WorldWideScience

Sample records for bottom atomic power

  1. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom

  2. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  3. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  4. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O ampersand M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of open-quotes insuranceclose quotes plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  5. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  6. PECO-Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station containment suppression chamber modification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with modifications to the containment suppression chamber (Torus) at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. A brief description is given of the containment system and its function. The circumstances leading to the formation of the Mark I Owners' Group and the various investigations performed during the course of the program are described

  7. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  8. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption 1... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56, which authorizes operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power... hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two boiling-water reactors located partly in Peach...

  9. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  10. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  11. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979

  12. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  13. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  14. Analysis of containment venting for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of containment venting as a means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents was evaluated for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). Results from this evaluation indicate that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment failure is highly dependent on the severe accident sequence. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks in the containment and transients with a failure of containment heat removal. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with several sequences currently identified as significant contributors to risk. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction were identified, but their influence on risk was not analyzed

  15. 76 FR 52357 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit...

  16. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  17. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm2) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  18. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Unit 2 generated 3,005,350 MWH(e) net electric power and was on line 3,132.48 hrs and Unit 3 generated 2,972,897 MWH(e) and was on line 3,417.97 hours. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and abnormal occurrences. (FS)

  19. The NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk assessment for the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the findings of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for Unit 2 of the Peach Bottom Power Station performed in support of NUREG-1150. The emphasis is on the 'back-end' analyses, that is, the accident progression, source term, and consequence analyses, and the risk results obtained when the results of these analyses are combined with the accident frequency analysis. The results show that the annual risk from internal initiators is much lower than estimated by the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) over a decade ago. The risk from fire initiators is about an order of magnitude higher than the risk from internal initiators, but is still less than the risk from internal estimates by the RSS. The risk from seismic initiators at Peach Bottom is much greater than the risk from internal initiators. The uncertainty band for all types of initiators is considerably greater than that estimated in the RSS. (orig.)

  20. Low-flow stability tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station unit 2 during cycle 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report under RP1020-2 is a description of the results from the low-flow stability tests conducted at the Peach Bottom-2 boiling water reactor (BWR) in 1978 during Cycle 3. These tests were a continuation of the series begun in 1977 under RP1020-1. Results from the earlier tests have been documented in EPRI Topical Report NP-564. As expected, the Peach Bottom-2 BWR core is very stable even at minimum core flow rate conditions. These data constitute high-quality proof of some long-held hypotheses about BWR stability at high power-to-flow ratios. In the future, these data will become part of the qualification data base for the improved BWR stability predictive computer codes being developed and tested under RP1384

  1. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed. (orig./HP)

  2. Assessment of effects of structural response on plant risk. Preliminary results for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been sponsoring tests at Los Alamos National Laboratory on the dynamic response of Seismic Category I reinforced concrete shear wall structures. As test results accumulated, it became clear that there was a significant difference between as-calculated and measured shear wall stiffnesses and frequencies, and that these differences existed both in static and dynamic tests. For very low level tests, measured frequencies were found to range between 50% and 80% of the computed values. During simulated earthquake tests, measured frequencies were found to further decrease as the earthquake level increased. The observed differences between calculated and measured stiffnesses and frequencies represents a potentially important issue relative to the seismic design and safety of nuclear power plants. Thus, this frequency difference issue has potentially important implications with respect to the safety of power plants during seismic events. In order to assess the importance of this frequency difference issue the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded Sandia National Laboratories to re-evaluate several existing seismic PRAs by modeling and incorporating the effects of the frequency reductions. This report presents the results for the initial re-evaluation of the seismic risk at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  3. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS

  4. Transient and stability tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 at end of Cycle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbine trip transient and low flow stability tests were performed at the Peach Bottom-2 BWR/4 nuclear power plant prior to shutdown for refueling at end of Cycle 2 in April 1977. The results of the turbine trip transient tests showed that the fundamental mode of the acoustical pressure oscillation generated in the main steam piping propagates with relatively little attenuation into the reactor core. The magnitude of the neutron flux transient taking place in the BWR core was found to be strongly affected by the initial rate of pressure rise caused by the pressure oscillation. The measured neutron flux transients showed a strong spatial variation along the axis of the reactor core. Very little radial variation in the neutron flux transient was observed. The low-flow stability tests demonstrated that the Peach Bottom-2 Cycle 2 core exhibited a high degree of stability at the limiting test condition above the rated power-flow control line. The measured reactor stability margins showed the expected sensitivity to core power changes at minimum reactor core flow. The tests showed that the small pressure perturbation stability testing offers a useful and practical method of measuring core stability margins. The actual core stability margin was determined from the measured closed-loop pressure to average neutron flux transfer function data based on maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a relatively simple transfer function model determined from nonlinear regression analysis. Both static and dynamic error estimates were taken into consideration in evaluating the test results

  5. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  6. RETRAN analysis of the turbine trip tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 and at the end of cycle 2. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RETRAN system analysis code is undergoing a comprehensive qualification program by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Utilities' RETRAN Working Group. An important element of this effort is the analysis of the turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 boiling water reactor (BWR) during April 1977. The report gives the results obtained from this analysis and from an extensive set of associated sensitivity studies. These results are in good agreement with the measured data, providing important evidence of the code's ability to model BWR turbine trips and similar transients. Other conclusions resulting from this work pertain to needed code improvements and to the sensitivity of the calculated transients to various input parameters. The analysis of the tests and the sensitivity studies performed with RETRAN also provide a better understanding of certain phenomena which are important during BWR transients involving abrupt changes in pressure and flow

  7. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including 14C, 99 Tc, and 129I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1

  8. Containment event analysis for postulated severe accidents: Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been performed as part of the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) to investigate the response of a particular boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment (Peach Bottom Unit 2) to postulated severe accidents. A detailed containment event tree for the Peach Bottom plant has been developed to describe the various possible accident pathways that can lead to radioactive releases from containment. Data and analyses from a large number of NRC and industry-sponsored programs have been reviewed and used as a basis for quantifying the event tree, i.e., determining the likelihood of the pathways at each branch point for a variety of accident sequence initiators. A generalized containment event tree code, called EVNTRE, has been developed to facilitate the quantification. The uncertainty in the results has been examined by performing the quantification three times, using a different set of input each time to represent the variation of opinion in the reactor safety community. In the so-called 'central' estimate, the likelihood of early containment failure (occurring before or within a short time after reactor vessel breach) was found to be significant because of the possible occurrence of the following phenomena that can threaten containment integrity: (1) meltthrough of the drywell shell caused by thermal attack from core debris, and (2) drywell overpressurization caused by rapid depressurization of the reactor vessel in combination with other events such as direct heating. However, uncertainties surrounding these issues could cause the early failure likelihood to be significantly lower than in the central estimate. This work supports NRC's assessment of severe accident risks to be published in NUREG-1150. (author)

  9. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Atomic power's powered atomiser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an extension of its traditional activities the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has developed a range of products and services. So far one of its most successful ventures has been the licensing of power fluidics technology in the hvac (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) market. Power Fluidics is the control of liquid or gas flows without the use of any moving parts. The UKAEA has developed the vortex amplifier, a control device, which has many potential applications, in which the process flow is throttled and turned down as the control flow is increased. The bistable flow diverter in which a coanda effect diverts the flow down one of two outlets has possible uses in the water industry as well. Another development is a device for controlling fluid droplet size in which a bistable converter has a feedback loop which ensures continuous switching of the flow. By opposing the nozzle outlets, the alternating flows collide in a controlled manner and droplet size can be controlled. (U.K.)

  11. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ''Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment'' to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG's at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem

  12. Atomic Power Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John F

    1964-01-01

    This booklet is condensed from a larger publication, -Background Information on Atomic Power Safety-, published in January 1964, by the .Atomic Industrial Forum. That publication and this abridgment were produced in recognition of the emergence of commercial atomic power as an important factor in our national economy, and of the resulting need for readily available information in nontechnical form on the characteristics of nuclear power plants and on the various measures taken during their design, construction, and operation for public safety.

  13. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  14. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (Docket Nos. 50-277, 50-278)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  15. Underwater-cable power-transmission system: bottom segment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    After a survey of the state of the art for bottom cables, some possible configurations are considered for candidate OTEC sites. General considerations on laying and embedding are discussed, and solutions are considered. Optimization of cable dimensions and the problem of flexible joints are covered. The state of the art of cable installation and repair is reviewed and discussed with reference to the representative OTEC sites. Costs for shore terminal stations are evaluated. (LEW)

  16. Atomic power in space: A history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Automatic power control system for 235 MWe atomic power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper highlights the essential features of the design, fabrication and testing of microprocessor based reactor power regulating system of Narora Atomic Power Plant (NAPP) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant (KAPP). The improved system design at KAPP employs the reactor power control based on neutron flux signal after correction. The control system responses have been presented and compared with the responses using a reactor functional simulator. A new fault tolerant reactor regulating system has been designed using a dual active and hot stand-by microprocessor system to improve operational reliability. (author). 1 ref., 8 figs

  18. Microwave Power Standard using Cold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Paulusse, D C; Michaud, A; Paulusse, David C; Rowell, Nelson L; Michaud, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how the observation of Rabi flopping oscillations in a laser cooled atomic sample could be used as a microwave power standard. The rubidium atoms are first trapped in a standard MOT, then optically pumped, and dropped. As they enter the interaction region, a resonant pulsed microwave field is applied. Following the interaction lasting up to 10 ms, a probe laser beam is turned on and the fluorescence measures the population inversion.

  19. Polymeric materials for atomic power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the atomic power industry such as nuclear power generating stations, organic polymeric materials are widely used. Those materials have superior properties for electric insulation, for the fabricability and flexibility, so they are conveniently used from the viewpoint of economics too. Here, it is important to recognize the limit of their usage. The first chapter deals with the introduction of the polymeric materials for atomic power industry, i.e. their limiting usage under irradiation, and type test of the equipments. The second chapter describes the testing of the flamability of wire and cable which is mostly concerned at present. The third chapter introduces the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Generating Station, which accident has given strong shock in the world, and the last chapter tells the fire accident at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Generating Station, which accident has accelerated the development of the fire resistant polymers. (author)

  20. How dangerous are atomic power stations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at potential dangers presented by atomic power stations and measures taken to ensure safety. Since the accident in Chernobyl, atomic power stations represent, from the point of view of the general public, a considerable danger. The article analyses the actual risks presented by atom power stations and asks the question, if these risks can even be assessed. Basic considerations on the stability and safety of reactors are discussed. Safety precautions implemented for the world's first nuclear reactor in the USA are discussed. The various safety precautions taken for various types of reactor are examined in detail. Also, the dangers presented by emissions that occur during normal operation are examined. The danger of a nuclear meltdown caused by external factors such as earthquakes, fire, aircraft crashes and terrorist activity is discussed

  1. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  2. Atomic power in space: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  4. Atomic power generation and future technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the world's first atomic power station in the Soviet Union in 1954 not only marked the beginning of a new trend in power engineering but also clearly demonstrated the practicability of human utilization of the vast resource of nuclear energy. The discovery of the fundamental possibility of using the energy released by the chain reactions associated with fission of heavy nuclei and fusion of light nuclei was a stupendous gift of science. The full significance of these revelations will appear later, at the end of this century, but it is already clear that the widespread use of nuclear energy from fission and fusion is inevitable, as the only technically and economically satisfactory way of overcoming the shortage of cheap fuels such as oil and gas. The large-scale development of atomic power engineering for various purposes - electric power, process heat and district heating, heat and power supplies for the metallurgical industry, power and heat for different branches of the chemical industry and radiation stimulation of chemical products - will help to save oil and gas so that they can be used for purposes where they are most difficult to replace

  5. Atomic thermoelectric power stations of small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of 90 years a competition among atomic power stations of small capacity 'ATPS SC-91' was conducted under the aegis of Russian Nuclear Society. More than 20 designs of atomic power stations of small capacity (ATPS SC) were presented at the competition by way of conversion developments of leading design and planning organizations of Russian Minatom. The preliminary analysis of ATPS SC showed their high competitiveness comparing to traditional power-suppliers in the remote Russian territories even if there were local energy resources. In Russia by order of 'Rosenergoatom' Concern the ATPS SC project is developed on the basis of a floating power unit (FPU) with KLT-40S RF.The stationary option of ATPS SC with KLT-40S RF was developed for the Republic of Kazakhstan.The options of the project optimization made afterwards by NNC RK specialists allowed to substantially reduce construction budget due to, first, the change of price policy, and, secondly, the use of a number of supporting buildings, structures and systems located on the prospective construction sites. In Russia the designs of floating ATPS SC are developed, at first, on the basis of ABV-6 reactor facilities

  6. Plant power supply device in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To avoid tripping of a 6.9 kV class bus line and to decrease a large electric current momentarily flown into a start transformer, in despite of the fact that the bus line is not changed over resulted from actuation of a generator lock-out relay. Structure: An atomic power plant comprising a bus line for a two-system plant power supply and a start transformer receiving power from an exterior system, characterized by the provision of a breaker for effecting the change-over of only one system bus line simultaneously with the reactor scrum and a breaker for effecting the change-over of the other bus line before a generator is tripped as a result of actuation of a generator lock-out relay in a predetermined period of time after the reactor scrum, to thereby reduce the momentary large current to the start transformer. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  8. Maintenance experience at Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is a twin-unit station of the CANDU-PHW type with a nominal rating of 200 MW(e) net per unit and on-power refuelling capability. Unit-I became critical in August 1972 and was declared commercial in December 1973. Unit-II is in an advanced stage of construction. Maintenance and repairs of both the nuclear and conventional equipment are done during routine planning, breakdown outages, poison shutdown outages and planned annual shutdown periods. Yearly, a period of three to four weeks may be needed for carrying out major inspection and maintenance activity on large equipment such as the steam turbine, generator, main condenser, station transformer, primary coolant recirculation pumps, moderator pumps and fuelling machines. Preventive maintenance jobs are planned and executed in accessible areas daily as a matter of routine and during poison shutdown outages in inaccessible areas. This requires that the maintenance crews be more or less continually on the alert. In addition to gamma radiation, radiation doses due to tritium are encountered and pose special problems for the maintenance personnel. During the past two years (1972-74) it was found that there is a need, in the maintenance crews, for more specialists for various radioactive and conventional jobs. This paper outlines the significant nuclear and conventional maintenance activities as well as problems in maintenance encountered during the period 1972-74. (author)

  9. Atomic power engineering under falsified safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1970 the United States Department of Justice accused the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and of acting in restraint of trade by restricting the ASME Certificate of Authorization and the use of the Code Symbol Stamps to boilers and pressure vessels manufactured in the United States and Canada. During the succeeding two years attorneys for the parties in the case formulated a Consent Decree without a public confrontation in the Court. Furthermore, the membership of ASME was kept uninformed until October of 1972, after the Consent and Final Judgment had become effective and new procedures had been developed for allowing foreign manufacturers to apply the ASME Code Symbol Stamps to their products. As a consequence, a breakdown in engineered safety standards has been sanctioned and this is undermining the engineering profession's overriding reponsibility to protect the public health and safety. This breakdown of professional responsibility is especially serious in the new technology of atomic power. American insurance companies, which have traditionally written 100% insurance coverage for property damage and third party liability against explosions of high pressure steam boilers bearing the ASME Code Stamp, have refused to write such insurance coverage on nuclear reactors. In the author's opinion there is evidence that the Consent was formulated under collusive proceedings and he calls on the members and the Council of ASME to appeal for dismissal of the Consent Decree. 24 refs

  10. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al2O3 under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al2O3. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al2O3, a methyl group (CH3)-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an Ion/Ioff ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at VD = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm2/V·s, respectively

  11. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-03-01

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al2O3 under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al2O3. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al2O3, a methyl group (CH3)-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an Ion/Ioff ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at VD = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm2/V.s, respectively.

  12. Bottom-Up Fabrication of Nanopatterned Polymers on DNA Origami by In Situ Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Yu; Jiang, Yanyan; Welle, Alexander; Stenzel, Martina H; Krzemien, Katarzyna M; Michaelis, Jens; Berger, Rüdiger; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2016-05-01

    Bottom-up strategies to fabricate patterned polymers at the nanoscale represent an emerging field in the development of advanced nanodevices, such as biosensors, nanofluidics, and nanophotonics. DNA origami techniques provide access to distinct architectures of various sizes and shapes and present manifold opportunities for functionalization at the nanoscale with the highest precision. Herein, we conduct in situ atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) on DNA origami, yielding differently nanopatterned polymers of various heights. After cross-linking, the grafted polymeric nanostructures can even stably exist in solution without the DNA origami template. This straightforward approach allows for the fabrication of patterned polymers with low nanometer resolution, which provides access to unique DNA-based functional hybrid materials. PMID:27058968

  13. Thoughts on Documentation of Atomic Power Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Hee Won; Song, Ki Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has accumulated a number of technology development and research outcomes, including its representative achievements such as atomic energy technology independence and the first export of atomic energy system, since it was established in 1959. With its long history of over 50 years, KAERI has produced a large amount of information and explicit knowledge such as experiment data, database, design data, report, instructions, and operation data at each stage of its research and development process as it has performed various researches since its establishment. Also, a lot of tacit knowledge has been produced both knowingly and not unknowingly based on the experience of researchers who have participated in many projects. However, in the research environment in Korea where they focus overly on the output, tacit knowledge has not been managed properly compared to explicit knowledge. This tacit knowledge is as an important asset as explicit knowledge for an effective research and development. Moreover, as the first generation of atomic energy independence and research manpower retire, their accumulated experience and knowledge are in danger of disappearing. Therefore, in this study, we sought how to take a whole view and to document atomic energy technology researched and developed by KAERI, from the background to achievement of each field of the technology. Comprehensive and systematic documentation of atomic energy technology will establish a comprehensive management system of national atomic energy technology record to make a foundation of technical advancement and development of atomic energy technology. Also, it is expected to be used as an important knowledge and information resource of atomic energy knowledge management system

  14. Properties of Concrete using Tanjung Bin Power Plant Coal Bottom Ash and Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Umar Abubakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal combustion by-products (CCPs have been around since man understood that burning coal generates electricity, and its utilization in concrete production for nearly a century. The concept of sustainable development only reawaken our consciousness to the huge amount of CCPs around us and the need for proper reutilization than the current method of disposal which has  severe consequences both to man and the environment. This paper presents the result of utilization of waste from thermal power plants to improve some engineering properties of concrete. Coal bottom ash (CBA and fly ash were utilized in partial replacement for fine aggregates and cement respectively. The results of compressive strength at 7, 28, 56 & 90 days curing are presented because of the pozzolanic reaction. Other properties investigated include physical properties, fresh concrete properties and density. The results showed that for a grade 35 concrete with a combination of CBA and fly ash can produce 28 day strength above 30 MPa.

  15. Leaching of valuable elements from thermal power plant bottom ash using a thermo-hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojinova, Darinka; Teodosieva, Ralitsa

    2016-06-01

    The solid industrial wastes generated from thermal power plants (TPPs) can be considered as renewable secondary sources for recovery of valuable metals. This study presents the results from investigations that integrated a thermo-hydro-metallurgical method for treatment of bottom ash obtained from the Enel Maritsa East 3 TPP in Bulgaria. Leaching was performed with 20, 30 and 40 wt% sulphuric acid, respectively, in an autoclave at 100(o)C, 120(o)C and 140(o)C for 120, 240, 360 and 480 min, at a constant value of the liquid/solid ratio. After autoclaving, the samples (suspensions) were diluted with a constant value of water and stirring at 50(o)C for 60 min. On the basis of the experimental data the leaching efficiency (α) of the elements in the liquid phase after filtration was estimated. The leaching of aluminium increases significantly with increasing of the temperature, reaching the maximum value of 70 wt%. The highest leaching efficiency values for the other elements are as follows: Fe (86.4%), Ca (86.6%), Na (86.6%), Ni (83.3%) and Zn (83.3%). The maximum value of leaching for Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Cr is in the interval of 46-70%. PMID:26951342

  16. The World Power Conference and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that emerged after the last World War that useful power could be produced from nuclear fission led to optimistic estimates that nuclear power would prove to be the solution to the world's energy problems. The possible advantages of nuclear methods of power production compared with conventional means are discussed at the World Power Conference. The 1962 Conference with its theme 'The Changing Pattern of Power' will undoubtedly attract great interest in a world where the change-over from conventional to nuclear fuels for power production has started in some countries and is being actively examined in others. It is generally being realized that even though a country may possess indigenous supplies of uranium or thorium minerals, the building up of a nuclear industry i s a long and expensive process and the alternative of depending on countries more advanced in nuclear technology for the supply of materials, skill and know-how is costly in foreign exchange and international prestige. Many of the industrialized countries, still possessing supplies of conventional fuels, are preparing for the day when their reserves will become depleted and are embarking on training schemes to ensure a continuing supply of engineers and scientists skilled in nuclear arts

  17. Potential Use of Malaysian Thermal Power Plants Coal Bottom Ash in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Umar Abubakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As Malaysia focuses its attention to the call for a “greener” culture, so did the engineers and those in the scientific community especially the construction industry who is a major contributor to the depletion of green house gases. The engineering and construction community has now taken up the challenge for the use of “green and recycled by-products” in construction. One of those by-products is the Coal Bottom Ash (CBA from thermal power plants that faces an increasing production running into hundreds of thousand tonnes in Malaysia alone, and its method of disposal is relegated to landfills alone with no other commercial usage. The construction industry is now forced to rethink on the utilization of the industrial by-products as supplementary materials due to the continuous depletion of natural aggregates in construction. A significant amount of research has been conducted elsewhere on CBA to ascertain its pozzolanic activity, compressive strength in concrete and mortar, durability, water absorption characteristics and density, in order to ensure its usage as a construction material. In this paper, a critical review of the strength characteristics of concrete and mortar as influenced by CBA as partial replacement of fine aggregate is presented based on the available information in the published literatures. Diverse physical and chemical properties of CBA from different power plants in Malaysia are also presented. The influence of different types, amounts and sources of CBA on the strength and bulk density of concrete is discussed. The setting time, workability and consistency as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using CBA in construction materials are also highlighted. An effective utilization of CBA in construction materials will significantly reduce the accumulation of the by-products in landfills and thus reduce environmental pollution.

  18. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.)

  19. Potential usage of fly and bottom ash from thermal power plant ”Nikola Tesla” landfill, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Čudić Vladica V.; Stojiljković Dragoslava D.; Jovović Aleksandar M.; Životić Miodrag M.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, the ash from power plants has long been labelled as hazardous waste. With the adoption of the appropriate legislation this ash became secondary raw material with the potential usage. In this paper an analysis of the fly and bottom ash composition, which are disposed of in the power plant “Nikola Tesla A” landfill, is presented. Thirty samples, divided into three sets, were analyzed for trace elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn. The first and seco...

  20. Geologic survey for atomic power-plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has presented a general treatise on the above title previously, in which the geology and aseismatic design criteria for atomic power-plants in Japan were considerably precisely described. In the present paper, such criteria and surveying prescription now adopted in U.S.A. are first introduced, in which special weight is laid on the vibrative characteristics and structural geologic conditions of plant ground which have large influence on the effects of earthquakes, fault-movement and some accidental shocks that may be inflicted on power stations. Next, as a home example of the geologic survey for atomic power-plants, that performed for the Genkai Power plant in Kyushu now its construction is almost completed, is introduced. Besides general geologic survey of ground and the examination of various physico-mechanical characteristics of site rocks, special tests were carried out for the estimation of the nature and degree of ground vibration at the time of natural and accidental shocks. One of them thus performed is the observation of elastic waves (P and S) caused by blasting in surveying tunnels opened near the reactor site. The data of the vibrative characteristics of ground obtained from these tests are also indespensable for the regulation of blasting method in the excavating work of basal ground for the construction of additional reactors in the vicinity of operating atomic power plants. (Shibata, I.)

  1. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  2. The atomic details of the interfacial interaction between the bottom electrode of Al/AlO{sub x}/Al Josephson junctions and HF-treated Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L. J.; Nik, S.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Krantz, P.; Delsing, P. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-28

    The interface between the Al bottom contact layer and Si substrates in Al based Josephson junctions is believed to have a significant effect on the noise observed in Al based superconducting devices. We have studied the atomic structure of it by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous layer with a thickness of ∼5 nm was found between the bottom Al electrode and HF-treated Si substrate. It results from intermixing between Al, Si, and O. We also studied the chemical bonding states among the different species using energy loss near edge structure. The observations are of importance for the understanding of the origin of decoherence mechanisms in qubits based on these junctions.

  3. Use of bottom ash from thermal power plant and lime as filler in bituminous mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López, E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash (PCC-BA and determining the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA using PCC-BA and hydrated lime (HL as filler. Physical and chemical characterization of the bottom ash was carried out to evaluate its eventual reutilization as filler substitute. The materials tested in this study were made using 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% and 100% of PCC-BA combined with HL. HMA mixes were evaluated in terms of their engineering properties, namely: air voids in the mixes, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus, performance in wheel tracking test and fatigue resistance. The results obtained indicate that HMA mixes with a filler blend of 70% PCC-BA and 30% HL fulfil European standards and are suitable for light traffic or small infrastructures.Este estudio se centra en la caracterización de las cenizas de fondo (PCC-BA y la determinación de las características mecánicas de mezclas bituminosas en caliente (HMA, utilizando cenizas de fondo y la cal hidratada (HL como filler. Se realizó la caracterización física y química de las cenizas de fondo para evaluar su empleo como sustituto de filler. Las mezclas ensayadas en este estudio se realizaron utilizando 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% y 100% de cenizas de fondo combinadas con cal hidratada. Se evaluaron propiedades ingenieriles de las mezclas bituminosas, tales como los huecos de aire en las mezclas, la sensibilidad al agua, el módulo de rigidez, el ensayo de pista y la resistencia a la fatiga. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con una combinación de filler del 70% de cenizas de fondo y el 30% cal hidratada, cumplen con las normas europeas y son adecuados para su aplicación con tráficos ligeros o en pequeñas infraestructuras.

  4. The new generation of nuclear power stations. A new trend in atomic power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the author, all options for future power supply should be followed, including atomic power provided that it can be made technically safe and treated with a maximum safety culture. On the one hand, power supply is an elementary human need, deciding on public welfare, economic development and technical progress. On the other hand, there is an impending shortage of power owing to depletion of resources and the emergence of new industrialized nations especially in south east Asia. For this reason, all options should be considered, from renewable energy sources to coal and nuclear power. (orig.)

  5. Study on Atomization Characteristics for Power Generation Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is dependent on two common basic needs which is electricity and water supply. Thus, power generation is the pulse of a country's econmony. However, most of today's power is generated from fossil fuel which is non sustainable. This research aims to study the feasibility of biodiesel to substitute diesel fuel for gas turbine application. The objective is to investigate the atomization characteristics using various blend of biodiesel derived from transesterification of palm oil. There are five types of fuels tested which are pure Diesel, B20, B50, B80 and B100 which were experimentally tested in a spray atomizer to evaluate the relationship of the of the fuel blend ratio with atomization characteristics such as spray cone angle, spray tip penetration and Sauter Mean Diameter. Besides that, fuel chemical properties testing were conducted to ensure the fuel chemical properties for tested fuel meet the standard requirements for gas turbine fuel oil. Result shows that the higher blend of biodiesel will give larger SMD, longer spray tip penetration, and a smaller spray cone angle. The SMD was calculated based on a general equation. Meanwhile, spray angle and spray tip was obtained from photos captured and anlayzed using software.

  6. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Growth in NOx emissions from power plants in China: bottom-up estimates and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument tropospheric NO2 columns and a nested-grid 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, we investigated the growth in NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants and their contributions to the growth in NO2 columns in 2005–2007 in China. We first developed a unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory for 2005–2007 to support this investigation. The total capacities of coal-fired power generation have increased by 48.8% in 2005–2007, with 92.2% of the total capacity additions coming from generator units with size ≥300 MW. The annual NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants were estimated to be 8.11 Tg NO2 for 2005 and 9.58 Tg NO2 for 2007, respectively. The modeled summer average tropospheric NO2 columns were highly correlated (R2 = 0.79–0.82 with OMI measurements over grids dominated by power plant emissions, with only 7–14% low bias, lending support to the high accuracy of the unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory. The ratios of OMI-derived annual and summer average tropospheric NO2 columns between 2007 and 2005 indicated that most of the grids with significant NO2 increases were related to power plant construction activities. OMI had the capability to trace the changes of NOx emissions from individual large power plants in cases where there is less interference from other NOx sources. Scenario runs from GEOS-Chem model suggested that the new power plants contributed 18.5% and 10% to the annual average NO2 columns in 2007 in Inner Mongolia and North China, respectively. The massive new power plant NOx emissions significantly changed the local NO2 profiles, especially in less polluted areas. A sensitivity study found that changes of NO2 shape factors due to including new power plant emissions increased the summer average OMI tropospheric NO2 columns by 3.8–17.2% for six selected locations, indicating that the updated emission information could help to improve the satellite

  8. Growth in NOx emissions from power plants in China: bottom-up estimates and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument tropospheric NO2 columns and a nested-grid 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, we investigated the growth in NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants and their contributions to the growth in NO2 columns in 2005–2007 in China. We first developed a unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory for 2005–2007 to support this investigation. The total capacities of coal-fired power generation have increased by 48.8% in 2005–2007, with 92.2% of the total capacity additions coming from generator units with size ≥300 MW. The annual NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants were estimated to be 8.11 Tg NO2 for 2005 and 9.58 Tg NO2 for 2007, respectively. The modeled summer average tropospheric NO2 columns were highly correlated (R2 = 0.79–0.82 with OMI measurements over grids dominated by power plant emissions, with only 7–14% low bias, lending support to the high accuracy of the unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory. The ratios of OMI-derived annual and summer average tropospheric NO2 columns between 2007 and 2005 indicated that most of the grids with significant NO2 increases were related to power plant construction activities. OMI had the capability to trace the changes of NOx emissions from individual large power plants in cases where there is less interference from other NOx sources. Scenario runs from GEOS-Chem model suggested that the new power plants contributed 18.5% and 10% to the annual average NO2 columns in 2007 in Inner Mongolia and North China, respectively. The massive new power plant NOx emissions significantly changed the local NO2 profiles, especially in less polluted areas. A sensitivity study found that changes of NO2 shape factors due to including new power plant emissions increased the summer average OMI tropospheric NO2 columns by 3.8–17.2% for six selected locations, indicating that the updated emission information could help to improve the satellite

  9. Environmental studies and clearance compliance of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear industry has played a leading role in evolving proper and effective environmental management impact from development practices right form inception thus minimizing the environmental impact from developmental activities of man. In the engineering design of nuclear power plant, safety is further enhanced considerably by providing double back-upped engineered safety systems. Besides the engineered safety, the other factors considered for ensuring environmental impact minimization are siting criteria, conservative rad-waste management, effluent treatment, application of stringent environmental protection standards for limiting waste discharges, an elaborate environmental surveillance program and an on site and off site emergency preparedness plan. Recently, nuclear power industry has taken a drive to develop and implement Environmental Management System (EMS) to all its operating stations in line with ISO-14001 standards. For Kudankulam atomic power project, a number of studies specifically for environmental protection are carried out to meet the requirements of Russian Federation, new guidelines of Ministry of environment and Forests (MOEF) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). In the present paper an attempt has been made to present the environmental management plan and clearance compliance status of the project

  10. Potential usage of fly and bottom ash from thermal power plant ”Nikola Tesla” landfill, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čudić Vladica V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia, the ash from power plants has long been labelled as hazardous waste. With the adoption of the appropriate legislation this ash became secondary raw material with the potential usage. In this paper an analysis of the fly and bottom ash composition, which are disposed of in the power plant “Nikola Tesla A” landfill, is presented. Thirty samples, divided into three sets, were analyzed for trace elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn. The first and second set of samples were taken at the depth of 0.0-0.6 m, from cassette III, at the place of waste discharge (set I and in the centre of the cassette (set II.The third set of samples was taken from the same cassette spot but at the different depth. The estimated variations in quality within individual sets, as well as the comparison between sets I and II, were done. The repeatability of results by the depth of cassette (set III was also analyzed. The mixture consisting of 79.4% limestone, 17% clay, 0.5% sand, 0.55% iron ore, 0.55% from steel mill waste and 2% ash from the thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla A" was adopted as the reputable mixture for cement making. For concrete making, the same cement mixture was used but with 2.1% of the same ash material added. The results showed possibility of further fly and bottom ash use as the cement and concrete material.

  11. Studies on validation of atomic power development in NNC RK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is noted, that the principal organization that carries out scientific studies in support of the functioning and development of the atomic industrial-and-energy complex in Kazakhstan is the Republican State Enterprise 'National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan' (RSE NNC RK). At Institute of Nuclear Physics the studies on radiation material structure testing are performed, promising constructional material are investigated, which will be used in the construction of new generation nuclear reactors and/or in thermonuclear research and power installations. Fundamental studies in the field of fission physics, and the work to study and specify interaction cross-section of different energy neutrons are performed. Experimental investigations are carried out at the WWR-K research nuclear reactor, AGAVA neutrography facility, and at a ion cyclotron. To perform material testing studies for irradiated and radioactive materials the Institute has a complex of well-equipped radiation-protective chambers. At present, the solution of problems related to the safety of nuclear power reactors currently in operation or under development is very important for progress of atomic power engineering. At the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) NNC RK a number of unique electrothermal test benches and facilities were designed to investigate severe accidents at power reactors with ordinary water under pressure, including perspective fast reactors. The Institute conducts experiments on simulating and modelling core melt processes at nuclear reactors, and on interaction of melt with coolant, with reactor vessel materials, accident trap and biological shielding. The scientific works and investigations conducted in Kazakhstan are specifically important as these are directed to resolve environmental problems caused by the use of nuclear power for military and peaceful purposes. The NNC PK, in particularly, performs a large scope of research work for study of environmental situation at

  12. Seismic considerations in the design of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic design is one of the most important factors for the safety of nuclear power plants constructed in seismic areas. The various considerations in the design of atomic power plant structures and components to achieve high degree (near absolute) of safety during future probable earthquakes is described as follows: (a) determination of design earthquake parameters for SSE and OBE (b) fixing time history accelerograms and acceleration response spectra (c) mathematical modelling of the reactor building considering soil-structure interaction (d) deciding allowable stresses, damping factors and serviceability limits like drift, displacements and crack widths (e) tests for determining stiffness and damping characteristics of components in-situ before commissioning of plant. The main questions that arise under various items requiring further research investigations or development work are pointed out for discussion. (author)

  13. The Gyllingnaes investigation - a survey of altitudes in the Gylling postal area towards atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the altitudes of the local population towards the possible construction of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes in Denmark. It is primarily based on questionnaries, secondarily on interviews. To put the results in better perspective, similar investigations from 1974-1976 are also dealt with. It is concluded that the majority of the population are against atomic power; not only do they oppose the erection of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes but they oppose the building of atomic power stations in general. An attempt is made to characterize the ''typical'' opponent and the ''typical'' supporter of atomic power. (B.P.)

  14. Evolution of service to the power reactor community at the UFTR - beyond the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite-and-light-water-moderated modified argonaut-type reactor. Although currently fueled with highly enriched (93% 235U) fuel, analyses are nearly completed for conversion to low-enriched fuel. The core design consists of individual fuel boxes in each of which flow is constrained which is a relatively unique feature among existing nonpower reactors (NPRs), making measurement of hot channel factors and other core parameters a straightforward exercise for operator trainees. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kill in 1959, this NPR facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to the power reactor community. Because of its midsize power level, available flux levels limit utilization for radiation damage and other studies in which utilities have been served by other NPR facilities. As a result, UFTR service to the power reactor community has been concentrated in areas where the peak thermal flux (∼2 x 1012 n/cm2 ·s) at full power does not present a significant limitation

  15. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  16. Radioactive waste management at Narora atomic power station in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern society creates waste material, which have to be disposed of in nature without disturbing the ecological equilibrium. Hence effective waste management in all industries is a major concern today. Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) generates low and intermediate level liquid, solid and gaseous wastes during its operation and maintenance. The generation of wastes is controlled at the source itself. The wastes are managed by adequate and appropriate treatment before being released into the environment. Different types of liquid wastes are treated by chemical co-precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation, filtration, and dilution techniques. For handling and conditioning of solid wastes, volume reduction techniques such as incineration and baling are employed. The treated wastes are immobilised by incorporation into cement and polymer matrices. Gaseous waste is cleaned by passing through pre-filters and high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filters and diluted with inactive air prior to release to the atmosphere through a 145 m high stack to get further atmospheric dilution. Regular monitoring up to 30 km radius is carried out by fully equipped Environmental Survey and Micrometeorological Laboratory which functions independently under the Directorate of Health and Safety, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. So far, the annual maximum dose to the public around NAPS is reported to be 0.2 to 0.3% of limit of 1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A decade of experience has proved that present practices of nuclear waste management at Narora Atomic Power Station are quite safe and effective with respect to ecological equilibrium. (author)

  17. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle configurations to increase Internal Combustion Engines power output from cooling water waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on waste heat recovery of jacket cooling water from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Cooling water heat does not always find use due to its low temperature, typically around 90 °C, and usually is rejected to the ambient despite its high thermal power. An efficient way to take benefit from the ICE cooling water waste heat can be to increase the power output through suitable bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Thereby, this work simulates six configurations using ten non flammable working fluids and evaluates their performances in efficiency, safety, cost and environmental terms. Results show that the Double Regenerative ORC using SES36 gets the maximum net efficiency of 7.15%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 5.3%, although requires duplicating the number of main components and high turbine size. A more rigorous analysis, based on the system feasibility, shows that small improvements in the basic cycle provide similar gains compared to the most complex schemes proposed. So, the single Regenerative ORC using R236fa and the Reheat Regenerative ORC using R134a seem suitable cycles which provide a net efficiency of 6.55%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 4.9%. -- Highlights: • Suitable bottoming cycles for ICE cooling water waste heat recovery are studied. • Non flammable working fluids and various ORC configurations are evaluated. • Double regenerative cycle using SES36 is the most efficient configuration. • Regenerative and reheat regenerative ORCs seem feasible cycles. • Electrical efficiency of the ICE can be improved up to 5.3%

  18. Power Distribution at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Illumination through Affordable and Sustainable Solution of Gram Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nisha; Sarswat, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the socio -economic development, mainly due to the dependency of indispensable amenities on electricity. However, a matter of concern is developing country domestic power needs and inadequate supply. One of the cases is Indian subcontinent, where more than 50,000 villages still not have access to uninterrupted electric power. `Power theft' is a major challenge due to the lack of adequate energy supply and the financial constraints. Long distances, inaccurate and inflated electricity bills are the other issues lead to default on payments. Gram Power, a social enterprise, is providing a smart metering and affordable solution in areas where the extension of existing grid supply is economically not viable. India's first solar powered micro-grid (centralized array of solar panels) in Rajasthan was established by this initiative. The core innovation is a smart distribution technology that consists of smart meters with recharging facility and grid monitoring, to provide on-demand, theft-proof power through centralized servers with a pay-as-you-use schedule. The details of the changes, socio-economic transformation, and operational sustainability of such a community engagement model will be discussed in this study.

  19. Effect of Laser Power on Atom Probe Tomography of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parman, S. W.; Gorman, B.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.; Diercks, D.

    2011-12-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is an emerging analytical method that has the potential to produce nm-scale spatial resolution of atom positions with ppm-level detection limits. Until recently, APT has been limited to analysis of conducting samples due to the high pulsed electrical fields previously required. The recent development of laser-assisted APT now allows much lower laser powers to be used, opening the door to analysis of geologic minerals. The potential applications are many, ranging from diffusion profiles to the distribution of nano-phases to grain boundary chemical properties. We reported the first analysis of natural olivine using APT last year (Parman et al, 2010). While the spatial resolution was good (nm-scale), the accuracy of the compositional analysis was not. Two of the primary barriers to accurate ion identification in APT are: 1) Specimen overheating - This is caused by the interaction of the laser with the low thermal conductivity insulating specimens. Ions are assumed to have left the surface of the sample at the time the laser is pulsed during the analysis (laser pulse width = 12 ps). If the laser power is too high, the surface remains heated for an appreciable time (greater than 5 ns in some cases) after the laser pulse, causing atoms to field evaporate from the surface well after the laser pulse. Since they hit the detector later than the atoms that were released during the pulse, they are interpreted to be higher mass. Thus overheating appears in the analysis as a smearing of mass/charge peaks to higher mass/charge ratios (thermal tails). For well separated peaks, this is not a substantial problem, but for closely spaced peaks, overheating causes artificial mass interferences. 2) Molecular evaporation or clustering - This is also caused by overheating by the laser. Ideally, atoms are field evaporated individually from the surface of the cylindrical specimen. However, if the absorbed energy is high enough, clusters of atoms will be formed

  20. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a methyl group (CH{sub 3})-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at V{sub D} = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm{sup 2}/V·s, respectively.

  1. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring around Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (T.A.P.S.) is located on the Arabian Sea coast and uses enriched uranium as fuel and seawater as condenser coolant. It is India's first nuclear power plant. It was initially constructed with two boiling water reactor (BWR) units of 210 MWe each. The capacity of units 1 and 2 was reduced to 160 MWe later on due to technical difficulties. Units 1 and 2 were brought online for commercial operation on October 28, 1969. Two Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) (units 3 and 4) of 540 MW each was brought online for commercial operation on August 18, 2006 and September 12, 2005 respectively. The Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE), which was commissioned in 1976, is located about 1.3 Km East of TAPS. Presently, Tarapur is a multifacility site. In addition to TAPS and PREFRE, Waste Immobilization Plant (WIP), Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (A3F), Away from Reactor (APR) fuel storage facility and Tarapur Radwaste treatment plant (TRAP) are operating at the site. At TAPS, gaseous effluents are discharged through 110 m stack to atmosphere. The results of environmental gamma monitoring programme carried out at the taps sites in terms of annual average dose to public is given in this paper

  2. Production of pulsed large current with flat top and bottom in a large inductance loading. Primary research of a new sort of synchrotron magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the drive of synchrotron ring magnets as the main target, a new scheme is proposed for producing pulsed large currents with flat top and bottom in a large inductance loading. The main idea is to use two DC power supplies, one supplying the bottom current, and the two in series supplying the top current. One capacitor charged with a proper high voltage resonates with the loading inductance and discharges, which quickly drives the loading current from the bottom to the top. In the falling stage, this capacitor resonating with the loading, makes the current drop quickly to the bottom again, and recovers the magnetic energy stored in the loading inductance. Some thyristors and diodes are used for conducting or interrupting to realize the joining of the stages. Approximate formulae and calculation results of one concrete example are given

  3. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations

  4. Nuclear instrument upgrade at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 20 years of commercial operation, the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station decided to replace the original nuclear instrument system. The plant was motivated primarily by reliability and maintainability problems, the former attributed to equipment wearout and discrete component failure, and the latter to the unavailability of qualified spare parts, another effect of the equipment's age. In replacing the system, the plant also had to address current regulatory, design, and plant technical specification requirements, including physical separation, signal isolation, and changes in equipment qualification. This paper discusses the motivation for the system's replacement, the challenges to the plant engineers and equipment designers, the ways in which the new design met the challenges, the test results of the new system, and other potential benefits supported by the test results

  5. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  6. Performance Improvement of Combined Cycle Power Plant Based on the Optimization of the Bottom Cycle and Heat Recuperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenguo XIANG; Yingying CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Many F class gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plants are built in China at present because of less emission and high efficiency. It is of great interest to investigate the efficiency improvement of GTCC plant. A combined cycle with three-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is selected for study in this paper.In order to maximize the GTCC efficiency, the optimization of the HRSG operating parameters is performed. The operating parameters are determined by means of a thermodynamic analysis, i.e. the minimization of exergy losses. The influence of HRSG inlet gas temperature on the steam bottoming cycle efficiency is discussed. The result shows that increasing the HRSG inlet temperature has less improvement to steam cycle efficiency when it is over 590℃. Partial gas to gas recuperation in the topping cycle is studied. Joining HRSG optimization with the use of gas to gas heat recuperation, the combined plant efficiency can rise up to 59.05% at base load. In addition,the part load performance of the GTCC power plant gets much better. The efficiency is increased by 2.11% at 75% load and by 4.17% at 50% load.

  7. Plant life management experience at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin BWR reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are in their 38th year of successful operation and have generated more than 71 billion units of electric power. The plant has seen continuous evolution based on operating experience, feedback from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment. The Plant Life Management involved establishing an Ageing Management Programme (AMP). The AMP involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and/or replacement. The identified components were identified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. The components were further classified as not replaceable, difficult to replace and replaceable on routine basis. The various degradation mechanisms (Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Intra Granular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC), Trans Granular Stress Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC), Erosion Corrosion (EC), Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Radiation, etc.,) were identified for critical components, their method of detection, methodologies followed for In-Service inspection and developmental activities to assess the integrity of nuclear reactor vessels, piping and components for continued service. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. A comprehensive examination was carried out on Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) as part of plant ageing management programme

  8. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  9. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  10. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates five years of operation and test of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and discusses the current technical developments and future plans of the Shippingport programme. This programme is directed towards development of the basic technology of light-water reactors to provide the basis for potential reduction in the costs of nuclear power. The Shippingport reactor plant has operated for over five years and has been found to integrate readily into a utility system either as a base load or peak load unit. Plant component performance has been reliable. There have been no problems in contamination or waste disposal. Access to primary coolant components for maintenance has been good, demonstrating the integrity of fuel elements. Each of the three refuelling operations performed since start-up of Shippingport has required successively less time to accomplish. Recently, the third seed was refuelled in 32 working days, about one quarter the time required for the first refuelling. The formal requirements of personnel training, written administrative procedures, power plant manuals, etc., which have been a vital factor in the successful implementation of the Shippingport programme, are described. The results obtained from the comprehensive test programme carried out at Shippingport are compared with calculations, and good agreement has been obtained. Reactor core performance, plant stability, and response to load changes, fuel element and control rod performance, long-term effects such as corrosion and radiation level build-up, component performance, etc., are discussed in this paper. The principal objective of the current and future programmes of the Shippingport Project in advancing the basic technology of water-cooled reactors is discussed. This programme includes the continued operation of the Shippingport plant, and the development, design, manufacture and test operation of a long-life, highpower density second core - Core 2. At its

  11. Plant life management experience at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in the Asian continent has completed 36 years of successful operation and generated more than 70 Billion units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become much more safer plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant. All components of a Nuclear power plant experience some degradation with time. The Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation have operated for less than 21 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for several more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Life Management Programme involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and / or replacement. The identified components were classified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. Replacement of some important equipment like 3X50% capacity Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) with 3 X 100% capacity EDG, Salt Service Water (SSW) pumps, Control rod drive (CRD) pumps, Emergency Condenser tube bundles, Station battery has been done on the basis of condition monitoring and to obviate common cause failure and enhance the system reliability. Samples of Safety related cables were subjected to residual life assessment (RLA) and replacement action firmed up on the basis of the RLA findings. Condition survey of Main plant

  12. A study on laser power balance in a multi-step ionization process of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on rate equation a theoretical study on laser power balance in a resonance multi-step ionization process of atoms has been presented in this paper. The calculation results made for a typical three-level atom show that there is an optimization laser power assignment when the total pumping laser power is limited, and under the optimization laser power assignment the ionization probability of a three-level atom can reach its maximum value. This conclusion is very different from that obtained under saturation excitation conditions. The method used here can be applied to more complicated multi-step ionization process of atoms. (authors)

  13. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and 241Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of 239+240Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the 239+240Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher 239+240Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher 239+240Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area. - Highlights: • Pu concentration off the Japan coast before and after FDNPS accident was measured. • No regional differences were observed in 239+240Pu concentrations in surface waters. • 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were also nearly identical in seawaters. • There were no significant

  14. On manual stop of No.1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No. 1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co., is a BWR plant with rated output of 357 MWe, and while it was operated at the rated output, the functional test on high pressure water injection system was carried out on January 5, 1990. After 10:00 a.m., the flow rate of the high pressure water injection system pump decreased suddenly, and the diesel engine driving the pump stopped automatically. As the result of checkup, damage was observed in the speed increasing gear connecting the diesel engine and the pump. It is considered that long time is required for the restoration, therefore, the lowering of power output was begun at 0:00 a.m., January 10, and the reactor was manually shut down at 8:00 a.m.. (K.I.)

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000

  16. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999

  17. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  18. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  19. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  20. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations

  1. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity was measured regularly around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) since gaseous waste which contains tritium is being released through a 100 m high stack at KAPS site. Data collected shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-19.9 Bq x m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples at the site boundary (1.6 km) of KAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7 - 2.9 x 10-7 s x m-3. The scavenging ratio of KAPS site was found to be varying from 0.4 x 104 to 16.7 x 104 (Bq x m-3 rain water per Bq x m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from KAPS site was found to be 0.07 μSv x y-1. (author)

  2. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7-7.3 x 10-7 s m-3. The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 x 104 to 14.1 x 104 (Bq m-3 rain water per Bq m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08-0.21 μSv year-1. (author)

  3. Environmental radiological surveillance in retrospect for Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiological surveillance carried-out at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) site since 1992 is described in the paper. The radiation exposure of members of the public is mainly due to intake of tritium by ingestion and inhalation and skin absorption routes. The gaseous effluent containing tritiated water vapours is discharged through 100 m stack and low level liquid effluent along with cooling tower blow down water is discharged into Moticher lake. The dose through gaseous route is one third of the dose through aquatic route at this site. The irrigation canal outflowing from Moticher lake carrying diluted aquatic releases flow through WSW sector only, so the ingestion dose is mainly in this sector and contribution in other remaining fifteen sectors is lower by a factor of 4 to 5. The highest annual dose due to tritium during the period even in 1.6 to 5 km zone is 2.3 uSv during 1997, which is only 0.8 % of dose limit of 300 uSv/year apportioned by the station. The concentration of biologically significant long lived radionuclides in diet components like milk, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc that are locally produced and consumed by the general public, are at global fallout levels. The station operation practically does not contribute in this vector. (author)

  4. Burning issue of energy problem after Fukushima disaster of TEPCO's atomic power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikes of unanticipated enormous earthquake and subsequent tsunami brought unbelievable disaster in eastern Japan on March 11, 2012. In particular, collapse of cooling system of TEPCO's Fukushima atomic power stations resulted in IAEA-defined level7 accident including heavy radiation, hydrogen explosion -induced collapse of the building of power station No.2 and No.4 and melt through of nuclear pressure vessel No1.3.4 At an initial stage of the disaster, nobody knew precisely what happened at the power stations. According to the recent report of the national investigation committee, precise reason of the collapse of the cooling system whether it was induced by the strike of huge earthquake or tsunami is still unclear. Due to poor risk management of the government and TEPCO and closure of the precise disaster information, people became suspicious and nervous about the atomic power station. Fifty four atomic power stations have been constructed for these forty years in Japan. On last May 04, all the atomic power stations were shut down due to periodic inspection. However, restart of them became hot discussion. Although atomic power station was regarded as a powerful tool to reduce carbon dioxide several years ago, this situation after March 11 completely changed. In many countries which possess atomic power station, making a road map to develop recyclable energy is a burning issue. It should be noted that German spent about thirty years to declare atomic energy free society. Finally necessity of succession of technology of utilizing atomic power is emphasized. Politics on depending atomic power differs in each country. Therefore, study from Fukushima disaster should be widely used to prevent from unexpected accident of atomic power station.

  5. Atomic Information Technology Safety and Economy of Nuclear Power Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Taeho

    2012-01-01

    Atomic Information Technology revaluates current conceptions of the information technology aspects of the nuclear industry. Economic and safety research in the nuclear energy sector are explored, considering statistical methods which incorporate Monte-Carlo simulations for practical applications. Divided into three sections, Atomic Information Technology covers: • Atomic economics and management, • Atomic safety and reliability, and • Atomic safeguarding and security. Either as a standalone volume or as a companion to conventional nuclear safety and reliability books, Atomic Information Technology acts as a concise and thorough reference on statistical assessment technology in the nuclear industry. Students and industry professionals alike will find this a key tool in expanding and updating their understanding of this industry and the applications of information technology within it.

  6. The risks of atomic power in a globalized world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is back on the agenda, even in the papers submitted for this conference. BUND, a German conservationist organisation, is strictly against nuclear power. There is no reason for assuming that nuclear power will protect our climate; instead, it will prevent or delay the necessary steps that must be taken to ensure sustainable power supply on a long-term basis. Most important of all, the use of nuclear power is irresponsible. There is always the risk of another disaster, whether from peaceful or military uses, and there is no safe option for ultimate storage of high-activity nuclear waste. (orig.)

  7. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  8. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Bottom heating system using geothermal power for propagation. Final report, Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to develop and study a bottom-heating system in a greenhouse utilizing geothermal energy to aid germination and speed growth of palms. Source of heat was geothermal brine from HGP-A well. The project was successful; the heat made a dramatic difference with certain varieties, such as Areca catechu (betelnut) with 82% germination with heat, zero without. For other varieties, germination rates were much closer. Quality of seed is important. Tabs, figs.

  9. A study of public acceptance of construction of atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2010, Basic Energy Plan was approved in a Cabinet meeting. It says that Japan aims to construct more than 14 atomic power plants by 2030. Today, there are 12 plans of construction of atomic power plant, but it is hard to say that their plans easily come off. That's because public acceptance of atomic power plant is low in Japan, for example local residents wage opposition campaigns. This study conducts a survey in the form of a questionnaire and analyzes it by Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). Analytic Hierarchy Process is a structured technique for dealing with complex decisions. A questionnaire using AHP is very easy to answer and analyze. This survey was conducted in 2 areas. First area is Hohoku-cho, Yamaguchi Pref. that had a plan of construction of atomic power plant and the plan was demolished by opposition campaigns. Second area is Kaminoseki-cho, Yamaguchi Pref. that has a plan of construction of atomic power plant now and the plan is working order. Public acceptance can be calculated from survey data of 2 areas, and it helps to understand why first area disapproved a plan of atomic power plant and second area approves it. We consider a model to analyze public acceptance. (author)

  10. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  11. Atom for peace, code for war. The technology policy of the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955-1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation investigates the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955 - 1970. During these years a national arrangement for atomic energy technology evolved. The foundations of the Finnish atomic energy policy; the creation of basic legislation and the first governmental bodies, were laid between 1955 - 1965. In the late 1960's, the necessary technological and political decisions were made in order to purchase the first commercial nuclear reactor. A historical narration of this process is seen in the international context of 'atoms for peace' policies and Cold War history in general. The geopolitical position of Finland made it necessary to become involved in the balanced participation in international scientific-technical exchange and assistive nuclear programs. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 categorically denied Finland acquisition of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, from the 'Geneva year' of 1955, the emphasis was placed on peaceful purposes for atomic energy as well as on the education of national professionals in Finland. An initiative for the governmental atomic energy commission came from academia but the ultimate motive behind it was an anticipated structural change in the supply of national energy. Economically exploitable hydro power resources were expected to be built within ten years and atomic power was seen as a promising and complementing new energy technology. While importing fuels like coal was out of the question, because of scarce foreign currency, domestic uranium mineral deposits were considered as a potential source of nuclear fuel. Nevertheless, even then nuclear energy was regarded as just one of the possible future energy options. In the mid-1960 s a bandwagon effect of light water reactor orders was witnessed in the United States and soon elsewhere in the world. In Finland, two separate invitations for bids for nuclear reactors were initiated. This study explores at length both their preceding grounds and later phases. An

  12. Power generation from a 7700C heat source by means of a main steam cycle, a topping closed gas cycle and an ammonia bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For power generap)on, steam cycles make an efficient use of medium temperature heat sources. They can be adapted to dry cooling, higher power ratings and output increase in winter by addition of an ammonia bottoming cycle. Active development is carried out in this field by ''Electricite de France''. It is shown that a satisfactory result, for heat sources of about 770 C, is obtained with a topping glosed gas cycle of moderate power rating, rejecting its waste heat into the main steam cygle. Attention has to be paid to the gas turbine cycle waste heat recovery and to the coupling of the gas turbine and steam cycles. This concept drastically reduces the importance of new technology components. 17 refs

  13. Analysis of the integrated characteristics of the CPS (combined power system) of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle and a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the integrated characteristics of a CPS (combined power system) consisting of a topping diesel engine and a bottoming ORC (organic Rankine cycle). Two models (an integrated and a cascaded CPS model) for the same CPS have been developed based on the experimental data. The results show that the process of integrating the ORC causes a substantial decrease in the power output of the ICE subsystem, this integration outweighs the corresponding power output increasing from the ORC subsystem, and the overall thermal efficiency of the integrated CPS model is higher than that of the standalone ICE system model but lower than that of the cascaded CPS model, which can be determined from the pressure drop on the exhaust gas side of the ORC evaporator and is reflected in the overall thermodynamic performance. Moreover, the matching characteristics of the heat-transfer and fluid flow conditions in a fixed sized evaporator are analysed in the integrated CPS model. The results show that when the intake airflow rate decreases, the temperature of the exhaust gas exiting the evaporator decreases to the minimum allowed temperature, which is below the dew point, and this low-temperature might cause corrosion problems in the subsequent components. - Highlights: • Two ICE-ORC CPS models are developed based on experimental data. • Integrated performances are studied at different intake airflow rates. • Influence of the bottoming ORC on the toping ICE is analysed. • The coupling of the fluid flow and the heat-transfer in evaporator is calculated

  14. Influence of electron motion in target atom on stopping power for low-energetic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the stopping power was calculated, representing the electrons of the target atom as an assembly of quantum oscillators. It was considered that the electrons in the atoms have some velocity before interaction with the projectile, which is the main contribution of this paper. The influence of electron velocity on stopping power for different projectiles and targets was investigated. It was found that the velocity of the electron stopping power has the greatest influence at low energies of the projectile.

  15. The truth about atomic power plants. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book discusses - the risk of nuclear power, - the dangers of population exposure, - hushed-up or belittled accidents and catastrophes, - the increasing radioactive pollution of our environment, - the hazard of nuclear cooling water to our rivers - blue algare toxins in our rivers. The strongest of all known poisons, - dangers to our drinking water, - necessary measures to protect the population. (orig./HP)

  16. General Atomic Company fusion experimental power reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a two-year, conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) are presented. For this study, the primary objectives of the EPR are to obtain plasma ignition conditions and produce net electrical power. The design features a Doublet plasma configuration with a major radius of 4.5 meters. The average plasma beta is 10 percent which yields a thermonuclear power level of 410 MW during a 105 second burn period. With a duty factor of 0.84, the gross electrical output is 124 MW(e) while the net output is 37 MW(e). The design features a 25 cm thick, helium cooled, modular, stainless steel blanket with a 1 cm thick, thermal radiation-cooled silicon carbide first wall. Sufficient shielding is provided to permit contact maintenance outside the shield envelop within 24 hours after shutdown. An overall facility concept was developed, including a superheated steam cycle power conversion system. Preliminary cost estimates and construction schedules were also developed

  17. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  18. Simulation of Chromium Atom Deposition Pattern in a Gaussain Laser Standing Wave with Different Laser Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-Tao; ZHU Bao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional deposition of a neutral chromium atomic beam focused by a near-resonant Gaussian standing-laser field is discussed by using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta type algorithm. The deposition pattern of neutral chromium atoms in a laser standing wave with different laser power is discussed and the simulation result shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a nanometer stripe is 115nm and the contrast is 2.5:1 with laser power 3.93mW; the FWHM is 0.Snm and the contrast is 27:1 with laser power 16mW, the optimal laser power; but with laser power increasing to 50mW, the nanometer structure forms multi-crests and the quality worsens quickly with increasing laser power.

  19. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  20. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  1. 78 FR 63506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... northern population of the bog turtle as threatened under the ESA in 1997 (62 FR 59605). The FWS has not... under the ESA's predecessor, the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 (32 FR 4001). The FWS has not designated critical habitat for the species in Pennsylvania (41 FR 41914). Areas of the PBAPS...

  2. Advertising the atom: federal promotion of nuclear power, 1953-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations strategies of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the nuclear power industry reveal both public and official perceptions of nuclear power and the social uses of technology in general during the first 15 years after passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The relation between nuclear promotion and regulation also helps explain the environmental crisis of the 1969-1984 years. Project Plowshare coincides roughly with the early promotional years, and provides a case study of the relation of regulatory standards to promotion in AEC policymaking. The author examines the environmentalists challenge to nuclear power that emerged in 1969 alongside government and industry response. He concludes with an assessment of the present state of federal nuclear power policy and of the nuclear power industry

  3. Effort to grapple with improvement of security and reliability of nuclear power plant. Actions of the Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, Tokai No.2 reactor was shut down automatically. Three of emergency diesel generators worked automatically at loss-of-offsite-power and began to work the cooling system of reactor. The reactor could be kept stable and safe in cold state by management of power from the gas turbine electric generator and power source car. Actions of Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) for cold shutdown and Tsunami were stated. Inspection results after the earthquake and testimony of staff was described. Countermeasure of improvement of safety of nuclear power station is explained by ensuring of power source and water supply, crisis management system, countermeasure of accident, ensuring, and training of workers, and action for better understanding of reliance. (S.Y.)

  4. Atom and the fault: experts, earthquakes, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A narrative account of the geology expert's role in an environmental controversy focuses on the problem of siting nuclear power plants near geologic faults and the conflicting testimony delivered by equally sincere consultants. The author examines the problem of faults and their significance to reactor safety, and concludes that part of the controversy and regulatory indecision are due to the lack of an accepted scientific standard for risk. He explores the historical and social role of the principal professional groups (geologists and engineers) in the debate, and concludes that concerns at some sites were warranted. Scientific advocacy, he feels, serves a useful function in the hearing process, and that the representation for intervenors has been generally good. 18 references, 10 figures

  5. High-performance laser power feedback control system for cold atom physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Lu; Thibault Vogt; Xinxing Liu; Xiaoji Zhou; Xuzong Chen

    2011-01-01

    @@ A laser power feedback control system that features fast response,large-scale performance,low noise,and excellent stability is presented.Some essential points used for optimization are described.Primary optical lattice experiments are given as examples to show the performance of this system.With these performance characteristics,the power control system is useful for applications in cold atom physics and precision measurements.%A laser power feedback control system that features fast response, large-scale performance, low noise, and excellent stability is presented. Some essential points used for optimization are described. Primary optical lattice experiments are given as examples to show the performance of this system. With these performance characteristics, the power control system is useful for applications in cold atom physics and precision measurements.

  6. Influence of laser power on deposition of the chromium atomic beam in laser standing wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional deposition of collimated Cr atomic beam focused by a near-resonant Gaussian standing-laser field with wavelength of 425.55 nm is examined from particle-optics approach by using an adaptive step size,fourth-order Runge-Kutta type algorithm.The influence of laser power on deposition of atoms in laser standing wave is discussed and the simulative result shows that the FWHM of nanometer stripe is 102 nm and contrast is 2:1 with laser power equal to 3 mW,the FWHM is 1.2 nm and contrast is 32:1 with laser power equal to 16 mW,but with laser power increase,equal to 50 mW,the nonmeter structure forms the multi-crests and exacerbates.

  7. Fuel-element inspection stand in the cooling pond of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel-element inspection stand has been built in the cooling pool of the second power unit at the Ignalina Atomic Power Plant for the purpose of monitoring fuel elements unloaded from the reactor and for performing research involving the acquisition and analysis of statistically significant information concerning the reliability and efficiency of fuel elements and fuel bundles. The uses and specifications of the fuel-element inspection stand are given in this paper. 1 ref., 4 figs

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station - a retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 72 MW Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) first achieved criticality in December 1957 and was operated thereafter for almost 25 years. During the period October 1984 to December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) carried out the Shippingport Decommissioning Project, marking the world's first commercial sized nuclear power plant decommissioning. The experience gained from this project established the foundation for engineering, planning, and cost estimating for future decommissioning projects

  9. Tape Transfer Atomization Patterning of Liquid Alloys for Microfluidic Stretchable Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape trans...

  10. 77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI... also holds a 10 CFR part 72 general license for storage of spent fuel and greater than Class C......

  11. 75 FR 33853 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance of... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, ] Office of Nuclear Material Safety and..., to store spent nuclear fuel under a general license in an independent spent fuel storage...

  12. 77 FR 33005 - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI... also holds a 10 CFR part 72 general license which allows storage of spent fuel and greater......

  13. Nuclear power. Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1990-2002. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs

  14. Performance of turbine auxiliaries and service systems at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the turbine auxiliaries and service systems at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, India are described. Some of the specific problems encountered in connection with the feed water, turbine governing and common services like compressed air, chilled water, water treatment and chlorination systems are outlined. (K.B.)

  15. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  16. Measurement of uranium and thorium in coal fly ash and bottom ash samples from a thermal power plant by using a high resolution semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low background γ-ray detection system has been constructed for measuring the natural radioactivity in coal samples. It is based on a high-purity Ge detector mounted within a massive lead shield which reduces the normal background level by a factor of about 20. This makes it possible to measure the low intensity γ-rays from the natural radioactivity present in the samples. Using this equipment uranium and thorium concentrations in coal fly ash and bottom ash samples from a coal fired power plant located at Bathinda, India have been measured. The uranium activity found in the samples is within the range of concentrations observed in other countries while the thorium activity is found to be somewhat higher. (Author)

  17. Wireless power transfer based on magnetic metamaterials consisting of assembled ultra-subwavelength meta-atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Li, Y. H.; Gao, N.; Yang, F.; Chen, Y. Q.; Fang, K.; Zhang, Y. W.; Chen, H.

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, a potential way to transfer power wirelessly based on magnetic metamaterials (MMs) assembled by ultra-subwavelength meta-atoms is proposed. Frequency-domain simulation and experiments are performed for accurately obtaining effective permeability of magnetic metamaterials. The results demonstrate that MMs possess great power for enhancing the wireless power transfer efficiency between two non-resonant coils. Further investigations on the magnetic-field distribution demonstrate that a large-area flattened magnetic field in near range can be effectively realized, exhibiting great flexibility in assembling.

  18. Application study of the project management on the nuclear power projects in China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article introduced the actions of foreign and domestic nuclear power technical services in China Institute of Atomic Energy, the project management theory is applied to the organization, implementation and control of the nuclear power projects. It is analyzed the quality, schedule , investment etc of nuclear power projects, the improving measures and suggestions are bring forward on the project management organization, quality assurance, reduce cost etc. It will raise its nuclear power project management level in China Institute of Atomic Energy. (author)

  19. Mineralogy and chemical composition of technogenic soils (Technosols developed from fly ash and bottom ash from selected thermal power stations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzarowicz Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mineral and chemical composition of technogenic soils (Technosols developed from fly ash and bottom ash from power plants in which bituminous coal and lignite was combusted. The mineral composition of the “fresh” wastes (i.e. fly ash and bottom ash and soil samples derived from them was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The chemical composition (content of major elements was determined using ICP-AES method. Quartz, mullite, and amorphous substances (glass predominated in the mineral composition of wastes after bituminous coal combustion. Magnetite was also found there. Soils developed from wastes after bituminous coal combustion contained all above mentioned minerals inherited from fly ash and bottom ash. Moreover, small amounts of secondary calcite were identified. In some soil horizons containing large amounts of inherited magnetite, secondary iron oxides and oxyhydroxides (goethite and lepidocrocite also occurred. Quartz predominated in the mineral composition of the “fresh” wastes after lignite combustion. Relatively small amounts of iron oxides (magnetite and hematite were also found there. In “fresh” fly ash, apart from minerals mentioned above, anhydrite and calcium oxide (lime was identified. Soils developed from wastes after lignite combustion contained inherited quartz, magnetite, and hematite. Furthermore, calcite which sometimes was a predominating mineral in certain soil horizons occurred. Moreover, sulphates (gypsum, bassanite, and ettringite, and vaterite (a polymorph of Ca carbonate were also found in soils. Silicon predominated among major elements in “fresh” ashes after bituminous coal combustion and soil derived from them followed by Al, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, Ti, Na, P, and Mn. On the other hand, the contents of major elements in the samples (ashes and soils after lignite combustion can be arranged as follows: Si, Ca, Fe, Al, Mg

  20. Plasma power source based on a catalytic reaction of atomic hydrogen measured by water bath calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy was recorded on microwave discharges of helium with 2% hydrogen. Novel emission lines were observed with energies of q x 13.6 eV, where q=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 or these discrete energies less 21.2 eV corresponding to inelastic scattering of these photons by helium atoms due to excitation of He (1s2) to He (1s12p1). The average hydrogen atom temperature was measured to be 180-210 eV versus ∼3 eV for pure hydrogen. The electron temperature Te for helium-hydrogen was 30,500±5% K compared to 7400±5% K for pure helium. Dominant He+ emission and an intensification of the plasma emission observed when He+ was present with atomic hydrogen demonstrated the role of He+ as a catalyst. Using water bath calorimetry, excess power was observed from the helium-hydrogen plasma compared to control krypton plasma. For example, for an input of 8.1 W, the total plasma power of the helium-hydrogen plasma measured by water bath calorimetry was 30.0 W corresponding to 21.9 W of excess power in 3 cm3. The excess power density and energy balance were high, 7.3 W/cm3 and -2.9x104 kJ/mole H2, respectively

  1. Scenarios for the popular initiatives 'Strom ohne Atom' (Electricity without nuclear power) and 'Moratorium Plus'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible effects of two Swiss Popular Initiatives which called for the shutdown of nuclear power stations in Switzerland ('Strom ohne Atom'), the restriction of their operating life and the abstention from building new atomic power stations ('Moratorium Plus'). The report examines the energetic and financial consequences of the initiatives. The approaches used for the analysis are described and the energy policy actions required to avoid gaps in the supply of power after the possible closure of the power stations are discussed. Apart from a reference scenario (long-term utilisation of nuclear energy), scenarios for power generation using co-generation are presented. The problems posed by the resulting CO2 and NOx emissions are discussed. Further scenarios review the contribution to be made by renewable sources of energy and increasing energy-conservation efforts. The costs of the shutdown of nuclear power stations are discussed and the results of a sensitivity analysis are presented

  2. Application of paste technology to mitigate the dust emissions from handling of fly and bottom ash at coal fired power plant : CGTEE in Candiota, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Marques, M.E. [Golder Associates Peru, Lima (Peru); Lima, H. [Golder Associates Brazil, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mandl, B.; Francoeur, R.; Palkovits, F. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Blois, R. [Companhia de Geracao Termica de Energia Electrica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a method developed to reduce dust emissions generated in a fly ash handling procedure used at a thermal power plant located in the south of Brazil. The fly ash is collected in dry form at several locations in the plant and pneumatically conveyed to storage silos, where it is moistened with water in a mixer, loaded into dump trucks and deposited in a disposal area near a surface coal mine. The new solution created low density fly ash slurry in localized mixing tanks within the power plant. The low density slurry is pumped to an ash conditioning plant where the slurry is then mixed with the bottom ash, dewatered, and densified. The densified slurry is then pumped to an adjacent coal mine disposal site in order to be used as backfill in mined areas. The proposed method will significantly reduce dust emissions both inside and outside the plant, and will substantially reduce truck traffic at the mine. The method will reduce the environmental impacts associated with fly ash dust emissions in the region. 8 figs.

  3. Analysis of 2015 Meteorological Data from the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis) in West Miffin, PA is required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from its facility by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by Bettis to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. The Bettis facility has an on-site meteorological tower which takes atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from the site tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to process the on-site meteorological data for the calendar year 2015.

  4. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1999. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1999. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  5. Experience and improvements in performance of condensers of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condenser Cooling Water system of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station is Open Recirculating type. Water is cooled by Natural Draft Cooling Tower with Langelier's Index showing scaling tendency of water. During Unit operation condenser vacuum was dropping gradually and it was not possible to operate plant at full power. Experiments and investigations revealed that hard-adherent calcium-carbonate scale deposition was the main cause for this. Mechanical hydro jet cleaning, chemical descaling of condenser tubes and organophosphonate based continuous cooling water treatment improved the condenser performance and desired out put. (author)

  6. Suitability of using atomic energy at existing thermal electrical power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosach, V.G.; Rogovoi, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    A thermal concept is described for the simultaneous use of atomic and organic fuels at existing electrical thermal power plants. Equations are presented for the mass and heat balances, from which a preliminary calculation of this thermal concept was carried out. The results indicate that it is efficient to use a nuclear reactor at thermal electrical power plants, as a result of which up to 50% of the total heat is produced by nuclear fuel, while the consumption of organic is decreased by almost a factor of two in this case. 4 figures, 3 references.

  7. Features of a choice of radiating shielding for planet atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of analytical studies aimed at choosing a radiation shielding for planet atomic power stations (APS) are presented. The shielding based on thermoemission reactor of space nuclear power system YaEhU-100, its thermal power 0.4-1.5 MW, was considered for a Martian APS, the YaEhU-25, -50, its thermal power 0.36 and 0.6 MW, respectively, being intended for the Lunar one. The weight-dimensional characteristics of the radiation shielding for diverse methods of APS arrangement on the planet, i.e. either directly on the surface with imported shielding, or with a diking made of local ground, or in a preliminarily prepared shaft, were obtained

  8. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks

  9. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for urgent safety measures for atomic power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to practice these provisions. It is applied to the delivery of subsidies for the expenses of the measures taken beforehand for the security of inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities in the emergency time of hazard or the danger of the occurrence of hazard by such facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities and others, prefecture concerned, cities, towns and villages concerned, emergency communication network arrangement business, emergency medical facility arrangement business, business of holding hazard prevention course and expected date of beginning operation. Directors of ministries and agencies concerned deliver, if necessary, to prefectures concerned subsidies for all or a part of the expenses needed for the businesses of emergency communication network arrangement, emergency medical facility arrangement and holding hazard prevention course. The terms of delivery and the amounts of subsidies vary according to the kinds of businesses. Prefectures which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file to the director of the ministry or agency concerned the specified application attaching the operation plans of businesses and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities, etc. The decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of businesses and other related matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  10. Implementation of condition-based maintenance at the Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques have been successfully used in on a variety of equipments in US nuclear power plants for the past twenty years. These techniques have had the benefit of improving overall plant reliability and availability while at the same time reducing maintenance costs by as much as fifty percent. The typical pay-back period for the implementation of CBM is less than one year. Emergency diesel engines are one specific piece of equipment for which CBM has been particularly successful in US nuclear power plants. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement CBM for rotating components three years ago and, also has recently begun to apply DG diagnostic techniques at three nuclear power plants with the technical support by MPR associates, Inc. The application of CBM to Japanese nuclear power plants is similar to US nuclear power plants but differences in the regulatory structure and current maintenance practices in Japan results in some unique challenges. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the experience with these methods at US nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Interaction of antiprotons with Rb atoms and a comparison of antiproton stopping powers of the atoms H, Li, Na, K, and Rb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Fischer, Nicolas; Saenz, Alejandro

    Ionization and excitation cross sections as well as electron-energy spectra and stopping powers of the alkali metal atoms Li, Na, K, and Rb colliding with antiprotons were calculated using a time-dependent channel-coupling approach. An impact-energy range from 0.25 to 4000 keV was considered. The...... target atoms are treated as effective one-electron systems using a model potential. The results are compared with calculated cross sections for antiproton-hydrogen atom collisions....

  12. The future of nuclear power: An IAEA perspective. Address at the German atomic forum, Berlin, 27 January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his address at the German Atomic Forum (Berlin, 27 January 2000), the Director General of the IAEA presented a survey of the prospects for nuclear power as seen from the perspective of the IAEA. The speech focussed on the following aspects: nuclear power and world energy requirements, nuclear and radiation safety, competitiveness of nuclear power, and public support

  13. Generation of neutral atomic beams utilizing photodetachment by high power diode laser stacks

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, A P; Grussie, F; Koenning, T P; Miller, K A; de Ruette, N; Stützel, J; Savin, D W; Urbain, X; Kreckel, H

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of high power diode laser stacks to photodetach fast hydrogen and carbon anions and produce ground term neutral atomic beams. We achieve photodetachment efficiencies of $\\sim$7.4\\% for H$^-$ at a beam energy of 10\\,keV and $\\sim$3.7\\% for C$^-$ at 28\\,keV. The diode laser systems used here operate at 975\\,nm and 808\\,nm, respectively, and provide high continuous power levels of up to 2\\,kW, without the need of additional enhancements like optical cavities. The alignment of the beams is straightforward and operation at constant power levels is very stable, while maintenance is minimal. We present a dedicated photodetachment setup that is suitable to efficiently neutralize the majority of stable negative ions in the periodic table.

  14. Generation of neutral atomic beams utilizing photodetachment by high power diode laser stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A P; Grussie, F; Bruhns, H; de Ruette, N; Koenning, T P; Miller, K A; Savin, D W; Stützel, J; Urbain, X; Kreckel, H

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of high power diode laser stacks to photodetach fast hydrogen and carbon anions and produce ground term neutral atomic beams. We achieve photodetachment efficiencies of ∼7.4% for H(-) at a beam energy of 10 keV and ∼3.7% for C(-) at 28 keV. The diode laser systems used here operate at 975 nm and 808 nm, respectively, and provide high continuous power levels of up to 2 kW, without the need of additional enhancements like optical cavities. The alignment of the beams is straightforward and operation at constant power levels is very stable, while maintenance is minimal. We present a dedicated photodetachment setup that is suitable to efficiently neutralize the majority of stable negative ions in the periodic table. PMID:26628128

  15. Intertidal ecology of the sea shore near Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys were carried out between March 1969 and August 1970 to study the fauna and flora in the littoral zone of the sea shore near the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The beach adjacent to the Station is rocky with a number of tidal pools inhabited by a variety of organisms whereas the beach to the south is mostly sandy and barren except for a small rocky stretch. The tidal range is 6 m and over a mile of beach is exposed during low tide. The near shore currents are very strong and have a clear northsouth oscillation with the changing tides. Less Atherina sp. fry were available near the Power Station in March 1970 than during the previous year. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, including the effect of heated discharges on biota. The need is also emphasized to monitor the biota (Plankton, Nekton and Benthos) systematically for content of fission products released by the Power Station. (auth.)

  16. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants

  17. Tape Transfer Atomization Patterning of Liquid Alloys for Microfluidic Stretchable Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times.

  18. Tape transfer atomization patterning of liquid alloys for microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times. PMID:25673261

  19. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

  20. Ministry Ordinance determining the technical standard concerning atomic energy facilities for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Ministry Ordinance shall be applied to the electric works installed for generating power utilizing atomic energy as motive power. In case there is some possibility that reactor facilities and steam turbines driven by primary or secondary cooling material may suffer damage by disaster, fire, earthquake and vibration, protective measures should be taken. Barriers have to be made to prevent illegal trespasses. Reactor facilities should meet several requirements. Safety valves should be mounted at specified places. Safety facilities should be installed. The material and structure of containers and pipes belonging to reactor facilities should meet separate standards. The containers, pipes and main valves belonging to reactor facilities should pass pressure-resistant test. Primary cooling material should maintain necessary physical and chemical properties under the most strict conditions of pressure, temperature and radiation. In an atomic energy power station, should be provided an apparatus for circulating primary cooling material with the capacity capable of removing the heat generated inside a pressure vessel of a reactor. In said station, a core cooling device for emergency must be provided as well as measuring instruments, warning apparatuses and emergency stop apparatuses. (Rikitake, Y.)

  1. Peach Bottom 2 and 3 regenerative heat exchangers: chemical decontamination and solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977, Dow Nuclear Services, under contract to Philadelphia Electric Company, chemically decontaminated the regenerative heat exchangers at the Peach Bottom 2 and 3 Atomic Power Station. The purpose of the decontamination was to reduce the radiation levels associated with the subsequent heat exchanger repairs to be performed by PECO maintenance. Samples of piping from the regenerative heat exchangers were analyzed at Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan, and solvent testing and selection was performed. Nuclear Solvent-1 was selected. Temporary equipment, piping and radiation shielding was installed to perform all necessary functions safely. All designs and procedures were approved by the Peach Bottom Plant Operations Review Committee. The chemical decontamination removed 10.6 curies of radioactive material in the case of Peach Bottom 3 and similarly at Peach Bottom 2, 6.3 curies of material was removed. Radioactive waste generated by decontamination that could not be treated by existing facilities was successfully solidified by the Dow Solidification process

  2. Refurbishment and replacement efforts to mitigate ageing at Tarapur Atomic Power Station - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) - a twin Boiling Water Reactor unit and India's first Atomic Power Station was commissioned in April 1969, and was declared commercial in November 1969. Since then the light water moderated, low enriched uranium BWR with its demonstrated reliability and favourable economics is playing a vital role as a reliable source of power for the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The Power Station played a key role as a technology demonstrator validating the nuclear energy as safe and environmentally benign and economically viable alternate source of power generation in India. Built in the late sixties with state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS has further evolved to be a safe plant with renovation and refurbishment efforts. Ageing Management Programme is in place at TAPS. Identification of systems, structures and components (SSCs) important to safety and availability, assessment of ageing degradation of these SSCs and mitigation through repair, replacement and refurbishment based on the investigations have enhanced the plant safety and reliability. The station's operating experience and feedback from BWRs operating abroad have also given inputs to Ageing Management Programme. A good number of major equipment have been replaced to mitigate ageing. Primary system piping, process heat exchangers, feed water heaters, turbine extraction system piping, turbine blades, emergency condenser tube bundles, various pumps, station batteries, electrical cables, circuit breakers etc. are some of them. Obsolescence is another aspect of ageing of a plant. Replacement of obsolete equipment and components particularly in C and I is another area where much headway has been made. Replacement and refurbishment of equipment have been done after detailed study and analysis so that current standards are met. Retrofitting the indigenously developed and fabricated equipment in a compact plant like TAPS was a difficult task and required lot of

  3. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations

  5. Power-law temperature dependence of collision broadening and shift of atomic and molecular rovibronic lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical phase-shift theory of spectral line shapes is used to examine various aspects of the applicability of the power-law relations to the description of temperature variations of pressure broadening and shifting coefficients of the isolated atomic and rovibronic molecular lines in a wide temperature range. Model calculations performed for potentials of the Lennard-Jones type indicate that the temperature dependence exponents of the broadening and shifting can be related to the details of the intermolecular interactions. It is shown that they are sensitive to the range of temperatures assumed in the fit and therefore extreme care must be taken when the power-law temperature dependence is used as a scaling law. The problems of the failure of the power-law and of variations in the sign of pressure shift coefficients with increasing temperature are discussed. Very good fits of Frost's empirical formula for temperature dependence of pressure shift to the theoretical ones are obtained. -- Highlights: ► Classical theory of line shapes is used to examine the power-law relations. ► The broadening and shifting exponents depend on the range of temperatures in the fit. ► Extreme care must be taken when using the power-law dependence as a scaling law

  6. On-line occupational dose data management using computer software programme at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software package for On-line Occupational Dose Control and Direct Reading Dosimeter Issue/Return has been developed and made operational at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station for the first time on round-the-clock basis. It covers almost all the aspects of dose management in a Nuclear Power Plant viz. information on latest dose status of radiation workers, updating of dose files, Direct Reading Dosimeter (DRD), issue and return, date wise dose history of an individual, outstanding DRD list, monthly DRD dose report, job wise and section wise manrem report, internal dose calculation due to tritium uptake etc. The package has considerably reduced work load in Shift Health Physics Office by providing instantaneous information about dose status of a radiation worker. It has eliminated manual addition of doses for a large number of radiation workers. On-line availability of up-to-date dose status of each radiation worker has been very effective in exposure control at the station. (author)

  7. Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generator tube damage and water chemistry control (1965--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four stainless steel tubed steam generators in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station were replaced in 1964 with larger, horizontal, NiCrFe Alloy 600 tubed units consistent with a power uprating of the plant. Each of the four Alloy 600 tubed units experienced tube leakage attributed to corrosion by water treatment chemicals (sodium phosphates) which concentrated locally on the tubes in inadequately flushed crevices. Corrective and preventive actions include tube plugging, flow blockage, conversion to all-volatile (hydrazine-morpholine) chemistry and replacement of the two steam generators with the straight tube design. Eddy current inspection after four years of all-volatile chemistry use showed a diminished rate of crevice corrosion and no tube denting

  8. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from

  9. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation

  10. Safety upgradation at Tarapur Atomic Power Station 1 and 2 after Fukushima Daiichi experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), one of the the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in world has completed 44 years of successful operation and generated more than 85 Billion Units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become much more safer plant due to upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and regular reviews of design basis and safety analysis. TAPS Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) are designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation. So far, the reactors have operated for less than 27 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for several more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Life Management programme of the system, structures and components is in place to ensure that integrity and functional capability are maintained at par with current standards of safety throughout the service life of the plant. The consistent high performance of the plant and continuous stability in operation indicates its ability to continue in operation for many more years. Engineering work is in final stage for Containment Filterted Venting System and site work will soon start for Containment Pre Inerting System. This paper highlights the details of above efforts taken at TAPS 1 and 2, Post Fukushima Daiichi Incident

  11. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light-water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants. The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has two boiling water reactor (BWR) units, each with a capacity of 1150 MW(e). The reactors are each housed in a Mark I containment. Peach Bottom Unit 2 analyzed here, was studied before as part of WASH-1400. A number of plant features tend to be important in determining the nature and frequency of the core melt scenarios for Peach Bottom. These features include the recent above-average diesel generator performance history, the single emergency service water system for both units, the numerous emergency core cooling systems, recent procedure modifications and the low volume containment

  12. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell

  13. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoudakis, J.; Higginbotham, A.B.

    1976-04-01

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell.

  14. IAEA Leads Operational Safety Mission to Rajasthan Atomic Power Station 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today completed a review of safety practices at Units 3 and 4 of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhata. The team noted a series of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions to reinforce safety practices. The IAEA assembled the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) at the request of the Government of India. Led by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, the team performed an in-depth operational safety review from 29 October to 14 November 2012. The team was comprised of experts from Canada, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the IAEA. The team conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the Power Plant. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; Emergency Planning and Preparedness; and Severe Accident Management. The OSART team identified a number of good practices of the plant. These will be shared in due course by the IAEA with the global nuclear industry for consideration. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant's safety culture cultivates a constructive work environment and a sense of accountability among the Power Plant personnel, and gives its staff the opportunity to expand skills and training; - The Power Plant's Public Awareness Programme provides educational opportunities to the local community about nuclear and radiation safety; - The Power Plant has a Management of Training and Authorization system for effective management of training activities; and - The Power Plant uses testing facilities and mockups to improve the quality of maintenance work and to reduce radiation doses. The OSART

  15. Outline of renovation for Mihama Public Relations (PR) Center on atomic power generation and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The Mihama PR Center of Kansai Electric Power Co. on atomic power generation and nuclear applications is now under entire renovation. It was constructed accompanying the construction of No. 1 unit in Mihama Nuclear Power Station, and opened in November, 1967, as the only PR facility of open house system. Since then, more than 1.9 million persons visited there in 15 years. Recently the space has become difficult to provide satisfactorily sophisticated exhibits because the importance of nuclear power generation has increased, and the diversified contents have been required. On the other hand, its building was cramped since many rooms were accommodated in the single round building of total area 815 m/sup 2/. In addition, the building has required drastic looking-over because of its deterioration and damages due to aging. The promotion of the understanding for the early securing of nuclear power plant location has been decided as the principal promotion item. The plan includes the modification of the existing building to the exhibition hall only as well as the completion and re-arrangement of the exhibits. It has been determined to construct a new building connected to the existing building, which accommodates a meeting hall, offices, utility machine room, etc., a total area being increased to 1457 m/sup 2/. The fund required is about 600 million yen. The construction work has started on December 1, 1982, aiming at the opening in July, 1983. The meeting hall is designed to seat about 120 persons and to employ multi-screen image techniques.

  16. Floating atomic central heating-and-power plant converted from a strategic submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with open-quotes The Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Armsclose quotes signed in July 1991, the operations envisages by open-quotes The Procedures for elimination of SSBN's Launchersclose quotes should be accomplished at submarines of the second generation both by eliminating missile compartments together with launchers and by removal of launchers only from missile compartments. THe number of such ships could reach 30 units as has been forecasted for the year of 1998 inclusive. With regard to the fact that the remaining operation life of the main power plant equipment of a nuclear submarine decommissioned in accordance with the Treaty is about 50 per cent, potentially there is a possibility to convert them into floating atomic central heating-and-power plants. The latter variant envisaged in the open-quotes Procedures...close quotes is preferable for developing a floating plant based on ships decommissioned from the Navy, since it permits to remove launchers without cutting and subsequent connection of main cables, pipelines and systems which provide the control of the main power plant, nuclear safety, radiological safety, damage control and fire safety of the floating plant. A submarine could be delivered for refitting into a floating plant only after accomplishing the works envisaged by the open-quotes Procedures...close quotes

  17. Thermal plume behaviour in the Kalpakkam coast in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam consists of two Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor units, which use the seawater drawn from the Bay of Bengal for once through condenser cooling. As a part of thermal ecology investigations, seasonal monitoring studies were done by carrying out monthly boat cruises in the Kalpakkam coast. The thermal effluent discharged from the power plant travels as a canal (formed due to natural sand bar formation) before mixing with the sea. During the cruises both vertical and horizontal distribution of temperature in the vicinity of the power plant outfall and mixing zone were studied using temperature probes. The ambient sea surface temperature varied between 27 and 32 deg C. The boat cruises covered an area of 2.5 km2 and in this region the sea surface temperature ranged from 28 to 34 deg C. Heated water discharged did not contribute to any increase in temperature below a depth of 2m. The area occupied by the thermal plume was estimated to be about 1.3 sq. km. The plume movement was found to be dependent on the seasonal current variations. A ship cruise also was undertaken to study the temperature distribution and other parameters covering a larger area(∼ 4 sq. km). (author)

  18. Estimation of activity in radioactive solid waste at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station- 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the present regulatory norms, it is required that any radioactive solid waste should be labeled for activity content and radionuclide composition in it. An easy method for this purpose is to measure the radiation field at a fixed distance from the waste package and convert it to the activity content by applying suitable predetermined conversion factor. A user friendly PC-based code ACTDOR was developed by Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This code requires a library of radionuclides and their composition present in the waste of different systems. A special sample collection technique and the analysis of samples has been evolved at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)-1 and 2. The sample collection technique, the behaviour of radionuclides in the waste package and the validation of the code at RAPS-1 and 2 have been described. Experimental values are in reasonable agreement with the values given by the code in the light of high degree of non-homogeneity present in the waste package. (author)

  19. Replacement and upgrade of nuclear instruments at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 22 years of commercial operation, the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station replaced the original Nuclear Instrument System. The plant was motivated primarily by reliability and maintainability problems, the former attributed to equipment wearout and discrete component failure, and the latter to the unavailability of qualified spare parts, another effect of the equipment's age. In replacing the system, the plant also had to address current regulatory, design, and plant technical specification requirements, including physical separation, signal isolation, and changes in equipment qualification. Many of these new requirements resulted in additional equipment compared with that installed initially. Fitting a new system meeting these requirements into the relatively small space available presented several challenges. This paper discusses the motivation for the system's replacement, the challenges to the plant engineers and equipment designers, the ways in which the design met the challenges, and the initial operating experience with the system

  20. Judicial control power and technico-scientific expert opinion in the atomic energy lawsuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, judge in the atomic energy law senate of a Higher Administrative Court, underlines the judicial control function and independence. In lawsuits on nuclear power plant issues many technical questions cannot be adequately judged by lawyers as laymen so that they must use the help of experts. If possible, Czajka wants to hear in a discussion in court experts of different opinions. The appreciation of controversial expert opinions requires of the judge a judging decision which in the end cannot be logically stated. Though this subjective element of the evaluation of evidence is inevitable, Czajka defends himself by referring to the legal protection mandate of the courts against attempts of both sides to limit the judicial inquiry into facts by legal-dogmatic considerations. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Control rod guide tube hold on device modification in Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven dummy fuel bundles were seen floating above the core of one of the reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, when the dryer-separator assembly was removed following the first refuelling outage. The incident is reported and the modifications carried out to the hold down device of the guide tubes on which the dummy fuel bundles rest are described. The lifting of the dummy fuel bundles was due to an upward displacement of guide tubes on which they rested. Various modifications considered were : (1) simulated fuel bundle weights fabricated from zincaloy, (2) thermal sleeve rotation prevented by the key, (3) guide tube hold down by means of a tie bolt and (4) thermal sleeve anti-rotation device. The last modification was found to satisfy most of the criteria selected for the modification. An account of how the modification was carried out is also given. (M.G.B.)

  2. Optical coatings grown by atomic layer deposition for high-power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared optical coatings with low (Al2O3) and high (TiO2) refractive index materials using the sequential chemical reaction process of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Also, we examined the laser damage thresholds of the films for high-power laser applications. The highest damage thresholds were obtained for amorphous films grown at room temperature. For TiO2 and Al2O3 films they equalled 5 and 5.2 J/cm2, respectively. Finally, we employed ALD for growing desired refractive index coatings consisting of alternating nanoscale Al2O3-TiO2 laminated layers. The refractive index of the stack of these layers could be varied linearly from 1.61 to 2.39 by adjusting the thickness of the component layers. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are issued in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  4. Efforts to control occupational radiation exposure at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Station collective dose at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station -1 and 2 was high compared to other new generation Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). Due to aging of the plant, system radiation levels and radioactivity of the system heavy water have been increasing. In addition maintenance has also increased. Various efforts were initiated to keep the occupational exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). A number of ways were identified to reduce the radiation levels and collective doses. Important among them were administrative control, indigenous way of shielding, system decontamination, system modification, training, mock-up and pre job briefing. Previous operating experiences, ALARA review, increased radiation protection surveillance, emphasis on use of personnel protective equipment's, good housekeeping and ventilation improvement have also helped in reduction of station collective dose. (author)

  5. Daniell method for power spectral density estimation in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    An alternative method for power spectral density (PSD) estimation--the Daniell method--is revisited and compared to the most prevalent method used in the field of atomic force microscopy for quantifying cantilever thermal motion--the Bartlett method. Both methods are shown to underestimate the Q factor of a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) by a predictable, and therefore correctable, amount in the absence of spurious deterministic noise sources. However, the Bartlett method is much more prone to spectral leakage which can obscure the thermal spectrum in the presence of deterministic noise. By the significant reduction in spectral leakage, the Daniell method leads to a more accurate representation of the true PSD and enables clear identification and rejection of deterministic noise peaks. This benefit is especially valuable for the development of automated PSD fitting algorithms for robust and accurate estimation of SHO parameters from a thermal spectrum. PMID:27036781

  6. Entrainment and impingement of aquatic fauna at cooling water system of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms get impinged to the intake screens of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) due to the suction force of the cooling water system of the power plant. The present work has studied the loss of aquatic organism at MAPS due to impingement at cooling water screens. In total 67 species of marine faunas impinged on the water intake screens of MAPS during the study. The proportion of fish, shrimp, crab, jellyfish and others, with respect to the total biomass of impinged organisms are 1.59 % (33 species), 0.30% (9), 2.77 % (16), 95.10% (3) and 0.24% (4), respectively. Jellyfishes were observed to be the largest entrained group covering around 44.85% of individual and constituting almost 94.82 % of biomass recorded during the study period and sea nettle jelly (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) was impinged with highest frequency. The diel study shows higher impingement occurred during night time, on full moon day and at low tides in contrast to their counterparts. Fishes accounts for 14.84 % of individual count and mere 1.67 % of biomass. Totally 33 number of fish species were observed. The highest impinged species were pony fishes (Secutor ruconius, Secutor insidiator, Photopectoralis bindus, Alepes kleinii and Leiognathus equulus) (21% occurrence). These few entrained fishes are mostly very small in size and have less commercial value. The total loss of marine fauna by impingement during study period was estimated to be 4779 (or 463.46 kg). The present data when compared with the impingement data from other coastal power plants, shows that the impinged fish biomass at MAPS cooling water system is much less than the other temperate and tropical power plants. (author)

  7. Highly stable high power fiber laser system for optical trapping of ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For our quantum gas experiments we simultaneously confine ultracold Rb and Cs atoms in an optical dipole trap. For that purpose the light of a commercially available, narrow-band, single mode 1064-nm solid-state laser is amplified in a home-built fiber amplifier using a Yb-doped large mode area (LMA) fiber. The fiber is pumped by a high-power 980-nm diode laser and yields an (amplified) narrow-band optical output of more than 30 W for an input seed power of about 1 W at 1064 nm. The performance of this fiber amplifier is presented in terms of slope efficiency, relative intensity noise (RIN), and long term stability. The light of the fiber laser is used for optical trapping of the quantum gas mixture in running wave and standing wave dipole traps. We present our progress towards the realization of a 3D optical lattice for the realization of strongly correlated quantum gas mixtures and for the study of quantum gas mixtures in low-dimensional geometry. (author)

  8. Efficiency at maximum power of a heat engine working with a two-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2013-04-01

    We consider the finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine whose working substance is composed of a two-level atomic system. The engine cycle, consisting of two quantum adiabatic and two quantum isochoric (constant-frequency) processes and working between two heat reservoirs at temperatures T(h) and T(c)(cycle. By optimizing the power output with respect to two frequencies, we obtain the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) and analyze numerically the effects of the times taken for two adiabatic and two isochoric processes on the EMP. In the absence of internally dissipative friction, we find that the EMP is bounded from the upper side by a function of the Carnot efficiency η(C), η(+)=η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))], with η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). This analytic expression is confirmed by our exact numerical result and is identical to the one derived in an engine model based on a mesoscopic or macroscopic system. If the internal friction is included, we find that the EMP decreases as the friction coefficient increases. PMID:23679385

  9. Spare parts management at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) [Paper No.: I-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spare parts management at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station is explained. TAPS is the only BWR type station in this part of Asia, therefore, amongst the nuclear plants of this region, formation of industry level pool of spares has not been possible. Efforts for indigenisation of spare parts manufacture have not been satisfactory. Reasons are: (1) quantity and number of certain spares required are few, but development work involved for their manufacture is considerable; this does not hold any incentive for intending manufacturer, (2) performance of manufacturers in maintaining quality of supplies is poor, and (3) time schedules for delivery are not adhered to. Spares, therefore, have to be bought from outside sources and a long lead time is involved in their procurement. In case of items located in radiation areas, spares cannot be reconditioned. All these factors have led to follow a liberal policy inventory management in order to avoid stock-out situations for spares which may affect power generation. Other aspects of spare parts management which are discussed include preservation technique, storage hygiene, stock verification of spares, codification of spares. Cost monitoring and recording system are also briefly dealt with. (M.G.B.)

  10. Variability of various genetic characteristics of animals kept in the zone of ChAPS [Chernobyl' atomic power station] accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locuses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic comtamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  11. Performance of mechanical equipment and maintenance problems in the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station [Paper No.: II-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of and maintenance problems faced with mechanical equipment of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) are discussed. The equipment discussed include: turbines, boiler feed pumps, reheater drain pumps, primary heat transport pumps and motors, pressurizing pumps, valves and ventilation equipment. Preventive maintenance programme is briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  12. Prospects of nuclear power in Finland. A joint study by the IAEA and the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is one of the most important practical applications of atomic energy and a major function of the Agency is to further its development. It became apparent in the Agency's early studies in this field that too often the economics of nuclear power were discussed in general terms and without reference to the multitude of conditions governing each specific power situation, which vary widely from country to country and even within a given country. It was also found that the few specific studies which existed had been carried out in countries where it had already been decided to establish a nuclear power station or even to embark on a full-scale nuclear power program. It was therefore considered that the prospects of nuclear power throughout the world could be realistically assessed only on the basis of a series of studies of as wide a range of different actual situations as possible. At its fourth regular session, the General Conference of the Agency adopted a resolution calling for the continuation of nuclear power surveys in Member States at their request. The Government of Finland invited the Agency to participate in a study of the prospects of nuclear power in Finland during the next decade. The desire of the Government of Finland was, on the one hand, to benefit from the specialized experience of the Agency, and on the other, to make a contribution to the Agency's program of furthering the development of nuclear power. We fully appreciate the value of this contribution and consider it very important for the Agency's program that this first nuclear power study has been undertaken together with a Member State which has long experience in conventional power planning and has consistently looked at nuclear power within the general context of the problem of meeting her growing power needs. The Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the Agency's participation in the study and work began in March 1960. A joint study group was set

  13. Prestressing works of PCCV for Tsuruga No.2 plant of Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the structure adopting prestressed concrete techniques has been completed for the first time in a Japanese nuclear facility, and it is the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for Tsuruga No.2 plant of Japan Atomic Power Co. In this PCCV, as the prestressing system, the large stretching capacity tendons (1035 t/tendon) by BBRV construction method were adopted, in addition, those were used by unbonded technique without adhering to the concrete body. Besides, PCCVs are particularly important structures in view of the safety among nuclear facilities, therefore they must satisfy many strict standards. In this report, how the prestressed concrete techniques, which have been established as the consistent system including the design of tendon arrangement, the manufacture of system parts, rust prevention treatment, the working equipment, stretching control, the quality control and quality assurance, was materialized in this PCCV is described. The BBRV construction method has been generally known by fixing the ends of PC wires with cold worked buttonheads. PS system parts, the assurance test of PS system, the manufacture of tendons, and the works of inserting, stretching and greasing are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Investigation of environmental radioactivity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radio activity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship ''Mutsu'' has been investigated as the continuation of work in the last year. On the continuous measurements at the three monitoring posts in the port premises and at the three monitoring stations in Mutsu City, and on the measurements by monitoring cars and ships, no abnormality has been observed on the spatial radioactive dose-rate also in this year. No abnormality has also been detected on the radioactivity in sea water measured by the sea-water monitor. On the measurements of β-radioactivity of surface soil, river-bed soil, river water, drinking water and milk, there was no difference from that in the last year. The total β-radioactivity measurement by the low background 2 π gas flow counter and the nuclide analysis by the γ-spectrometer with a Ge (Li) semiconductor detector showed no abnormality. Although 137Cs was detected in almost all samples, this isotope seemed to be the fallout from nuclear explosion experiments, and the activity was almost same as the values in various districts in Japan. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Post-irradiation examination of fuel elements of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Report-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed post-irradiation examination of three initial load fuel elements of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) has been carried out. The causes of the element failures have been analysed. It was observed that almost 90% of the length of the elements exoerienced nodular corrosion. It has been estimated that nodular corrosion would seriously affect the wall thickness and surface temperature of higher rated elements. Lunar shaped fret marks have also been observed at some spacer grid locations in the elements. The depth of the largest fret mark was measured to be 16.9% clad wall thickness. Detailed metallographic examination of the clad and fuel in the three elements has been done. The temperatures at different structural regions of the fuel cross-sections have been estimated. The change in fuel density during irradiation has been evaluated by comparing the irradiated fuel diameter with the mean pellet design diameter. The performance of the end plug welds and spacer grid sites in the elements has been assessed. The burnup distribution along the length of the elements has been evaluated by gamma scanning. The redistribution of fission products in the fuel has been examined by gamma scanning and beta-gamma autoradiography. Mechanical properties of the irradiated cladding have been examined by ring tensile testing. (auth.)

  16. Atmospheric 3H impact assessment (2004-2008) around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq.m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1x10-7-7.3x10-7 s.m-3. The scavenging of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2x104 to 14.1x104 (Bq.m-3 rain water per Bqm-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be in the range of 0.21 μSv.y-1. (author)

  17. Analysis of 2014 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2014.

  18. Maintenance experience on reactor recirculation pumps at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor recirculation pumps at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are vertical, single stage centrifugal pumps having mechanical shaft seals and are driven by vertical mounted 3.3 kV, 3 phase, 1500 h.p. electric motors. During these years of operation TAPS has gained enough experience and expertise on the maintenance of reactor recirculation pumps which are dealt in this article. Failure of mechanical shaft seals, damage on pump carbon bearings, motor winding insulation failures and motor shaft damage have been the main areas of concern on recirculation pump. A detailed procedure step by step with component sketches has helped in eliminating errors during shaft seal assembly and installation. Pressure breakdown devices in seal assembly were rebuilt. Additional coolant water injection for shaft seal cooling was provided. These measures have helped in extending the reactor recirculation pump seal life. Pump bearing problems were mainly due to failure of anti-rotation pins and dowel pins of bearing assembly. These pins were redesigned and strengthened. Motor stator winding insulation failures were detected. Stator winding replacement program has been taken up on regular basis to avoid winding insulation failure due to aging. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  20. Analysis of 2015 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted to process the meteorological tower data for the 2015 calendar year from both on-site meteorological towers.

  1. Maintenance management experiences at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station [Paper No.: I-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance management experiences at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) in commissioning of its two reactor units and in maintenance of the first reactor unit are described. Based on these experiences, certain recommendations are made which include: (1) constant guiding by the maintenance engineers of the maintenance personnel assigned to individual commissioning groups, (2) bringing uniformity in maintenance procedures and record keeping, (3) provision of adequate areas for mechanical shop, electrical shop, control maintenance shop and fueling machine maintenance shop, (4) provision of separate areas for active work just outside the reactor building, (5) provision of area for sectional stores for controlled issue/use of consumables, (6) formation of a separate services group for house-keeping, laundering, clothing etc; (7) planning for availability of spares based on review of failure rates, (8) planning of a preventive maintenance programme, (9) maintaining a visadex system to keep record of details of all equipment including equipment history, and (10) reviewing staffing and training from time-to-time. (M.G.B.)

  2. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    . At the bottom/sediment dwelling animal communities are collectively termed as 'BENTHOS'. This extremely valuable component of the marine environment consumes the sediment organic matter from the overlying water column and effectively converts into benthic...

  3. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  4. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  5. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of...

  6. The synthesis of bottom-up and top-down approaches to climate policy modeling: Electric power technology detail in a social accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Hybrid'' climate policy simulations have sought to bridge the gap between ''bottom-up'' engineering and ''top-down'' macroeconomic models by integrating the former's energy technology detail into the latter's macroeconomic framework. Construction of hybrid models is complicated by the need to numerically calibrate them to multiple, incommensurate sources of economic and engineering data. I develop a solution to this problem following Howitt's [Howitt, R.E., 1995. Positive Mathematical Programming, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77: 329-342] positive mathematical programming approach. Using data for the U.S., I illustrate how the inputs to the electricity sector in a social accounting matrix may be allocated among discrete types of generation so as to be consistent with both technologies' input shares from engineering cost estimates, and the zero profit and market clearance conditions of the sector's macroeconomic production structure. (author)

  7. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report. Calendar Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations. KAPL environmental controls are subject to applicable state and federal regulations governing use, emission, treatment, storage and/or disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous materials. Some non-radiological water and air emissions are generated and treated on-site prior to discharge to the environment. Liquid effluents and air emissions are controlled and monitored in accordance with permits issued by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) for the Windsor Site and by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) for the Knolls and Kesselring Sites. The liquid effluent monitoring data show that KAPL has maintained a high degree of compliance with permit requirements. Where required, radionuclide air emission sources are authorized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The non-radiological air emissions, with the exception of opacity for the boilers, are not required to be monitored.

  8. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials for the construction of the twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station with its 400 MW net capacity posed many challenges since many of the requirements for the properties of concrete were new and were being laid down for the first time in India. Some of the conditions for the concrete included leak-tightness against gas pressure, total absence of shrinkage in the containment even when the ambient temperature during concreting was as high as 45degC, placing concrete at a temperature as low as 8degC, the use of non-shrink and high strength grout, absolute impermeability against water, high density for radiation shielding, controlled modulus of elasticity for large machine foundations, high strength with high slump for the prestressed concrete dome, etc. Though the total quantity of concrete was not very much compared with a large river valley or steel plant project, (e.g., about 1.2 X 106 m3 for a 2-million tonne steel plant) it was quite significant, being about 70,000 m3 of normal density and 2,100 m3 of high density concrete. The production of these quantities entailed intensive material study and investigation, development of new mixes with additives not tried out before in the country, and design and quality control techniques which were unique in many respects. The paper deals with the production and quality control of concrete, including grouts used in the projects, but the actual concreting and construction operations are not discussed. (author)

  9. Seismic re-evaluation of Madras Atomic Power Stations 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants designed in India since 1975 have been designed for earthquake loading. In India, 14 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) viz., NAPS- 1 and 2, KAPS-1 and 2, KAIGA-1,2,3 and 4, RAPS-3,4,5 and 6 and TAPS-3 and 4 have been seismically qualified using state of the art techniques involving both seismic analysis and testing. The older generation plants viz., TAPS-1 and 2, RAPS-1 and 2 and MAPS-1 and 2 were seismically designed according to the standards prevailing at the time of their construction but not designed to the rigour of the current design practice. These plants are being re-evaluated for seismic loading as per IAEA Safety Standard, which has been followed for re-evaluation of older generation plants in Eastern European countries. The construction of two units of 220 MWe PHWRs, Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS-1,2) at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu commenced in the year 1975 and were made critical in the year 1983 and 1985 respectively. These units were designed for seismic loading by using equivalent static analysis method with a seismic coefficient of 0.1 g for reactor building and stack and 0.05 g for other buildings. As these units were not designed as per the state of the art technology, which is being used in the seismic design of the new Nuclear Power Plants, the seismic re-evaluation of the MAPS units 1 and 2 has been undertaken. The Safety Systems (SS) and Safety Support Systems (SSS) are qualified by adopting a detailed analysis and testing methods. The equipment in the SS and SSS have been qualified by conducting a walk down as per the procedure given in Generic Implementation Procedure, Dept. of Energy (GIP -DOE), USA. The safety systems include the systems required for safe shutdown of the plant, the systems required for one chain of decay heat removal and the systems required for the containment of activity. The safety support systems viz. Electrical, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and systems other than SS and SSS have been qualified by

  10. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  11. Setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste produced in Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES investigated the appropriateness of a view of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. on cesium residual content and the radioactivity measurement precision regarding the molten solidified (with lowered inorganic salt used) radioactive wastes which were produced from Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No. 2 Power Stations. Based on the written performance report from the request and past disposal confirmation experience, a view of the JNFC is confirmed as appropriate that setting of 15% cesium residual ratio for molten solidified with volume ratio larger than 4% and less than 10% cases. (S. Ohno)

  12. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in region of discharge of warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in trout cultivated in warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station (APS) in the period 1974-1979 were 30-70 pCi/kg. This is one-quarter to one-third of the radionuclide concentrations in wild fish living in this region and one-tenth of that in commerical fishes from other waters on the Kola Peninsula. The low radionuclide concentrations can be attributed to the absence of pollution in the coolant reservoir of the Kola APS during this period of operation, and also to the fact that the main mode of entry of radionuclides into the fish's body is through food. The investigations lead to the very important conclusion that fish-farming based on the warm effluents of atomic power stations is a feasible proposition

  13. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to wheat grains and dosimetry around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field study was undertaken to quantify the transfer factor of 137Cs from agricultural soil to wheat grains and ingestion dose evaluation around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India from 2010 to 2012. 137Cs activity was measured using NaI (Tl) well type gamma-spectrometry system. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to wheat grain samples was in the range of 0.12-0.46. Annual ingestion dose to man from 137Cs activity was significantly lower than permissible limit (1.0 mSv year-1). The risk measured due to 137Cs is also insignificant to members of public residing around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India. (author)

  14. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core

  15. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  16. Radioactivity of food products in the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power station in the pre-exploitation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pre-exploitation status of the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power stationand its torch zone, regarding the concentration of the biologically most dangerous artificial isotopes in the basic food products was determined. The tested foods were milk, meat, wheat, fish and grapes produced at the most important and basic production regions in the controled region. The radioactive isotope concentrations in the analyzed food produxts are reported. They will serve as a basis in assessing any eventual additional contamination of the region as a result of the work of the ''Kozloduj'' electric power station. (author)

  17. Molecular-orbital theory for the stopping power of atoms in the low velocity regime:the case of helium in alkali metals

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado, Jose J.; Flores, F.

    1993-01-01

    A free-parameter linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals approach is presented for analyzing the stopping power of slow ions moving in a metal. The method is applied to the case of He moving in alkali metals. Mean stopping powers for He present a good agreement with local-density-approximation calculations. Our results show important variations in the stopping power of channeled atoms with respect to their mean values.

  18. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  19. P.R. Halls in Tokai and Tsuruga Nuclear Power Stations of The Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (1) P.R. (Public Relations) Hall in Tokai Nuclear Power Station, JAPC. The P.R. Hall in Tokai Nuclear Power Station is in Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture. On the site are the GCR Plant of 166 MWe and a BWR plant of 1,100 MWe. The P.R. Hall is visited especially by local people around nuclear power stations all over Japan. Explanation of nuclear power generation, exhibitions, movies, etc. are presented in the hall. The P.R. Hall is a two-story ferro-concrete building with floor space of 880 m2. (2) The P.R. Hall in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, JAPC. The P.R. Hall in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station is in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture. A BWR plant of 357 MWe is on the site. The P.R. Hall is visited as sightseeing as well as the survey on nuclear power generation. It is a one-story steel frame building with floor space of about 600 m2. (J.P.N.)

  20. Technological innovations and design improvements to achieve ALARA exposures in Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 (540 MWe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure control at the operating Nuclear Power Station is a major concern. Tarapur Atomic Power Station(TAPS) Unit- 3 and 4 is the first Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor of 540 MWe electrical capacity in-depth review of radiation safety was done to identify the impact of design modification on dose rates. Based on the experience gained in the operation of 220 MWe design modifications incorporated in TAPS unit-3 and 4. The challenging task of meeting the International standards in the field of radiation protection had been achieved at Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 right from the initial stages of commissioning and operation. To avoid any unplanned exposures and also to keep the exposures at low level, several innovative features were introduced. These efforts were useful in achieving the lowest collective dose in the first year of operation among the Indian Nuclear Power Plants. This paper presents the brief descriptions of the systems and communication strategies adopted and design modifications implemented to reduce the dose rates and controlling exposure at TAPS 3 and 4. (author)

  1. Comparison between power-law rheological parameters of living cells in frequency and time domains measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how stress relaxation mapping is quantified compared with the force modulation mapping of confluent epithelial cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using a multi-frequency AFM technique, we estimated the power-law rheological behaviors of cells simultaneously in time and frequency domains. When the power-law exponent α was low ( 0.1), α in the time domain was underestimated relative to that in the frequency domain, and the difference increased with α, whereas the cell modulus was overestimated in the time domain. These results indicate that power-law rheological parameters estimated by stress relaxation are sensitive to lag time during initial indentation, which is inevitable in time-domain AFM experiments.

  2. Qualification of the TH-3DNK coupled code RELAP5/PARCSV2.7 against a BWR unstable point at peach bottom nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, three dimensional time domain BWR stability analysis were performed on a new analysis point (PTUPV), which is inside the exclusion region with a core mass flow of 4660.1 kg/s (34% of the core rated mass flow) and total reactor power of 1997.8 MW (60.7 of the core rated reactor power), using the coupled code RELAP5-MOD3.3/PARCSv2.7. This point is achieved departing from test point 3 by the control rod movement as it is usual performed in Nuclear Power Plants. The transient starts with the control rod movement shown. The control rods move in 6 seconds; at the end of the movement the majority of the banks are completely withdrawn and only the bank 7 is almost completely inserted. The purpose of this study is to qualify this coupled code against this kind of 3D complex accidents that take place inside the core. With the aim to make a more careful analysis of the instability recognized in the RELAP5/PARCS simulation, using the nuclear cross-sections provided by the transient calculation performed with the coupled codes, a number of analyses with the nodal modal code VALKIN has also been carried out.

  3. Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry. TAAPEI-2009. Materials of branch scientific and technical conference covers the fiftieth anniversary of the Seversk State Engineering Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the branch scientific and technical conference Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry (18-22 May, 2009, Seversk) are performed. Scientific and practical results of investigations into chemical technological developments, creation of machinery and apparatuses, automation of technological processes, application of present-day information technologies in atomic industry as well as ecological and nuclear weapons proliferation problems are shown. Besides issues of professional education and social-economic problems of the atomic branch are considered

  4. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  5. Atomic force microscopy as a powerful tool of surface nano- and microscale characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena

    Herceg Novi: Materials Research Society of Serbia , 2013. s. 13. [Annual Conference YUCOMAT 2013 /15./. 02.09.2013-06.09.2013, Herceg Novi] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * surface analysis * organic - inorganic nanocomposite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  6. The atomic power state and national security - the hazardous nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have chosen the uranium/plutonium cycle, the problems involved in safety engineering of power plant, and the power industry's structural pattern in order to show and to prove the doubtfulness of safety philosophies developed for nuclear energy which in fact is not mastered by the country's technological, social, or economic capabilities. The party 'The Greens' considers nuclear energy to be a hazard to national security and therefore demands prompt abandonment of nuclear power in order to save man and the natural environment. Surplus power supply is to be replaced by the concept of demand-tailored power generation, which is to be placed on the following footing: (1) purposeful and intelligent utilisation of energy allowing dramatic reduction of energy consumption; (2) Use and promotion of renewable energy sources; (3) Abandonment of monopolistic and undemocratic structures in the energy sector of the economy. (orig./HSCH)

  7. International Co-Operation on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants within the Framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received from three Member States the following communications regarding international co-operation on the safety of nuclear power plants within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency: (i) Letter dated 17 May 1979 from the Federal Minister for Research and Development of the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the explanation of the proposal made by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany; (ii) Letter dated 21 May 1979 from the Resident Representative of Brazil to the Agency; (iii) Letter dated 31 May 1979 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden.

  8. Experience with the decommissioning of the Kahl experimental atomic power station (VAK). Erfahrungen mit dem Abbau des Versuchsatomkraftwerkes Kahl (VAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzel, G.V.P. (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-05-01

    The Kahl experimental atomic power station (VAK) has been finally shut down after 25 years of nuclear operation. Being the plant with the longest operating life to date in the Federal Republic of Germany, it has also been able to provide appropriate long-term experience. In this case, experience will also be accumulated of the continuous dismantling of such a plant. Reference cases for more comprehensive dismantling have been the Niederaichbach (KKN) and Gundremmingen (KRB A) plants. The work carried out so far, the scope of the next licensing stage applied for and a review of the future stages are considered in detail. (orig.).

  9. Influences of temperature on lethal and sublethal effects on marine aquatic organisms of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project area, south India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to collect baseline data about the seasonal variation in temperature profile in Kudankulam marine environment. The baseline study gives an idea about the prevailing natural environment Kudankulam atomic power station and will help in the future study about the impact of heated effluent on the coastal ecosystem after the release of heated effluent on the coastal environment. In the present study, a lab scale thermal experiment was also carried out to study the response of organisms towards warm water

  10. Powerful effective one-electron Hamiltonian for describing many-atom interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present an alternative way to build the effective one-electron picture of a many-atom interacting system. By simplifying the many-body general problem we present two different options for the bond-pair model Hamiltonian. We have found that the successive approximations in order to achieve the effective description have a dramatic influence on the result. Thus, only the model that introduces the correct renormalization in the diagonal term due to the overlap is able to reproduce, even in a quantitative fashion, the main properties of simple homonuclear diatomic molecules. The success of the model resides in the accurate definitions (free of parametrization) of the Hamiltonian terms, which, therefore, could be used to describe more complex interacting systems such as polyatomic molecules, adsorbed species, or atoms scattered by a surface

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ''so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. This document provides Appendices A through E which include the following topics respectively: accident progression event tree; supporting information for the source term analysis; supporting information for the consequence analysis; risk results; and sampling information. 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Atomic force microscopy: a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging of spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Prasenjit; Chaudhury Koel; Kumar Sunil; Guha Sujoy K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as the only technique capable of real-time imaging of the surface of a living cell at nano-resolution. Since AFM provides the advantage of directly observing living biological cells in their native environment, this technique has found many applications in pharmacology, biotechnology, microbiology, structural and molecular biology, genetics and other biology-related fields. AFM has also proved to be a valuable tool for reproductive biologists...

  13. Can a powerful source (APS) cast useful light on atomic hole state processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the workshop is officially on the subject of Atomic Physics, it has become customary to link Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics into one package. Since the issue under discussion is, What can be done with the APS? one can argue further that all experiments will use x-rays in one way or another and therefore could be categorized as X-Ray Optical Physics. A superficial case for unity can be made from the x-ray absorption spectrum of Cl adsorbed on a Cu(001) surface. In both cases similarly shaped spectra are observed, but in the second case the resonance is due to the collective scattering of the incident x-rays by the substrate crystal (i.e., a Cu Bragg reflection). The latter effect, known as the x-ray standing wave effect, is useful for surface structure determination. It is important to remember that atomic effects like in the upper figure may influence the optical effects such as in the lower figure. Continuing the argument for Optical Physics as a unifying endeavor, the author has listed a number of properties of x-rays (or photons) along with types of experiments where these properties play a central role

  14. LXIV International conference NUCLEUS 2014. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies (LXIV Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications in atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies. The recent results of experimental investigations of atomic nuclear structure and nuclear properties as well as nuclear reaction mechanisms are analyzed. The theoretical problems of atomic nuclei, fundamental interactions and nuclear reactions are considered. The new instrumentation and methods of nuclear-physical experiments are presented. The interaction of nuclear radiation with matter is discussed. The particular attention is given to fundamental problems of nuclear power engineering

  15. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G*. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods

  16. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu, E-mail: okajima@ist.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku N14 W9, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2015-10-26

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G{sup *}. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods.

  17. Role of atomic hydrogen density and energy in low power chemical vapor deposition synthesis of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates without diamond seeding by a very low power (∼40-80 W) microwave plasma continuous vapor deposition reaction of a mixture of helium-hydrogen-methane (48.2/48.2/3.6%) or argon-hydrogen-methane (17.5/80/2.5%). However, predominantly graphitic carbon films or no films formed when neon, krypton, or xenon was substituted for helium or argon. The films were characterized by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is proposed that each of He+ and Ar+ served as a catalyst with atomic hydrogen to form an energetic plasma since only plasmas having these ions in the presence of atomic hydrogen showed significantly broadened H α lines corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of >100 eV as reported previously. It was found that not only the energy, but also the H density uniquely increases in He-H2 and Ar-H2 plasmas. Bombardment of the carbon surface by highly energetic hydrogen formed by the catalysis reaction may play a role in the formation of diamond. Then, by this novel pathway, the relevance of the CO tie line is eliminated along with other stringent conditions and complicated and inefficient techniques which limit broad application of the versatility and superiority of diamond thin film technology

  18. The nuclear power safety programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expanded role of the IAEA in the field of nuclear power safety will be discussed. Emphasis will be given to the NUSS program (the letters being an acronym for Nuclear Safety Standards) to establish internationally accepted safety codes and guides for nuclear power plants dealing with governmental regulatory organizations, siting, design, operation and quality assurance. Other activities discussed will be advisory services, exchange of information and training, emergency accident assistance, and technical assistance. (orig./RW)

  19. RELAP5/MOD1 analysis of Turbine Trip Test 1 at Peach Bottom Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5/MOD1, Cycle 14 thermal-hydraulics code was used for analysis of turbine trip transient 1 (TT1) conducted at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2. The goals were to evaluate the capability of RELAP5/MOD1 for BWR plant transient analysis and to evaluate the adaptability of RETRAN input models for use in RELAP5. The RELAP5/MOD1 input model used in the evaluation was derived from an existing RETRAN input model of Peach Bottom. Alteration of the RETRAN input model was required because of the differences between the codes. Modification of the RELAP5/MOD1, Cycle 14 code was also required to permit effective modeling of jet pumps and the steam separator. The results obtained with the RELAP5/MOD1, Cycle 14 code were in good agreement with the test data. Additional RELAP5 calculations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the results to variations in selected input parameters

  20. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ''so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs

  1. Results of second regular inspection of No.2 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second regular inspection of No.2 plant in Tsuruga Power Station was carried out from April 11 to July 26, 1989. The parallel operation was resumed on July 1, 1989, 82 days after the parallel off. The facilities which were the object of inspection were the reactor proper, reactor cooling system, measurement and control system, fuel facilities, radiation control facilities, waste facilities, reactor containment installation and emergency electric power generation system. On the facilities which were the object of inspection, the appearance, disassembling, leak, function, performance and other inspections were carried out, as the result, the return flow rate from No.1 seal of a primary coolant pump increased, and the reactor automatically stopped as a motor-driven feed pump tripped, but other abnormality was not observed. The works related to this regular inspection were accomplished within the range of the limit of radiation dose equivalent based on the relevant laws. Particular main reconstruction work was not carried out during the period of this regular inspection. (K.I.)

  2. Results of fourteenth regular inspection of No.1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourteenth regular inspection of No.1 plant in the Tsuruga Power Station was carried out from September 16, 1983, to January 20, 1984. The objects of inspection were the reactor proper, reactor cooling system, measurement and control system, fuel facilities, radiation control facilities, waste facilities, reactor containment facilities and emergency standby power generation system. The inspection of appearance, disassembled components, leak, function, performance and so on was carried out on these objects, but abnormality was not found. The works related to this regular inspection were carried out within the range of the allowable dose based on the laws. The main reconstruction works carried out during this inspection were the additional installation of an ionization chamber detector to an exhaust funnel monitor, the installation of two radiation monitors each on the dry well and suppression chamber, the reconstruction of the ventilation system for the turbine building, the replacement of main steam safety valves, the replacement of piping and valves in the liquid waste treating system, the replacement of piping in the feed heater drain system and so on. (Kako, I.)

  3. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period 1994-2001 at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand such situations. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site for the period 1994 -2001 is described. The parameters considered are maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum wind speed and gust, and maximum rainfall in a month, in a day, in an hour and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that annual rainfall, maximum monthly rainfall, minimum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 10 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -1 distribution whereas maximum daily rainfall, maximum hourly rainfall, maxinlum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 30 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -2 distribution function. There is no difference in correlation coefficients and fit both extreme value distribution function. Co-efficients of the distribution functions for each variable are established. Extreme values of parameters corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are derived. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in and around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. (author)

  4. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  5. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author)

  6. 78 FR 26401 - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, Haddam Neck Plant, Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Accession No. ML073250040). The HNP ISFSI is a vertical dry cask storage facility for spent nuclear fuel... placed all spent nuclear fuel and Greater-Than-Class-C waste into dry storage at an ISFSI on the HNP site... of Spent Fuel in NRC-Approved Storage Casks at Power Reactor Sites (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990),......

  7. Heavy Metals in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Persiformes: Cichlidae, Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818 (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae and Bottom Sediments from Lagos Lagoon Proximal to Egbin Power Plant, Ijede, Ikorodu, Lagos Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Denloye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the level of the heavy metal concentration in sediment and two fish species from the Ijede end of the Lagos lagoon in order to ascertain the pollution level of the lagoon .The pollution status of sediment and two fish species namely the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Persiformes: Cichlidae and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818 (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae in the Ijede end of Lagos lagoon were investigated. Samples of the test fish species and bottom sediments of the Lagoon were analyzed quantitatively for the presence of the cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, lead (Pb, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the sediment contained a higher concentration of the metals than the fish samples with Fe recording the highest value of 33.32 :g/g against 18.34 and19.55 :g/g in the two fish species sampled. The study on the two fish samples revealed a higher concentration of lead (2.88 :g/g in the Tilapia compared to the Catfish species indicating the pollution trend of the two fish species investigated in the lagoon. The concentration of Cd, Fe and Zn in the fish species sampled was within limits permitted by the National Food, Drug adminstration and Control (NAFDAC and the United State Food and Drug Agency (USFDA. However, the concentrations of lead (Pb in the fish species was above the recommended standard which indicate that the fish species studied in the area are unsafe for consumption.

  8. Operating Experience at the Yankee Atomic Electric Company Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of the Yankee plant began in November 1960 and since that time the station has generated over 2 x 109 kWh gross. The overall use factor from first generation of power in 1960 is just over 67%. The economic picture has also been very encouraging. The Yankee plant is not only continuing to demonstrate its ability to supply base-load power for the New England area but is also providing new information of benefit to the economics of all closed-cycle reactors. Problems have been encountered, some of a fairly significant nature, but every indication to date is that these are correctable and that plant operation will become even more dependable with continually improving economics as time goes on. (author)

  9. Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  10. Atomic-force microscopy: a powerful, multipurpose technique for the investigation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atomic-force microscope (AFM) comprises a probe (a tip) mounted at the free extremity of a spring of known stiffness, a control system, and a scanning system, which moves the probe across the sample's surface. The interaction between probe and surface (forces, or force gradient) is kept equal to a set value, by continuously adjusting the separation distance, via a feedback loop. An AFM image thus corresponds to a constant-interaction contour, obtained by moving the tip along the surface. This contour matches, as a rule, the topography of the sample. The image obtained is then the topography of the surface. The contribution made by AFM to materials science is illustrated in 4 examples. The first example concerns the first observations of irradiation damage in an electrical insulator material, thus one not readily observable by means of conventional electron microscopes. The second illustration relates to monitoring the emergence of defects due to plastic deformation observed in metals. The third example serves as an illustration of the capability afforded by AFM, of ensuring the acquisition of two types of information. Using an AFM fitted with a special module, the electrical resistivity of the passive layer that covers the surface of stainless steels was measured, concurrently with the sample's topography. The final illustration concerns the 3-dimensional self-organization of molecules at the interface between a solid and a liquid. (A.C.)

  11. Latest knowledge on radiological effects. Radiation health effects of atomic bomb explosions and nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest knowledge encompass findings presented both in individual scientific publications and in internationally accepted reports. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on radiobiological effects on the latter level, using studies of atomic bomb survivors and victims of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. First of all, it is important to note that while examining individual patient, it is impossible to distinguish a radiation-induced cancer patient and non-radiation-induced cancer patient even when using state-of-the-art techniques. Therefore, investigation of radiation effects on humans, especially late health effects has been based on the epidemiological and statistical methods. Based on studies on atomic bomb survivors, it is well accepted that there is a linear increase in the risk of cancer with the increase of radiation dose. However, the existence of a threshold is a controversial issue, and health effects with regards to non-cancer diseases are not yet accepted by international authorities. Childhood thyroid cancer has increased after the Chernobyl accident and more than several thousands children are affected by it. However, there is no proof that any disease, with the exception of thyroid cancer and acute radiation effects, has increased after the Chernobyl accident. Finally, it should be mentioned that providing scientific explanation of the results to general public is an honorable duty of concerned scientists. (author)

  12. Political geography of the nuclear power controversy: the peaceful atom in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political geography of the nuclear power controversy, in Pennsylvania, is analyzed by comparing and contrasting locational factors and interrelationships of significance to the nuclear industry and electric utility companies; to governmental bodies at local, state, and national levels; and to the population affected by operations of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel-cycle installations. The study examines the origins and coalescence of opposition to commercial nuclear power by ''grassroots'' public interest citizens' organizations. Formation in 1970 of the Pennsylvania-based Environmental Coalition on Nuclear Power and in 1975 to 1976 of an Eastern Federation of Nuclear Opponents and Safe Energy Proponents was accomplished partly by chance but primarily by creation of a strong network of personal alliances among anti-nuclear activists, functioning politically and in legal actions, within a loosely structured framework of independently acting citizens' groups. They have undertaken to transform their opposition to the differential imposition of massive centralized nuclear installations (e.g., energy parks or four-reactor clusters) to political advocacy of constructive alternatives based on conservation, efficiency, and use of human-scale, simple technologies, matching magnitude to need, in decentralized systems, and stressing, where applicable, community control of, and responsibility for, energy demand and production. The ability of these citizens' organizations to predict operational and locational strategies of the utility industry in order to defeat projects they consider incompatible with public health, genetic integrity, environmental protection, or distributive justice is their initial organizational step toward implementation of the least disruptive paths to an energy-constrained society, based upon optimization of the use of minimally polluting, renewable energy sources

  13. Seismic analysis of two heavy water upgrading towers for 500 MWe Tarapur Atomic Power Plant-3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the analysis carried out for the evaluation of earthquake induced stresses and deflections in two 1500 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for Tarapur Atomic Power Plant-3 and -4. The analysis of upgrading towers has been carried out for two mutually perpendicular horizontal excitations and one vertical excitation applied simultaneously. The upgrading towers have been analysed using beam model taking into account soil-structure interaction. Response spectrum analysis has been carried out using envelope spectra for 500 MWe sites. The seismic analysis has been carried out for the towers with supporting structure along with concrete pedestals and raft foundation. The towers have been checked for their stability due to compressive stresses to avoid buckling so that safety of the nearby structures is not damaged even in the event of SSE (Safe Shutdown Earthquake) loading. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Seismic analysis of two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for 235 MWe Kaiga Atomic Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the analysis carried out for the evaluation of earthquake induced stresses and deflections in two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for Kaiga Atomic Power Plant Site. The analysis of upgrading tower has been carried out for two mutually perpendicular horizontal excitations and one vertical excitation applied simultaneously. The upgrading towers have been analysed using beam model taking into account soil-structure interaction. Response spectrum analysis has been carried out using site spectra for 235 MWe Kaiga reactor site. The seismic analysis has been performed for both the towers with supporting structure along with concrete pedestals and raft foundation. The towers have been checked for its stability due to compressive stresses to avoid buckling so that the nearby safety related structures are not geopardised in the event of safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) loading. (author). 14 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Distribution of nitrate reducing bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station and their response to temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) from various locations of the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) cooling circuit as well as the coastal waters were monitored. Three different NRB strains isolated from outfall, mixing zone, and jetty were categorized respectively as OF95, MZ120 and JT11. The isolates were subjected to growth response to different temperatures (viz., 27, 37 and 42 degC). The results indicate that NRB counts were higher at stations close to the mixing zone when compared to heterotrophic bacteria. However, stations, which were away from the thermal plume, showed relatively lesser NRB. The variations noted were in the order of 1-2 magnitudes. The three isolates showed varied response in their growth patterns when incubated at different temperatures. The influence of temperature on the growth of NRB isolates showed that the log phase was shortened at higher temperatures. The nitrate utilization also followed similar pattern. (author)

  16. Distribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam (east coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in nutrient cycling in the marine environments. In this investigation culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (CAHB) from various locations of the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) cooling circuit as well as the coastal waters were monitored. Three different CAHB isolates isolated from mixing zone, out fall, and jetty were categorised respectively as HMZ1, HOF1, and HJN1. The results indicated that CAHB counts were higher at stations away from the mixing zone. The variations noted were in the order of 1-2 magnitudes. The three isolates showed similar response in their growth patterns when incubated at different temperatures. The influence of temperature on the growth of CAHB isolates showed that the log phase was shortened at higher temperatures. Furthermore the strains when incubated at 47 degC failed to grow. The number of CAHB were less in the thermal plume region followed by mixing zone. (author)

  17. Integrated plant safety assessment: systematic evaluation program. Haddam Neck Plant, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. Docket No. 50-213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Haddam Neck Plant, operated by Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. The Haddam Neck Plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  18. Seismic analysis of two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for 235 MWe Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the analysis carried out for the evaluation of earthquake induced stresses and deflections in two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant Site. The analysis of upgrading tower has been carried out for two mutually perpendicular horizontal excitations and the vertical excitation. The upgrading towers have been analysed using beam model taking into account soil-structure interaction. response spectrum analysis has been carried out using site spectra for 235 MWe KAPP site. The seismic analysis has been carried out for both the towers with supporting structure along with concrete pedestals and raft foundation. The towers have been checked for their stability due to compressive stresses to avoid buckling so that the nearby safety related structures are not damaged in the event of SSE loading. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Condition monitoring and signature analysis techniques as applied to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) [Paper No.: VIA - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of vibration signature analysis for identifying the machine troubles in their early stages is explained. The advantage is that a timely corrective action can be planned to avoid breakdowns and unplanned shutdowns. At the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), this technique is applied to regularly monitor vibrations of equipment and thus is serving as a tool for doing corrective maintenance of equipment. Case studies of application of this technique to main boiler feed pumps, moderation pump motors, centrifugal chiller, ventilation system fans, thermal shield ventilation fans, filtered water pumps, emergency process sea water pumps, and antifriction bearings of MAPS are presented. Condition monitoring during commissioning and subsequent operation could indicate defects. Corrective actions which were taken are described. (M.G.B.)

  20. Multi-V-type and Λ-type electromagnetically induced transparency experiments in rubidium atoms with low-power low-cost free running single mode diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín Varela, S.; León Suazo, J. A.; Gutierrez González, J.; Vargas Roco, J.; Buberl, T.; Aguirre Gómez, J. G.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the experimental realization of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in A-type and multi-V-type configurations in a sample of rubidium atoms inside a vapor cell at room temperature. Typical EIT windows are clearly visible in the Doppler- broadened absorption signal of the weak probe beam. The coherent optical pump and probe fields are produced by two tunable low-cost, low-power, continuous-wave (cw), free-running and single mode operated diode laser systems, temperature stabilized and current controlled, tuned to the D2 line of rubidium atoms at 780.2 nm wavelength. The continuum wave and single mode operation of our laser systems are confirmed by direct and saturated absorption spectroscopy techniques. Among other applications, these simple experiments can be used as a low-cost undergraduate laboratory in atomic physics, laser physics, coherent light-atom interaction, and high resolution atomic spectroscopy.

  1. Construction aspects of containment structures of a typical large atomic power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment Structure of a Reactor Building in a Nuclear Power Plant is a very important structure as it houses the main reactor. The containment system has to be designed and constructed to withstand high pressures and temperatures released during postulated accidents in case of any accidents and to act as a biological shield against leakage of radiation. Construction of the Containment structure, which is a safety-related structure, is a key activity in the overall project implementation of a Nuclear Power Project. Typically in India, the containment system consists of a double containment structure with a part-spherical dome on top. Usually the inner containment is in prestressed concrete and the outer containment is in reinforced concrete. Special types of concrete such as High Performance Concrete with temperature control and Heavy Concrete are used in the construction. The need for accurately positioning many special embedded parts and through pipes at various locations poses a challenge. The construction methodologies, techniques for prestressing, special formwork systems etc need special attention. Other techniques such as mechanisation, use of automated climbing formwork system, increase in height of concrete pours after mock-ups, use of threaded couplers for rebars, etc also merit attention. The paper also discusses the various safety, quality and construction management systems used at site for better implementation of the projects. (authors)

  2. Application of results of the academic research institutes to atomic power stations of the republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of research in providing NPP safety, reliability and operating economy are reviewed. The advancement of the technology and equipment for welding metal structures of RBMK-1000 reactors, the study of heat exchange intensification in RBMK-1000 channels, calculation-experimental analysis of NPP turbogenerator load characteristics, neutron-physical computer calculations of RBMK-1000 reactors are noted in the works being reviewed. The development of reactivity diagnostics means: reactivity meters, calorimetric energy release sensors and methods of error estimation in in-pile temperature measurements is considered. The effect of NPP radiation, thermal and salt contaminants on the environment is noted. The possibility to further develop the work in the main directions of nuclear power: reactor physics and thermal physics, radiation material testing, the technology of the development of principal equipment and NPP ecology is shown

  3. CFD simulation of thermal discharge behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at the Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 1. Validation for 2 power plant units in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Goyal, P.; Markandeya, S.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Planning and Coordination Div.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Health Safety and Environment Group

    2011-05-15

    The thermal pollution arising out of discharge of hot water from the power plant condensers into the natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans etc. has been a serious concern to environmentalists ever since the plants started operating world over. In the past forty to fifty years, the methods of calculations for predicting the velocity and temperature fields in the affected regions of the stagnant/flowing water bodies have undergone a significant improvement. Currently, use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for performing these calculations is gaining popularity. However, several factors such as the assumed computational domain and its discretisation, the boundary conditions used, representation of hydrodynamic characteristics (laminar/turbulent, buoyant/non-buoyant), etc. have a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions by such a model. A CFD code STAR-CD has been used for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The predictions from these calculations of two units in operation have been found to be in good agreement with the site data made available from earlier studies. The present paper briefly describes the model developed using STAR-CD and results obtained for the Kadra reservoir at KAPS. (orig.)

  4. CFD simulation of thermal discharge behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at the Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 1. Validation for 2 power plant units in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal pollution arising out of discharge of hot water from the power plant condensers into the natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans etc. has been a serious concern to environmentalists ever since the plants started operating world over. In the past forty to fifty years, the methods of calculations for predicting the velocity and temperature fields in the affected regions of the stagnant/flowing water bodies have undergone a significant improvement. Currently, use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for performing these calculations is gaining popularity. However, several factors such as the assumed computational domain and its discretisation, the boundary conditions used, representation of hydrodynamic characteristics (laminar/turbulent, buoyant/non-buoyant), etc. have a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions by such a model. A CFD code STAR-CD has been used for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The predictions from these calculations of two units in operation have been found to be in good agreement with the site data made available from earlier studies. The present paper briefly describes the model developed using STAR-CD and results obtained for the Kadra reservoir at KAPS. (orig.)

  5. An annual report of the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum in 1998. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) puts out a report on the current status of the world's nuclear power plants (NPPs). A report in this year was based on a survey of some 90 electric utilities worldwide, from 33 countries and regions. At the end of 1998, there were 422 NPPs operating around the world, which were seven fewer than those of last year. And, their combined capacity was 358.49 GW, which was 6.207 GW down from that of 1997. In addition, some 46 units were under construction with a combined capacity of 38.068 GW, compared with comparable figures of 43 units and 35.261 GW the year before. Furthermore, further 46 units were in planning stages, with their combined capacities of 34.488 GW. Two new power plants, Wolsong No.3 and Ulchin No.3 (both are in South Korea) entered commercial operation. This brings total numbers of NPPs in South Korea to 14, with a combined capacity of 12.016 GW, which pulls South Korea ahead of Canada and Sweden to the 8th position in the world. (G.K.)

  6. Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: ssolares@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup ®} proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in “open loop”).

  7. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  8. Magnetospheric effects of ion and atom injections by the satellite power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year assessment of magnetospheric effects of the construction and operation of a satellite power system. This assessment effort is based on application of present scientific knowledge rather than on original scientific research. As such, it appears that mass and energy injections of the system are sufficient to modify the magnetosphere substantially, to the extent of possibly requiring mitigation measures for space systems but not to the extent of causing major redirection of efforts and concepts. The scale of the SPS is so unprecedentedly large, however, that these impressions require verification (or rejection) by in-depth assessment based on original scientific treatment of the principal issues. Indeed, it is perhaps appropriate to state that present ignorance far exceeds present knowledge in regard to SPS magnetospheric effects, even though we only seek to define the approximate limits of magnetospheric modifications here. Modifications of the space radiation environment, of the atmospheric airglow background, of the auroral response to solar activity and of the fluctuations in space plasma density are identified to be the principal impacts.

  9. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  10. Peach Bottom analysis using various RETRAN-02 options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 is a BWR/4 with a rated thermal power output of 3293 MW, a rated core flow of 102.5 x 106 lb/h, and a rated steam flow of 13.37 x 106 lb/h at a turbie inlet pressure of 965 psia. The three turbine trip tests were performed at the end of cycle tow during April, 1977. In this study only Turbine Trip (TT2) will be used to explore the effects of the new capabilities in RETRAN-02. In addition, a calculation has been made using the experimental five-equation version of RETRAN. As the first step in this analysis, a RETRAN-01 calculation was performed to compare with a RETRAN-02 calculation using only options available in RETRAN-01. A comparison of these two calculations will give an indication of the effects of the new water property functional fits and calculational strategies in RETRAN-02. The new RETRAN-02 models explored in this study will be dynamic slip, algebraic slip, subcooled void profile fit, single and double region special steam separators, one-dimensional kinetics, and iterative numerics. The use of the nonequilibrium pressurizer model for the upper downcomer region will also be studied

  11. SENTINEL trademark technical basis report for Peach Bottom. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL trademark software at its Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past nine months, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange, to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the PBAPS Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  12. Response of mole crab, Emerita emeritus to the thermal effluents from the Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole crabs belonging to the genus Emerita are exclusively inhabitants of exposed wave washed sandy beaches in certain temperate and tropical seas. Its sedentary adult life and a primitive filter-feeding behavior make this intertidal crab an excellent indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic impact. Hence, this sand crab has been used to determine the effect of elevated temperature (rT) arising out of the thermal effluent from the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam with special reference to the intertidal fauna. Since Emerita exhibits limited capacity to move from their place of habitation, an analysis of the population structure of Emerita emeritus in the Kalpakkam coast including the impacted and the adjoining control sandy beaches on either side of the mixing point in the vicinity of the power plant was done. The data indicate that in the impact zone having an elevated seawater temperature of <35 deg C, the crab is completely absent. However, as we move away from the impact zone, with normalization of seawater temperature, Emerita move to safer areas on either side of the impact zone. Thus, the extensive field data on the distribution of mole crabs indicated that population structure is affected by the thermal plume, although the shifting positions of the mixing point (caused by northerly and southerly long shore currents) allowed decolonization of Emerita due to transmigration in positions that were earlier mixing points. This paper also describes a complete larval development of Emerita emeritus in the laboratory. Different life stages of E. emeritus were subjected to various power plant stressors to determine their varying responses. The expression of heat shock protein (hsp) in the gill tissue of the adult crabs was also observed when the crabs were exposed to elevated temperatures (35 deg C). However, no expression of heat shock proteins was observed when the crabs were subjected to chlorine stress. (author)

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  14. Improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With slower sales in North America and Europe, manufacturers are looking to supply power equipment in the expanding global markets. In doing so, they are finding opportunities and challenges. Competition is tougher in these markets; as well, each market has its own demands. Independent Energy recently spoke with a number of the top manufacturing companies and several system packagers about the markets for power equipment. The topics ranged from higher efficiencies and lower emissions on gas turbines to larger boilers. A growing need for cleaner combustion technologies in many emerging nations, are leading vendors to keep research and development (R ampersand D) budgets at the top of priority lists. In order to find ways to meet cleaner, more efficient demands, some of the equipment industry's leaders are renewing old partnerships and making new ones through alliances and joint ventures. Combining R ampersand D efforts and offering equipment delivery from points around the world instead of one central source is crucial to success in these expanding markets. As well, these alliances offer manufacturers the opportunity to find partners in the countries where much of the new power generation supply will be built. This makes doing business with local or state utilities - and developers who also are seeking local partners - less risky. At the same time, it offers opportunities for these companies to expand into new markets and provide equipment from a local level, boosting economic growth in emerging nations. As manufacturers adjust their market positions, they prepare themselves for an expanding world marketplace which demands more competitive, more efficient and constantly improving ways of doing business

  15. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-341). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1983

  16. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1982

  17. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  18. Decommissioning Peach Bottom Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities are described for Peach Bottom Unit No. 1, a 40 mw(e) HTGR demonstration plant owned and operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. Radiological aspects of decommission are discussed. The application of advance planning and effective health physics techniques used during the Peach Bottom decommission program demonstrated the feasibility of decommissioning a nuclear facility economically at low personnel exposure levels and with a negligible environmental impact

  19. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

  20. Tritium discharges into the atmosphere at the first and second blocks of the Leningrad V. I. Lenin Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study tritium discharges into the atmosphere from the first and second blocks (phase I) of the Leningrad V. I. Lenin Atomic Power Plant, from 1981 to 1985 the authors conducted several series (each lasting 1-2 months) of simultaneous observations of the specific tritium radioactivity in the coolant, cooling water of the control and safety system, and other in-house process water, and the volume radioactivity of tritium in the gas exiting the reactor plenum and in air discharged to the atmosphere through the special ventilation systems. In the measurement period they monitored the volume flow rate of the helium-nitrogen mixture through the reactor plenum, the volume flow rate of the air discharged through the chimney and pipes leading onto the roofs of the blocks, atmospheric humidity, and the moisture content of air discharged to the atmosphere through discharge pipes. The research was conducted with both blocks operating under near-nominal conditions. The paper presents the observational results for the series in 1981 and 1985, averaged for the two blocks

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  2. Atom for peace, code for war. The technology policy of the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955-1970; Rauhan atomi, sodan koodi. Suomalaisen atomivoimaratkaisun teknopolitiikka 1955-1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkikoski, T.

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation investigates the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955 - 1970. During these years a national arrangement for atomic energy technology evolved. The foundations of the Finnish atomic energy policy; the creation of basic legislation and the first governmental bodies, were laid between 1955 - 1965. In the late 1960's, the necessary technological and political decisions were made in order to purchase the first commercial nuclear reactor. A historical narration of this process is seen in the international context of 'atoms for peace' policies and Cold War history in general. The geopolitical position of Finland made it necessary to become involved in the balanced participation in international scientific-technical exchange and assistive nuclear programs. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 categorically denied Finland acquisition of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, from the 'Geneva year' of 1955, the emphasis was placed on peaceful purposes for atomic energy as well as on the education of national professionals in Finland. An initiative for the governmental atomic energy commission came from academia but the ultimate motive behind it was an anticipated structural change in the supply of national energy. Economically exploitable hydro power resources were expected to be built within ten years and atomic power was seen as a promising and complementing new energy technology. While importing fuels like coal was out of the question, because of scarce foreign currency, domestic uranium mineral deposits were considered as a potential source of nuclear fuel. Nevertheless, even then nuclear energy was regarded as just one of the possible future energy options. In the mid-1960 s a bandwagon effect of light water reactor orders was witnessed in the United States and soon elsewhere in the world. In Finland, two separate invitations for bids for nuclear reactors were initiated. This study explores at length both their preceding grounds and

  3. The bottom line: Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M

    1997-01-01

    In this interview, Margaret Owen, the founder of Empowering Widows in Development discusses conditions in Mozambique with Olinda Mugabe, the Executive Director of the Mozambique Family Planning (FP) Association (AMODEFA). In response to a question about the greatest obstacles to her work, Mugabe notes that the population finds it difficult to discuss sexuality or sexual matters, that most women believe they should have six children, and that maternal and infant mortality rates are very high. One strategy AMODEFA is using to overcome these problems is the community distribution of information and services by trained health educators. Constrains are posed by the country's poor infrastructure, a very limited health care system, and a dearth of trained health personnel in rural areas. In addition, it is hard to make people understand the rationale behind having smaller families, young people have no sex education, girls drop out of school when they become pregnant, girls marry at a age 10 or 11, and men believe that having sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure them of AIDS. Women tied to the traditional culture have no power over their bodies or their activities. Widows are the most vulnerable because the tradition that women can not inherit leaves them destitute and at the mercy of male relatives. The daughters of widows are also at risk of exploitation and rape. Illegal abortions account for much of the maternal mortality, and AMODEFA is attempting to help people avoid abortion through FP. Women do not need their husbands' consent to get FP services, but they do to become sterilized. AMODEFA hopes to gain the funding it needs to expand its services into the rural areas where the need is greatest. PMID:12293465

  4. On the transferability of atomic contributions to the optical rotatory power of hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide and dimethyl peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Marina; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José;

    2014-01-01

    partitioned into atomic and group contributions. In the present work, we investigate the transferability of such individual contributions in a series of small, chiral molecules: hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide and dimethyl peroxide. The isotropic atomic or group contributions have been evaluated for...... the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms as well as for the methyl group at the level of time-dependent density functional theory with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional employing a large Gaussian basis set. We find that the atomic or group contributions are not transferable among these three...

  5. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project

  6. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency safety missions in upgrading plant safety at Krsko nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety missions in upgrading plant safety at Krsko NPP is defined. Krsko NPP is a two loop PWR plant designed by Westinghouse. The safety missions, following the invitation of the Yugoslavian Government, visited the plant on numerous occasions from the early construction phase to full power operation. The purpose of inviting the missions was to provide a second independent international viewpoint on various subjects related to safety features of plant design, equipment characteristics, utility organization during contruction and operation, quality control and quality assurance programmes and plant commissioning. The main activities of the IAEA missions during plant construction were related to the analysis of the preliminary and final safety analysis reports, especially where specific site conditions deviate from the standard United States Regulatory Guides (for example site meteorology and related environmental dose calculations) or where new design features have been introduced (such as 16x16 fuel design or emergency core cooling systems for two loop plants). Special consideration has been given to plant safety systems upgrading, particularly since the Three Mile Island accident. Mission advice on this subject was very valuable because it has provided the utility and licensing body with independent engineering judgements on the merit of particular hardware changes. In addition, the missions spent considerable time in analysing the role, functions and training of regulatory body personnel, the functions of utility organizations, especially in the areas related to safety (function of the quality assurance department and future organization for plant operation). Following the start of plant commercial operation the IAEA was invited to send the Operational Safety Review Team and the Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team. The paper describes the outcome of these missions. Finally, some general comments

  7. Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake was investigated with XRF and Mossbauer techniques. The lake of about 120 Km2, is a shallow one, medium deep of about 1.8m. In addition to its use for recreation, its basin has a wide area of influence and of economical significance. Bottom sediments play an important role in the overall distribution of trace elements in the aquatic system and act as a sink for metals. Bottom samples were taken from 5 different sampling stations, selected according to the morphology and population sites in the shore. The concentration of toxic metals was found to be low and no negative ecological impact should be expected. The main metallic ion component is iron (1.69%). Mossbauer studies showed this element appears as Fe+3 and no Fe+2 was detected. It is here suggested that Fe+3 acts as the limiting element which controls eutrophication process

  8. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  9. Correlation of level of vasoactive substances and disorder of cerebral hemodynamics in patients who took part in of the accident clean-up at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 166 participants of the accident clean-up at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Cerebral hemodynamics was investigated with trans cranial Doppler ultrasound along the middle cerebral artery. The observed changes can be regarded as one of the mechanisms forming postradiation cerebral dyscirculations which early development in the relatively young persons (under 40) can suggest increased rate of aging in the studied population

  10. Characteristic of lipid metabolism and state of free-radical processes in workers of 30-km alienation zone at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 54 men aged 35-50 working in 30 km alienation zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Blood serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation indices were estimated. Investigation of peroxidation processes in the erythrocytes allowed to reveal changes in glutation system, they being characterized by its amount elevation against the background of glutation transferase activity increase both in the persons, working in the 30 km zone, and in those from 'Ukryttia' Establishment

  11. The end of the nuclear power generation. On the recommendations of the ethics committee according to the 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the 13th Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act the nuclear consequences of the earthquake disaster in Japan will result in an end to nuclear power generation in Germany. Here, the legislature resorted to unusual methods. For the first time, the legislature received advices from the ''ethics committee reliable energy supply''. This Ethics Commission adopted its recommendations ''on behalf of the Chancellor'' in the period from 4th April to 28th May, 2011. The understanding of this development, its epochal character and speed of decision-making requires an excursion into the economic history and the establishment of nuclear power generation with their legal protection.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  13. The diode pump: its application to nuclear particle counting and to the detection of rapid neutronic power excursions in atomic piles (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals in particular with three applications of an electronic device whose principle is based on that of the diode pump. 1- Linear response circuit 2- Logarithmic response circuit 3- Detection of neutronic power excursions in atomic piles using a circuit or a combination of several circuits of the linear response type. Each of the applications has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Finally, the detection of rapid power excursions is extensively discussed with reference to the many methods available, emphasis being laid on the rapidity of the electronic response. (author)

  14. Thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 2. Studies for the case of four and six units in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational model was developed earlier for 2 units of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) operational at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to understand the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir wherein the hot water from the plant condensers is discharged. The model was successfully validated against the site data. The same model has now been extended for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in case of 4 NPP units as well as 6 NPP units operational at the same site. The present paper briefly describes details of the studies along with the results of earlier study to understand the overall behavior of thermal plume in Kadra reservoir. (orig.)

  15. Field of the application and general project decisions of atomic thermal power plant ATETS-80 based on integral WWER type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design Bureau of Machine Building is gradually being developed the direction of improvement WWER type reactors of the small and medium power for the production of heat and electricity. It is presented the integral WWER energetic reactor ATETS-80 in composition of thermal power plant, destined for the combined processing of electric power, steam, hot water, desalination of marine and pickling water. Electric power of the bloc ATETS-80 equal to 85 MWt, the heat power equal to 250 MWt. The project ATETS-80 of the promoted safety worked out on base of common project decisions, established and worked for reactor installations WWER, atomic icebreakers and general atomic plants of heat deliveries. General project decisions: integral accomplishment of the reactor; ramjet steam generator with superheating; two loops of exchange heat with channels of ECCS; autonomous channel ECCS on reactor; insurance vessel, discharged to full emergency pressure in case of the rupture of first contour; the containment shell, provided the protection from external effects. 2 figs

  16. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  17. Revised FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004) 2018-SR-02-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Bailey

    2011-10-27

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report details the confirmatory activities performed during the second Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

  18. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, Lareine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-08-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm-3) low-resistivity (10-4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory.

  19. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  20. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences

  1. Bottom-up graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Patrick B. [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pedramrazi, Zahra [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Madani, Ali [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Yen-Chia; Crommie, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Oteyza, Dimas G. de [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC/UPV-EHU-Materials Physics Center, San Sebastián E-20018 (Spain); Chen, Chen [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bokor, Jeffrey, E-mail: jbokor@eecs.berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    Recently developed processes have enabled bottom-up chemical synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with precise atomic structure. These GNRs are ideal candidates for electronic devices because of their uniformity, extremely narrow width below 1 nm, atomically perfect edge structure, and desirable electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate nano-scale chemically synthesized GNR field-effect transistors, made possible by development of a reliable layer transfer process. We observe strong environmental sensitivity and unique transport behavior characteristic of sub-1 nm width GNRs.

  2. Development of debris-resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debris-related fuel failures has been identified to be one of the major causes of fuel failures recently occured in nuclear power plants. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to prevent the debris from reaching to fuel rods. In this regard, it is important to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. (Author)

  3. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...

  4. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  5. Use of a CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system to decontaminate radiological waste and equipment in shielded hot cells at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details how the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory modified and utilized a commercially available, solid carbon dioxide (CO2) pellet, non-destructive cleaning system to support the disposition and disposal of radioactive waste from shielded hot cells. Some waste materials and equipment accumulated in the shielded hot cells cannot be disposed directly because they are contaminated with transuranic materials (elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium) above waste disposal site regulatory limits. A commercially available CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system was extensively modified for remote operation inside a shielded hot cell to remove the transuranic contaminants from the waste and equipment without generating any secondary waste in the process. The removed transuranic contaminants are simultaneously captured, consolidated, and retained for later disposal at a transuranic waste facility

  6. Autler-Townes splitting via frequency upconversion at ultra-low power levels in cold $^{87}$Rb atoms using an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Deasy, Kieran; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    The tight confinement of the evanescent light field around the waist of an optical nanofiber makes it a suitable tool for studying nonlinear optics in atomic media. Here, we use an optical nanofiber embedded in a cloud of laser-cooled 87Rb for near-infrared frequency upconversion via a resonant two-photon process. Sub-nW powers of the two-photon beams, at 780 nm and 776 nm, co-propagate through the optical nanofiber and generation of 420 nm photons is observed. A measurement of the Autler-Townes splitting provides a direct measurement of the Rabi frequency of the 780 nm transition. Through this method, dephasings of the system can be studied. In this work, the optical nanofiber is used as an excitation and detection tool simultaneously, and it highlights some of the advantages of using fully fibered systems for nonlinear optics with atoms.

  7. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  8. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements

  9. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  10. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  11. Measurement of the Analyzing Power $A_N$ in $pp$ Elastic Scattering in the CNI Region with a Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, H.; Alekseev, I. G.; Bravar, A; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Gill, R; Haeberli, W.; Jinnouchi, O.; Khodinov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Nass, A.; Saito, N; Stephenson, E. J.; D.N. Svirida; Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    A precise measurement of the analyzing power $A_N$ in proton-proton elastic scattering in the region of 4-momentum transfer squared $0.001 < |t| < 0.032 ({\\rm GeV}/c)^2$ has been performed using a polarized atomic hydrogen gas jet target and the 100 GeV/$c$ RHIC proton beam. The interference of the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude with a hadronic spin-nonflip amplitude is predicted to generate a significant $A_N$ of 4--5%, peaking at $-t \\simeq 0.003 ({\\rm GeV}/c)^2$. This kinematic region...

  12. Radiation situation and irradiation level in forest workers in places of timber works in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic situation in the forest plots and dose load of the personnel at timber works in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was evaluated.It has been revealed that the density of contamination of the forest soil at the areas of timber works was 155.4-447.3 kBq centre dot m2. Maximum year equivalent dose on the lungs and total dose of external and internal irradiation in the forest workers in the zone of alienation during the work at the areas were about 40% of the values of the respective dose limits for the population of B category

  13. Development of Crashworthy Bottom and Side Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naar, H.; Kujala, P.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ludolphy, H.

    structures. The first structure is a conventional double bottom. In the second structure (presently protected through a patent) the bottom plating is stiffened with hat-profiles instead of bulb profiles. In the third structure the outer shell is an all-steel sandwich panel. In the fourth structure the bottom...

  14. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA)

  15. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) is a recently proposed humid air turbine cycle. An air saturator is employed for air heating and humidification purposes in MGTC. In this paper, MGTC is integrated as the bottoming cycle to a topping simple gas turbine as Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC). A thermodynamic optimization is performed to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of MBC as compared with air bottoming cycle (ABC). Furthermore, detailed sensitivity analysis is reported to present the effect of different operating parameters on the proposed configurations' performance. Efficiency enhancement of 3.7% is reported which results in more than 2600 tonne of natural gas fuel savings per year. - Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Introduced Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC) as a power generation cycle. • Performed Thermodynamic optimization for MBC and air bottoming cycle (ABC). • Performed detailed sensitivity analysis for MBC under different operating conditions. • MBC has higher efficiency and specific net work output as compared to ABC

  16. Morphological peculiarities of duodenal peptic ulcer and leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    36 persons with duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (experimental group) and 20 patients who were not exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation were examined to study morphological peculiarities of DPU and blood leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident. The finding have shown that in the persons, exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation, peptic ulcer is often accompanied by erosive changes of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Disturbance of mucus formation in myocytes and secret evacuation from the cells, epithelium large-intestine-type metaplasia, were revealed. Shift of cellular correlation balance in inflammatory infiltrate to the side of monocytes number increase as well as decrease of leucocytes functional activity, manifesting itself by slowing a granulocytes migration to the focus of inflammation, were noted, which is necessary to take into account at administration of effective peptic ulcer therapy in the persons who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

  17. A study of the influence of noise from offshore wind power plants on the marine bottom fauna; En studie om hur bottenlevande fauna paaverkas av ljud fraan vindkraftverk till havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, Andreas; Granmo, Aake

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine changes of behaviour and activity patterns in marine soft bottom fauna under the influence of low frequent noise. Controlled experiments were performed at Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Fiskebaeckskil. The experiments were performed utilizing generator and vibrator techniques producing frequencies of 61, 178 and 721 Hz with an average sound pressure around 99 dB re 1 muPa. The selection of frequencies was based upon the sound profile measured at Utgrunden offshore wind farm in Kalmarsund (Ingemansson Technology, 2003) with the aim of recreating natural conditions. In order to quantify the sound exposure, measurements on both sound pressure and water particle acceleration in the test tanks were performed. In total four different marine soft bottom species were studied: a common little white mussel (Abra nitida), brittle star (Amphiura filiformis), brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). For the white mussel its burrowing ability was studied. First the speeds of burrowing down into the sediment and thereafter, the burrowing activity in the surface layer of the sediment for the duration of 96 hours were registered. During the experiments with the brittle star Amphiura filiformis the number of arms active in gathering food were observed shortly after the sound had started and for a period of 72 hours. When the brown shrimp was exposed for sound the number of prey items consumed during one day and after 4 days were observed. The study on juvenile plaice was only a shorter pilot study where the fish were exposed for sound during 15 minutes. During this restricted time swimming activity and burrowing activity were observed and after the initial 15 minutes also the respiration frequency during measurement for one minute were documented. The study showed that the burrowing activity increased for the white mussel compared to the controls during exposure of frequencies around 178 Hz after 24

  18. Transformation of the fourth power block of the Chernobyl atomic power station into a ecologically safe system by a dock-caisson technological complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designers of the technical solution do not doubt that it is possible to transform the fourth power block of the Chernobyl APS into an ecologically safe system by help of Dock-Caisson technological complex. Application of the Dock-Caisson allows to make the operations of phases 1 and 2 of the Shelter installation transformation at the same time, i.e. to make the installation stabilization and preparation to radioactive wastes extraction simultaneously. By completion of first two phases the conditions are created for instant beginning of phase 3, i.e. disassembling of the content of the crashed power block

  19. In-service inspection - a vital role in monitoring and health assessment of nuclear pressure vessels, piping and components at Tarapur Atomic Power Station - 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built in 1960's and presently operating at 160MWe. TAPS has completed 36 years of successful commercial operation and is continuing to provide safe, economic and reliable power supply. The design life of Tarapur nuclear reactors is 40 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY). So far TAPS has completed about 20EFPY for each reactor. In order to estimate the healthiness of nuclear components, a comprehensive study was made by the station in consultation with design group of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd.. In-Service Inspection (ISI) substantially enhances confidence in component performance. Consolidated inspection early in service life provides greater assurance of component's integrity. Periodic in-service inspection provides vital information in the form of flaw characterization for assessment of structural integrity. This paper describes various degradation mechanisms (SCC, IGSCC, TGSCC, EC, FAC etc.,) identified for critical components, their method of detection, methodologies followed for In-Service inspection and developmental activities to assess the integrity of nuclear reactor vessels, piping and components for continued service. Also a comprehensive examination carried out on Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) as part of plant ageing management programme is also discussed. (author)

  20. The Use of Coal Bottom Ash In Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Begyina Kodjo Nketsiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a waste material from coal burnt to generate electric power. It is incombustible and non-biodegradable; hence, the best way to dispose it is by recycling rather than incineration and land filling. Past research on bottom ash in road building have focused mainly on embankment filling, sub-base and base courses; except boiler slag which has received much attention in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. Bottom ash from Tanjung Bin Power Station was thus investigated through laboratory testing to justify its use in HMA construction in Malaysia. This Paper analysed the data with regards to performance in HMA. In the Marshall Mix design, the material largely satisfied the Stability, Flow and Stiffness requirements which were comparable to that of conventional aggregates, although void contents were a bit higher. When blended with granite, all the parameters were met. Contrary to past suggestions that bottom ash in HMA consumes more bitumen, the 6.4% (51.20g Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC achieved in this study does not necessarily translate into high consumption, compared to OBC of 5.3% (59.63g in the case of granite. The HMA also proved to be highly resistant to moisture-induced damage and satisfied the minimum JKR specification for Static Uniaxial Load Strain.

  1. FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Bailey

    2011-07-07

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.

  2. 75 FR 63867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. Fermi 1 was a fast breeder reactor power plant cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. In November... in Monroe County, Michigan. Fermi 1 is a permanently shutdown nuclear reactor facility. The...

  3. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Stanton Earl; Arik, Mehmet

    2011-04-19

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  4. Once again: A nuclear power plant shut down - causes and consequences of the lack of relevant licences issued under Air Pollution Control Law, parallel to the (partial) construction licences required for nuclear power plants under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, a Federal German court has decided to shut down a nuclear power station (Muelheim-Kaerlich) that has been operating since then on the basis of valid operating licenses issued by the competent licensing authority (OVG Koblenz, Higher administrative court, decision 7 B II 2/86 of October 10, 1986). The article discusses the legal problems created by this decision, as e.g.: The factual scope of validity of a licence granted under section 7 Atomic Energy Act; the protection of confidence of the applicant for a licence in connection with the self-engagement of the licensing authority; consideration of the non-licensed cooling tower in the preliminary proceedings for guaranteeing legal protection. The author backs the decision of the OVG Koblenz, as a nuclear power station may not start operation without a licence issued under air pollution control laws, which in this case had not yet been obtained. (HSCH)

  5. Nuclear power: Preparing for the future, 30 November 2006, Tokyo, Japan. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public's perception of risk has a strong influence on a country's energy choices. As with civil aviation, bioengineering, or any other advanced technology, nuclear power does not come with absolute safety guarantees. What is important is that the risks and benefits are clearly understood. All members of the nuclear community - scientists, operators and safety regulators - should make every effort to provide accurate and easily understood information to improve public understanding of the risks and benefits of nuclear energy. Common misconceptions can be of great influence in shaping public acceptance of nuclear power. How a given nation balances the risk of a nuclear accident against other factors - such as air pollution, dammed rivers, mining accidents, or dependency on foreign fuel supplies - is already a matter of complexity and legitimate debate. It is essential that the nuclear community be seen as transparent and open in its activities, to increase understanding and confidence in the safe operations of nuclear facilities

  6. Implementation Alternatives for Bottom-Up Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brass, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Bottom-up evaluation is a central part of query evaluation / program execution in deductive databases. It is used after a source code optimization like magic sets or SLDmagic that ensures that only facts relevant for the query can be derived. Then bottom-up evaluation simply performs the iteration of the standard TP -operator to compute the minimal model. However, there are different ways to implement bottom-up evaluation efficiently. Since this is most critical for the performance of a deduc...

  7. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Vlček; Jan Skočilas; Tomáš Jirout

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baf...

  8. Postirradiation examination of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the irradiation results and their evaluation for Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4. It describes in detail the efforts by General Atomic Company over the last two years to establish a system for extracting meaningful performance information from a fuel test element. This has been done with the goal of making direct comparisons between as-measured data and core design code predictions. Special emphasis has been placed on determining the 95% confidence limits on most of the preirradiation and postirradiation measurements in order to allow a better comparison with GAUGE, FEVER, and TREVER code calculations which are used in HTGR core thermal and mechanical design

  9. Sensitivity of Peach Bottom turbine trip test calculations using RETRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast acting power increase transients are required to test the one-dimensional reactor kinetics used in RETRAN. In addition, methods used to model the steam separator, down comer, steam lines and feedback from turbine control valves, feedwater and recirculation flow control can be tested using the Peach Bottom benchmarks. Gulf States Utilities (GSU) performed simulations of the three Peach Bottom turbine trip tests. These calculations were performed using RETRAN02/MOD4, with kinetics data generated by the GSU's CASMO1/SIMULATE-E/SIMTRAN models. The Peach Bottom tests were held at low power conditions for which reactor vessel pressure and enthalpy distribution data was unavailable. During the computer program benchmark process, it was found that the results showed a large sensitivity to the reactor conditions used to initialize RETRAN. Many other sensitivities were observed such as turbine trip induced pressure wave impact on overall results. Timing and magnitude of the pressure waves were found to be affected by the use of equilibrium or non-equilibrium models, by distribution of separator inertia and by distribution of pressure losses through core and separators. The timing and magnitude of these pressure waves has a significant effect on the peak power and heat flux

  10. Physics for all, who want to join in conversation. On atomic power, dirty bombs, space research, solar energy, and the global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Which dangers contains the global heating really? What can happen at an attack on a atomic power plant?. Which chances offer renewable energies? Questions which are put daily in the pursuing of news - but to which we have only seldomly answers ready, because basic physical knowledge is absent. But it must not even be the great world policy. Already at the decision wether solar cells shall be mounted on the roof or punted on geothermal heat physics are not unimportant. More often than we think it are natural sciences, which yield the foundations for important decisions. Richard A. Muller explains simply and illustratively, how physics determines our life. Thereby he removes prejudices and mediates quite surprising insights

  11. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Haddam Neck Plant, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, Docket No. 50-213. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Progam was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with curent licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Haddam Neck Plant, operated by Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. The Haddam Neck Plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  12. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  13. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  14. FINAL REPORT – CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE SPRU LOWER LEVEL HILLSIDE AREA AT THE KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK DCN 5146-SR-01-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-08-29

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) is located within the boundary of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) at 2425 River Road, Niskayuna, Schenectady County, New York (Figure A-1). SPRU was designed and developed to research an efficient process to chemically separate plutonium and uranium from processed fuel. Buildings H2 and G2 were the primary research and process facilities. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953 at which time the research was successful in developing useable reduction oxidation and plutonium uranium extraction processes. These processes were subsequently moved to the Hanford and the Savannah River sites for full-scale operations. Building H2 was used by KAPL after the SPRU process ceased until the late 1990s for radioactive wastewater processing and Building G2 was utilized for offices. Process areas and equipment were maintained in a safe condition under a surveillance and maintenance program.

  15. Soil to rice grain transfer factor and radiological dose of 137Cs and 90Sr around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Narora, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs and 90Sr concentration in rice grain and corresponding agricultural soils were measured (2009-2011) within 15 km radius of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Narora, India. 137Cs activity was in the range of BDL (<0.2)-0.65 ± 0.18 Bq kg-1 in rice grains and from BDL (<0.56)-2.06 ± 0.36 Bq kg-1 in soil samples. 90Sr content was BDL (<0.095 Bq kg-1) in all rice grain samples. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to rice grain was in the range of 0.10-0.40. Ingestion dose from rice consumption was significantly lesser than the permissible limits of 1.0 mSv year-1, thus posing no radiological health risk. (author)

  16. FInal Report - Characterization Survey Of The SPRU Lower Level Hillside Area At The Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Niskayuna, New York DCN: 5146-SR-01-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) is located within the boundary of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) at 2425 River Road, Niskayuna, Schenectady County, New York (Figure A-1). SPRU was designed and developed to research an efficient process to chemically separate plutonium and uranium from processed fuel. Buildings H2 and G2 were the primary research and process facilities. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953 at which time the research was successful in developing useable reduction oxidation and plutonium uranium extraction processes. These processes were subsequently moved to the Hanford and the Savannah River sites for full-scale operations. Building H2 was used by KAPL after the SPRU process ceased until the late 1990s for radioactive wastewater processing and Building G2 was utilized for offices. Process areas and equipment were maintained in a safe condition under a surveillance and maintenance program.

  17. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  18. Confirmation methods for the disposal of filled-solidified waste drums from Tokai Nuclear Plant of Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrated exhaust liquid and spent resins from nuclear power plants in operation are mixed with cement, asphalt or plastics to form solidified materials and filled in the 200 litter drums and to be disposed at Rokkasho Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) is in charge of confirmation of the adaptability and compliance of these wastes to the guidelines and regulations. The report contains the solidification using high-frequency melting furnace, filling methods of the solid wastes into the drums, and making a review and improvement for the confirmation. (S. Ohno)

  19. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains background material which outlines tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire hazards. Volume 2 presents criteria for evaluating fire hazard reports. The criteria are consistent with the existing AECB regulatory approach in Canada and cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis. This volume also provides details of each topic so that the quality of an analysis may be evaluated

  20. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power and...... creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable and...... floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity. It...

  1. LXIII International conference NUCLEUS 2013. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics and atomic power engineering (LXIII Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure). Dedicated to 70th anniversary of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications in astrophysics, medicine and other fields of science and technique. The recent results of experimental investigations of atomic nucleus properties and nuclear reactions mechanisms are presented. The theoretical problems of atomic nucleus, fundamental interactions and nuclear reactions are discussed. The fundamental problems of current nuclear power engineering are considered

  2. Gas engine bottoming cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, M.; Thorin, E.; Svedberg, G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas engines and diesel engines can be used for power generation in small-scale industrial and utility power plants. A bottoming cycle recovering heat from the exhaust gas, charge air, jacket water and lubrication oil can increase the power output of a gas or diesel engine power plant. The current study investigates ammonia-water power cycles as bottoming cycles to natural gas fired gas engines. The engines used in the calculations are 16V25SG and 18V34SG from Wartsila NSD. The configurations of the bottoming processes have been changed in order to achieve better temperature matching in the heat exchangers. The ammonia-water cycles have been compared to a simple Rankine steam cycle. All cycles have been optimized to give maximum power output. The ammonia-water bottoming cycles generate 18--54% more power than a simple Rankine steam cycle. An economic estimation of the bottoming cycles shows that the extra equipment needed for an ammonia-water cycle may be justified by the extra amount of power generated.

  3. Feature articles, thermal power and atomic power. Evaluation technique of antiseismic stability of caisson foundation bulkhead. Karyoku, genshiryoku. Keson shiki gogan no taishin anteisei hyoka gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Fujitani, M. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    One of the site construction for nuclear power plant is an offshore artificial island system. In this case, the breakwater bulkhead constructed around the island plays an important role in keeping the safety of the whole site. Accordingly the establishment of evaluation technique of antiseismic stability is also important. This study reproduced the seismic behavior of the breakwater bulkhead by means of model vibration experiment. Various factors affecting the sliding of caisson were considered by taking into account the conventional design method and concept. The experimental results were numerically simulated. For analytically obtaining the settlement of the backward ground due to the sliding of caisson, the applicability of (1) elasto-plastic finite element method using the joint element, and (2) individual element method was investigated. Each of them proved to be effective for quantitatively evaluating the deformation behavior of caisson foundation bulkhead in case of earthquake. 5 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Dangerous Energy : Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the disaster in Chernobyl, Russia. Through the accident It reveals the dangerous nuclear energy with a lot of problems on the nuclear power plants which includes four reasons about propelling development of atomic and criticism about that, eight reasons against development of atomic, the problem in 11 -12 nuclear power plant, the movement of antagonism towards nuclear waste in Anmyon island, cases of antinuclear in foreign country and building of new energy system.

  5. CFD analysis of atmospheric dispersion in a large terrain of Kakrapar atomic power station in presence of structural buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation to investigate the dispersion of SF6 over terrain of Kakrapar nuclear power plant using the actual meteorological data. Three-dimensional, transient simulations have been carried out using CFD code PHOENICS. The CFD calculation covers a domain of 3.2 km X 3.2 km in plan and 0.5 km in height. Atmospheric dispersion in presence of the structures like Reactor Building, Natural Draft Cooling Tower and Turbine Building has been studied. The SF6 was released from the stack at a height of 100 m. SF6 released was considered for 2 hours duration at a rate of 1 gm/sec. This model was used to simulate the transport of SF6 for 6 hours. The ground level concentration of SF6 was monitored

  6. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  7. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  8. Low power ovonic threshold switching characteristics of thin GeTe6 films using conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimizing the dimensions of the electrode could directly impact the energy-efficient threshold switching and programming characteristics of phase change memory devices. A ∼12–15 nm AFM probe-tip was employed as one of the electrodes for a systematic study of threshold switching of as-deposited amorphous GeTe6 thin films. This configuration enables low power threshold switching with an extremely low steady state current in the on state of 6–8 nA. Analysis of over 48 different probe locations on the sample reveals a stable Ovonic threshold switching behavior at threshold voltage, VTH of 2.4 ± 0.5 V and the off state was retained below a holding voltage, VH of 0.6 ± 0.1 V. All these probe locations exhibit repeatable on-off transitions for more than 175 pulses at each location. Furthermore, by utilizing longer biasing voltages while scanning, a plausible nano-scale control over the phase change behavior from as-deposited amorphous to crystalline phase was studied

  9. Search for neutral Higgs bosons in events with multiple bottom quarks at the Tevatron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), "091101-1"-"091101-10". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : D0 * Fermilab Higgs particle * associated production * minimal supersymmetric standard model * parameter space * bottom * multiple product Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  10. Importance of Non-Perturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of non-perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two non perturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in JP=(1/2)+ doublet in strange as well as non-strange sector are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass and hyperfine splitting has also been analyzed for both strange and non-strange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  11. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=(1/2)+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries

  12. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  13. On bottom mixing with exotic quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a calculation of the effects of bottom mixing with new exotic quarks in the forward-backward and left-right asymmetries, bottom branching ratio and the QCD coupling constant. A global fit with the recent data on these quantities is done and stringent bounds are obtained. We discuss the effects of different isospin signatures for the new possible exotic quarks. The consequences for superstring-inspired E6 models are discussed. Constraints on the bottom mixing with the isosinglet quarks of the fundamental 27-plet are presented. (author)

  14. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of t...

  15. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promulgated in 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission Act (204) established and vested in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission the sole responsibility for all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country. Embodied in the Act are provisions relating to the powers, duties, rights and liabilities of the Commission. (EAA)

  16. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  17. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weiling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm{sup -1} is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  18. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm-1 is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption

  19. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Zeolites from Coal Fly and Bottom Ashes

    OpenAIRE

    Tharcila Colachite Rodrigues Bertolini; Juliana C. Izidoro; Carina P. Magdalena; Denise A. Fungaro

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of the cationic dye Crystal Violet (CV) over zeolites from coal fly ash (ZFA) and bottom ash (ZBA) was evaluated. The coal fly ash (CFA) and the coal bottom ash (CBA) used in the synthesis of the zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in Jorge Lacerda coal-fired power plant located at Capivari de Baixo County, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The zeolitic materials were characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite and X. The dye adsorption equilibrium was...

  20. Time stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  1. Measurement of the analyzing power A{sub N} in pp elastic scattering in the CNI region with a polarized atomic hydrogen gas jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, H. [Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, (Japan); Alekseev, I.G. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bravar, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: bravar@bnl.gov; Bunce, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Dhawan, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Gill, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Haeberli, W. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Jinnouchi, O. [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Khodinov, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Nass, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Saito, N. [Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Stephenson, E.J. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Svirida, D.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Wise, T. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Precise measurement of the analyzing power A{sub N} in proton-proton elastic scattering in the region of 4-momentum transfer squared 0.001< vertical bar t vertical bar <0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2} has been performed using a polarized atomic hydrogen gas jet target and the 100 GeV/c RHIC proton beam. The interference of the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude with a hadronic spin-nonflip amplitude is predicted to generate a significant A{sub N} of 4-5%, peaking at -t{approx}0.003 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This kinematic region is known as the Coulomb nuclear interference region. A possible hadronic spin-flip amplitude modifies this calculable prediction. We present the first precise result of the CNI asymmetry and shape as a function of t. Our data are well described by the CNI prediction with the electromagnetic spin-flip alone and do not support the presence of a large hadronic spin-flip amplitude.

  2. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  3. (135)Cs activity and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  4. Assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station and evaluation of radiological doses to aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation and maintenance of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), low level radioactive liquid waste is generated and released to the aquatic ecosystem (Moticher lake). The silt and aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata) samples collected from different locations in Moticher lake were analysed for 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K during 2007-2008. A wide variation in activity levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K in silt and weed samples were observed in aquatic system of KAPS. The activity buildup in the silt is confined to a small area in the Moticher lake. The activity levels were found to be insignificant at 1 km away from discharge point (upstream and downstream). An attempt was made to evaluate the radiological dose to aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata), which was found to be well within the dose limit prescribed by US DOE. The total radiological dose due to the naturally occurring radionuclide (40K) is comparatively higher than that of other reactor released gamma emitting radionuclides. (author)

  5. Extrapolation of the Bethe equation for electron stopping powers to intermediate and low electron energies by empirical simulation of target effective mean excitation energy and atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of simple stopping power (SP) formulas, modified from the relativistic Bethe equation, is presented that is based on the concepts of target effective atomic number and mean excitation energy (MEE). The analytical model function is constructed to approximate experimental or calculated SPs at low electron energies and tend asymptotically to the relativistic Bethe function at high energies. The energy dependencies of our effective values, in contrast with theoretical approaches, are defined empirically by parametrization with tuning parameters. A least-squares fitting routine based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was developed. We utilize the material parameters and numerical calculations of SPs from optical data using the full Penn-algorithm. Our formula is thought to be applicable for energies above 60 eV. Our simulations of SPs for 41 elemental solids are found to be in good agreement with published numerical results. The flexibility of a general empirical formula is shown. Shortened formulas were developed that are applicable for particular energy ranges, and effective MEEs are proposed that differ from previously recommended values. The presented formulas may be used for analytical calculation of SPs over a broad projectile energy region

  6. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  7. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( α ≈ 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( β ≈ 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively

  8. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  9. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  10. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  11. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  12. Development, Fabrication and Characterisation of Atom Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Sönke

    2006-01-01

    Atom chips are robust and extremely powerful toolboxes for quantum optical experiments, since they make it possible to create exceedingly precise magnetic traps for neutral atoms with minimal field modulations. Accurate manipulation of trapped atoms is feasible with magnetic and electric fields created on the atom chip. Therefore atom chips with high quality surfaces and extremely well defined wires were build (roughness < 20nm). Furthermore new generations of atom chips were developed, like ...

  13. MELCOR code analysis of a severe accident LOCA at Peach Bottom Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) has been analyzed for the Peach Bottom atomic station unit 2 using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate best-estimate times for the important events of this accident sequence and best-estimate source terms. Calculated pressures and temperatures at the beginning of the transient have been compared to results from the Peach Bottom final safety analysis report (FSAR). MELCOR-calculated source terms have been compared to source terms reported in the NUREG-1465 draft

  14. Surface engineering of nanoporous substrate for solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited thin film electrolytes supported on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO are electrochemically characterized with varying thickness of bottom electrode catalyst (BEC; BECs which are 0.5 and 4 times thicker than the size of AAO pores are tested. The thicker BEC ensures far more active mass transport on the BEC side and resultantly the thicker BEC cell generates ≈11 times higher peak power density than the thinner BEC cell at 500 °C.

  15. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  16. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  17. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  18. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  19. Thermal ecological study on the water quality and biological impact assessment in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m3/sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. Measurements of ΔT between Intake and Outfall ranged from 6.1 to 9.8 deg C and between Intake and Mixing zone from 3.2 to 6.0 deg C. These values are well within the legal limits. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 deg C. No measurable Change in the physical and chemical parameters of seawater (DO, Salinity NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4 and SiO3) in relation to thermal discharges was observed. However, these parameters fluctuated with seasonal changes. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at Δ5 degC (33 degC) and Δ T 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  20. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  1. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level. PMID:26670551

  2. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm), silver (10 ppm), stainless steel (0.1%) and minerals that can be converted into building products such as aggregates utilized for concrete, asphalt, etc. Since the composition of BA varies from cou...

  3. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its...

  4. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  5. Bottom-up approach to silicon nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumita, Hiroshi; Oda, S

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience This paper presents a brief review of our recent work investigating a novel bottom-up approach to realize silicon based nanoelectronics. We discuss fabrication technique, electronic properties and device applications of silicon nanodots as a building block for nanoscale silicon devices.

  6. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  7. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  8. Schroedinger atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an electrodynamical interpretation suggested by Schroedinger for the wave function are discribed. According to this conception electron charges are continuously distributed all over the volume of an atomic system. The proof is given that classical electrodynamics keeps its action inside atom. Schroedinger's atom has been shown to be the only model in which electrones do not lose their energy for emission when they move around nucleus. A significance of the distributed electron charge self-field is estimated. Practical applications of this conception have been noted including the new trend in quantum electrodynamics. Experimental and theoretical corroborations of the atom model with a continuous electron charge are adduced

  9. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  10. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi......-objective optimization approach is employed to maximize the economic revenue, the compactness and the power production of the air bottoming cycle. The system compactness is assessed by introducing a detailed model of the shell and tube recuperator and including geometric quantities in the set of optimization variables....... Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization...

  11. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  12. Photoionization of Xe inside C60: Atom-fullerene hybridization, giant cross-section enhancement, and correlation confinement resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C60 is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C60 π band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C60 giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C60 plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their ''clones'' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.

  13. ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  14. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  15. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  16. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the possible $q\\bar{q}$ quark-model assignments of the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ can be identified as $B(2^1S_0)$ and $B(1^3D_3)$, respectively, and the $B(5970)$ reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as $B(2^3S_1)$ or $B(1^3D_3)$. Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the $B(5970)$ are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  17. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  18. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the setting up of an Atomic Energy Authority for the United Kingdom. It also makes provision for the Authority's composition, powers, duties, rights and liabilities, and may amend, as a consequence of the establishment of the Authority and in connection therewith, the Atomic Energy Act, 1946, the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and other relevant enactments. (NEA)

  19. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  20. Nondestructive examination of vessel bottom head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessel bottom Head penetration of French PWR units are made of Inconel 600 alloy which is known to be sensitive to stress corrosion cracking and so, need to be inspected. FRAMATOME has developed different complementary non destructive examination methods and a tooling to perform this inspection. These methods are able to detect, from the inside of the penetration, axially or circumferential oriented defects. For defects initiated in the inner surface, Eddy Current examination and TV inspection are used. If they are initiated in the outer surface, ultrasonic examination is used. In addition, ultrasonic examination enables the sensitive stress area of the penetration/vessel bottom head weld joint to be located to the detected defects. The use of fully numerical electronics allows extensive post-processing of ultrasonic and Eddy Current Data. In this paper, the nondestructive examination methods and associated tooling are presented. The accuracy of detection, location and sizing defects is also discussed

  1. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  2. Microfinance and the environmental bottom line

    OpenAIRE

    Allet, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance has strongly developed over the past decades on the promise of reaching a double bottom line of financial viability and social impact. Recently, some actors have started to advocate that microfinance, to be truly responsible, should include a third environmental objective as well. However, little scientific knowledge exists today on environmental management within microfinance institutions (MFIs). The objective of this PhD thesis is to shed light on how MFIs manage their environm...

  3. Bottom-up organic integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Edsger C. P; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; van Hal, Paul A.; Setayesh, Sepas; Geuns, Thomas C. T.; Mutsaers, Kees A. H. A.; Cantatore, Eugenio; Wondergem, Harry J.; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Kemerink, Martijn; Kirchmeyer, Stephan; Muzafarov, Aziz M.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; de Boer, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Self- assembly - the autonomous organization of components into patterns and structures(1) - is a promising technology for the mass production of organic electronics. Making integrated circuits using a bottom- up approach involving self- assembling molecules was proposed(2) in the 1970s. The basic building block of such an integrated circuit is the self- assembled- monolayer field- effect transistor ( SAMFET), where the semiconductor is a monolayer spontaneously formed on the gate dielectric....

  4. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  5. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  6. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of their medium mass on baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. Certain aspects of these in-medium interactions are similar to those observed for the strange-charmed mesons in a preceding investigation, such as the lifting of mass-degeneracy of $B_S^0$ and ${\\bar B}_S^0$ mesons in hyperonic matter, while the same is respected in vacuum as well as in nuclear matter. In general, however, there is a remarkable distinction between the two species, even though the formalism predicts a completely analogous in-medium...

  7. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  8. Improving radwaste processing efficiency at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 1100MWe BWRs are located at the Peach Bottom site. These units share a liquid radwaste processing system that consists of precoated filters followed by deep bed demineralizers. Radwaste is segregated and treated in two separate systems; one for floor drain wastes and one for equipment drain wastes (waste collector). The filters are of the precoat type, and were originally outfitted with wedgewire elements. The Pall Rigimesh Septa installed last year at Peach Bottom are constructed of a sintered stainless steel, computer-optimized, multi-layer wire mesh composite. Pall starts with a very fine woven wire mesh and adds non-flow-restricting drainage layers and sinters in a high temperature vacuum furnace which bonds all wires at their points of contact. The result is an extremely strong septum with a fixed pore structure of uniform shape and distribution. The pore structure is fixed and unchanging, even in the face of increasing forward flow differential pressure or in backwash. The new elements at Peach Bottom were direct replacements; no hardware modifications were necessary. The Rigimesh Septa have now been in service since November 1990 without any element failure or resin leakage. Eliminating the need to replace damaged septa and to dispose of and purchase resin is expected to save Philadelphia Electric $90 000 in the first year alone. Additional savings that have not been quantified include the maintenance costs associated with element changeout, and the associated reduction in radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced.

  10. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced

  11. Public notice concerning the compilation of technical specifications and other information to be taken into account in the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants pursuant to Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to facilitate and to standardize procedures in the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants under the Atomic Energy Law, this compilation shows the full range of data and information to be taken into account by the relevant authorities or by experts acting on behalf of the authorities in accordance with section 20 of the Atomic Energy Act in the process of examining the licensing requirements, as stated in section 7, sub-section 2 of the At. En. Act, or within the framework of public supervision of the construction or operation of nuclear power plants, as laid down in section 19 of At.En. Act. The information refers to: Site selection; PWR reactor containments made of steel; BWR reactor containments with pressure suppression system; reactor core and control elements with drives, pressurized containment; interials of the reactor containment; emergency cooling and RHR systems, including shutdown cooling; auxiliary systems of the reactor cooling system; equipment for the handling and storage of fuel elements; equipment and systems for the handling and storage of other radioactive substances as well as auxiliary reactor systems, ventilating systems; steam generating systems; steam turbine systems; cooling water systems as well as power plant auxiliary and accessory systems; electrical energy supply of the safety system; alarm systems, personal signalling system and communication systems; instrumentation and control technology, control rooms, emergency control point and selected control areas; reactor safety system; radiation protection and activity control. (orig./HP)

  12. Parameter estimation for estimation of bottom hole pressure during drilling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Hans Kristian

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we examine four bottom hole pressure estimators based on adaptive estimation of the friction pressure for the drill string and the annulus. Knowledge about the bottom hole pressure is crucial to achieve security and commercial objectives. Bottom hole pressure measurements transmitted by mud pulse telemetry have limited bandwidth and it is common to use additional models to estimate the bottom hole pressure when measurements are unavailable. The motivation for an adaptive approa...

  13. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Theory of power maximization used to design an air bottoming cycle. • Theory of power maximization extended by a multi-objective optimization method. • Three objective functions considered: net power output, recuperator volume and net present value. • Comparison between the theory of power maximization and the multi-objective optimization method. • Case study: a methodology applied to recover exhaust heat on off-shore platforms. - Abstract: This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective optimization approach is employed to maximize the economic revenue, the compactness and the power production of the air bottoming cycle. The system compactness is assessed by introducing a detailed model of the shell and tube recuperator and including geometric quantities in the set of optimization variables. Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization. The highest net present value (2.8 M$) is found for a volume of the recuperator of 128 m3. Thus, it can be concluded that the multi-objective optimization approach enables extending the theory of power maximization bridging the gap between a mere optimization of the thermodynamic cycle and the practical feasibility of a power generation system

  14. From what tomorrow will be built?: CO2 sequestrated in the bottom of the seas?, hydrogen-powered cars?, solid petroleum?, a nuclear power with practically no wastes? From what yesterday has been made?: the energy status and bill of France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energies et Matieres Premieres newsletter presents some trends of todays research in the domain of energy and environment for the development of renewable and unconventional energy sources and for the development of a durable nuclear power with a better competitiveness and a reinforced safety. This part comprises 4 articles dealing with: the sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants in the oceans or in the deep underground (aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields, coal measures); the development of hydrogen as complementary or competitive energy source with respect to fossil fuels (advantages and limitations, fuel cells in transportation systems, production, 'well to wheel' efficiency status); the technological challenges of the exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbon deposits (enhanced recovery, heavy crudes, deep- and ultra-deep offshore fields, gas hydrates); the future nuclear technologies for a sustainable nuclear power (improvement of the competitiveness and safety of existing facilities, storage of short-living radioactive wastes, recycling of plutonium, separation and transmutation of minor actinides, disposal of ultimate wastes, development of gas-cooled reactors). Finally, a last article presents the status of the French energy production, consumption and costs for 2001. (J.S.)

  15. Bottom quark mass from Υ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bottom quark pole mass Mb is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the Υ mesons to large n moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O(αs2,αsv,v2) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for Mb, and the strong M bar S coupling αs, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV ≤Mb≤4.87 GeV and 0.096≤αs(Mz)≤0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95% confidence level and if two-loop running for αs is employed. Mb and αs have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M bar S bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV ≤mb(MΥ(1S)/2)≤4.32 GeV. If αs is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV ≤Mb≤4.98 GeV[4.08 GeV ≤mb(MΥ(1S)/2)≤4.28 GeV] for 0.114≤αs(Mz)≤0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and Kuehn et al. are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark - antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 109 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 109 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  17. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of t...

  18. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  19. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate

  20. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  1. Atomic profits, no thanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH)

  2. High thermoelectric figure of merit nanostructured pnictogen chalcogenides by bottom-up synthesis and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rutvik J.

    Thermoelectric materials offer promise for realizing transformative environmentallyfriendly solid-state refrigeration technologies that could replace current technologies based on ozone-depleting liquid coolants. The fruition of this vision requires factorial enhancements in the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials, necessitating high Seebeck coefficient (alpha), high electrical conductivity (sigma) and low thermal conductivity (kappa). This thesis reports a novel bottom-up approach to scalably sculpt large quantities (>10g/minute) of V 2VI3 nanocrystals with controllable shapes and sizes, and assemble them into bulk samples to obtain both high power factors alpha 2sigma as well as unprecedentedly low kappa through tunable doping and nanostructuring. The thesis demonstrates a surfactant-mediated microwave-solvothermal synthesis technique that selectively yields both n- and p-typed pnictogen chalcogenide (Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, Bi2Se3) nanoplates and, nanowires and nanotubes (Sb 2Se3) that can be sintered to obtain 25-250 % increases in ZT>1 compared to their non-nanostructured and un-doped counterparts. A key result is that nanostructuring diminishes the lattice thermal conductivity kappa L to ultra-low values of 0.2-0.5 Wm-1K-1. Sub-atomic-percent sulfur doping and sulfurization of the pnictogen chalcogenides induced through mercaptan-terminated organic surfactants used in the synthesis result in large Seebeck coefficients between -240 nanocomposites by mixing nanoplates of different materials (e.g., S-doped Sb2Te3 and S-doped Bi2Te3) and forming heterostructures of metals and chalcogenides. The thesis finally demonstrates the extendibility of the novel synthesis and assembly approach to tailor the thermoelectric properties of other non-traditional thermoelectric materials systems.

  3. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  4. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  5. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  6. Mechanism of Off—Bottom Suspension of Solid Particles in a Mechanical Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOYuyun; HUANGXiongbin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The minimum fluid velocity to maintain particles just suspended was deduced,and the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum velocity is influenced by the properties of the solid and liquid,not by the operational conditions. For justification,the local minimum velocity at the bottom of the tank was measured by a bi-electrode conductivity probe,in a square-sectioned stirred tank (0.75m×0.75m×1.0m) with the glass beads-water system. The experiments showed that the fluid velocities for the same suspension state were identical despite that the power dissipated per unit mass was not the same under different configuration and operation.Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the off-bottom suspension is controlled by the local fluid flow over the bottom of the stirred tank.

  7. Prediction Method of Bottom Water Coning Profile and Water Breakthrough Time in Bottom Water Reservoir without Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Li; Haitao Li; Ying Li

    2015-01-01

    During the exploitation of bottom water oil reservoir, bottom water coning influences the breakthrough of bottom water significantly. Because water cut rises quickly after the breakthrough of bottom water, measures should be taken before the breakthrough to postpone production period without water, thus improving oil recovery. So accurate prediction of water coning profile and breakthrough time is very essential. Through mathematical derivation, this paper proposed a prediction method of bott...

  8. Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted from highly ionized atoms in the vacuum spark and laser-produced high power plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in atomic spectroscopy has greatly been reinforced in the last ten years. This gain of interest is directly related to the developments in different fields of research where hot plasmas are created. These fields include in particular controlled thermonuclear fusion research by means of inertial or magnetic confinement approaches and also the most recent efforts to achieve lasers in the XUV region. The present work is based on the specific contribution of the atomic spectroscopy group at the Hebrew University. The recent development of both theoretical and experimental tools allowed us to progress in the understanding of the highly ionized states of heavy elements. In this work the low-inductance vacuum-spark developed at the Hebrew University was used as the hot plasma source. The spectra were recorded in the 7-300 A range by means of a high-resolution extreme-grazing-incidence spectrometer developed at the Racah Institute by Profs. J.L. Schwob and B.S. Fraenkel. To the extend the spectroscopic studies to higher-Z atoms, the laser-produced plasma facility at Soreq Nuclear Center was used. In this work the spectra of the sixth row elements were recorded in the x-rays by means of a crystal spectrometer. All these experimental systems are briefly described in chapter one. Chapter two deals with the theoretical methods used in the present work for the atomic calculations. Chapter three deals with the spectra of elements of the fifth row emitted from the vacuum-spark in the 30-150 A range. These spectra as experimental data were used in order to test ab-initio computations along the NiI sequence 3d-nl transitions. The results of this work are presented in chapter four. Chapter five is devoted to the measurement and analysis of spectra emitted from the vacuum-spark by rare-earth elements. (author)

  9. RETRAN simulation of Peach Bottom 2 BOC 5 Main Steam Relief Valve (SRV) Discharge Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1980, RETRAN was used to simulate the reactor core response characteristics during the Peach Bottom 2 Beginning of Cycle (BOC) 5 Main Steam Relief Valve (SRV) Discharge Tests. The SEV tests were conducted at power (50% Power) for the purpose of demonstrating that the torus structural response with the Tee quencher design is less than the structural response predicted by the plant unique torus analysis. In comparison to the measured plant transient data, RETRAN predicted accurate reactor power and pressure trends and magnitudes during both the opening (de-pressurization) and closing (over-pressurization) of the SRV's. Based on these results, it is evident that the RETRAN code and the RETRAN Peach Bottom plant model provide reasonable simulation of over/under-pressurization transient results

  10. RETRAN simulation of Peach Bottom 2 beginning of Cycle 5 main steam relief valve discharge test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1980, RETRAN was used to simulate the reactor core response characteristics during the Peach Bottom 2 beginning of cycle 5 main steam relief valve (SRV) discharge tests. The SRV tests were conducted at power (50% power) for the purpose of demonstrating that the torus structural response with the ''Tee'' quencher design is less severe than the structural response predicted by the plant unique torus analysis. In comparison with the measured plant transient data, RETRAN predicted accurate reactor power and pressure trends and magnitudes during both the opening (depressurization) and closing (overpressurization) of the SRVs. Based on these results, it is evident that the RETRAN code and the RETRAN Peach Bottom plant model provide reasonable simulation of mild over/underpressurization transient events. For the subject analysis, RETRAN 01 Mod 2 was implemented. 2 refs

  11. Effect of gas flow on transport of O (3Pj) atoms produced in ac power excited non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure O2/Ar plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spatial distribution of O (3Pj) atoms emitted from a non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure O2/Ar plasma jet in ambient N2 gas has been measured by using the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. In remote regions of the plasma, the absolute density of O (3Pj) atoms for a total gas flow rate of 1 slm decreased from 4.1 × 1014 to 1.5 × 1013 cm−3 as the distance from the main discharge region increased from 10 to 16 mm and that for 5 slm decreased from 7.7 × 1014 to 2.0 × 1014 cm−3. The reduction ratio thus changed from 0.037 to 0.259 with increasing total gas flow rate. Although loss of O (3Pj) atoms occurs frequently due to the influence of N2 or nitrogen oxide species produced by the inflow of ambient gas, it is found that the gas flow velocity is a very important factor for the transport of the active species to longer distances from the plasma, and it determines the material processing performance for a non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure O2/Ar plasma jet. (paper)

  12. Measurement of the bottom quark lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark mixing matrix is constrained by the lifetime of the bottom quark, the off-diagonal elements involving the b quark being completely determined by the lifetime and the branching ratio between the decays b → u and b → c. If the binding of the b quark into hadrons has no effect on its decay rate, the inclusive lifetime measurement discussed here reflects precisely the quark total decay rate. Their experience with charmed hadrons serves to warn that the situation may not be so simple, and they are eager to find techniques for determining the lifetimes of individual hadron states, particularly the mesons B+, B/sub d/0 and B/sub s/0. The subject of this note, however, is a detailed evaluation of prospects for improving the inclusive measurement, as it has been performed at PEP and PETRA, based upon the impact parameter distribution of leptons from the b hadron semileptonic decays. This note supersedes intermediate reports from the Asilomar and Granlibakken meetings. The first two sections are based mainly upon studies with Monte Carlo generated quantities in which they explore the kinematics of bottom particle semileptonic decays to develop event selection criteria and measure sensitivity of the impact parameter to the lifetime and to the details of particle production. Detector effects are considered in section 3, data reduction in sections 4 and 5, and conclusions in section 6. 6 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  13. Nuclear fuel assembly debris resistant bottom nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A debris resistant bottom nozzle useful in a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is described, the bottom nozzle comprising: (a) support means adapted to rest on a lower core plate of a nuclear reactor; and (b) a plate fixed on the support means and being of a substantial solid configuration with a plurality of spaced cut-out regions therein adapted to align directly above inlet holes in the lower core plate; and (c) a plurality of open separate criss-cross structures, each of the criss-cross structures fixed to the plate and extending across one of the cut-out regions therein, the criss-cross structures defining individual openings small enough in cross-sectional size to filter out debris of damage-inducing size larger than 0.190 inch in width otherwise collects in unoccupied spaces of a lowermost grid of the fuel assembly, but large enough in size to let pass debris of nondamage-inducing size which otherwise passes through the unoccupied spaced of the lowermost grid

  14. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S. S. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  15. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model

  16. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Long Wave Dynamics along a Convex Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira; Soomere, Tarmo

    2008-01-01

    Long linear wave transformation in the basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile in the framework of one-dimensional shallow water equation. The existence of travelling wave solutions in this geometry and the uniqueness of this wave class is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two travelling waves propagating in opposite directions. It is found that generally a zone of a weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for sine pulse, KdV soliton and N-wave. Shown is that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the bottom containing a s...

  18. Heavy Exotic Molecules with Charm and Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the $(0^+, 1^+)$ multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the $(0^-,1^-)$ multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets $(0^\\pm, 1^\\pm)$ cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for $J\\leq 1$. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound isosinglet with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is suggested as a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ not yet reported.

  19. Multibaryons with strangeness, charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, V.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The spectra of baryonic systems with strangeness, charm and bottom are considered within a ''rigid oscillator'' version of the bound state soliton model. The static properties of multiskyrmions, of baryon number up to B=8, are calculated using the recently suggested rational map ansaetze as starting field configurations. The property of binding of flavoured mesons by an SU(2) skyrmion is proved rigorously within this model. Binding energy estimates are made of the states with largest isospin which can appear as negatively charged nuclear fragments and for states with zero isospin - fragments of ''flavoured'' nuclear matter. It is shown that for all types of flavour and for vertical stroke F vertical stroke {<=}2 the isoscalar baryonic systems have a better chance to be stable against strong and electromagnetic interactions than those with nonzero isospin. Baryonic systems with charm or bottom quantum numbers are found to be bound more than strange baryonic systems. (orig.)

  20. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  1. Atoms as Qed bound atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed) in contemporary atomic structure theory is reviewed. Recent experimental advances allow both the production of heavy ions of high charge as well as the measurement of atomic properties with a precision never achieved before. The description of heavy atoms with few electrons via the successive incorporation of one, two, etcetera photons in a rigorous manner and within the bound state Furry representation of Qed is technically feasible. For many-electron atoms the many-body (correlation) effects are very important and it is practically impossible to evaluate all the relevant Feynman diagrams to the required accuracy. Thus, it is necessary to develop a theoretical scheme in which the radiative and nonradiative effects are taken into account in an effective way making emphasis in electronic correlation. Preserving gauge invariance, and avoiding both continuum dissolution and variational collapse are basic problems that must be solved when using effective potential methods and finite-basis representations of them. In this context, we shall discuss advances and problems in the description of atoms as Qed bound states. (Author)

  2. Ppercase(melcor) sensitivity studies for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout at the Peach Bottom plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses performed to assess the effect of a variety of design parameters and operational procedures on a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The severe-accident ppercase(melcor) code, version 1.8.1 was used in these analyses. The following sensitivity studies were completed: effect of the automatic depressurization system actuation timing on the accident progression; effect of fuel and cladding porosities on vessel failure and containment failure times; effect of several parameters on the amount of in-vessel steel ejected into the cavity after vessel failure; effect of different parameters on vessel penetration failure time; vessel failure timing; and lower plenum shroud and core shroud temperatures. These sensitivity studies provided valuable insights into the ppercase(melcor) code behavior and into the progression of this severe accident. The most significant results are: (a) the optimum steam cooling of the core is accomplished when the automatic depressurization system is actuated when the core water level is at one-third of the active core height, delaying vessel failure by minutes and containment failure by hours, (b) vessel failure is significantly delayed (by 2 h) when lower-plenum debris quenching is included in the model, and (c) the core shroud melts during this transient. ((orig.))

  3. Accumulation and potential dissolution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river bottom sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa E-mail: sanada@tokai.jnc.go.jp; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagao, Seiya; Amano, Hikaru; Takada, Hideshige; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2002-05-01

    Areas contaminated with radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident have been identified in Pripyat River near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The river bottom sediment cores contained {sup 137}Cs (10{sup 5}- 10{sup 6} Bq/m{sup 2}) within 0-30 cm depth, whose concentration is comparable to that in the ground soil in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant (the Exclusion Zone). The sediment cores also accumulated {sup 90}Sr (10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 2}), {sup 239,240}Pu (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) and {sup 241}Am (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) derived from the accident. Several nuclear fuel particles have been preserved at 20-25 cm depth that is the peak area of the concentrations of the radionuclides. Th ese inventories in the bottom sediments were compared with those of the released radionuclides during the accident. An analysis using a selective sequential extraction technique was applied for the radionuclides in the sediments. Results suggest that the possibility of release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from the bottom sediment was low compared with {sup 90}Sr. The potential dissolution and subsequent transport of {sup 90}Sr from the river bottom sediment should be taken into account with respect to the long-term radiological influence on the aquatic environment.

  4. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis.

  5. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis

  6. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation and...... control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  7. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical...... decoupling showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant...

  8. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as...

  9. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary containment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design

  10. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  11. Decree of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission No. 6 as of 23 January 1980 on ensuring nuclear safety during the commissioning and operation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decree lays down requirements aimed at ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear power facilities during their commissioning and operation. Binding procedures to secure nuclear safety are specified for bodies, corporations and personnel responsible for the preparation, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Requirements are put on nuclear safety provisions during nuclear fuel transport and storage, fuelling and refuelling, and limits and conditions are imposed on operational modes as foreseen by the safety report. Conditions of preparedness for physical and power start-up are specified, documentation requirements are defined, and principles of the physical and power start-up are indicated. The contents of the documentation to commence trial and permanent operation are identified, and the conditions of preparedness of nuclear power facilities and the way of checking this preparedness are laid down. Operational principles and procedures for refuelling, repair and maintenance, testing, and technical inspections are defined. The obligation to secure physical protection of the nuclear power facility and to develop emergency plans is laid down. The Decree entered into force on 24 January 1980. (J.B.)

  12. Measurement of fission product activity in the Peach Bottom Reactor primary coolant loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides deposited in the primary circuit of the Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) at end-of-life has been determined by in situ gamma scanning. The work was part of the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program and was performed by the IRT Corporation under subcontract to General Atomic Company. The measurements were made to support a design method verification exercise. The specific activity on the ducts was measured by external scans at local points with a Ge(Li) detector and by internal scans with a travelling intrinsic germanium detector (after destructive removal of trepan samples); the activity on the steam generator tube bundle was determined by traversing selected tubes with travelling CdTe detectors from the water side. Calibration measurements on mockups allowed reduction of the spectra to specific activity

  13. Peach bottom cycle 2 stability analysis using RELAP5/PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiling channels and systems may oscillate owing to the behaviour of the liquid-steam mixture used for removing the thermal power. A thermal-hydraulic system may be unstable under particular operating conditions. Two kinds of power oscillation have been observed in BWR cores. One is an in-phase (core-wide) and the other is an out-of-phase (regional) oscillation. Since the above feature can make detection more difficult, the latter oscillation is potentially more severe. The problem is well known since the design of the first BWR system. However, to improve the safety systems of these reactors, it is necessary to be able to detect in a reliable way these oscillations from the neutronic signals. The purpose of this work is to characterize the unstable behaviour of a BWR. Within this study, it has been performed a number of perturbation analysis. The coupled codes RELAP5-Mod3.3/PARCS have used for the simulation of the transients. Validation has been performed against Peach Bottom-2 Low-Flow Stability Test PT3. Three dimensional time domain BWR stability analysis were performed on test point 3 for the core wide oscillation mode. In this transient dynamically complex events take place, i.e., neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal-hydraulics and an in-phase oscillation has been developed. The calculated results are compared against the available experimental data. (author)

  14. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. A submission to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review by Atomic Energy Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This submission comments on the evolution of the Canadian nuclear program, the management of safety, and the reactor design, analysis, operation and research programs that contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor and provide assurance of safety to the regulatory agency and to the public. The CANDU reactor system has been designed and developed with close cooperation between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), utilities, manufacturers, and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB has the responsibility, on behalf of the public, for establishing acceptable standards with respect to public risk and for establishing through independent review that these standards are satisfied. The plant designer has responsibility for defining how those standards will be met. The plant operator has responsibility for operating within the framework of those standards. The Canadian approach to safety design is based on the philosophy of defence in depth. Defence in depth is achieved through a high level of equipment quality, system redundancy and fail-safe design; regulating and process systems designed to maintain all process systems within acceptable operating parameters; and, independent safety systems to shut down the reactor, provide long-term cooling, and contain potential release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. The resulting design meets regulatory requirements not only in Canada but also in other countries. Probabilistic safety and risk evaluations show that the CANDU design offers a level of safety and least as good as other commercially available reactor designs

  15. Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parson, E.L. Jr. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    We introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-EFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to greater than 70 percent.

  16. Bottom grid mounted debris trap for a fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor including nuclear fuel rods, each fuel rod in the fuel assembly having a cladding tube and a lower end plug attached to the tube, at least a bottom grid supporting each and everyone of the fuel rods in an organized array and disposed in spaced relationship above the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. A bottom nozzle is disposed in spaced relationship below the bottom grid and is disposed below the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. A coolant flows upwardly through the bottom nozzle and to the bottom grid. A trap is included for catching debris carried by the flowing coolant to substantially prevent the same from reaching the bottom grid. The debris trap comprises: a fuel rod nonsupport structure disposed completely across the entire expanse of the fuel assembly and axially between the bottom nozzle and the bottom grid and generally aligned with the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. The structure forms hollow cells each being open at opposite ends and defining a central cavity which receives one of the fuel rod lower end plugs in nonsupporting and noncontacting relationship while providing for passage of coolant flow therethrough from the bottom nozzle to the bottom grid. Each of the fuel rod lower end plugs extends into a respective hollow cell of the structure

  17. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  18. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  19. Stress analysis and assessment of RPV core support pads and surround bottom head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The core support pads were used to limit circumferential rotation of core barrel, and the structure integrity of the core support pads was an important factor to the safe operation of nuclear power plant. Purpose: To ensure the structure integrity of the core support pads. Methods: Three-dimensional FEA model for bottom head, core support pads and part cylinder of CAP1000 RPV was established. Thermal analysis, static analysis, fatigue analysis and fracture analysis were performed. The analysis results were evaluated according to ASME B and PVC-III-NB-3200 and ASME B and PVC-III-1-Appendix G. Results: The evaluation indicated that the core support pads and surround bottom head could satisfy related requirements of above code. Conclusions: The analysis methodology used in this paper could also be applied to the core support pads of RPV for above 1000 MW nuclear power plant. (authors)

  20. Model with Peach Bottom Turbine trip and thermal-Hydraulic code TRACE V5P3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is the continuation of the work presented previously in the thirty-ninth meeting annual of the Spanish Nuclear society. The semi-automatic translation of the Thermo-hydraulic model TRAC-BF1 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip to TRACE was presented in such work. This article is intended to validate the model obtained in TRACE, why compare the model results result from the translation with the Benchmark results: NEA/OECD BWR Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT), in particular is of the extreme scenario 2 of exercise 3, in which there is SCRAM in the reactor. Among other data present in the (transitional) Benchmark , are: total power, axial profile of power, pressure Dome, total reactivity and its components. (Author)

  1. War against the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews first the facts about atoms and nuclear energy, then assembles data and facts from recent publications maligning nuclear power. He then presents the facts dealing with: the radiation threat of a functioning nuclear reactor and its fuel cycle; the facts about plutonium, its proliferation, and the breeder reactor; the anti-nuclear movement's discussion of insurance; waste disposal; environmental aspects; economics; and risks of nuclear power compared to other energy industries--coal, natural gas, and hydropower. Mr. McCracken concludes that the most promising source of energy under development is fusion, but the technology is not yet workable. For the near term, he adds, the choice is between nuclear fission and coal. He reviews the facts of recent campaigns to abolish nuclear power in seven states and the failure in each case

  2. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  3. Field trail of fiber optic ocean bottom cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Wang, Zhaogang; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the field test of the fiber optic ocean bottom cable (FOOBC). The FOOBC are several ocean bottom seismic stations connected by optical fiber cables. In the ocean bottom seismic station, there are three orthogonal fiber optic accelerometers and one fiber optic hydrophone. The design of the sensors and stations are introduced. The field demonstration of an ocean bottom seismic station is carried out in Yunnan Province, China. The test results show that the three accelerometers has similar response to the seismic signal with traditional MEMS accelerometers. We believe that the fiber optic seismic cable is promising in the field of oil and gas exploration and earthquake monitoring.

  4. Bottom-up synthesis of ordered metal/oxide/metal nanodots on substrates for nanoscale resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-Bin; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-01

    The bottom-up approach using self-assembled materials/processes is thought to be a promising solution for next-generation device fabrication, but it is often found to be not feasible for use in real device fabrication. Here, we report a feasible and versatile way to fabricate high-density, nanoscale memory devices by direct bottom-up filling of memory elements. An ordered array of metal/oxide/metal (copper/copper oxide/copper) nanodots was synthesized with a uniform size and thickness defined by self-organized nanotemplate mask by sequential electrochemical deposition (ECD) of each layer. The fabricated memory devices showed bipolar resistive switching behaviors confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrates that ECD with bottom-up growth has great potential to fabricate high-density nanoelectronic devices beyond the scaling limit of top-down device fabrication processes.

  5. Bottom-up synthesis of ordered metal/oxide/metal nanodots on substrates for nanoscale resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-Bin; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The bottom-up approach using self-assembled materials/processes is thought to be a promising solution for next-generation device fabrication, but it is often found to be not feasible for use in real device fabrication. Here, we report a feasible and versatile way to fabricate high-density, nanoscale memory devices by direct bottom-up filling of memory elements. An ordered array of metal/oxide/metal (copper/copper oxide/copper) nanodots was synthesized with a uniform size and thickness defined by self-organized nanotemplate mask by sequential electrochemical deposition (ECD) of each layer. The fabricated memory devices showed bipolar resistive switching behaviors confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrates that ECD with bottom-up growth has great potential to fabricate high-density nanoelectronic devices beyond the scaling limit of top-down device fabrication processes. PMID:27157385

  6. A SUBALTERN LOOK FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CULTURE OF PEACE

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Daniel Cruz; Victoria Fontan

    2014-01-01

    Since their inception as a discipline, Peace and Conflict Studies have been developed by the global North. For the global South, this has led not only to a colonization of thought but also one of peace building practice, expressed from top to bottom. The hegemonic powers that impose peace from above have managed to permeate their discourse within fields of thought, for instance in academia, and also on the ground, within communities. Given this trend, one can ask what occurs within commun...

  7. Validation of the Engineering Plant Analyzer methodology with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) had been developed in 1984 at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate plant transients in boiling water reactors (BWR). Recently, the EPA with its High-Speed Interactive Plant Analyzer code for BWRs ( ppercase HIPA-BWR ) simulated for the first time oscillatory transients with large, non-linear power and flow amplitudes; transients which are centered around the March 9, 1988 instability at the LaSalle-2 BWR power plant.The EPA's capability to simulate oscillatory transients has been demonstrated first by comparing simulation results with LaSalle-2 plant data (Wulff et al., NUREG/CR-5816, BNL-NUREG-52312, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1992). This paper presents an EPA assessment on the basis of the Peach Bottom 2 instability tests (Carmichael and Niemi, EPRI NP-564, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1978). This assessment of the EPA appears to constitute the first validation of a time-domain reactor systems code on the basis of frequency-domain criteria, namely power spectral density, gain and phase shift of the pressure-to-power transfer function.The reactor system pressure was disturbed in the Peach Bottom 2 power plant tests, and in their EPA simulation, by a pseudo-random, binary sequence signal. The data comparison revealed that the EPA predicted for Peach Bottom tests PT1, PT2, and PT4 the gain of the power-to-pressure transfer function with the biases and standard deviations of (-10±28)%, (-1±40)% and (+28±52)%, respectively. The respective frequencies at the peak gains were predicted with the errors of +6%, +3%, and -28%. The differences between the predicted and the measured phase shift increased with increasing frequency, but stayed within the margin of experimental uncertainty. ((orig.))

  8. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzhbitskiy, Ivan A.; Corato, Marzio De; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Schwab, Matthias G.; Bruna, Matteo; Yoon, Duhee; Milana, Silvia; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Prezzi, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultra-narrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab-initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm-1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs, and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures.

  9. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultranarrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry, and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm–1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures. PMID:26907096

  10. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  11. To the Bottom of the Sbottom

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tao; Wu, Yongcheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Huanian

    2015-01-01

    In the search for bottom squark (sbottom) in SUSY at the LHC, the common practice has been to assume a $100\\%$ decay branching fraction for a given search channel. In realistic MSSM scenarios, there are often more than one significant decay modes to be present, which significantly weaken the current sbottom search limits at the LHC. On the other hand, the combination of the multiple decay modes offers alternative discovery channels for sbottom searches. In this paper, we present the sbottom decays in a few representative mass parameter scenarios. We then analyze the sbottom signal for the pair production in QCD with one sbottom decaying via $\\tilde{b}\\rightarrow b \\chi_1^0,\\ b \\chi_2^0$, and the other one decaying via $\\tilde{b} \\rightarrow t \\chi_1^\\pm$. With the gaugino subsequent decaying to gauge bosons or a Higgs boson $\\chi_2^0 \\rightarrow Z \\chi_1^0,\\ h \\chi_1^0$ and $\\chi_1^\\pm \\rightarrow W^\\pm \\chi_1^0$, we study the reach of those signals at the 14 TeV LHC with 300 ${\\rm fb^{-1}}$ integrated lumino...

  12. Tsunami observations using ocean bottom pressure gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some seismologists in Japan pointed out about fifteen years ago that a large earthquake may occur off the Tokai District, south of Honshu, in the near future and cause serious damage in the area near the origin. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has been improving the system processing, in real time, data on earthquakes, tsunami and other geophysical events. Under these circumstances the Permanent Ocean Bottom Seismograph System was developed and installed off Cape Omaezaki in 1978 by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). This OBS system has four seismographs and one pressure gauge, which may detect the crustal movement precursors of the large earthquake. JMA has been routinely operating this system for eleven years and observing seismic events and ocean tides. Another OBS system has four seismographs and three pressure gauges. The anchored buoy OBS or the pop-up OBS could be used to observe in the sea areas. However, we cannot use these instruments on a real time basis. The OBS system with signal transmission in real time over long cable lines, is much more expensive than the anchored buoy or pop-up OBS, but we risked adopting the telemetering system by submarine cable, for the purpose of earthquake prediction and tsunami warning. 7 figs, 1 tab

  13. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  14. Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynands, Robert

    Time is a strange thing. On the one hand it is arguably the most inaccessible physical phenomenon of all: both in that it is impossible to manipulate or modify—for all we know—and in that even after thousands of years mankind's philosophers still have not found a fully satisfying way to understand it. On the other hand, no other quantity can be measured with greater precision. Today's atomic clocks allow us to reproduce the length of the second as the SI unit of time with an uncertainty of a few parts in 1016—orders of magnitude better than any other quantity. In a sense, one can say [1

  15. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  16. Single atom measurement and atomic manipulation using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains studies to measure atomic force as the force linking an atom and atom, using an atomic force microscope (AFM). First, it describes the principle and device configuration of AFM, and as an example of the atomic force measurement of Si atoms on the surface of Si(111)-(7x7), it describes the technique to measure atomic force using AFM, as well as the uncertainty of probe tip against atomic force. In addition, it describes the following items on the measurement results of chemical bonding force: (1) chemical bonding force vs physical force and chemical bonding force vs current on the surface of Si(111)-(7x7), (2) chemical bonding force and element dependence on the surface of Si/Sn(111)-(√3x√3), (3) atomic manipulation based on AMF, and (4) relationship between atomic manipulation and the size of chemical bonding force with a probe. (A.O.)

  17. Atoms for peace: thirtieth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was prepared for the thirtieth anniversary of President Eisenhower's programme: ''Atoms for Peace''. The author wants to demonstrate that nuclear power has made major contributions to reduction of oil imports and that at the same time, despite repeated predictions of unbridled proliferation, the fact is that proliferation has proceeded at a dramatically slower pace than foreseen by some. To date no country has employed plutonium derived from the nuclear power fuel cycle to initiate its nuclear explosion program. The author concludes that the ''Atoms for Peace'' programme, from the viewpoint of its goal of reducing the spread of nuclear weapons, has been a successful policy. (NEA)

  18. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  19. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  20. Geological and geotechnical aspects of the foundation pit of Kaiga atomic power plant reactor building 2, Kaiga, Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India Nuclear Power Plants are constructed as per the guidelines laid by IAEA and AERB. Before concrete is poured into reactor building pits, they are systematically mapped and Iithostructural maps are prepared for pit base and side walls. The constraints noticed are carefully attended with geotechnical solutions and remedies to make foundation safe for the entire period of reactor life. Similarly, pit of Kaiga Reactor Building II was systematically mapped for circular base and side walls. Geo-engineering solutions like scrapping out loose, foliated schistose patches, scooping out soft altered zones, filling with grouting, rock-bolting rock segments with major joints and fractures for stopping seepage points were suggested. (author)

  1. Leaching kinetics of bottom ash waste as a source of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koech, Lawrence; Everson, Ray; Neomagus, Hein; Rutto, Hilary

    2015-02-01

    Bottom ash is a waste material from coal-fired power plants, and it is known to contain elements that are potentially toxic at high concentration levels when disposed in landfills. This study investigates the use of bottom ash as a partial substitute sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes by focusing on its leaching kinetics in adipic acid. This was studied basing on the shrinking core model that was applied to the experimental data obtained by the authors presented at the International Conference on Industrial, Manufacturing, Automation and Mechanical Engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 27-28, 2013) on dissolution of bottom ash. The leaching rate constant was obtained from different reaction variables, namely, temperature, pH, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio, that could affect the leaching process. The solid sample of bottom ash was characterized at different leaching periods using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that solid-to-liquid ratio had a significant effect on the leaching rate constant when compared with other variables. The leaching kinetics showed that diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during leaching, and the activation energy for the process was found to be 18.92 kJ/mol. PMID:25947048

  2. Depth to crustal magnetic bottom. Examples using aeromagnetic data across north Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A detailed study to estimate magnetic bottom depths under north Queensland has been made using the continent-wide high-resolution airborne total magnetic intensity (TMI) data of Australia (a source dataset for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, WDMAM). Magnetisation of the lithosphere is generally assumed not significant below the Moho crust/mantle boundary due to compositional changes. However, in regions of high temperatures in the lower crust, this bottom-depth of magnetisation may be significantly above the Moho depths due to temperatures in excess of the Curie-point isotherm of the dominant magnetic mineralogy. This study uses modelling of the azimuthally averaged log of the power spectrum of TMI data to determine bottom depths. Two methods are considered and compared: slope-fitting and automated fitting of full spectral data. Several issues in successfully using these methods have been addressed, such as magnetisation type, size of data window, location of spectral peak, sensitivities of the spectral parameters and the choice of optimisation algorithm. The TMI data have an initial grid resolution of 80 m, with an appropriate IGRF removed. These data are reduced to the pole, upward continued 1 km, sub-sampled to a 1 km grid spacing and a first order polynominal trend removed prior to the spectral analysis. Calculated magnetic bottom depths are compared both with published data on the depth to Moho and with other model interpretations of the area including heat flow modelling.

  3. The Properties of Special Concrete Using Washed Bottom Ash (WBA as Partial Sand Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd Sani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Washed Bottom Ash (WBA as fine aggregate in special concrete. The WBA is a waste material that is taken from electric power plant and the source material is called as bottom ash. To substitute the amount of carbon usage in concrete the bottom ash was utilized and fully submerged in water for 3 days to produce as WBA with low carbon composition. The aim of the study is to investigate the feasibility and potential use of washed bottom ash in concreting and concrete applications. The results of the physical and chemical properties of WBA were discussed. Different concrete mixes with constant water to cement ratio of 0.55 were prepared with WBA in different proportions as well as one control mixed proportion. The mechanical properties of special concrete with 30% WBA replacement by weight of natural sand is found to be an optimum usage in concrete in order to get a favourable strength and good strength development pattern over the increment ages.

  4. Confirmation of safety (important matters to be confirmed by the administration office having jurisdiction) of the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the deliberation on this safety confirmation, which was reported on September 22, 1987, by the Science and Technology Agency, the Nuclear Safety Commission started the investigation and deliberation from the 32nd regular meeting on September 24, 1987. As the result of examining on making the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on board the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' into the fixed type, it was recognized to be appropriate. The contents of the investigation were the reqirements of the guideline, and the design of the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents such as high level containment vessel area monitors, high level reactor auxiliary machinery room area monitors, high level exhaust stack gas monitors, high level main steam pipe monitors and the radiation monitoring panel. It was confirmed that the proper countermeasures based on the features of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' have been taken for the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on the basis of the basic concept referring to the guideline. (Kako, I.)

  5. Decommissioning, safe enclosure, and dismantling licensing for nuclear power plants according to section 7 subsection 3 of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution is concerned from a legal point of view with the systematic recording, classification and assessment of specific problems concerning the post-operational phase of a nuclear power plant. As an introduction, present experience with decommissioning in the Federal Republic of Germany is dealt with. The first part treats the factual side of section 7 III AtG, explains the terms mentioned, the concrete extent of licensing and priority relations. In part 2 the preconditions for licensing pursuant to section 7 III AtG are dealt with, the stipulations of which are made difficult in particular on account of the reference in section 7 III sentence 2 AtG. The third part is concerned with the legal consequence of section III AtG, i.e. the extent of official discretionary powers, whereby aspects of radioactive waste management carry great weight. In part four administrative and procedural particularities in the legal sense relating to licensing according to section III AtG are discussed. (orig./HP)

  6. Power and polarization dependences of ultra-narrow electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) spectra of 85 Rb atoms in degenerate two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated ultra-narrow EIA spectral features with respect to variations of polarizations and powers of pump laser beam in a degenerate two-level system of the transition of 85 Rb D2 transition line. Polarizations of the probe laser beam in two separate experiments were fixed at right circular and horizontal linear polarizations, respectively while the polarizations of the pump lasers were varied from initial polarizations same as the probe laser beams to orthogonal to probe polarizations. One homemade laser combined with AOMs was used to the pump and probe laser beams instead of two different lasers to overcome broad linewidths of the homemade lasers. Theoretically, probe absorption coefficients have been calculated from optical Bloch equations of the degenerate two level system prepared by a pump laser beam. In the case of the circular polarization, EIA signal was obtained as expected theoretically although both pump and probe beams have same polarization. The EIA signal become smaller as power increases and polarizations of the pump and probe beams were same. When the polarization of the pump beam was linear polarization, maximum EIA signal was obtained theoretically and experimentally. Experimental EIA spectral shapes with respect to variations of the pump beam polarization shows similar trends as the theoretical results.

  7. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  8. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  9. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  10. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  11. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, A H

    2000-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  12. A top-bottom price approach to understanding financial fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Castro, Miguel A.; Miranda, José G. V.; Borges, Ernesto P.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of sequences of top and bottom (TB) events in financial series is investigated for the purpose of characterizing such switching points. They clearly mark a change in the trend of rising or falling prices of assets to the opposite tendency, are of crucial importance for the players' decision and also for the market stability. Previous attempts to characterize switching points have been based on the behavior of the volatility and on the definition of microtrends. The approach used herein is based on the smoothing of the original data with a Gaussian kernel. The events are identified by the magnitude of the difference of the extreme prices, by the time lag between the corresponding events (waiting time), and by the time interval between events with a minimal magnitude (return time). Results from the analysis of the inter day Dow Jones Industrial Average index (DJIA) from 1928 to 2011 are discussed. q-Gaussian functions with power law tails are found to provide a very accurate description of a class of measures obtained from the series statistics.

  13. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baffled vessel.The vessel is filled with water and the impeller speed            is 100 min−1. Three turbulent models were used for the solution: k-ε, k-ω and RSM. The results were compared with experimental data or data from the literature. The k-ε model had the smallest demands on processor time, and the results compared satisfactorily with the experimental data. The model provides comprehensive information about the characteristics of the system.

  14. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  15. Optimization of thermal resistance and bottom wall temperature uniformity for double-layered microchannel heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimizations were performed for double-layered heat sink. • Objective function was bottom wall temperature change and/or thermal resistance. • Performance was improved significantly by single- or multi-objective optimization. - Abstract: In this paper, a three-dimensional solid–fluid conjugate model coupled with a simplified conjugate-gradient method was employed to optimize the performance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. Channel number, channel width, bottom channel height, and bottom coolant inlet velocity were selected as search variables to achieve the optimal heat sink performance. Firstly, two single-objective optimizations based on different objective functions (one is the maximum temperature change on the bottom wall ΔTw,b and the other is the overall thermal resistance R) were performed at a constant pumping power. Subsequently, the effects of total pumping power on the optimal ΔTw,b and R were analyzed, and the optimal search variables at various pumping powers were obtained. For single-objective optimization with the objective function of ΔTw,b, ΔTw,b is respectively decreased by 6.01, 5.29, and 2.99 K when compared with three original designs. For the objective function of R, however, R is respectively decreased by 36.51%, 15.10%, and 16.67%. The results also indicate that R and ΔTw,b cannot achieve their optimal values simultaneously by the two single-objective optimizations. Thus, a multi-objective optimization was carried out, which demonstrates that when a set of desirable values of ΔTw,b and R is required by designers, the present multi-objective optimization could meet this requirement

  16. The bottom and charm content in an inclusive jet sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measure the bottom (b) and charm (c) content in an inclusive jet sample collected from the 1992-93 run at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in p bar p collisions at √s=1.8 TeV. They have used the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) with a 2-dimensional secondary-vertex finding algorithm to identify a sample of jets with displaced vertices. By fitting the observed lifetime distribution in data to the expected distributions from bottom, charm, and non-heavy flavor jets, they can measure a bottom and charm component per jet. The authors present preliminary numbers on the bottom and charm fraction per jet, and the bottom and charm cross-sections

  17. Comparison between a finite difference model (PUMA) and a finite element model (DELFIN) for simulation of the reactor of the atomic power plant of Atucha I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor code PUMA, developed in CNEA, simulates nuclear reactors discretizing space in finite difference elements. Core representation is performed by means a cylindrical mesh, but the reactor channels are arranged in an hexagonal lattice. That is why a mapping using volume intersections must be used. This spatial treatment is the reason of an overestimation of the control rod reactivity values, which must be adjusted modifying the incremental cross sections. Also, a not very good treatment of the continuity conditions between core and reflector leads to an overestimation of channel power of the peripherical fuel elements between 5 to 8 per cent. Another code, DELFIN, developed also in CNEA, treats the spatial discretization using heterogeneous finite elements, allowing a correct treatment of the continuity of fluxes and current among elements and a more realistic representation of the hexagonal lattice of the reactor. A comparison between results obtained using both methods in done in this paper. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. Results on the role of metastable Ar atoms in a 9-MHz high-power atmospheric ICP by using emission/absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation into the role of overpopulations of metastable argon levels as agents for causing non-local thermal equilibrium (LTE) in an inductively coupled plasma source (ICP), was carried out. Four argon transitions in the near infrared region were monitored through absorption measurements at two different observation heights in a 9-MHz high-power ICP. The lower states of the four transitions consist of two metastable (11.55 and 11.72 eV) and two radiating (11.62 and 11.83 eV) levels. Comparison of measured metastable level to radiating level absorbance ratios with calculated population ratios gave an indication whether overpopulations of certain levels existed. Results indicate no overpopulation of metastable states with respect to radiating states, arguing against their role as non-LTE mechanism agents. This conclusion is, however, preliminary, since the calculation of absolute population densities from absorbance measurements must still be carried out

  19. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  20. Atomic Pseudo-Valuation Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Stines, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-valuation domains have been studied since their introduction in 1978 by Hedstrom and Houston. Related objects, boundary valuation domains, were introduced by Maney in 2004. Here, it is shown that the class of atomic pseudo-valuation domains coincides with the class of boundary valuation domains. It is also shown that power series rings and generalized power series rings give examples of pseudo-valuation domains whose congruence lattices can be characterized. The paper also introduces, ...