynamical Characteristics of Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows Contract/Grant Number: FA9550-11-1-0203...driven by transonic resonance (Zaman et al, 2002). What is common about many of these planar nozzle studies is that there is just one single
Linearization of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem
Ardema, M. D.
1979-01-01
Ardema (1974) has formally linearized the two-point boundary value problem arising from a general optimal control problem, and has reviewed the known stability properties of such a linear system. In the present paper, Ardema's results are applied to the minimum time-to-climb problem. The linearized zeroth-order boundary layer equations of the problem are derived and solved.
Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98) : a report
Cuxart, J.; Yague, C.; Morales, G.; Terradelles, E.; Orbe, J.; Calvo, J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.; Soler, M.R.; Infante, C.; Buenestado, P.; Espinalt, A.; Jorgensem, H.E.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98), which took place over the northern Spanish plateau comprising relatively flat grassland, in September 1998. The main objectives of the campaign were to study the properties of the mid-latitude stable boundary
Discrete approximations for singularly perturbed boundary value problems with parabolic layers
Farrell, P.A.; Hemker, P.W.; Shishkin, G.I.
1995-01-01
Singularly perturbed boundary value problems for equations of elliptic and parabolic type are studied. For small values of the perturbation parameter, parabolic boundary layers appear in these problems. If classical discretisation methods are used, the solution of the finite difference scheme and th
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Malvandi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to consider both effects of slip and convective heat boundary conditions on steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of blowing/suction simultaneously. Flow meets the Navier's slip condition at the surface and Biot number is also used to consider the effects of convective heat transfer. The employed model for nanofluid includes two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of nanoparticle migration owing to Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem via similarity variables. Results for impermeable isothermal surface and also no-slip boundary condition were in best agreements with those existing in literatures. Effects of governing parameters such as Biot number (Bi, slip parameter (λ, thermophoresis (Nt, Prandtl number (Pr, Lewis number (Le, Brownian motion (Nb and blowing/suction (S on reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are analyzed and discussed in details. The obtained results indicate that unlike heat transfer rate, concentration rate is very sensitive to all parameters among which Le, S and Pr are the most effective ones.
The compressible Gortler problem in two-dimensional boundary layers
Dando, Andrew H.; Seddougui, Sharon O.
1993-01-01
In this paper the authors investigate the growth rates of Gortler vortices in a compressible flow in the inviscid limit of large Gortler number. Numerical solutions are obtained for O(1) wavenumbers. The further limits of (i) large Mach number and (ii) large wavenumber with O(1) Mach number are considered. It is shown that two different types of disturbance mode can appear in this problem. The first is a wall layer mode, so named as it has its eigenfunctions trapped in a thin layer near the wall. The other mode investigated is confined to a thin layer away from the wall and termed a trapped-layer mode for large wavenumbers and an adjustment-layer mode for large Mach numbers, since then this mode has its eigenfunctions concentrated in the temperature adjustment layer. It is possible to investigate the near crossing of the modes which occurs in each of the limits mentioned. The inviscid limit does not predict a fastest growing mode, but does enable a most dangerous mode to be identified for O(1) Mach number. For hypersonic flow the most dangerous mode depends on the size of the Gortler number.
Response of a Hypersonic Boundary Layer to Freestream Pulse Acoustic Disturbance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenqing Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.
Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer: A Model Study
van Hooijdonk, I. G. S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.
2017-02-01
The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically lead to weakly stable, turbulent nights; clear-sky and weak-wind conditions, on the other hand, lead to very stable, weakly turbulent conditions. Previously, the dynamical behaviour near the transition between these regimes was investigated in an idealized setting, relying on Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity to describe turbulent transport. Here, we investigate a similar set-up, using direct numerical simulation; in contrast to MO-based models, this type of simulation does not need to rely on turbulence closure assumptions. We show that previous predictions are verified, but now independent of turbulence parametrizations. Also, it appears that a regime shift to the very stable state is signaled in advance by specific changes in the dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer. Here, we show how these changes may be used to infer a quantitative estimate of the transition point from the weakly stable boundary layer to the very stable boundary layer. In addition, it is shown that the idealized, nocturnal boundary-layer system shares important similarities with generic non-linear dynamical systems that exhibit critical transitions. Therefore, the presence of other, generic early warning signals is tested as well. Indeed, indications are found that such signals are present in stably stratified turbulent flows.
Kuritani, Takeshi
2009-06-01
In a cooling magma chamber, magmatic differentiation can proceed both by fractionation of crystals from the main molten part of the magma body (homogeneous fractionation) and by mixing of the main magma with fractionated melt derived from low-temperature mush zones (boundary layer fractionation). In this study, the relative roles of boundary layer fractionation and homogeneous fractionation in basaltic magma bodies were examined using a thermodynamics-based mass balance model. Model calculations show that boundary layer fractionation cannot be a dominant fractionation mechanism when magma chambers are located at low pressures (magmatic evolution. On the other hand, boundary layer fractionation can occur effectively when magmas are hydrous (> ~ 2 wt.%), such as arc basalt, and the magma chambers are located at depth (> ~ 100 MPa). Because the melt derived from mush zones is enriched in alkalis and H 2O, crystallization from the main magma is suppressed by mixing with the mush melt as a consequence of depression of the liquidus temperature. Therefore, homogeneous fractionation is more effectively suppressed in magma chambers in which boundary layer fractionation is more active. If magmatic differentiation proceeds primarily by boundary layer fractionation, magmas can remain free of crystals for long periods during magmatic evolution.
A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.
Receptivity of Boundary Layer over a Blunt Wedge due to Freestream Pulse Disturbances at Mach 6
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianqiang Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a hypersonic compressible flow over a blunt wedge with fast acoustic disturbances in freestream is performed. The receptivity characteristics of boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbances are numerically investigated at Mach 6, and the frequency effects of freestream pulse wave on boundary layer receptivity are discussed. Results show that there are several main disturbance mode clusters in boundary layer under acoustic pulse wave, and the number of main disturbance clusters decreases along the streamwise. As disturbance wave propagates from upstream to downstream direction, the component of the modes below fundamental frequency decreases, and the component of the modes above second harmonic components increases quickly in general. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer between different boundary layer modes. The nose boundary layer is dominated by the nearby mode of fundamental frequency. The number of the main disturbance mode clusters decreases as the freestream disturbance frequency increases. The frequency range with larger growth narrows along the streamwise. In general, the amplitudes of both fundamental mode and harmonics become larger with the decreasing of freestream disturbance frequency. High frequency freestream disturbance accelerates the decay of disturbance wave in downstream boundary layer.
Response of a hypersonic boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance.
Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing
2014-01-01
The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.
Study of effect of a smooth hump on hypersonic boundary layer instability
Park, Donghun; Park, Seung O.
2016-12-01
Effect of a two-dimensional smooth hump on linear instability of hypersonic boundary layer is studied by using parabolized stability equations. Linear evolution of mode S over a hump is analyzed for Mach 4.5 and 5.92 flat plate and Mach 7.1 sharp cone boundary layers. Mean flow for stability analysis is obtained by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Hump with height smaller than local boundary layer thickness is considered. The case of flat plate and sharp cone without the hump are also studied to provide comparable data. For flat plate boundary layers, destabilization and stabilization effect is confirmed for hump located at upstream and downstream of synchronization point, respectively. Results of parametric studies to examine the effect of hump height, location, etc., are also given. For sharp cone boundary layer, stabilization influence of hump is also identified for a specific range of frequency. Stabilization influence of hump on convective instability of mode S is found to be a possible cause of previous experimental observations of delaying transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
Behavior and mixing of a cold intermediate layer near a sloping boundary
Cyr, F.; Bourgault, D.; Galbraith, P.S.
2015-01-01
As in many other subarctic basins, a cold intermediate layer (CIL) is found during ice-free months in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE), Canada. This study examines the behavior of the CIL above the sloping bottom using a high-resolution mooring deployed on the northern side of the estuary. Obse
A model of the planetary boundary layer over a snow surface
Halberstam, I.; Melendez, R.
1979-01-01
A model of the planetary boundary layer over a snow surface has been developed. It contains the vertical heat exchange processes due to radiation, conduction, and atmospheric turbulence. Parametrization of the boundary layer is based on similarity functions developed by Hoffert and Sud (1976), which involve a dimensionless variable, dependent on boundary-layer height and a localized Monin-Obukhov length. The model also contains the atmospheric surface layer and the snowpack itself, where snowmelt and snow evaporation are calculated. The results indicate a strong dependence of surface temperatures, especially at night, on the bursts of turbulence which result from the frictional damping of surface-layer winds during periods of high stability, as described by Businger (1973). The model also shows the cooling and drying effect of the snow on the atmosphere, which may be the mechanism for air mass transformation in sub-Arctic regions.
Boundary Layer Parameterization for a Global Spectral Model
1991-01-27
submitting to a refereed journal. An additional study was conducted to examine how the relative humidity field evolves in the modelled daytime boundary...zo.\\MNz0H=10 15.’- z0.NI0H=100 6.00 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 Tine ( DrC ) Figure 4. As Figure 2 for the skin temperature. 136 15000 EzOk1500O
Boundary layer processes in a mountainous region south of Vienna, Austria
Schicker, Irene
2014-05-01
The Rosalia Lehrforst, southeast of Vienna and one of the boundaries of the Vienna basin, is a semi-complex forested mountain range used for teaching and studies of the atmosphere, land-surface interactions, hydrological studies such as heavy precipitation events, and many more. Different kinds of observation data sets, including three meteorological observations sites within the Lehrforst and several observations sites outside, are available. Within this study the WRF model is used to evaluate the effects of different kinds of land-use and soil types, including different soil moisture conditions on the boundary layer and boundary layer processes within the Lehrforst and the southern Vienna basin.
Similarity solutions to a laminar boundary layer problem in power law fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A suitable similarity transformation is introduced to reduce the laminar boundary layer equations of power law fluids to a class of singular nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The skin friction and shear stress distributions for boundary layer flow over a moving flat plate are investigated by utilizing the shooting technique. Results indicate that for each fixed value of the power law exponent n or the velocity ratio parameter (, the skin friction and shear stress decrease with the increasing of n or ( respectively.
Holt film wall shear instrumentation for boundary layer transition research
Schneider, Steven P.
1994-01-01
Measurements of the performance of hot-film wall-shear sensors were performed to aid development of improved sensors. The effect of film size and substrate properties on the sensor performance was quantified through parametric studies carried out both electronically and in a shock tube. The results show that sensor frequency response increases with decreasing sensor size, while at the same time sensitivity decreases. Substrate effects were also studied, through parametric variation of thermal conductivity and heat capacity. Early studies used complex dual-layer substrates, while later studies were designed for both single-layer and dual-layer substrates. Sensor failures and funding limitations have precluded completion of the substrate thermal-property tests.
Volino, Ralph John
1995-01-01
Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong (K = {nuover U_sp{infty} {2}}{dUinftyover dx} as high as 9times 10^{ -6}) acceleration. The high FSTI experiments are the main focus of the work. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. The high FSTI boundary layers undergo transition from a strongly disturbed non-turbulent state to a fully-turbulent state. Due to the stabilizing effect of strong acceleration, the transition zones are of extended length in spite of the high FSTI. Transitional values of skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers drop below flat-plate, low FSTI, turbulent flow correlations, but remain well above laminar flow values. Mean velocity and temperature profiles exhibit clear changes in shape as the flow passes through transition. Turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. Turbulent transport is strongly suppressed below values in unaccelerated turbulent boundary layers. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Octant analysis shows a fundamental difference between transitional and fully-turbulent boundary layers. Transitional boundary layers are characterized by incomplete mixing compared to fully-turbulent boundary layers. Similar octant analysis results are observed in both low and high FSTI cases. Spectral analysis suggests that the non-turbulent zone of the high FSTI flow is dominated by large scale
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Dries, van den K.; Pino, D.
2009-01-01
We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL). A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of i
Kim, S.W.; Park, S.U.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2006-01-01
Basic entrainment equations applicable to the sheared convective boundary layer (CBL) are derived by assuming an inversion layer with a finite depth, i.e., the first-order jump model. Large-eddy simulation data are used to determine the constants involved in the parameterizations of the entrainment
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey;
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
Off-Body Boundary-Layer Measurement Techniques Development for Supersonic Low-Disturbance Flows
Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.
2011-01-01
Investigations were performed to develop accurate boundary-layer measurement techniques in a Mach 3.5 laminar boundary layer on a 7 half-angle cone at 0 angle of attack. A discussion of the measurement challenges is presented as well as how each was addressed. A computational study was performed to minimize the probe aerodynamic interference effects resulting in improved pitot and hot-wire probe designs. Probe calibration and positioning processes were also developed with the goal of reducing the measurement uncertainties from 10% levels to less than 5% levels. Efforts were made to define the experimental boundary conditions for the cone flow so comparisons could be made with a set of companion computational simulations. The development status of the mean and dynamic boundary-layer flow measurements for a nominally sharp cone in a low-disturbance supersonic flow is presented.
Wavelet-Galerkin Method for the Singular Perturbation Problem with Boundary Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A Wavelet-Galerkin method is proposed to solve the singular perturbation problem with boundary layers numerically. Because there are boundary layers in the solution of the singular perturbation problem, the approximation spaces with different scale wavelets and boundary bases are chosen. In addition, the computation of the inner integrals is transformed to an eigenvalue problem. Therefore, a high accuracy method with reasonable computation is obtained. On the other hand, there is an explicit diagonal preconditioning which makes the condition number of the stiff matrix become bounded by a constant. The error estimate of the Wavelet-Galerkin method and the analysis of the computation complexity are given. The numerical examples show that the method is feasible and effective for solving the singular perturbation problem with boundary layers numerically.
A New Spectral Local Linearization Method for Nonlinear Boundary Layer Flow Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple and efficient method for solving highly nonlinear systems of boundary layer flow problems with exponentially decaying profiles. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on an innovative idea of linearizing and decoupling the governing systems of equations and reducing them into a sequence of subsystems of differential equations which are solved using spectral collocation methods. The applicability of the proposed method, hereinafter referred to as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM, is tested on some well-known boundary layer flow equations. The numerical results presented in this investigation indicate that the proposed method, despite being easy to develop and numerically implement, is very robust in that it converges rapidly to yield accurate results and is more efficient in solving very large systems of nonlinear boundary value problems of the similarity variable boundary layer type. The accuracy and numerical stability of the SLLM can further be improved by using successive overrelaxation techniques.
Coherent structures in a zero-pressure-gradient and a strongly decelerated boundary layer
Simens, Mark P.; Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan
2016-04-01
Coherent structures in a strongly decelerated large-velocity-defect turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and a zero pressure gradient (ZPG) boundary layer are analysed by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The characteristics of the one-point velocity stastistics are also considered. The adverse pressure gradient (APG) TBL simulation is a new one carried out by the present authors. The APG TBL begins as a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, decelerates under a strong adverse pressure gradient, and separates near the end of the domain in the form of a very thin separation bubble. The one-point velocity statistics in the outer region of this large-defect boundary layer are compared to those of two other large-velocity-defect APG TBLs (one in dynamic equilibrium, the other in disequilibrium) and a mixing layer. In the upper half of the large-defect boundary layers, the velocity statistics are similar to those of the mixing layer. The dominant peaks of turbulence production and Reynolds stresses are located in the middle of the boundary layers. Three-dimensional spatial correlations of (u, u) and (u, v) show that coherence is lost in the streamwise and spanwise directions as the velocity defect increases. Near-wall streaks tend to disappear in the large-defect zone of the flow to be replaced by more disorganized u motions. Near-wall sweeps and ejections are also less numerous. In the outer region, the u structures tend to be shorter, less streaky, and more inclined with respect to the wall than in the ZPG TBL. The sweeps and ejections are generally bigger with respect to the boundary layer thickness in the large-defect boundary layer, even if the biggest structures are found in the ZPG TBL. Large sweeps and ejections that reach the wall region (wall-attached) are less streamwise elongated and they occupy less space than in the ZPG boundary layer. The distinction between wall-attached and wall-detached structures is not as pronounced in the large-defect TBL.
Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers
Nettelmann, N.; Wang, K.; Fortney, J. J.; Hamel, S.; Yellamilli, S.; Bethkenhagen, M.; Redmer, R.
2016-09-01
The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ≃ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2-3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of 1 × solar. Finally, we allow for an equilibrium evolution (Teff ≃ Teq) that begun prior to the present day, which would therefore no longer require the current era to be a "special time" in Uranus' evolution. In this scenario, the thermal boundary leads to more rapid cooling of the outer envelope. When Teff ≃ Teq is reached, a shallow, subadiabatic zone in the atmosphere begins to develop. Its depth is adjusted to meet the luminosity constraint. This work provides a simple foundation for future Ice Giant structure and evolution models, that can be improved by properly treating the heat and particle fluxes in the diffusive zones.
Liot, Olivier; Rusaouën, Elonore; Coudarchet, Thibaut; Salort, Julien; Chillà, Francesca
2016-01-01
We report Particle Image Velocimetry of the Large Scale Circulation and the viscous boundary layer in turbulent thermal convection. We use two parallelepipedic Rayleigh-B{\\'e}nard cells with a top smooth plate. The first one has a rough bottom plate and the second one has a smooth one so we compare the rough-smooth and the smooth-smooth configurations. The dimensions of the cell allow to consider a bi-dimensional mean flow. Lots of previous heat flux measurements have shown a Nusselt--Rayleigh regime transition corresponding to an increase of the heat flux in presence of roughness which is higher than the surface increase. Our velocity measurements show that if the mean velocity field is not clearly affected by the roughness, the velocity fluctuations rise dramatically. It is accompanied by a change of the longitudinal velocity structure functions scaling. Moreover, we show that the boundary layer becomes turbulent close to roughness, as it was observed recently in the air [Liot et al., JFM, vol. 786, pp. 275...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Xiaoqiang
2012-01-01
The goal of this article is to study the boundary layer of Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system in a channel at small viscosity.We prove that there exists a boundary layer at the outlet(down-wind)of thickness v,where v,is the kinematic viscosity.The convergence in L2 of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn equations to that of the Euler/Allen-Cahn equations at the vanishing viscosity was established.In two dimensional case we are able to derive the physically relevant uniform in space and time estimates,which is derived by the idea of better control on the tangential derivative and the use of an anisotropic Sobolve imbedding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miller, Mark [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2016-11-01
The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.
Analyses of structure of planetary boundary layer in ice camp over Arctic ocean
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The vertical structure of Planetary boundary layer over Arctic floating ice is presented by using about 50 atmospheric profiles and relevant data sounded at an ice station over Arctic Ocean from 22 August to 3 September, 2003. It shows that the height of the convective boundary layer in day is greater than that of the stability boundary layer in night. The boundary layer can be described as vertical structures of stability, instability and multipling The interaction between relative warm and wet down draft air from up level and cool air of surface layer is significant, which causes stronger wind shear, temperature and humidity inversion with typical wind shear of 10 m/s/100 m, intensity of temperature inversion of 8 ℃/100 m. While the larger pack ice is broken by such process, new ice free area in the high latitudes of arctic ocean. The interactions between air/ice/water are enhanced. The fact helps to understanding characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer and its effect in Arctic floating ice region.
Study of laminar boundary layer instability noise study on a controlled diffusion airfoil
Jaiswal, Prateek; Sanjose, Marlene; Moreau, Stephane
2016-11-01
Detailed experimental study has been carried out on a Controlled Diffusion (CD) airfoil at 5° angle of attack and at chord based Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 . All the measurements were done in an open-jet anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil mock-up is held between two side plates, to keep the flow two-dimensional. PIV measurements have been performed in the wake and on the boundary layer of the airfoil. Pressure sensor probes on the airfoil were used to detect mean airfoil loading and remote microphone probes were used to measure unsteady pressure fluctuations on the surface of the airfoil. Furthermore the far field acoustic pressure was measured using an 1/2 inch ICP microphone. The results confirm very later transition of a laminar boundary layer to a turbulent boundary layer on the suction side of the airfoil. The process of transition of laminar to turbulent boundary layer comprises of turbulent reattachment of a separated shear layer. The pressure side of the boundary layer is found to be laminar and stable. Therefore tonal noise generated is attributed to events on suction side of the airfoil. The flow transition and emission of tones are further investigated in detail thanks to the complementary DNS study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Pietersen
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We study the disturbances of CBL dynamics due to large-scale atmospheric contributions for a representative day observed during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST campaign. We first reproduce the observed boundary-layer dynamics by combining the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation (DALES model with a mixed-layer theory based model. We find that by only taking surface and entrainment fluxes into account, the boundary-layer height is overestimated by 70%. If we constrain our numerical experiments with the BLLAST comprehensive data set, we are able to quantify the contributions of advection of heat and moisture, and subsidence. We find that subsidence has a clear diurnal pattern. Supported by the presence of a nearby mountain range, this pattern suggests that not only synoptic scales exert their influence on the boundary layer, but also mesoscale circulations. Finally, we study whether the vertical and temporal evolution of turbulent variables are influenced by these large-scale forcings. Our model results show good correspondence of the vertical structure of turbulent variables with observations. Our findings further indicate that when large-scale advection and subsidence are applied, the values for turbulent kinetic are lower than without these large-scale forcings. We conclude that the prototypical CBL can still be used as a valid representation of the boundary-layer dynamics near regions characterized by complex topography and small-scale surface heterogeneity, provided that surface- and large-scale forcings are well characterized.
Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented.
Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers
Nettelmann, N; Fortney, J J; Hamel, S; Yellamilli, S; Bethkenhagen, M; Redmer, R
2016-01-01
The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ~ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2--3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of $1\\tim...
Wave-Particle Interactions in the Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer
Mishin, Evgeny
2012-10-01
We present in situ satellite observations of plasmaspheric lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF emissions related with substorm subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ˜10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasmoid (injection front) over the plasmasphere. As with the well-documented plasmoid-magnetic barrier problem, plasma turbulence ensures the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions were used to simulate interactions with the outer zone electrons. These emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions equatorward of the plasma sheet boundary. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms.
Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.
1983-01-01
Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.
Radiation from the Relativistic Jet a Role of the Shear Boundary Layer
Stawarz, L
2002-01-01
Recent radio and optical large scale jets' observations suggest a two-component jet morphology, consisting of a fast central spine surrounded with a boundary layer with a velocity shear. We study radiation of electrons accelerated at such boundary layers as an option for standard approaches involving internal shocks in jets. The acceleration process in the boundary layer yields in a natural way a two component electron distribution: a power-law continuum with a bump at the energy, where energy gains equal radiation losses, followed by a cut-off. For such distributions we derive the observed spectra of synchrotron and inverse-Compton radiation, including comptonization of synchrotron and CMB photons. Under simple assumptions of energy equipartition between the relativistic particles and the magnetic field, the relativistic jet velocity at large scales and a turbulent character of the shear layer, the considered radiation can substantially contribute to the jet radiative output. In the considered conditions the...
Relating instantaneous structures and mean flow characteristics of turbulent boundary layers
de Silva, Charitha; Philip, Jimmy; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan
2016-11-01
Recent works have highlighted the presence of thin interfacial layers of high shear that demarcate regions of relatively uniform streamwise momentum in turbulent boundary layers. Here, we aim to further our understanding of how such a zonal-like structural arrangement manifests in the averaged flow statistics. To this end, we start by identifying high shear interfaces in turbulent boundary layers employing particle image velocimetry databases that span more than an order of magnitude of friction Reynolds number (Reτ =103 -104). Inspection of these recurrent features reveal that their geometry is highly contorted and exhibits self-similarity across a wide range of scales. The Reynolds number dependence of these features is also investigated, together with their associated scaling. Based on these findings and the persistent presence of sharp changes in momentum in turbulent boundary layers, a simple model is presented towards reconstructing the mean velocity profile.
Aerosol Characteristics in the Marine Boundary Layer Over the Straits of Gibraltar - June 1986
1988-04-01
when the marine boundary layer can be decoupled into two layers, a lower well-mixed Eckman layer and an upper cloud layer. From the WMCE optical...depth data, we have found that several estimates of optical depth compared more favorably with the observed values when the well-mixed Eckman layer depth...1000 2 16 40 52 4 24 22 22 32 4 20 6/26 1200 14 18 48 52 0 6 4 18 26 0 20 6/26 1500 0 2 30 46 0 46 8 44 16 2 0 D-5 5 %i DISTRIBUTION PAUL LAVIOLETE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Bo; L(U) Shihua; AO Yinhuan
2012-01-01
In this study,the development of a convective boundary layer (CBL) in the Badanjilin region was investigated by comparing the observation data of two cases.A deep neutral layer capped a CBL that occurred on 30 August 2009.This case was divided into five sublayers from the surface to higher atmospheric elevations:surface layer,mixed layer,inversion layer,neutral layer,and sub-inversion layer.The development process of the CBL was divided into three stages:S1,S2,and S3.This case was quite different from the development of the three-layer CBL observed on 31 August 2009 because the mixed layer of the five-layer CBL (CBL5) eroded the neutral layer during S2.The specific initial structure of the CBL5 was correlated to the synoptic background of atmosphere during nighttime.The three-stage development process of the CBL5 was confirmed by six simulations using National Center for Atmospheric Research (USA) large-eddy simulation (NCAR-LES),and some of its characteristics are presented in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jang Jinho
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.
A nonsimilar boundary layer on a moving wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorla, R.S.R. [Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)
1996-04-01
This paper is concerned with an analysis of viscous flow through a varying cross sectional area, typical of application in a Wankel Engine. The analysis models flow past a variable moving boundary. Dimensionless temperature, velocities, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are obtained and evaluated for the inside of a Wankel engine channel for different fluid properties. Research has indicated such application has not been previously performed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung bezieht sich auf die Stroemung eines zaehen Fluids durch einen Kanal veraenderlichen Querschnittes, wie er typischerweise bei einem Wankelmotor zu finden ist. Im mathematischen Modell wird von einer Stroemung entlang einer bewegten Begrenzung ausgegangen. Die unter Variation der Fluidstoffwerte ermittelten dimensionslosen Temperatur- und Geschwindigkeitsfelder, Reibungsbeiwerte und Nusselt-Zahlen beziehen sich auf den Verbrennungsraum eines Wankelmotors. Recherchen haben ergeben, dass eine solche Untersuchung bisher noch nicht durchgefuehrt worden ist. (orig.)