WorldWideScience

Sample records for bottle feeding

  1. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable...

  2. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  3. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  4. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  5. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding...

  6. Breast feeding, bottle feeding and caries experience in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...

  7. Associations between bottle-feeding intensity and maternal encouragement of bottle-emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Garcia, Patsy; Schaffner, Andrew A

    2017-12-01

    To explore longitudinal associations between bottle-feeding and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying during the first 6 months of infancy. Mothers completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, then monthly during the first 6 months postpartum. Questionnaires assessed family demographics, maternal and infant weight status, infant feeding patterns and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying. The Infant Feeding Practices Study 2, conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration. Mothers (n 1776). Repeated-measures regression was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity (BFI; defined as the percentage of daily feedings that were from a bottle) and encouragement of bottle-emptying. Mothers who reported consistently high or consistently low BFI also exhibited consistently higher or lower frequency of encouraging their infants to empty the bottle (respectively) across the first 6 months of infancy, whereas mothers who reported increases in their BFI also exhibited concomitant increases in the frequency to which they encouraged their infants to finish the bottle. More frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying was also associated with feeding expressed breast milk (Pbottles for infant feeding was significantly associated with more frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying. Further research using causal designs is needed to better understand whether the use of bottles promotes this controlling feeding practice or whether mothers with more controlling feeding practices opt to bottle-feed.

  8. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, J; Green, J

    2000-11-11

    To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Content analysis. Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. UK mass media. Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with "ordinary" families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding.

  9. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  11. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea K; Lindholm, Morten; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-10-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information. We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders. Among 70148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78-7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60-7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88-10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45-16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding. Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.

  12. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant Bottle-Feeding Practice, Agaro Town, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and duration of breast-feeding is declining and being replaced by formula milk. The morbidity and mortality of bottle fed infants is much greater than breast fed infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bottle-feeding and to assess factors that contribute to the practice ...

  14. Physiologic stability of newborns during cup- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C R; de Blieck, E A; ten Hoopen, C B; Howard, F M; Lanphear, B P; Lawrence, R A

    1999-11-01

    To prevent breastfeeding problems, cup-feeding has been recommended as a method of providing medically necessary supplemental feedings to breastfed infants. To compare amounts ingested, administration time, and infant physiologic stability during cup-, bottle-, and breastfeeding. A total of 98 term, healthy newborns were randomized to either cup-feeding (n = 51) or bottle-feeding (n = 47). The heart (HR), respiratory (RR), and oxygen (O(2)) saturation rates were monitored on these infants and 25 breastfed newborns during 1 feeding. Differences in amounts ingested and administration times were evaluated with t tests and physiologic data with repeat measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences in administration time, amounts ingested or overall HR, RR, and (O(2)) saturation rates, between cup and bottle groups. Breastfed infants had longer administration times and lower overall HR, RR, and higher O(2) saturation as compared with cup- and bottle-fed infants. Administration times, amounts ingested, and infant physiologic stability do not differ with cup- and bottle-feeding. Breastfeeding takes longer than cup- or bottle-feeding, but infants experience less physiologic variability. These data support cup-feeding as an alternative to bottle-feeding for supplying supplements to breastfed infants.

  15. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, Josephine

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Design Content analysis. Subjects Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. Setting UK mass media. Main outcome measures Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Results Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with “ordinary” families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. Conclusions The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding. PMID:11073512

  16. Energy expenditure for breastfeeding and bottle-feeding preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Irit; Weintraub, Valentin; Dollberg, Shaul; Kopolovitz, Rozalia; Mandel, Dror

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that resting energy expenditure (REE) would be higher after breastfeeding than after bottle-feeding. Nineteen preterm infants (gestational age: 32 weeks) in stable condition who were nourished entirely with their mothers' breast milk were assigned randomly to feeding either by bottle or at the breast. Each infant served as his or her own control subject. REE was measured for 20 minutes after feeding. Breast milk quantity was evaluated with prefeeding and postfeeding weighing. REE values for bottle-feeding and breastfeeding were compared with paired t tests. Contrary to our null hypothesis, the group's mean REE values after bottle-feeding and breastfeeding were very similar (284.7 +/- 26.8 kJ/kg per day [68.3 +/- 6.4 kcal/kg per day] vs 282.6 +/- 28.5 kJ/kg per day [67.5 +/- 6.8 kcal/kg per day]; not significant). The duration of feeding was significantly longer for breastfeeding than for bottle-feeding (20.1 +/- 7.9 vs 7.8 +/- 2.9 minutes; P bottle-fed. Longer feeding times at the breast did not increase REE. We speculate that it is safe to recommend feeding at the breast for infants born at >32 weeks when they can tolerate oral feeding.

  17. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  18. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Angel; Bolibar, Ignasi; Seguranyes, Gloria; Ustrell, Josep M; Sebastiá, Gloria; Martínez-Barba, Cristina; Ríos, Jose

    2010-02-11

    There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs), and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs). Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group) was 5.83 +/- 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 +/- 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) during the learning stage and adopt their own pattern.

  19. Prolonged bedtime bottle feeding and respiratory symptoms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Pyun, Younkyoung; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2011-04-01

    Infants with chronic respiratory symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly because there are various causes which are different from those of children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between chronic respiratory symptoms and bedtime bottle feeding in infants after the age of 6 months. We conducted a prospective study that included 44 infants who presented with respiratory symptoms for more than 8 weeks and also had been bottle-fed during bedtime even after 6 months of age. The infants were divided into 2 groups; infants who discontinued bedtime bottle feeding and those who did not. Respiratory symptom scores were graded with a four-point scale at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, and were compared between the 2 groups. Twenty eight infants (63.6%) stopped being bottle-fed during bedtime and 16 infants (36.4%) were still bottle-fed. The respiratory symptom scores were significantly decreased in infants who stopped bedtime bottle feeding (p = 0.0003). It is suggested that prolonged bedtime bottle feeding might be one of the causes of chronic respiratory symptoms in infants.

  20. Neonatal sucking behavior: comparison of perioral movement during breast-feeding and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Madoka; Mizuno, Katsumi; Tamura, Masanori

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare orofacial motion and mouth angle during breast-feeding and bottle feeding in normal infants. Thirteen normal infants were enrolled in the study, and feeding sessions were recorded using a digital video camera at 4 or 5 days following birth. The analysis was successfully performed for 12 infants during both breast-feeding and bottle feeding. Markers were placed at the lateral angle of the eye, the tip of the jaw, and the throat region. Jaw and throat region movements were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The angle of the mouth was also measured. Throat region movement was significantly larger than jaw movement in both breast-feeding (eye-throat region changes: 1.51 +/- 0.37 mm, eye-jaw changes: 0.91 +/- 0.31 mm, P bottle feeding (eye-throat region changes: 2.91 +/- 0.46 mm, eye-jaw changes: 1.77 +/- 0.33 mm, P feeding than those during bottle feeding (P feeding is larger than that during bottle feeding (P bottle feeding differ from those during breast-feeding. This partly results from the difference in the angle of the mouth during feeding.

  1. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  2. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  3. Supplementation with cup-feeding as a substitute for bottle-feeding to promote breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Gau, Meei-Ling; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Lee, Jian-Tao

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have provided evidence to verify that bottle-feeding has negative effects on breastfeeding. There is insufficient evidence to support the practice of cup-feeding to supplement breastfeeding. However, it has been applied as a substitute for bottle-feeding to promote breastfeeding. The aims of this study were to explore the differences in infant sucking competence, infant sucking behavior and maternal milk supply among babies who were exclusively breastfeeding (breast group), breast feeding with cup supplementation (cup group) and breast-feeding with bottle supplementation (bottle group) at different periods postpartum. A longitudinal study was carried out at a medical center located in northern Taiwan. The cup and bottle groups were recruited at two different times to avoid interaction. The breast group consisted of infants who were fully breastfed and were never exposed to a bottle or a cup during the hospital stay. Two hundred and five healthy mothers and their full-term, singletoninfants were eligible for enrollment. We used structured questionnaires and made observations to obtain information on breastfeeding at the first breastfeeding and the third day after birth, and then followed up these cases at two and four weeks. The bottle group was significantly more fretful during breastfeeding (pbottle group perceived that their milk supply was less sufficient than those in breast and cup groups (p feeding was better than bottle-feeding when supplementary formula was needed for medical treatment.

  4. Safety in Bottle feeding and Safe Preparation | Rees | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the warm temperature, humidity and good nutrition of milk allow the bacteria to thrive. The number of bacteria on bottles and teats is far greater than on toys and general household goods. Through thorough cleaning and sterilisation of the utensils used for infant feeding the presence of these bacteria can be eliminated.

  5. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    alternative source of nutrition for infants. The first attempt to provide preparatory milk formula as an artificial substitute for human breast milk is ascribed to Gerlslen. Boger and Ruth in 1919. Since then food technology has made it possible to provide proprietary milk formula (1). Today bottle-feeding has become a practice in ...

  6. Do breastfeeding and bottle feeding influence occlusal parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Gónzalez, Antonio F; Aznar-Martín, Teresa; Cabrera-Domínguez, Maria E; Domínguez-Reyes, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of breastfeeding and bottle feeding on development of the dental arches and occlusion in an infant population. In total, 298 infants (163 girls and 135 boys) were selected from a series of 1,643 preschool children in Seville, Spain, evaluating the type of feeding received after birth (breastfeeding only or bottle feeding only), the duration of such feeding, and its influence upon the parameters that define occlusion of the dental arches. The study comprised a full exploration of the stomatognathic system of the infants and a questionnaire for the parents. SPSS Statistical Package software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to analyze the results. In total, 109 children were exclusively breastfed (36.6%) for an average of 6.8±5.8 months, whereas 189 children were exclusively bottle fed (63.4%) for an average of 17.99±11.5 months. On comparing the occlusal parameters of the two groups, the most beneficial effects (straight terminal plane, canine class I relationship, diastemas, and primate spaces) corresponded to the infants who were breastfed. Breastfed infants show better development of the dental arches and a lesser incidence of dental occlusion disorders than bottle-fed infants.

  7. Breast-feeding and bottle-feeding of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ooki, Syuichi

    2004-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the rates of breast-feeding and/or bottle-feeding in mothers of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births compared to those in mothers of singletons, and identify factors associated with decision as to breast-feed or bottle-feed. The subjects were 1,529 mothers of twins aged 6 months-6 years and 258 mothers of triplets and higher order multiple births (higher multiples) aged 6 months-6 years (234 mothers of triplets, 20 mothers of quadruplets, 4 mothers of quintuplets). Also, 1,300 subjects were recruited as a control group from mothers of singletons aged 6 months-6 years. Information regarding feeding methods, including exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding with formula milk only, and duration of breast-feeding (in months) was collected. There were significantly higher rates of bottle-feeding in mothers of twins and higher multiples than in mothers of singletons. Duration of breast-feeding in mothers who chose exclusive breast-feeding or mixed-feeding for twins and higher multiples was significantly shorter than those for the singletons. The feeding methods for the twins or higher multiples were not associated with prematurity or low birth weight. However, after adjusting for each associated factor using logistic regression analysis, the decision to bottle-feed was significantly associated with non-cooperation of the husband in childrearing and degree of anxiety that mothers felt when informed of a multiple pregnancy. The odds ratio indicated that mothers who received no cooperation from the husband for childrearing were 1.83 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who received cooperation. Further, the odds ratio indicated that mothers who felt greater anxiety when informed of a multiple pregnancy were 1.73 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who did not feel much anxiety. This study found that establishment and continuation of breast-feeding for twins, triplets and

  8. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    .... They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked...

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Bottle-Feeding During Infancy and Their Association with Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K

    To describe patterns of bottle-feeding across the first year postpartum and explore whether bottle-feeding trajectories are differentially associated with infant weight gain. Data came from 1291 mothers who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study 2. Mothers completed a prenatal questionnaire and monthly surveys of infant feeding and growth between birth and 12 months. Group-based trajectory mixture modeling was used to describe developmental trajectories of bottle-feeding intensities across the first year. Growth curve modeling was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity trajectory group membership and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) trajectories from birth to 12 months. Four qualitatively distinct trajectories of bottle-feeding were identified: (1) High-Stable: ∼100% of feeds from bottles across infancy; (2) Rapid-Increase: feeds from bottles during the neonatal assessment, increasing to ∼100% by 6 months; (3) Gradual-Increase: feeds from bottles during the neonatal assessment, gradually increasing to ∼100% by 12 months; and (4) Low-Stable: feeds from bottles across the majority of infancy. Bottle-feeding groups had significantly different WAZ trajectories across infancy; by 12 months, the High-Stable and Rapid-Increase groups had significantly higher WAZs compared with the Gradual-Increase and Low-Stable groups (p bottle-feeding group membership and WAZ trajectories was not confounded by sociodemographic characteristics or the extent to which infants received breast milk. High-intensity bottle use during early infancy may place infants at higher risk for excess weight gain. Supports and policies that help mothers delay high-intensity bottle use until later infancy are warranted.

  10. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  11. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed...

  12. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  13. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  14. [Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding, sucking habits and malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Medeiros-Bezerra, Priscila K; Moura, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at verifying the prevalence of nutritive (breast-feeding and bottle-feeding) and non-nutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children. The study was a cross-sectional oral health survey of 342 children (196 boys and 146 girls) between the ages of 3 and 5 in Campina Grande, Brazil. The data was collected by interviews with the children's mothers or minders and by clinical examinations carried out by a calibrated examiner (kappa = 0,86). Descriptive statistics using the EPI-INFO Program (version 3.3) and Chi-square test at 0.05 probability level were produced. Sucking habit prevalence was very high in all groups, ranging from 70 % to 77,4 %. Malocclusion was present in 87 %, dummy use in 84,8 % and finger-sucking in 7,2 %. About 84,2 % of the children had a history of bottle-feeding and 79,9 % showed some evidence of malocclusion at the time of dental examination. There were significant differences for the following variables: sucking habits and malocclusion; breast-feeding time and sucking habits; breast-feeding time and malocclusion; type of feeding and sucking habits; and type of feeding and malocclusion. Dummy-sucking incidence was higher than that of finger-sucking in Brazilian children. Sucking habit incidence was higher in bottle-fed children than in breast-fed children. The relationship between incidence of habits and malocclusion was statistically significant.

  15. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  16. Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, M; Mizuno, K; Murase, M; Nishida, Y; Itabashi, K; Mukai, Y

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the changes in feeding behaviour from 1 to 6 months of age. By comparing breast- and bottle-feeding, we intended to clarify the difference in longitudinal sucking performance. Sucking variables were consecutively measured for 16 breast-fed and eight bottle-fed infants at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. For breast-feeding, number of sucks per burst (17.8 +/- 8.8, 23.8 +/- 8.3 and 32.4 +/- 15.3 times), sucking burst duration (11.2 +/- 6.1, 14.7 +/- 8.0 and 17.9 +/- 8.8 sec) and number of sucking bursts per feed (33.9 +/- 13.9, 28.0 +/- 18.2 and 18.6 +/- 12.8 times) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age respectively showed significant differences between 1 and 6 months of age (p feed did not differ among different ages. Bottle-feeding resulted in longer sucking bursts and more sucks per burst compared with breast-feeding in each month (p bottle-fed infants.

  17. [Bottle feeding during the first month of life: determinants and effect on breastfeeding technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Maristela Cavalheiro Tamborindeguy; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Oliveira, Luciana Dias de; Weigert, Enilda Maria Lara; Santo, Lilian Cordova do Espirito; Köhler, Celina Valderez; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2008-08-01

    To assess incidence rate and determinants of bottle feeding during the first month of life, and its potential effects on breastfeeding technique. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in a contemporary cohort in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between June and November 2003. A total of 211 pairs of healthy mothers and infants were followed up for a month. The effect of bottle feeding on breastfeeding technique was assessed by comparing five items unfavorable to mother-infant positioning and three items unfavorable to infant latch-on; and the average number of unfavorable items between the pairs who started bottle feeding in the first month of life and those who did not. A logistic regression analysis was carried out according to a hierarchical model. By Day 7, 21.3% of infants were bottle-fed and 46.9% were bottle-fed by Day 30. Living with maternal grandmother was associated with bottle feeding at Days 7 and 30. Maternal age bottle feeding at Day 7. Other factors associated with bottle feeding at Day 3 were pacifier use at Day 7 and nipple trauma at Day 7. There was no association between the breastfeeding technique taught at the maternity hospital and subsequent bottle feeding. However, at Day 30, the breastfeeding technique was found to be more adequate among exclusively breast-fed infants than those who were also bottle fed. The study results showed that bottle feeding was quite widespread in the first month of life, mainly in infants born to teenage mothers, with nipple trauma, whose maternal grandmothers were living in the same household, and who were using pacifiers. Besides the already recognized negative effects, bottle feeding may negatively affect breastfeeding technique.

  18. Multiple factors related to bottle-feeding performance in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim; Lin, Jing; Holzman, Ian R

    2007-01-01

    A great deal of attention has focused on understanding preterm infant feeding behaviors and on strategies to support the preterm infant during this period; however, comprehensive descriptions of the feeding behavior of preterm infants that incorporate an examination of multiple subsystem levels are lacking. To examine various physical indicators related to preterm infants' bottle-feeding performance. This was a retrospective, descriptive, exploratory study using a convenience sample. Medical records of 116 preterm infants were reviewed from the initiation of bottle-feeding until discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. This study examined bottle-feeding performance (volume intake in milliliters per minute) as well as postmenstrual age, weight at each observed feed, oral motor skills, signs of distress, feeding techniques, feeding experience, gender, and Apgar scores at 5 minutes. Oral motor skills were measured by the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the relationship between bottle-feeding performance and the remaining variables. Postmenstrual age, weight at each observed feed, oral motor skills, feeding experience, and feeding techniques were found to be significant predictors of feeding performance at the .05 level. Multiple factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, play a role in determining an infant's bottle-feeding performance. In addition to age and weight, the presently employed conventional criteria, oral motor skills, feeding practice, and feeding techniques also contribute to infants' feeding performance. Arbitrary age (34 weeks gestational age) and weight criteria (1,500 g) should not be the only indicators for oral feeding.

  19. Preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-12-01

    To study a group of preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao. The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3-6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires had information about demographic data, weaning status, the feeding practices for children who were still on a bottle, and the caregivers' attitudes on bottle feeding according to weaning status. Of these children, 38.4% were still on a bottle while 61.6% had been weaned. Mean age at the weaning time was 3.1 ± 0.6 years. The most common reason that led caregivers of bottle feeding group to allow continuation of the habit was the child refused to wean. Of these caregivers, 56% lacked knowledge concerning the appropriate weaning time and that the use of bottles should be actively discouraged for children after 1 year of age. Attitudes between bottle feeding and weaned groups were significantly different (P bottle works best to stop a child from crying, early weaning results in poor mental health, and early weaning results in malnutrition. Prolonged bottle feeding beyond the recommended age was found in the majority of preschool children in this study. Dental professions should provide oral health promotion education program including feeding practice information to caregivers.

  20. Preschool children's caregivers’ attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study a group of preschool children's caregivers’ attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3–6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires had information about demographic data, weaning status, the feeding practices for children who were still on a bottle, and the caregivers’ attitudes on bottle feeding according to weaning status. Results: Of these children, 38.4% were still on a bottle while 61.6% had been weaned. Mean age at the weaning time was 3.1 ± 0.6 years. The most common reason that led caregivers of bottle feeding group to allow continuation of the habit was the child refused to wean. Of these caregivers, 56% lacked knowledge concerning the appropriate weaning time and that the use of bottles should be actively discouraged for children after 1 year of age. Attitudes between bottle feeding and weaned groups were significantly different (P bottle works best to stop a child from crying, early weaning results in poor mental health, and early weaning results in malnutrition. Conclusion: Prolonged bottle feeding beyond the recommended age was found in the majority of preschool children in this study. Dental professions should provide oral health promotion education program including feeding practice information to caregivers. PMID:25558456

  1. Regulation and Education: Strategies for Solving the Bottle Feeding Problem. Monograph Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted

    This book is the fourth monograph in the Cornell International Monograph Series, the second in the series to deal with the question of breast versus bottle feeding. The introduction to the monograph discusses the shift from breast to bottle feeding in both industrialized and developing nations. Some of the reasons for, and consequences of, the…

  2. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  3. Risk of bottle-feeding for rapid weight gain during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Magadia, Joselito; Fein, Sara B; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-05-01

    To better understand the mechanisms behind breastfeeding and childhood obesity, we assessed the association of weight gain with the mode of milk delivery aside from the type of milk given to infants. A longitudinal study of infants followed up from birth to age 1 year. Multilevel analyses were conducted to estimate infant weight gain by type of milk and feeding mode. Pregnant women were recruited from a consumer mail panel throughout the United States between May 2005 and June 2007. One thousand eight hundred ninety nine infants with at least 3 weight measurements reported during the first year. Six mutually exclusive feeding categories and proportions of milk feedings given as breastmilk or by bottle. Weight measurements reported on 3-, 5-, 7-, and 12-month surveys. Compared with infants fed at the breast, infants fed only by bottle gained 71 or 89 g more per month when fed nonhuman milk only (P feedings, but it was positively associated with proportion of bottle-feedings among those who received mostly breastmilk. Among infants fed only breastmilk, monthly weight gain increased from 729 g when few feedings were by bottle to 780 g when most feedings were by bottle. Infant weight gain might be associated not only with type of milk consumed but also with mode of milk delivery. Regardless of milk type in the bottle, bottle-feeding might be distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' weight gain.

  4. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2...... to 3% acetic acid in the third test, whereas no migration to distilled water was observed in the third test. The average recovery of 2-BEA after the 10-day exposure at the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was 77% into distilled water and 36% into 3% acetic acid. The limited recovery was understandable......An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...

  5. Mothers' experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, R; Ogilvie, D; Ong, K K

    2009-08-01

    Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. The literature on parents' experiences of bottle-feeding was systematically reviewed to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Relevant English-language papers, identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers, were systematically searched for and appraised. The included studies were analysed and synthesised using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13 263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met.

  6. Mothers’ experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Ogilvie, David; Ong, Ken K

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. We systematically reviewed the literature on parents’ experiences of bottle-feeding to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Methods We systematically searched for and appraised relevant English-language papers identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers. We analysed and synthesised the included studies using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Results Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13,263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Conclusions Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met. PMID:19602520

  7. Bottle-feeding practices during early infancy and eating behaviors at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; May, Ashleigh; Rose, Chelsea; Birch, Leann

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests an association of breastfeeding with a maternal feeding style (MFS) that is less controlling than formula feeding, which, in turn, may improve a child's self-regulation of eating. This study examines associations of bottle-feeding practices during infancy with MFS and children's eating behavior (CEB) at 6 years old. We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II to the Year 6 Follow-Up, which include 8 MFS and CEB measures adapted from previous validated instruments. Bottle-feeding practices during the first 6 months estimated by using the Infant Feeding Practices Study II were bottle-feeding intensity (BFI), mother's encouragement of infant to finish milk in the bottle, and infant finishing all milk in the bottle. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations of bottle-feeding practices with MFS and CEB at 6 years old were calculated by using multivariable logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other feeding practices (N = 1117). Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers during infancy increased odds of mothers encouraging their child to eat all the food on their plate (aOR: 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.41] and making sure their child eats enough (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.14-2.31) and of children eating all the food on their plate at 6 years old (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05-3.83). High BFI during early infancy also increased the odds of mothers being especially careful to ensure their 6-year-old eats enough. Bottle-feeding practices during infancy may have long-term effects on MFS and CEB. Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers and/or high BFI during early infancy increased the likelihood of mothers pressuring their 6-year-old child to eat and children's low satiety responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. [Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Chen, Siao-Min; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues. This study compares differences in the type and frequency of behavioral cues between breast- and bottle-fed preterm infants. A comparison study design and secondary data analysis method were used to assess data from two previous research projects. Infant feeding behavioral cues were observed and compared between two groups: 7 preterm infants who were breastfed and 7 preterm infants who were bottle-fed. After cases were matched by infant gestational age, behavioral responses were coded according to the preterm feeding cues coding system (PFCCS) from 7 paired maternal-infant feeding videos that featured preterm infants of 25 to 32 weeks gestational age at birth. The PFCCS classifies 24 feeding behavioral cues into hunger cues, self-regulatory cues, stress cues, and satiety cues. Infants in the breastfeeding group had a higher hunger cue frequency than their bottle-fed peers (p = .013), while bottle-fed infants had a higher stress cue frequency than their breastfed peers (p = .041). Other significant differences in behavioral cues between the two feeding methods included "fluid spillage" (bottle- >breast-, p = .008), "central cyanosis" (bottle- >breast-, p = .024) and "hand pushing" (breast- >bottle-, p = .034). Preterm infants in this study who breastfed showed significantly fewer stress cues than those who bottle fed. These findings support the importance of enhancing care provider sensitivity with regard to behavioral-cue observation. Findings further support breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding for preterm infants.

  9. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, M S; Kennedy, K; Nicholl, R; Khakoo, A; Lucas, A

    2012-03-16

    Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. 63 (36 male) healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31), one-way air valve: Philips Avent) versus Bottle B (n = 32), internal venting system: Dr Browns). 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24) to bottle A (n = 11) or B (n = 13) if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation: stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Infant home. infant weight gain to 4 weeks. (i) milk intake (ii) infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary); (iii) risk of infection; (iv) continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Number analysed for primary outcome: Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2) SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39), mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77). Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p bottle B. There was no significant difference in any other outcome measure. Breast-fed reference group: There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  10. Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotanek, Jane M; Halterman, Jill S; Auinger, Peggy; Flores, Glenn; Weitzman, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Childhood iron deficiency is associated with behavioral and cognitive delays. Few studies have explored the relationship between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron-deficiency anemia among toddlers. To examine the association between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency in a nationally representative sample of children ages 1 to 3 years. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III provides data on the feeding practices of children 1 to 3 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. The prevalence of iron deficiency and duration of bottle-feeding were determined for black, white, and Mexican American toddlers. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between bottle-feeding duration and iron deficiency. Among 2121 children ages 1 to 3 years, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 6% among whites, 8% among blacks, and 17% among Mexican Americans (Pbottle-feeding, the prevalence of iron deficiency among all children increased (3.8%, bottle-fed bottle-fed 13-23 months; and 12.4%, bottle-fed 24-48 months [Pbottle-fed, compared with 16.9% of white and 13.8% of black children. In multivariate analyses, bottle-feeding for 24 to 48 months and Mexican ethnicity were associated with iron deficiency (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; and odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6, respectively). Children with prolonged bottle-feeding and Mexican American children are at higher risk for iron deficiency. Screening practices and nutritional counseling should be targeted at these high-risk groups.

  11. Mindless feeding: Is maternal distraction during bottle-feeding associated with overfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Rebecca B; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-08-01

    Mindless eating, or eating while distracted by surrounding stimuli, leads to overeating. The present study explored whether "mindless feeding," or maternal distraction during bottle-feeding, is associated with greater infant formula/milk intakes and lower maternal sensitivity to infant cues. Mothers and their ≤24-week-old bottle-feeding infants (N = 28) visited our laboratory for a video-recorded feeding observation. Infant intake was assessed by weighing bottles before and after the feedings. Maternal sensitivity to infant cues was objectively assessed by behavioral coding of video-records using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Maternal distraction was defined as looking away from the infant >75% of the feeding; using a mobile device; conversing with another adult; or sleeping. Twenty-nine percent (n = 8) of mothers were distracted. While differences in intakes for infants of distracted vs. not distracted mothers did not reach significance (p = 0.24), the association between distraction and infant intake was modified by two dimensions of temperament: orienting/regulation capacity (p = 0.03) and surgency/extraversion (p = 0.04). For infants with low orienting/regulation capacity, infants of distracted mothers consumed more (177.1 ± 33.8 ml) than those of not distracted mothers (92.4 ± 13.8 ml). Similar findings were noted for infants with low surgency/extraversion (distracted: 140.6 ± 22.5 ml; not distracted: 78.4 ± 14.3 ml). No association between distraction and intake was seen for infants with high orienting/regulation capacity or surgency/extraversion. A significantly greater proportion of distracted mothers showed low sensitivity to infant cues compared to not distracted mothers (p = 0.04). In sum, mindless feeding may interact with infant characteristics to influence feeding outcomes; further experimental and longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  13. Bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morais, T B; Morais, M B; Sigulem, D M

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study in São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles prepared in urban households of low (LSE) and high (HSE...

  14. Cry, the beloved bottle: infant-feeding knowledge and the practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Mother and caregiver knowledge on infant feeding was poor. An acceptable method for preparing a bottle feed in five steps was evaluated. Only 4.2% of the total sample applied all five steps. A total of 84.5% (n = 160) of all the collected feeds was contaminated with E coli. A lower level of maternal education was ...

  15. Cup versus bottle feeding for hospitalized late preterm infants in Egypt: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfettoh, Amel M; Dowling, Donna A; Dabash, Soheir A; Elguindy, Shadia R; Seoud, Iman A

    2008-11-21

    Although previous studies have demonstrated beneficial breastfeeding outcomes when cup feeding rather than bottle feeding was used for feeding preterm infants, cup feeding has not been implemented in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of using cup feeding as an exclusive method of feeding preterm infants during hospitalization on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. A quasi-experimental design, with the control group studied first, was used to examine the effect of cup feeding for preterm infants on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Sixty preterm infants (mean gestational age was 35.13 weeks and mean birth weight was 2150 grams) were recruited during Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay. Control group infants (n = 30) received only bottle feedings during hospitalization and the experimental group (n = 30) received only cup feedings during hospitalization. Both groups were followed up after discharge for six weeks to evaluate infant's breastfeeding behavior and mother's breastfeeding practices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA for testing the differences between the cup feeding and bottle feeding groups over six weeks after discharge. Cup fed infants demonstrated significantly more mature breastfeeding behaviors when compared to bottle fed infants (p feedings one week after discharge (p = 0.03). Cup fed infants were more exclusively breast fed one week after discharge, supporting the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative recommendations for using cup feeding and avoiding bottle feeding when providing supplementation for preterm infants. The current study provides initial evidence for the implementation of cup feeding as a method of supplementation for late preterm infants during hospitalization. Clinical Trial NCT00756587.

  16. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Salem Abdel Jabbar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls aged 3 (13.9%, 4 (40.8%, 5 (34% and 6 (11.3% years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90 performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05. The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1, 38.8% (G2, 39.2% (G3 and 47.8% (G4. The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1, 48.8% (G2, 43.4% (G3 and 43% (G4. No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001 and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001 were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  17. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Nadia Salem Abdel; Bueno, Ana Beatriz Miguel; Silva, Patrícia Elaine da; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Inês Ferreira, Rívea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  18. Cup versus bottle feeding for hospitalized late preterm infants in Egypt: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabash Soheir A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have demonstrated beneficial breastfeeding outcomes when cup feeding rather than bottle feeding was used for feeding preterm infants, cup feeding has not been implemented in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of using cup feeding as an exclusive method of feeding preterm infants during hospitalization on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Methods A quasi-experimental design, with the control group studied first, was used to examine the effect of cup feeding for preterm infants on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Sixty preterm infants (mean gestational age was 35.13 weeks and mean birth weight was 2150 grams were recruited during Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay. Control group infants (n = 30 received only bottle feedings during hospitalization and the experimental group (n = 30 received only cup feedings during hospitalization. Both groups were followed up after discharge for six weeks to evaluate infant's breastfeeding behavior and mother's breastfeeding practices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA for testing the differences between the cup feeding and bottle feeding groups over six weeks after discharge. Results Cup fed infants demonstrated significantly more mature breastfeeding behaviors when compared to bottle fed infants (p Conclusion Cup fed infants were more exclusively breast fed one week after discharge, supporting the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative recommendations for using cup feeding and avoiding bottle feeding when providing supplementation for preterm infants. The current study provides initial evidence for the implementation of cup feeding as a method of supplementation for late preterm infants during hospitalization. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00756587.

  19. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour.

  20. Bottle-feeding behaviors in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Holzman, Ian R

    2007-01-01

    This study compared bottle-feeding behaviors in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) during the initial hospitalization. Individual sucking characteristics and feeding transitional rates were compared in 41 preterm infants (22 boys, 19 girls) with BPD and 99 infants (44 boys, 55 girls) without BPD. Observations of the first bottle feeding and observations of the last feeding before discharge were obtained from medical records of all infants retrospectively. On discharge, infants with BPD, unlike those without BPD, continued to have an immature sucking pattern and required longer hospital stays to attain full oral feeding (p feeding and use of oral support. These results suggest that feeding transitional rate, rather than sucking pattern, may be a better discharge indicator for infants with BPD.

  1. Nursing caries and buying time: an emerging theory of prolonged bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Stevens, Anne

    2008-10-01

    Nursing caries is considered to be problematic by dental health professionals. In their zealousness to solve the nursing caries problem dental health professionals forgot to ask the question: 'Why do mothers persist in prolonged bottle feeding?' To use grounded theory procedures and techniques to analyse the qualitative data obtained from mothers and to generate an emerging theory of prolonged bottle feeding. A series of individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 mothers of children with nursing caries. The children were aged between 3 and 4 years. Data were analysed using the grounded theory procedures and techniques of open and selective coding. The core category or the mothers' main concern that emerged from the data was conceptualized as 'buying time'. The feeding bottle bought time away from crying children by silencing them but also bought extra time with the child. Therefore, two different behavioural styles or categories of buying time emerged. These were: (i) to buy time away from the demands of their crying toddlers (instant solutions) and (ii) to buy extra time with their 'toddler-babies' (double-binding). The feeding bottle acted as an 'instant solution' as on seeing the bottle the child would instantly 'stop crying' and peace would reign. Double-binding described how the feeding bottle was used to buy extra time for 'babyhood closeness' between mother and child while exposing the mothers' harsh rejecting behaviours. An understanding of the time concerns that the mothers experienced when caring for their young children and how they resolve them provides an important insight into the reasons for prolonged bottle feeding.

  2. Effect of unrestricted bottle-feeding on early postoperative course after cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Key; Lee, Taik Jong; Chae, Soo Wook

    2009-09-01

    Although bottle-feeding after cheiloplasty is widely accepted, postoperative feeding regimen after palatoplasty is still controversial. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the effect of bottle-feeding on early postoperative course after palatoplasty in a relatively homogeneous group of patients. Eighty-two consecutive patients with nonsyndromic cleft palate undergoing 2-flap palatoplasty by a single surgeon were randomized to feeding from a bottle with the usual nipple (G1, N = 42) or to feeding with a spoon, cup, or syringe (G2, N = 40). Complication rates, postoperative sedative use, oral intake for the first 6 days, and relative weight gain at 1 and 2 months were compared. There were no significant complications such as bleeding or respiratory problem. The overall complication rate including wound dehiscence and oronasal fistula was similar in G1 and G2 (11.9% versus 12.5%, P = 1.000) as was postoperative sedative use and mean daily oral intake for the first 5 days. Mean intake on the sixth day was significantly higher in G1. There were no significant between-group differences in relative weight gain after 1 and 2 months. In conclusion, bottle-feeding had no adverse effect on the early postoperative course after palatoplasty including complication rate, oral intake, and weight gain. These findings suggest that an unrestricted feeding regimen is appropriate immediately after palatoplasty.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ellia C L; Sousa, Cejana B; Aragão, Lucas C; Costa, Luciane R

    2014-05-01

    When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child's development. The aim of this study was to analyze the electrical activity of the masseter muscle using surface electromyography during suction in term newborns by comparing breastfeeding, bottle and cup feeding. An observational, cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on healthy, clinically stable term infants, assigned to receive either breast, or bottle or cup feeding. Setting was a Baby Friendly accredited hospital. Muscle activity was analyzed when each infant showed interest in sucking using surface electromyography. Root mean square averages (RMS) recorded in microvolts were transformed into percentages (normalization) of the reference value. The three groups were compared by ANOVA; the "stepwise" method of the multiple linear regression analysis tested the model which best defined the activity of the masseter muscle in the sample at a significance level of 5%. Participants were 81 full term newborns (27 per group), from 2 to 28 days of life. RMS values were lower for bottle (mean 44.2%, SD 14.1) than breast feeding (mean 58.3%, SD 12.7) (P = 0.003, ANOVA); cup feeding (52.5%, SD 18.2%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). For every gram of weight increase, RMS increased by 0.010 units. Masseter activity was significantly higher in breastfed newborns than in bottle-fed newborns, who presented the lowest RMS values. Levels of masseter activity during cup-feeding were between those of breast and bottle feeding, and did not significantly differ from either group. This study in healthy full term neonates endorses cup rather than bottle feeding as a temporary substitute for breastfeeding.

  4. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status...

  5. Role of bottle feeding in the etiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, Jarod P; Ledbetter, Daniel J; Goldin, Adam B

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Bottle feeding has been implicated in the etiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS). Further data are needed to define the nature of this relationship and the clinical variables that influence it. OBJECTIVE To determine if bottle feeding after birth is associated with the development of HPS in infants. We hypothesized that bottle feeding is associated with an increased risk of HPS and that this risk is modified by other risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based case-control study of births from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2009, using Washington State birth certificates linked to hospital discharge data. Cases included all singleton infants born within the study period and subsequently admitted with both a diagnostic code for HPS and a procedure code for pyloromyotomy (n = 714). Controls were randomly chosen among singleton infants who did not develop HPS and were frequency matched to cases by birth year. EXPOSURE Feeding status (breast vs bottle) was coded on the birth certificate as the type of feeding the infant was receiving at birth discharge. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Diagnosis of HPS. RESULTS Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis incidence decreased over time, from 14 per 10,000 births in 2003 to 9 per 10,000 in 2009. Simultaneously, breastfeeding prevalence increased from 80% in 2003 to 94% in 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to be bottle feeding after birth (19.5% vs 9.1%). After adjustment, bottle feeding was associated with an increased risk of HPS (odds ratio [OR], 2.31; 95% CI, 1.81-2.95). This association did not differ according to sex or maternal smoking status but was significantly modified by maternal age (Bottle feeding is associated with an increased risk of HPS, and this effect seems to be most important in older and multiparous women. These data suggest that bottle feeding may play a role in HPS etiology, and further investigations may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the

  6. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  7. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  8. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  10. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    .... This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Peking city...

  11. Association between pacifier use and bottle-feeding and unfavorable behaviors during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Christyann L C; Ribeiro, Valdinar S; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro S B; Rodrigues, Vandilson P

    2017-11-12

    To investigate the association between pacifier use and bottle-feeding and unfavorable behaviors during breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 427 babies/mothers. Socio-demographic, perinatal data, and information about the use of artificial nipples (pacifier and/or bottle) were collected through a questionnaire. The breastfeeding aspects regarding position, affectivity, sucking behavior, baby responses, and breast anatomy were evaluated through observation during breastfeeding. The chi-squared test and the multiple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the association between the variables. The aspects of breastfeeding that showed higher percentages of the category "poor" were sucking behavior (22.5%) and position (22.2%). The group of infants who used pacifiers and/or bottle showed higher percentages in the poor and fair categories when compared with the good category for all five breastfeeding aspects evaluated (pbottle use (β positive, pbottle use. The findings suggest that the use of pacifiers and/or bottle-feeding may be associated with unfavorable behaviors during breastfeeding, especially the use of bottle-feeding. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony.

  13. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  14. Bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, T. B.; Morais, M. B.; Sigulem, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study in São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles prepared in urban households of low (LSE) and high (HSE) socioeconomic groups, involving 100 and 32 mothers of infants, respectively. Samples of the lacteal contents of the feeding bottles were cultured and the medians (25th and 75th percentiles) of the counts (bacteria per ml) were significantly higher in the LSE group: mesophilic bacteria, 555,000 (17,250-4,350,000) in the LSE group and 1615 (20-500,000) in the HSE group; coliforms, 2400 (19-150,000) in the LSE group and 7 (0-7800) in the HSE group. Escherichia coli was isolated from 26% (26/100) of the samples from the LSE group and from 6% (2/32) of those from the HSE group (P = 0.03). In the HSE group, higher coliform counts were associated with foodhandlers other than the mother, lower levels of maternal education, the use of pasteurized milk, and the addition of ingredients other than milk. In the LSE group, feeding bottles prepared using tap water and those prepared for infants aged over 6 months had higher coliform counts. In general, the feeding bottles prepared in the households studied were heavily contaminated, especially in the LSE group. PMID:9648358

  15. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal; Heriandi Sutadi; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Bachtiar, Endang W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%). However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD), though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics). Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especia...

  16. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure influences bottle-feeding in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Nathalie; Michaud, Audrey; Othman, Rahmeh; Nadeau, Charlène; Nault, Stéphanie; Cantin, Danny; Sage, Michaël; Catelin, Céline; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    BackgroundIn preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h.MethodsSeventeen lambs (8 control, 9 nCPAP of 6 cmH2O) born 14 days prematurely were instrumented to record sucking, swallowing, respiration, ECG, and oxygenation. They were fed via a nasogastric tube for the first 5 days of life until introduction of bottle-feeding every 4 h for 24 h.ResultsnCPAP increased the feeding efficiency while maintaining higher oxygenation without any deleterious cardiorespiratory events. However, coughs were observed in lambs under nCPAP immediately following bottle-feeding and may be related to the high milk flow in preterm lambs.ConclusionFurther studies documenting tracheal aspirations are needed, especially in preterm lambs under nCPAP for moderate respiratory difficulties, to further inform future clinical studies.

  17. Reasons for prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency among Mexican-American toddlers: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotanek, Jane M; Schroer, Damon; Valentyn, Lee; Tomany-Korman, Sandy; Flores, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that prolonged bottle-feeding is associated with iron deficiency. Mexican-American toddlers are the racial/ethnic group at greatest risk for prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency, yet no studies have examined reasons for prolonged bottle-feeding in Mexican-American toddlers. The objective of this study was to assess infant feeding beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors among Mexican-American parents. Ethnographic interviews were conducted of parents of Mexican-American toddlers 15 to 48 months old at 3 community sites. A 31-question moderator's guide addressed 4 domains: knowledge and cultural beliefs; sources of nutritional information; anticipatory guidance; and suggestions for ways to change infant feeding practices. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Thirty-nine parents were interviewed; the mean parental age was 29 years, and mean child age, 2.2 years. Parents cited convenience as a reason for prolonged bottle-feeding, and believed that they should give toddlers as much milk as they want. Many parents lacked essential knowledge regarding infant feeding practices and iron deficiency, including when to stop bottle-feeding, health problems caused by prolonged bottle-feeding, the quantity of milk to give a child >1 year old, and iron deficiency as a complication of prolonged bottle-feeding. Parents reported not receiving enough education from physicians, and they supported educational interventions on healthy infant feeding practices, including refrigerator magnet charts, videos, brochures, and teaching by physicians. Parents of Mexican-American toddlers often are unaware of the adverse consequences of prolonged bottle-feeding and developmental problems associated with iron deficiency. Parents supported educational interventions, including videos, brochures, and refrigerator magnet charts on healthy infant feeding practices.

  18. Maternal Distraction During Breast- and Bottle Feeding Among WIC and non-WIC Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Teitelbaum, Simone

    To explore the prevalence and correlates of maternal distraction during infant feeding within a sample of mothers enrolled or not in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Woman, Infants, and Children (WIC). Mothers kept diaries of their infants' feeding patterns. Mothers (n = 75) with infants aged ≤6 months. Within the diaries, mothers recorded what else, if anything, they did during the feeding. Mothers also completed questionnaires on demographics, feeding styles, and infant temperament and eating behaviors. Mothers' responses were coded into thematic categories. Feedings were classified as distracted when the mothers reported doing something other than feeding and/or interacting with the infant. Logistic regression was used to explore whether mothers exhibited different levels of distraction when breastfeeding (BF) vs bottle feeding. The researchers used multiple stepwise regression to explore associations between distracted feeding and characteristics of mothers and infants. Distractions were reported during 43% of feedings; 26% involved technological distractors. Mothers who were multiparous and perceived that their infants had greater appetites reported greater levels of any distraction during feeding. Mothers who were of racial/ethnic minorities, adhered to laissez faire feeding style, had younger infants, and perceived their infants to have lower food responsiveness and greater appetite reported greater levels of technological distraction. Being enrolled in WIC was not associated with mothers' levels of distracted feeding. Mothers reported a wide variety of distractions during both BF and bottle feeding; higher levels of distraction were associated with characteristics of both mothers and infants. Further research is needed to understand whether and how maternal distraction affects feeding outcomes. Awareness of such distractions and their potential impact would be useful to practitioners working with pregnant and postpartum women. Copyright

  19. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanez N David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia, Chile. Methods Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bottle-feeding, pacifier use, and other sucking behaviors, was collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by parents. Evaluation of speech problems was conducted at preschools with subsequent scoring by a licensed speech pathologist using age-normative standards. Results A total of 128 three- to five-year olds were assessed, 46% girls and 54% boys. Children were breastfed for an average of 25.2 (SD 9.6 months and used a bottle 24.4 (SD 15.2 months. Fifty-three children (41.7% had or currently used a pacifier for an average of 11.4 (SD 17.3 months; 23 children (18.3% were reported to have sucked their fingers. Delayed use of a bottle until after 9 months appeared to be protective for subsequent speech disorders. There was less than a one-third lower relative odds of subsequent speech disorders for children with a delayed use of a bottle compared to children without a delayed use of a bottle (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-0.98. A three-fold increase in relative odds of speech disorder was found for finger-sucking behavior (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.10-8.00 and for use of a pacifier for 3 or more years (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.08-10.81. Conclusion The results suggest extended use of sucking outside of breastfeeding may have detrimental effects on speech development in young children.

  20. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Clarita; Vasquez, Sandra; Parada, Mary A; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Velez; Jackson, Chanaye; Yanez, N David; Gelaye, Bizu; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2009-10-21

    Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia), Chile. Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bottle-feeding, pacifier use, and other sucking behaviors, was collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by parents. Evaluation of speech problems was conducted at preschools with subsequent scoring by a licensed speech pathologist using age-normative standards. A total of 128 three- to five-year olds were assessed, 46% girls and 54% boys. Children were breastfed for an average of 25.2 (SD 9.6) months and used a bottle 24.4 (SD 15.2) months. Fifty-three children (41.7%) had or currently used a pacifier for an average of 11.4 (SD 17.3) months; 23 children (18.3%) were reported to have sucked their fingers. Delayed use of a bottle until after 9 months appeared to be protective for subsequent speech disorders. There was less than a one-third lower relative odds of subsequent speech disorders for children with a delayed use of a bottle compared to children without a delayed use of a bottle (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-0.98). A three-fold increase in relative odds of speech disorder was found for finger-sucking behavior (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.10-8.00) and for use of a pacifier for 3 or more years (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.08-10.81). The results suggest extended use of sucking outside of breastfeeding may have detrimental effects on speech development in young children.

  1. A research study of sources of support for bottle feeding in new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Patricia; Barbour, Rosaline

    2007-06-01

    This paper asks if there is a difference in mothers' perceptions of the support they receive about bottle feeding from a range of professional and non-professional sources. The findings are put into the context of associated demographic characteristics. It forms part of a larger study, which was a longitudinal postal survey of 500 childbearing women across two health board regions in Scotland. Women were recruited at 34 weeks gestation by post. The results reported here are from further postal questionnaires at one and three months postnatally. Older women and those with higher education were more likely to initiate and maintain breast feeding, and less likely to introduce solid foods early. Younger women, who were mainly bottle feeding, were more likely to feel they had enough knowledge about feeding their infants than older women and were significantly more likely to feel that relatives were supportive about infant feeding. However, findings suggest that this confidence is largely dependent upon the support provided by relatives. Given the likelihood of misinformation and the potential for passing on inappropriate practices, this issue merits further examination. Health promotion strategies aimed at relatives of new mothers could, therefore, help to redress this and, thereby, promote more health advantages for the infants involved. However, there may be a large number of younger women who do not have knowledgeable support for infant feeding from relatives or friends and for whom access to health professionals for this information is restricted, possibly leading to poor infant-feeding decisions.

  2. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  3. Comparison of wound dehiscence and parent's satisfaction between spoon/syringe feeding and breast/bottle feeding in patients with cleft lip repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Surakunprapha, Palakorn; Pattangtanang, Pantamanas; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Jenwitheesuk, Kamonwan; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies affecting approximately 2.49 of every 1,000 children born in North-east of Thailand. Srinagarind Hospital has 100-150 cases of cleft lip each year. Children with cleft lip and palate need surgical procedures as soon as possible. After lip repair the normal recommendation is not using bottle or breast feeding for 2 weeks to avoid tension at the sutured area during sucking and possible cause of wound dehiscence. So this is quite complicated for the parents, and patients feel frustrated, cry, and move their head around, because of hunger which cannot easily be satisfied. Previous research found that sucking does not cause wound dehiscence, but mentioned no detail about severity of cleft. Primary objective is to compare surgical wound dehiscence between breast feeding/bottle and spoon/syringe feeding after lip repair. This is an experimental study: non-inferiority trials study. The population is the patients with cleft lip who underwent lip repair in Inpatient Department 3C, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. The study period is during May 2010-February 2013. The total sample size in the present study is 192 participants, 96 cases breast/bottle feeding, 96 cases spoon/syringe feeding. The wound dehiscence rate was analyzed by Z-test. Parents'satisfaction is a qualitative data and was analyzed through content analysis. No statistical significant diference between breast/bottle and spoon/syringe groups (p-value = 0.320, 95% confidence interval -0.031-0.010). Parents were more satisfied to feed children by breast/bottle and patients were more relaxed with breast/bottle feeding. Breast/bottle feeding and syringe/spoon feeding have the same result on the surgical wound. Breast/bottle feeding are not causes of wound dehiscence.

  4. A randomised trial of two techniques for bottle feeding preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jennifer A; Myers, Leanne R; Moorhead, Anita; Jacobs, Susan E; Ong, Katherine; Salo, Frances; Murray, Sally; Donath, Susan; Davis, Peter G

    2013-06-01

    Preterm infants begin the transition from gastric tube feeds to sucking feeds around 34 weeks' postmenstrual age. We compared physiological stability in two bottle feeding positions, cradle hold versus side lying in preterm infants. Randomised crossover trial of infants position 94 (6) % versus 95 (6) %, respectively (P = 0.55, confidence interval (CI) -1.4, 5.4). During feeds, 17/25 (68%) experienced a period of SpO₂ position compared with 14/25 (56) % in the side-lying position (P = 0.26, CI 0.68, 4.10). There were no significant differences in the mean HR or number of episodes of bradycardia HR position compared with the side-lying position, 82 (25) % versus 87 (20) % (P = 0.08, CI -0.64, 10.00). There was little difference in infants' physiological stability between the two bottle feeding positions. Both methods may be appropriate for the transition from gastric tube to sucking feeds in preterm infants. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-03-16

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  6. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN DURATION OF BOTTLE-FEEDING AND DENTAL ARCH MEASUREMENT IN DECIDUOUS DENTITION

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    Meldo Mahniza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe the correlation between duration of bottle feeding and dental arch measurement in deciduous dentition. Duration of bottle feeding was divided into 4 groups: ≤ 24 months, 25 – 36 months, 37 – 48 months, and > 48 months. The subjects were 120 kindergarten pupils, aged 3 – 5 years old. Measurements was done on the models of maxilla and mandible with digital caliper for the width and length of dental arch and using flexible curve for dental arch circumference. Pearson correlation showed a weak association for anterior arch width (r=0.206, posterior arch width (r=0.195, and anterior circumference (r=0.206 of maxilla and posterior arch width (r=0.279, anterior circumference (r=0.226 of mandible. One-way Anova was performed to analyze the differences of dental arch measurements among duration of bottle-feeding groups. The results showed that there were significant differences of dental arch measurements for anterior arch width of maxilla, posterior arch width of mandible, and anterior circumference of mandible (p<0,05.

  8. Caries prevalence and bottle-feeding practices in 2-year-old children with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y T; Tsai, C L

    1999-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the caries prevalence in cleft lip, cleft palate, or both in children under the age of 2 years and to evaluate parental attitudes toward bottle-feeding, dental care, and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in Taiwan. Randomized and prospective study. Institutional setting. One hundred twenty-three 2-year-old children (68 boys and 55 girls) with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both were selected for this study. A questionnaire that asked questions about knowledge of oral health, knowledge and beliefs about BBTD, children's feeding habits, children's dental care, and parenting attitudes toward children with clefts was completed by the parents or caretakers. Children were divided into bottle-feeding and non-bottle-feeding groups according to the questionnaire responses of parents or caretakers. Each child was examined with a dental mirror and explorer under focused flashlight using defs index to determine the presence of BBTD. Thirty-nine percent (48) subjects reported a bottle-feeding habit; the overall prevalence of BBTD was 15.4%. The habit of bottle-feeding was significantly related to BBTD (p = .019). The defs score for children who were bottle-fed was significantly higher than children who were not bottle-fed (p = .045). Parents or caretakers of both bottle-feeding and non-bottle-feeding children showed no significant differences in their attitudes toward bottle-feeding and feeding habits (p > .05). However, parents of non-bottle-fed children had significantly better dental care than parents of bottle-fed children in brushing frequency (p bottle to bed showed an increased risk of developing BBTD. The parents or caretakers of bottle-fed children also showed a lack of motivation to perform regular preventive dental home care for their children. This suggests that oral health promotion programs should begin in infancy for children with clefts and their parents.

  9. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  10. Comparison of subjective sleep and fatigue in breast- and bottle-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobback, Els; Behaeghel, Katoesjka; Hanoulle, Ignace; Delesie, Liesbeth; Loccufier, Anne; Van Holsbeeck, Ann; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An

    2017-04-01

    Artificial milk supplementation remains a popular practice in spite of the well documented and indisputable advantages of breast feeding for both mother and child. However, the association between maternal sleep, fatigue and feeding method is understudied and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceived sleep and fatigue differ between breast- and bottle feeding post partum women. In addition, the relationship between subjective sleep characteristics and fatigue is examined. Post partum women (four to 16 weeks) filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Sixty-one within the past week exclusively breast- and 44 exclusively bottle-feeding mothers were included. The first group showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency as measured by the PSQI. Global PSQI, as well as subjective fatigue and global CIS, did not differ between the two groups. Significant positive correlations were found between global CIS and the number of night feeds and global PSQI. However, only global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS in relation to the number of night feeds. Within a general pattern of deteriorated sleep quality, breast-feeding women showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency, between four and fourteen weeks after childbirth. However, the PSQI component scores compensated for each other, resulting in absence of any difference in global PSQI sleep quality between the two groups. Global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS, resulting in an absence of any difference in post partum fatigue according to feeding method. Midwives and nurses should, together with the parents, continue to focus on exploring ways to improve maternal sleep quality and to reduce postnatal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Milk Flow Rates From Bottle Nipples Used for Feeding Infants Who Are Hospitalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W. Brant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the milk flow rates and variability in flow of currently available nipples used for bottle-feeding infants who are hospitalized. Method Clinicians in 3 countries were surveyed regarding nipples available to them for feeding infants who are hospitalized. Twenty-nine nipple types were identified, and 10 nipples of each type were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 min using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation were used to compare nipples within brand and within category (i.e., Slow, Standard, Premature). Results Flow rates varied widely between nipples, ranging from 2.10 mL/min for the Enfamil Cross-Cut to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Y-Cut Standard Neck. Variability of flow rates among nipples of the same type ranged from a coefficient of variation of 0.05 for Dr. Brown's Level 1 Standard- and Wide-Neck to 0.42 for the Enfamil Cross-Cut. Mean coefficient of variation by brand ranged from 0.08 for Dr. Brown's to 0.36 for Bionix. Conclusions Milk flow is an easily manipulated variable that may contribute to the degree of physiologic instability experienced by infants who are medically fragile during oral feeding. This study provides clinicians with information to guide appropriate selection of bottle nipples for feeding infants who are hospitalized. PMID:26172340

  12. Milk Flow Rates From Bottle Nipples Used for Feeding Infants Who Are Hospitalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt F; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    2015-11-01

    This study tested the milk flow rates and variability in flow of currently available nipples used for bottle-feeding infants who are hospitalized. Clinicians in 3 countries were surveyed regarding nipples available to them for feeding infants who are hospitalized. Twenty-nine nipple types were identified, and 10 nipples of each type were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 min using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation were used to compare nipples within brand and within category (i.e., Slow, Standard, Premature). Flow rates varied widely between nipples, ranging from 2.10 mL/min for the Enfamil Cross-Cut to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Y-Cut Standard Neck. Variability of flow rates among nipples of the same type ranged from a coefficient of variation of 0.05 for Dr. Brown's Level 1 Standard- and Wide-Neck to 0.42 for the Enfamil Cross-Cut. Mean coefficient of variation by brand ranged from 0.08 for Dr. Brown's to 0.36 for Bionix. Milk flow is an easily manipulated variable that may contribute to the degree of physiologic instability experienced by infants who are medically fragile during oral feeding. This study provides clinicians with information to guide appropriate selection of bottle nipples for feeding infants who are hospitalized.

  13. Factors Associated with Bottle Feeding in Namibia: Findings from Namibia 2013 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berde, Anselm S

    2017-11-30

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of bottle feeding (BF) among children aged 0-23 months and factors associated with BF in Namibia. Data from Namibia 2013 Demographic Health Survey were used for the study. The study covered last-born alive children aged 0-23 months, making up 1926 mother-baby pairs. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to test for association between BF and related factors. Prevalence of BF in Namibia was 35.7%. In the multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with increased risk of BF: working mothers, hospital delivery, increasing child age, higher mother's educational status, higher wealth quintile and urban residence. To achieve a substantial decrease in bottle usage rate in Namibia, breastfeeding promotion programmes should target all mothers but especially those at risk of BF highlighted in the study.

  14. Bottle milk feeding and its association with food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics in Chinese young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p bottle users had significantly lower intakes of meat and meat alternatives than bottle plus cup users for the 18 to 24-month group (p = 0.001) and lower intakes of fruits than non-bottle users in the 48-month group (p = 0.015). BMI z-score was significantly higher for exclusive bottle users than non-bottle users, even after adjusting for socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Innovative Technique - Modified Feeding Bottle for a Cleft Palate Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vinuta Siddayya; Lingegowda, Ashwini Budunur; Rayannavar, Sounyala; Kumari, Nirmala

    2016-04-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. Infants suffer a lot of difficulty in sucking during the initial few days after birth. There is even psychological stress to the parents due to improper feeding and the infants lose weight and are prone to nutritional insufficiency. Due to recent advancement in the medical field, there is a total repair of cleft lip and cleft palate and these procedures are performed in the later stages of infants. It is the multidisciplinary approach which includes pedodontist, oral surgeon, prosthodontist and speech therapist. In this article, the technique is highlighted to fulfill the feeding problem of infants in the early stages of birth with a modified feeding bottle.

  16. Consistency in infants' behavioural signalling of satiation during bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, A K; Inamdar, L B; Mennella, J A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of feeding is essential for preventing accelerated weight gain during infancy, a risk factor for obesity. Because infants satiate on larger volumes of cow milk formula (CMF) than CMF enriched with the free amino acid glutamate (CMF + glu), we used this model system to determine whether infants displayed consistent behaviours despite satiating on lower volumes. In this laboratory-based, within-subject experimental study of ≤4-month-old infants (n = 41) and their mothers, infants were videotaped while feeding to satiation CMF on one test day and CMF + glu on the other, in counterbalanced order. Each video-recording was analysed frame-by-frame for frequency and timing of behaviours. Infants' behaviours were consistent in types and frequency but were displayed sooner when feeding CMF + glu compared with CMF. The less responsive the mother's feeding style, the less consistent the infant displayed behaviours across the two formula meals (P = 0.05). Infants who spat up (a possible sign of overfeeding) consumed more formula (P = 0.01) and had less responsive mothers (P = 0.04) compared with the other infants. Infants are consistent in their behavioural displays during feeding at this developmental age. Regulation of intake and signalling of satiation during bottle-feeding are associated with formula composition and maternal feeding style. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  17. Consistency in infants’ behavioral signaling of satiation during bottle-feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K.; Inamdar, Loma B.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the dynamics of feeding is essential for preventing accelerated weight gain during infancy, a risk factor for obesity. Because infants satiate on larger volumes of cow milk formula (CMF) than CMF enriched with the free amino acid glutamate (CMF+glu), we used this model system to determine whether infants displayed consistent behaviors despite satiating on lower volumes. Methods In this laboratory-based, within-subject experimental study of ≤4-month-old infants (N=41) and their mothers, infants were videotaped while feeding to satiation CMF on one test day and CMF+glu on the other, in counterbalanced order. Each video-recording was analyzed frame-by-frame for frequency and timing of behaviors. Results Infants’ behaviors were consistent in types and frequency but were displayed sooner when feeding CMF+glu compared with CMF. The less responsive the mother’s feeding style, the less consistently the infant displayed behaviors across the two formula meals (p=0.05). Infants who spat up (a possible sign of overfeeding) consumed more formula (p=0.01) and had less responsive mothers (p=0.04) compared with the other infants. Conclusions Infants are consistent in their behavioral displays during feeding at this developmental age. Regulation of intake and signaling of satiation during bottle-feeding are associated with formula composition and maternal feeding style. PMID:24990443

  18. Does the choice of bottle nipple affect the oral feeding performance of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, C E; Schanler, Richard J; Lau, Chantal

    2005-09-01

    There is a continuous debate regarding the best bottle nipple to be used to enhance the bottle-feeding performance of a preterm infant. To verify that feeding performance can be improved by using the bottle nipple with the physical characteristics that enhance infants' sucking skills. Ten "healthy" VLBW infants (941+/-273 g) were recruited. Feeding performance was monitored at two time periods, when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/d. At each time and within 24 h, performance was monitored using three different bottle nipples offered in a randomized order. Rate of milk transfer (ml/min) was the primary outcome measure. The sucking skills monitored comprised stage of sucking, suction amplitude, and duration of the generated negative intraoral suction pressure. At both times, infants demonstrated a similar rate of milk transfer among all three nipples. However, the stage of sucking, suction amplitude, and duration of the generated suction were significantly different between nipples at 1-2, but not 6-8 oral feedings/d. We did not identify a particular bottle nipple that enhanced bottle feeding in healthy VLBW infants. Based on the notion that afferent sensory feedback may allow infants to adapt to changing conditions, we speculate that infants can modify their sucking skills in order to maintain a rate of milk transfer that is appropriate with the level of suck-swallow-breathe coordination achieved at a particular time. Therefore, it is proposed that caretakers should be more concerned over monitoring the coordination of suck-swallow-breathe than over the selection of bottle nipples.

  19. ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES WITH BREASTFEEDING AND BOTTLE FEEDING IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIAN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatosi, O O; Sote, E O

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood caries constitute one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children which have been found to be related to infant feeding practices. to determine the association of early childhood caries with breastfeeding and bottle-feeding practices among children of preschool age. Information about oral health, infant feeding and other child and family characteristics were obtained through structured interviewer administered questionnaire from mothers of preschool children. Intra-oral examination of the children was done and dental caries status was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Statistical analyses of association of early childhood caries with various categorical variables were performed using chi-square. A logistic regression analysis was also performed with factors that were significant. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 302 children in this study, 44% were solely breastfed, 2% were solely bottle-fed while 54% were both breastfed and bottle-fed. Statistical analysis showed that ECC significantly increased with night time bottle feeding (OR=4.5, p=0.001, CI=1.8-11.1), whereas it was significantly lower in children who were breastfed for 3 to 6 months (OR= 0.1, pbottle-fed and night time bottle feeding are associated with high incidence of childhood dental caries.

  20. Iron depletion is associated with daytime bottle-feeding in the second and third years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Trenna L; Khambalia, Amina; Westergard, Shelley; Jacobson, Sheila; Peer, Michael; Parkin, Patricia C

    2006-11-01

    To measure the association between daytime bottle-feeding and iron depletion in young children. Cross-sectional design with concurrent measurement of exposure and outcome. The exposure was the current container (bottle or cup) used for daytime milk consumption. Child, maternal, and dietary variables were collected. Community-based pediatric practice serving a diverse population in an urban Canadian city. One hundred fifty healthy children, aged 12 to 38 months, attending a well-child care visit. Iron depletion (serum ferritin level, bottle-fed and 68 (45%) were cup fed. Iron depletion occurred in 29 (37%) of 78 bottle-fed and in 12 (18%) of 67 cup-fed children. The crude relative risk for iron depletion was 1.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.01). In the final logistic regression model, a significant association between bottle use and iron depletion was identified, beginning after the age of 16 months. At 18 months, the relative risk, adjusted for several child, maternal, and dietary variables, for the association between bottle use and iron depletion was 1.31 (95% confidence interval,1.24-1.47); at 24 months, the adjusted relative risk was 2.50 (95% confidence interval, 2.46-2.53). Milk consumption of more than 16 oz/d occurred in 55 (67%) of the 82 bottle-fed and in 22 (32%) of the 68 cup-fed children (Pbottle-feeding compared with cup feeding. The child's age may be a modifier, and milk volume consumed may be a mediator, of this association. Duration of bottle use is a potentially modifiable practice.

  1. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Guimarães ABREU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p < 0.05. One study revealed that breastfeeding and bruxism were associated with Class II [OR = 3.14 (1.28 - 7.66] and Class III [OR = 2.78 (1.21 - 6.36] malocclusion in children with permanent dentition, while another study showed that an increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower risk of malocclusion in children with both mixed and permanent dentitions (p < 0.001. Three studies did not report any significant association. Risk of bias was high in most selected articles. These findings do not support an association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and the occurrence of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions.

  2. [Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and oral habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X X; Xia, B; Ge, L H; Yuan, J W

    2016-12-18

    To assess the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and oral habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Beijing. This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior cross bite, posterior cross bite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing. Univariate analysis and multiple Logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations. It was found that a short duration of breast-feeding (never or ≤6 months) was directly associated with posterior cross bite (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.11-8.82, P=0.031) and no maxillary space (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.23-2.98, P=0.038). In children breast-fed for ≤6 months, the probability of developing pacifier-sucking habits was 4 times that for those breast-fed for >6 months (OR=4.21, 95%CI=1.85-9.60, P=0.000 2). The children who were bottle-fed for over 18 months had a 1.45-fold higher risk of nonmesial step occlusion and a 1.43-fold higher risk of class II canine relationship compared with those who were bottle-fed for 6-18 months. Non-nutritive sucking habits were also found to affect occlusion: a prolonged digit-sucking habit increased the probability of an anterior open bite, while a pacifier-sucking habit was associated with excessive overjet and absence of lower arch developmental space. Tongue-thrust habit was associated with anterior open bite (OR=4.21, 95%CI=1.85-9.60, P=0.000 2) and posterior cross bite (OR=7.24, 95%CI=1.30-40.13, P=0.024). Lower lip sucking habit was associated with deep overjet and had a negative association with class III canine relationship. Unilateral chewing was associated

  3. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  4. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p Class II [OR = 3.14 (1.28 - 7.66)] and Class III [OR = 2.78 (1.21 - 6.36)] malocclusion in children with permanent dentition, while another study showed that an increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower risk of malocclusion in children with both mixed and permanent dentitions (p malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions.

  5. Comparison of colostrum feeding by nipple bottle versus oroesophageal tubing in Holstein dairy bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Coons, David M; Hagey, Jill V

    2012-07-01

    To compare the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and failure of passive transfer of immunity rates between calves fed colostrum by nipple bottle (NB) and oroesophageal tubing (OET). Randomized controlled study. 26 Holstein bull calves (age, 4 to 8 hours). Calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum by either NB or OET. Pooled colostrum was used for feeding each group of calves. Calves received either a maximum of 4 L of colostrum fed through an NB over a period of 20 minutes or an equivalent volume of colostrum fed by OET. Subsequently, a pair of similarly aged calves received similar volumes of colostrum with similar immunoglobulin concentrations. Colostrum was fed only once. Thereafter, calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer every 12 hours. All calves survived to at least 48 hours of age. Serum samples were collected prior to feeding colostrum and at 48 hours of age for determination of serum immunoglobulin concentrations. There were no differences in failure of passive transfer of immunity rates and apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG between calves fed by NB or OET. Volume of colostrum fed was the only significant variable in determining failure of passive transfer of immunity in calves at 48 hours. Reported advantages and disadvantages of either feeding method are likely to be of minimal practical relevance in achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity in calves when calves are fed a similar volume of colostrum with comparable immunoglobulin concentrations.

  6. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Cynthia R; Howard, Fred M; Lanphear, Bruce; Eberly, Shirley; deBlieck, Elisabeth A; Oakes, David; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2003-03-01

    To enhance breastfeeding practices, the World Health Organization discourages pacifiers and bottle-feeding. However, the effect of artificial nipples on breastfeeding duration is poorly defined. The effects of 2 types of artificial nipple exposure on breastfeeding duration were evaluated: 1) cupfeeding versus bottle-feeding for the provision of in-hospital supplements and 2) early (2-5 days) versus late (>4 weeks) pacifier introduction. A total of 700 breastfed newborns (36-42 weeks, birth weight >or=2200 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: bottle/early pacifier (n = 169), bottle/late pacifier (n = 167), cup/early pacifier (n = 185), or cup/late pacifier (n = 179). The cup/bottle intervention was invoked for infants who received supplemental feedings: cup (n = 251), bottle (n = 230). Data were collected at delivery and at 2, 5, 10, 16, 24, 38, and 52 weeks' postpartum. Intervention effects on breastfeeding duration were evaluated with logistic regression and survival analyses. Supplemental feedings, regardless of method (cup or bottle), had a detrimental effect on breastfeeding duration. There were no differences in cup versus bottle groups for breastfeeding duration. Effects were modified by the number of supplements; exclusive and full breastfeeding duration were prolonged in cup-fed infants given >2 supplements. Among infants delivered by cesarean, cupfeeding significantly prolonged exclusive, full, and overall breastfeeding duration. Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 weeks was less likely among infants exposed to pacifiers (early pacifier group; odds ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0). Early, as compared with late, pacifier use shortened overall duration (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.44) but did not affect exclusive or full duration. There was no advantage to cupfeeding for providing supplements to the general population of healthy breastfed infants, but it may have benefitted mother-infant dyads who

  7. Educational intervention to modify bottle-feeding behaviors among formula-feeding mothers in the WIC program: impact on infant formula intake and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Cohen, Roberta J; Heinig, M Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2008-01-01

    Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth measured before (at 1 to 2 months) and after (4 to 5 months) the intervention. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Sacramento, California. 836 caregivers of young infants were screened; 214 were eligible, and 104 agreed to participate. Intervention subjects received education promoting awareness of satiety cues and discouraging bottles containing more than 6 ounces before 4 months of age; intervention and control groups received education regarding introduction and feeding of solid food after 4 months of age. Formula intake (mL/24 hours) and weight gain (g/week). Differences between groups evaluated using 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Sixty-one subjects completed baseline records, 44 attended class, and 38 completed the study. Despite a positive response to the educational intervention, there was no change in bottle-feeding behaviors (formula intake at 4 to 5 months was more than 1100 mL/day in both groups). Infant growth in the intervention group was greater than in the control group (P intervention improved knowledge of the key messages, but further research is needed to understand barriers to modifying bottle-feeding behaviors.

  8. Design, development and experimental validation of a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, C; Tamilia, E; Massaroni, C; Morbidoni, G; Schena, E; Formica, D; Taffoni, F

    2014-01-01

    In newborns, a poor coordination between sucking, swallowing and breathing may undermine the effectiveness of oral feeding and signal immaturity of Central Nervous System. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events of newborns during bottle feeding. The proposed device working principle is based on the convective heat exchanged between two hot bodies and the infants' breathing. The sensing elements are inserted into a duct and the gas exchanged by infants is conveyed into this duct thanks to an ad hoc designed system to be mounted on a commercial feeding bottle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the discrimination threshold of the device and characterize the sensor response at oscillating flows. The effect of distance and tilt between nostrils and device, and the breathing frequency, have been investigated simulating nostrils and neonatal respiratory pattern. The device has a discrimination threshold lower than 0.5 L/min at both 10° and 20° of tilt. Distance for these two settings does not affect the threshold in the investigated range (10-20 mm). Moreover, the device is able to detect breathing events, and to discriminate the onset of expiratory phase, during a neonatal respiratory task delivered by a lung simulator. The results foster the successful application of this device to the assessment of the temporal breathing pattern of newborns during bottle feeding with a non-invasive approach.

  9. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Walesca M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Paiva, Saul M.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23–0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence. PMID:26579710

  11. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  12. Newborn right-holding is related to depressive symptoms in bottle-feeding mothers but not in breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques; Bréjard, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    This study examines the relationships between infant holding preferences and maternal depression according to the newborn feeding mode. Links between depression and infant holding biases have been observed in mothers [Vauclair, J., Scola, C. (in press). Dépression, alexithymie et latéralisation dans la façon de porter un nouveau-né [Infant holding biases in relation to depression, alexithymia and laterality]. Annales Médico-psychologiques; Weatherill, R. P., Almerigi, J. B., Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., von Eye, A., & Harris, L. J. (2004). Is maternal depression related to side of infant holding? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 421-427] but the fact that breastfeeding has never been studied in relation to these two factors is surprising as breastfeeding has some influence on depression (e.g., [Mezzacappa, E. S., Guethlein, W., Vaz, N., & Bagiella, E. (2000). A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 71-79]) and must also affect holding biases. Mothers who just gave birth (N=100) were tested few days after delivery. Measures of handedness, infant holding-side preferences, and level of depressive symptoms expressed by mothers (assessed with the CES-D scale) were collected via questionnaires. Asymmetries in emotional perception were assessed via a Chimeric Figure Task and a Dichotic Listening Task. Results showed that breastfeeding (1) reduced left-side bias for holding newborns and (2) was associated with lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Moreover, holding biases were related to maternal depression in bottle-feeding but not in breastfeeding mothers, namely that holding on the right-side while bottle-feeding was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results were not due to hemispheric specialization as auditory and visual asymmetries were similar between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding mothers. The discussion emphasizes the striking role of the early

  13. What are mothers doing while bottle-feeding their infants? Exploring the prevalence of maternal distraction during bottle-feeding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Rebecca Pollack; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which mothers engage in distracting activities during infant feeding. Mothers reported engaging in other activities during 52% of feedings; television watching was the most prevalent activity reported. Further research on the impact of distraction on feeding outcomes is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Pemberian asi eksklusif merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menurunkan kematian bayi dan neonatal. Namun, prevalensi asi eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai hubungan inisiasi menyusu dini dan penggunaan botol/dot dengan praktek asi eksklusif pada bayi di bawah usia 6 bulan di Indonesia. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013. Sub-sampel adalah bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan. Dari 7226 bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan, 6397 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox. Hasil: Dari 6397 responden, 44% mendapatkan asi eksklusif. Inisiasi menyusu dini, penggunaan botol, pelayanan kesehatan pasca persalinan, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi berhubungan dengan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. Anak yang mendapat inisiasi menyusu dini 66% lebih besar kemungkinan untuk memperoleh asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak memperoleh inisiasi menyusu dini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI: 1,45 – 1,90]. Anak yang menggunakan dot/kempeng memiliki kemungkinan 71% lebih rendah untuk asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak menggunakan dot/kempeng (RRa = 0,29; 95% CI: 0,25 – 0,34. Kesimpulan: Inisiasi menyusu dini dapat meningkatkan pemberian asi eksklusif, sedangkan penggunaan dot dapat menurunkan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Kata kunci: asi eksklusif, inisiasi menyusu dini, dot  Abstract Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is a intervention to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. However,the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia remains low. The aim of the study was identify the association of early initiation and bottle-feeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice among infant less than six month in Indonesia. Methods: This study was a part of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS 2013

  15. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  16. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  17. An automated system for quantitative analysis of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Formica, Domenico; Visco, Anna Maria; Scaini, Alberto; Taffoni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel unobtrusive technology-aided system is presented and tested for the assessment of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding. A low-cost monitoring device was designed and developed in order to record Suction (S) and Expression (E) pressures from a typical feeding bottle. A software system was developed to automatically treat the data and analyze them. A set of measures of motor control and coordination has been implemented for the specific application to the analysis of sucking behavior. Experimental data were collected with the developed system on two groups of newborns (Healthy vs. Low Birth Weight) in a clinical setting. We identified the most sensitive S features to group differences, and analyzed their correlation with S/E coordination measures. Then, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the system suitability to automatically identify peculiar oral behaviors. Results suggest the suitability of the proposed system to perform an objective technology-aided assessment of the newborn's oral-motor behavior and coordination during the first days of life.

  18. Perioral movements and sucking pattern during bottle feeding with a novel, experimental teat are similar to breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segami, Y; Mizuno, K; Taki, M; Itabashi, K

    2013-04-01

    To measure intraoral pressure and perioral movement in infants during breastfeeding (BF) and feeding with experimental teat (ET). The teat has a wide base, firm shaft and a valve at the base, such that milk flows only when the baby provides a hold pressure. Twenty healthy term infants, between 1 and 8 months old, were enrolled in the study. Feeding sessions (BF and ET) were recorded using a digital video camera. During both BF and ET feeding sessions, recordings during feeding were taken of jaw and throat movements (n=20) as well as intraoral pressure (n=18). The efficiency of milk transfer and the angle of the mouth were also measured. There was no significant difference in either the jaw or throat movements between BF and ET. The sucking burst pattern, the efficiency (ml min(-1)), and the angle of the mouth did not differ between both feeding methods. The intraoral negative pressure observed during ET was significantly smaller than that observed during BF. There were no significant differences in perioral movements. Although the value was smaller, a hold pressure was observed during ET. From these results, the novel, ET may decrease BF problems related to bottle use.

  19. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  20. Task-oriented and bottle feeding adversely affect the quality of mother-infant interactions after abnormal newborn screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L

    2010-06-01

    To examine effects of newborn screening and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among 4 groups of infants classified by severity of newborn screening and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal newborn screening. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3 to 19 weeks (M = 9.19, SD = 3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding after a neonatal CF diagnosis.

  1. Feeding an infant with high arched palate by high flow rate bottle nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Abdulkadir; Bilgin, Huseyin; Kara, Semra

    2015-01-01

    For infants with high arched palate, feeding is one of the most immediate challenges faced by parents and caretakers. General suggestions for feeding in infants with cleft palate may be adapted to infants with high arched palate. These include oral feeding facilitation techniques and special feeding tools. Here we present a newborn with a high arched palate and serious feeding problems who was fed easily by a large size and a large hole nipple, ordinarily used for infants older than 6 months, instead of specialized feeding equipment.

  2. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-04-21

    Early transition from breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits may be related to occlusofacial abnormalities as environmental factors. Previous studies have not taken into account the potential for interactions between feeding practice, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal traits. This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Peking city. This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior crossbite, posterior crossbite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations. It was found that a short duration of breast-feeding (never or ≤ 6 months) was directly associated with posterior cross bite (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031) and no maxillary space (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.23-2.98; P = 0.038). In children breast-fed for ≤ 6 months, the probability of developing pacifier-sucking habits was 4 times that for those breast-fed for >6 months (OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.85-9.60; P = 0.0002). Children who were bottle-fed for over 18 months had a 1.45-fold higher risk of nonmesial step occlusion and a 1.43-fold higher risk of a class II canine relationship compared with those who were bottle-fed for up to 18 months. Non-nutritive sucking habits were also found to affect occlusion: A prolonged digit-sucking habit increased the probability of an anterior open bite, while a pacifier-sucking habit associated with excessive overjet and absence of lower

  3. Effects of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Sucking, Swallowing, and Breathing during Bottle-Feeding in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Samson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of prolonged respiratory support under the form of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP is frequent in newborn infants. Introduction of oral feeding under such nasal respiratory support is, however, highly controversial among neonatologists, due to the fear that it could disrupt sucking, swallowing, and breathing coordination and in turn induce cardiorespiratory events. The recent observation of tracheal aspirations during bottle-feeding in preterm infants under nCPAP justifies the use of animal models to perform more comprehensive physiological studies on the subject, in order to gain further insights for clinical studies. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the impact of HFNC and nCPAP on bottle-feeding in newborn lambs, in terms of bottle-feeding efficiency and safety as well as sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination. Eight full-term lambs were instrumented to record sucking, swallowing, and respiration as well as electrocardiogram and oxygenation. Lambs were bottle-fed in a standardized manner during three randomly ordered conditions, namely nCPAP 6 cmH2O, HFNC 7 L/min, and no respiratory support. Results revealed that nCPAP decreased feeding duration [25 vs. 31 s (control vs. 57 s (HFNC, p = 0.03] and increased the rate of milk transfer [2.4 vs. 1.9 mL/s (control vs.1.1 mL/s (HFNC, p = 0.03]. No other indices of bottle-feeding safety or sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination were significantly altered by HFNC or nCPAP. In conclusion, our results obtained in full-term newborn lambs suggest that: (i nCPAP 6 cmH2O, but not HFNC 7 L/min, increases bottle-feeding efficiency; (ii bottle-feeding is safe under nCPAP 6 cmH2O and HFNC 7 L/min, with no significant alteration in sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination. The present informative and reassuring data in full-term healthy lambs must be complemented by similar studies in

  4. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  5. The Promotion of Bottle Feeding by Multinational Corporations: How Advertising and the Health Professions Have Contributed. Cornell International Nutritioon Monograph Series, Number 2 (1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted; Latham, Michael C., Ed.

    This report investigates the ways bottle feeding of infants is promoted by multinational corporations. Data were obtained from the following: (1) a survey of available infant food advertising in newspapers and magazines from developing countries; (2) a study of some interrelationships between the health professions and infant food companies,…

  6. Impact of providing free preventive dental products without health workers' counselling on infants' tooth-brushing and bottle-feeding termination practices: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joury, E; Alghadban, M; Elias, K; Bedi, R

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the impact of an integrated oral health promotion intervention, within the Syrian national immunisation programme, which provided free preventive dental health products, without health workers' counselling, on one-year-old infants' tooth-brushing and bottle-feeding termination practices. a randomised controlled parallel-group trial. A maternal and child health centre in Sweida city, Syria. 92 mothers of one-year-old infants, attending an infant vaccination clinic, were allocated into three groups: Test, Control One and Control Two. The Test group received an oral health promotion package including an infant oral health pamphlet, a baby toothbrush, fluoride toothpaste (1,000 mg/L) and a trainer cup, without health workers' counselling. Control One received only the pamphlet, whilst Control Two received no intervention. after one month, the presence of old plaque on infants' primary teeth was checked, to assess tooth-brushing behaviour. Also, a mothers' self-completed questionnaire was administered to assess bottle-feeding use. The response rate was 100% and the attrition rate was zero. There were differences in tooth-brushing and bottle-feeding termination practices between the three groups (P⟩0.001). Infants in the Test group were less likely to have old plaque and more likely to stop bottle-feeding than their counterparts in the two control groups. There were no differences in the abovementioned outcomes between the two control groups. Providing free preventive dental health products, without health worker's counselling, in an integrated oral health promotion intervention, was an effective measure to promote infants' tooth-brushing and bottle-feeding termination practices. These findings should be supported by long-term follow up studies.

  7. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Impact of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding on surgical wound dehiscence after cleft lip repair in infants: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaka, Eriko; Ueki, Shingo; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to examine the impact of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding on surgical wound dehiscence after cleft lip repair in infants. Immediately after cleft lip repair in infants, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are generally restricted. Alternative feeding methods such as spoon-feeding are recommended to avoid placing tension on the surgical wound. However, some studies have reported that alternative feeding methods are a source of stress to the infant and cause them to cry incessantly, resulting in postoperative weight loss. This suggests that these alternative feeding methods may have an unfavorable impact on surgical wound healing. However, a consensus on this topic has not been reached. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the impact of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding on surgical wound dehiscence after cleft lip repair in infants.Cleft lip and/or palate is a craniofacial anomaly and one of the most common birth defects. The incidence of cleft lip and/or palate differs among races, ethnic groups and geographical areas. The prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate is highest in South American countries (Bolivia: 22.94 per 10,000 live births; Paraguay: 14.90 per 10,000 live births), followed by Asian countries (China: 13.60 per 10,000 live births; Japan: 16.04 per 10,000 live births). The prevalence is lowest in African countries (3.54 per 10,000 live births). The overall worldwide prevalence is 7.9 per 10,000 births.A cleft lip and/or a cleft palate can occur separately, although they are more likely to occur together early in pregnancy. These anomalies can be surgically repaired. Without proper treatment, patients have aesthetic and functional problems, such as feeding disorders, otitis media and speech difficulties.Patients with cleft lip and/or palate usually undergo a combination of surgical procedures, speech therapy and orthodontic treatment from infancy to young adulthood. Comprehensive treatment is provided

  9. The effect of feeding with spoon and bottle on the time of switching to full breastfeeding and sucking success in preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aynur; Albayrak, Ebru Betül; Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Caner, İbrahim

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of the feeding methods of spoonfeed and feeding by bottle on the time of switching to full breastfeeding and sucking success. The study was conducted between September 2013 and January 2014 at the primary level of the neonatal intensive care clinics in two hospitals found in the eastern region of Turkey in a comperative and descriptive fashion. The population was composed of preterm babies who received treatment and care in these clinics during the period when the study was conducted and who met the criteria of the investigators. Without selecting the sample group the whole of the population was studied. The study was conducted with 37 preterm babies who were spoonfed and 35 preterm babies who were fed by bottle. The data were collected with "information form introducing preterm baby", "follow-up form for preterm baby" and "LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool". The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, mean, chi-square test, t-test in independent groups, Cronbach alpha coefficient and McNemar analysis. Ethics committee approval was obtained from Atatürk University Faculty of Health Sciences (dated 08.05.2013) and official approvals were obtained from the related hospitals to conduct the study. A significant difference was found between the mean times of switching to full breastfeeding from the first breast-feeding in preterm babies in the spoonfed group and bottle fed group in favour of the spoodfed group (p0.05). While no significant difference was found between the groups in terms of mean LATCH scores measured initially (p>0.05), the mean scores in the spoonfed group at the second and final measurement were found to be statistically significantly higher (pfeeding switched to full breastfeeding in a shorter time compared to the babies who were fed by bottle and their sucking success was at a better level.

  10. Determination of macronutrients, by chemical analysis, of home-prepared milk feeding bottles and their contribution to the energy and protein requirements of infants from high and low socioeconomic classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Tania Beninga; Sigulem, Dirce Maria

    2002-06-01

    To determine the macronutrients composition of home-prepared milk feeding bottles, by chemical analysis, and assess their contribution to the energy and protein requirements of children under two years of age from high (HSE) and low (LSE) socioeconomic classes. 72 samples were analyzed for energy density and protein, fat and carbohydrate content: 41 from the LSE group and 31 from the HSE group. The assessment of the percentages of the energy and protein requirements met by the consumption of the milk bottles was calculated as follows: the energy and protein per 100 mL obtained through chemical analysis were multiplied by the volume consumed at each feeding, then by the number of feedings per day, the results divided by the energy and protein requirements and multiplied by 100. Energy and protein requirements were those recommended by the FAO/WHO/UNU Committee and the Food and Nutrition Board. The children's weight-for-age index was assessed. Unmodified cow's milk was largely consumed by both groups. The addition of sugar and other ingredients to the milk was significantly higher in the LSE group. Moisture, protein and fat content were lower in the LSE group, whereas carbohydrate and energy content were higher. The percentages of energy and protein requirements provided by feeding bottles were higher in the LSE group. Children in the LSE group had lower z-scores for weight-for-age. Differences in the preparation practices led to differences in the chemical results. The feeding bottles in the LSE group were high in energy, due to the addition of sugar and cereals to the milk in the bottle. The milk feeding bottles were an important weaning food providing more than 50% and 100% of the children's energy and protein requirements, respectively. The children's weight-for-age index was within the normal limits.

  11. SOFFI: An evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Erin Sundseth; Philbin, M. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Successful oral feeding of preterm and other ill and fragile infants is an interactive process that requires (1) sensitive, ongoing assessment of an infant’s physiology and behavior, (2) knowledgeable decisions that support immediate and long-term enjoyment of food, and (3) competent skill in feeding. Caregivers can support feeding success by using the infant’s biological and behavioral channels of communication to inform their feeding decisions and actions. The Supporting Oral Feeding in Fragile Infants (SOFFI) Method is described here with text, algorithms and reference guides. Two of the algorithms and the reference guides are published separately as Philbin, Ross. SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices, (in review). The information in all of these materials is drawn from sound research findings and, rarely, when such findings are not available, from expert, commonly accepted clinical practice. If the quality of a feeding takes priority over the quantity ingested, feeding skill develops pleasurably and at the infant’s own pace. Once physiologic organization and behavioral skills are established, an affinity for feeding and the ingestion of sufficient quantity occur naturally, often rapidly, and at approximately the same post-menstrual age as volume-focused feedings. Nurses, therapists, and parents alike can use the SOFFI Method to increase the likelihood of feeding success in the population of infants at risk for feeding problems that emerge in infancy and extend into the pre-school years. PMID:22071619

  12. Supporting oral feeding in fragile infants: an evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Erin Sundseth; Philbin, M Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Successful oral feeding of preterm and other ill and fragile infants is an interactive process that requires (1) sensitive, ongoing assessment of an infant's physiology and behavior, (2) knowledgeable decisions that support immediate and long-term enjoyment of food, and (3) competent skill in feeding. Caregivers can support feeding success by using the infant's biological and behavioral channels of communication to inform their feeding decisions and actions. The Supporting Oral Feeding in Fragile Infants (SOFFI) Method is described here with text, algorithms, and reference guides. Two of the algorithms and the reference guides are published separately as Philbin, Ross. SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices (in review). The information in all of these materials is drawn from sound research findings and, rarely, when such findings are not available, from expert, commonly accepted clinical practice. If the quality of a feeding takes priority over the quantity ingested, feeding skill develops pleasurably and at the infant's own pace. Once physiologic organization and behavioral skills are established, an affinity for feeding and the ingestion of sufficient quantity occur naturally, often rapidly, and at approximately the same postmenstrual age as volume-focused feedings. Nurses, therapists, and parents alike can use the SOFFI Method to increase the likelihood of feeding success in the population of infants at risk for feeding problems that emerge in infancy and extend into the preschool years.

  13. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  14. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  15. Uso de mamadeira no primeiro mês de vida: determinantes e influência na técnica de amamentação Bottle feeding during the first month of life: determinants and effect on breastfeeding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cavalheiro Tamborindeguy França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência e os determinantes do uso de mamadeira no primeiro mês de vida e possíveis efeitos dessa prática na técnica de amamentação. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal aninhado em uma coorte contemporânea de Porto Alegre, RS, de junho a novembro de 2003. Durante um mês foram acompanhados 211 pares de mãe e criança. A influência do uso de mamadeira sobre a técnica de amamentação foi avaliada comparando-se as freqüências de cinco itens desfavoráveis ao posicionamento mãe/criança e três itens desfavoráveis à pega da criança; e as médias do número de itens desfavoráveis entre as duplas que iniciaram o uso mamadeira no primeiro mês e as que não o fizeram. A regressão logística estimou o grau de associação das variáveis com os desfechos, utilizando modelo hierarquizado. RESULTADOS: Aos sete dias, 21,3% das crianças usavam mamadeira e, aos 30 dias, 46,9%. Coabitação com a avó materna esteve associada com uso de mamadeira tanto aos sete quanto aos 30 dias. Também estiveram associados ao uso de mamadeira aos sete dias: a mãe ser adolescente e trauma mamilar na maternidade. Os outros dois fatores associados ao uso de mamadeira aos 30 dias foram trauma mamilar aos sete dias e uso de chupeta aos sete dias. Não houve associação entre técnica de amamentação ensinada na maternidade e uso de mamadeira, mas aos 30 dias, crianças que usavam mamadeira apresentaram técnica menos adequada às que sugavam só no peito. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a mamadeira foi bastante utilizada no primeiro mês de vida, principalmente: em crianças com mães adolescentes e com trauma mamilar, cujas avós maternas estavam presentes no domicílio e que faziam uso de chupeta. Além dos efeitos negativos já conhecidos, a mamadeira pode influenciar negativamente a técnica de amamentação.OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence rate and determinants of bottle feeding during the first month of life, and its potential

  16. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  17. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  18. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    the need to stay hydrated and the greater accessibility of bottled water in emerging economies. Bottled water remains a soft drink force to be reckoned with (Zenith. International, 2006). Bottled water companies such as. Dasani, Nestle, Coca-Cola and Pepsi are engaged in constant search for new water supplies to feed the.

  19. Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest formula more slowly, so if you're bottle-feeding, your baby may have fewer feedings than a ... pour out. Also, resist the urge to finish feeding the bottle when your baby shows those signs of being ...

  20. Alimentação com mamadeira de egressos da unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal: ações da Fonoaudiologia The role of Speech-Language Pathology in bottle feeding infants discharged from intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Cristina Roquette Loures

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar retrospectivamente os resultados das orientações fonoaudiológicas sobre aleitamento com mamadeira de lactentes egressos da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo referente às ações realizadas com lactentes egressos da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal que receberam acompanhamento fonoaudiológico. Dos 11 sujeitos participantes, nove eram prematuros, adequados para a idade gestacional, entre 27 e 35 semanas; dois nascidos a termo, um grande e um adequado para a idade gestacional e com diagnóstico de laringomalácia e atresia de jejuno, respectivamente. Foram analisadas as variáveis: modo de aleitamento, recipiente da mamadeira, bico da mamadeira, avaliação e condutas fonoaudiológicas nas duas primeiras consultas dos lactentes. RESULTADOS: Na primeira avaliação todos os lactentes usavam recipientes de mamadeira e bicos selecionados pelas mães. Na segunda avaliação, a maior parte dos utensílios havia sido trocada pelos modelos orientados, mas o posicionamento corporal incorreto e os sinais de desconforto persistiam. As orientações sobre modo de aleitamento foram retomadas. A análise estatística confirmou que a avaliação e as condutas fonoaudiológicas afetaram significativamente na decisão das mães pela troca dos utensílios, com posterior diminuição dos sinais de desconforto pelos lactentes. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo destaca a necessidade da observação minuciosa do fonoaudiólogo no procedimento de aleitamento com mamadeira e do detalhamento das especificidades no cuidado com a alimentação das crianças que saem da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal.PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the results of speech therapy activities that are part of the monitoring of bottle feeding infants discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study regarding the actions carried out with bottle feeding infants from a Neonatal

  1. Banning the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Bottled water is ubiquitous, taken for granted, and seemingly benign. Americans are consuming bottled water in massive amounts and spending a lot of money: In 2007, Americans spent $11.7 billion on 8.8 billions gallons of bottled water (Gashler 2008). That same year, two million plastic water bottles were used in the United States every five…

  2. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this stage, solids should be fed after a bottle-feeding session, not before. That way, your baby fills ... by beginning to replace bottles of formula with bottles — or sippy cups — of ... babies do well with additional feedings. But you may want to offer your infant ...

  3. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  4. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  5. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing their imp......The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing...... their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp......, which is a renewable resource. Nevertheless, due to food and drugs limitations, only virgin paper fibers must be employed in the production. The bottle could then be left to biodegrade in nature or enter a recycle system, along with other paper-based product. In order to contain the liquid, the bottle...

  6. Conseqüências do uso da mamadeira para o desenvolvimento orofacial em crianças inicialmente amamentadas ao peito Consequences of bottle-feeding to the oral facial development of initially breastfed children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Camillo Carrascoza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e avaliar as possíveis conseqüências do uso da mamadeira sobre o desenvolvimento orofacial em crianças que foram amamentadas até pelo menos, os 6 meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 202 crianças (4 anos de idade que freqüentaram o Programa de Atenção Precoce à Saúde. A amostra foi dividida em: G1 (crianças que utilizaram apenas copo para ingestão de líquidos e G2 (utilizaram mamadeira. RESULTADOS: Selamento labial foi observado em 82% das crianças do G1 e em 65% do G2 (p = 0,0065. Repouso da língua no arco superior foi encontrado em 73% das crianças do G1 e em 47% do G2 (p OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the possible consequences of bottle-feeding on the oral facial development of children who were breastfed up to at least six months of age. METHODS: Two hundred and two children (4 years of age enrolled in an early health attention program participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: G1 (children who used only a cup to drink and G2 (those who used a bottle. RESULTS: Lip closure was observed in 82% of the children in G1 and in 65% of those in G2 (p = 0.0065. The tongue coming to rest in the maxillary arch was found in 73% of the children in G1 and in 47% of those in G2 (p = 0.0001. Nasal breathing was observed in 69% of G1 and in 37% of G2 (p = 0.0001. The maxilla was shown to be normal in 90% of G1 and in 78% of G2 (p = 0.0206. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the bottle, even among breastfed children interferes negatively with oral facial development.

  7. A Model of Feeding Readiness for Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Pickler, Rita H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of bottle feeding readiness in preterm infants, which hypothesizes relationships between bottle feeding readiness, experience, and outcomes. The synactive theory of development provided the conceptual foundation for the model. The model, which is currently being tested, is designed to establish bottle feeding readiness criteria that will help nurses decide when to offer a bottle to a preterm infant The model may also provide a useful framework for deter...

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to breastfeed. Have an alcohol or drug addiction. Bottle Feeding Your Baby There is no question that it ... Lawrence RA. The breast and the physiology of lactation. In: Creasy RK, Resnick R, Iams JD, Lockwood ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding ... feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log ...

  10. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close to you and make eye contact while feeding. Hold the bottle so the nipple and the neck of the bottle are always filled with formula. This will help prevent your child from swallowing air. Throw away leftover formula within 1 hour after a feeding. DO NOT keep it and use again. References ...

  11. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dollars each year to buy it (Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2004) Some people drink bottled water as ... has been treated to meet the U.S. Pharmacopeia definition of purified water. Purified water is essentially free ...

  12. Implications of formula feeding to reduce HIV transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bottle feeds were classified as unfit for human consumption if they had a standard plate count greater than 50 000 organisms per millilitre feed, or a total coliform count greater than 10 coliform organisms per millilitre. Findings. A total of 84.5% of all the bottle feeds were classified as unfit for human consumption. There was ...

  13. Amamentação ao seio, amamentação com leite de vaca e o diabetes mellitus tipo 1: examinando as evidências Breast- feeding, bottle- feeding and the type 1 diabetes mellitus: examining the evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Godoy Agostinho Gimeno

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A etiologia do diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1 envolve tanto herança genética como a exposição a fatores ambientais. Evidências de estudos epidemiológicos e experimentais sugerem que a dieta pode ser importante na etiopatogenia dessa doença. Em 1984, Borch-Johnsen e col. sugeriram, com base nos resultados de um estudo caso-controle, que o leite materno seria um fator de proteção para o DM1; esse efeito se daria devido às propriedades anti-infecciosas desse tipo de leite, ou pelo fato de que a amamentação ao seio evitaria que as crianças pudessem ser precocemente expostas a outros agentes etiológicos contidos nos substitutos do leite materno. Esses mesmos achados foram poste-riormente encontrados em diversos estudos, mas o papel do leite materno no aparecimento do DM1 ainda permanece controverso. Em 1992, Karjalainen e col., ao compararem os soros de indivíduos com e sem DM1, observaram, entre os diabéticos, altas concentrações de anticorpos anti-albumina bovina. Os autores postularam a hipótese de que a albumina bovina poderia atuar como desencadeadora do processo destrutivo das células ß do pâncreas e, conseqüentemente, do diabetes. Resultados conflitantes foram observados nas publicações que se sucederam a essa. Neste artigo, resumem-se e discutem-se os achados de diferentes pesquisadores que investigaram a importância desses fatores dietéticos para o aparecimento do DM1.The aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 includes genetic heritage and environmental exposure. Evidence from animal and epidemiological studies suggests that some diet components may play a role in the aetiology of DM1. In 1984, Borch-Johnsen et al. suggested, based on a case-control study, that breast-feeding was a protective factor for DM1, probably due its anti-infectious properties or because breast-feeding delays exposure to other etiologic agents in the diet. Afterwards, the same results were found in several studies but the role of breast

  14. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  15. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P bottle use was not associated with either overweight or obesity in 37-60-month-olds. Part III describes the RCT, begun in fall 2008. It is enrolling 464 parent/12-month-old dyads from a nutrition assistance programme for low-income families. Children's bottle use, anthropometrics, dietary intake and nutrient density (via 24 h recall) are assessed quarterly through 24 months of age. For the intervention, site nutritionists employ a project-developed, visually attractive flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  16. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  17. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  18. Infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-07

    May 7, 2012 ... Conclusion: The findings were indicative of a lack of knowledge, and possibly resource limitations, to facilitate safe bottle-feeding practices. Acknowledgement of .... poor, average or good. Bottle-feed preparation ... was also analysed by the laboratory of Dairy Belle, Bloemfontein, for nutrient content using a.

  19. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which will help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ... or turn away from the breast or the bottle. With solid foods, your baby may ... you do the actual feeding. This is good preparation for the toddler years ...

  20. Bottles of life: where plastic bottles battle bacteria | Wamanji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bottles of life: where plastic bottles battle bacteria. Eric Wamanji. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 80-82. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i2.15708 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  1. Uso do copo e da mamadeira e o aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo: uma revisão sistemática Cup and bottle feeding and breastfeeding in premature and term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Tiago Paes de Almeida Pedras

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: revisar ensaios clínicos randomizados que avaliaram a prevalência e/ou duração do aleitamento materno na alta hospitalar e/ou durante o primeiro ano de vida, em recém-nascidos a termo ou prematuros. Foram selecionados estudos que incluíram neonatos e que receberam suplementação por copo ou por mamadeira, durante a estadia hospitalar. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisados artigos publicados em português ou inglês, no período de 1966 a 2006, nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Scielo. Os seguintes termos foram utilizados: "amamentação + mamadeira" combinado com "prevalência", "métodos de alimentação", "duração", "baixo peso", "prematuro" e "recém-nascido". RESULTADOS: cinco artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão, suas casuísticas variaram de 14 a 686 recém-nascidos, totalizando 1552 crianças. O uso do copo para a suplementação da amamentação foi associado a maior prevalência de aleitamento materno em neonatos a termo, nascidos de parto cesárea e em prematuros no momento da alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: parece haver uma influência favorável do uso do copo sobre o aleitamento materno, embora a presente revisão não seja conclusiva e definitiva.OBJECTIVES: to review randomized clinical trials that investigated breastfeeding prevalence and/or duration at maternity discharge and/or during first year of life, in term or premature infants. The focus was on studies that have included neonates fed by cup or by bottle during their hospital stay. METHODS: authors examined articles published in English or Portuguese between 1996 and 2006, and included on the Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases. The following keywords were used: "breastfeeding + bottle feeding" plus "prevalence", "feeding methods", "duration", "low birth weight", "premature" and "neonate". RESULTS: five articles met the inclusion criteria. The number of subjects covered ranged from 14 to 686, amounting to a total of 1552 infants. Cup-feeding for

  2. A study of feeding practices in hospitalized Cameroonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, N R

    1981-01-01

    This study investigates 364 children aged 0-4 months hospitalized mostly for gastroenteric problems at the Jaounde Hospital, Cameroon. Breast feeding practices are decreasing in Cameroon as in the rest of Africa, and mostly in urban areas. Data for this study were gathered through a questionnaire prepared for the purpose and through the help of medical and nursing students. Of the 269 children who were not weaned 51% were breastfeed, 18% were bottle fed, and 31% had mixed feeding. Of the 59 children under 4 months 2/3 were on bottle or mixed feeding. Median age of children was 11.8 months, and 59% were boys. Mothers of the more traditionalist Bomilke and northern tribes breastfed 61% and 47% of children respectively; mothers of the more modern Beti tribe breastfed only 34% of children. Mean age of mothers was 31. 47% of bottle fed children aged 0-24 months attained 80% of expected weight, as compared to 49% of those on mixed feeding, and 58% of those breastfed; the proportion of bottle fed children having less than 60% of expected weight for age was twice that found in breast or mixed feeding groups. Almost half of the children were admitted for dehydration; 75% of the bottle fed ones were dehydrated as compared to 61% of those on mixed feeding, 46% of those on breast feeding, and 30% of those already weaned; malnutrition was also higher in the bottle fed group: 13% of bottle fed children had had other hospitalizations, as compared to 8% in the breastfed or mixed feeding group. Children on bottle or mixed feeding represented 35% of the hospitalized population, especially those fed artificially at less than 6 months. Employment, insufficient or "bad" milk were the reasons most often given for bottle feeding. The woman who breastfed was likely to be older, belong to a more traditionalist tribe, be unaware of a precise source of information on artificial milk; she was also less likely to be employed or to go to school, or have poor health. The choice of artificial

  3. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  4. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants’ oral feeding skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a ‘self-paced’ feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants’ oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). Methods ‘Feeders and growers’ born between 26–29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1–2 and 6–8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants’ RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Results Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants’ true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance. PMID:25999776

  5. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... process (the wine at no time having left the premises of the bottling winery). (b) Special rule for... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.26 Estate bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label...

  6. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks.

  7. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Never put your child to bed with a bottle. This can cause tooth decay. If your baby wants to suck, give them a pacifier. Use a small spoon when feeding your baby. It is fine ... bottle unless your pediatrician or dietitian recommends it, for ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the combination of breast milk and formula, bottle-feeding and nursing that works best for you and your baby. How can you feed breast milk to your baby? Breast milk provides many wonderful and vital health benefits for all newborns, especially premature or sick babies. But many NICU babies aren' ...

  9. Breast-Feeding Tied to Lower Heart, Stroke Risk for Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or stroke later in life, versus women who bottle-fed their babies. How might breast-feeding help heart health? One theory holds that breast- ... who'd breast-fed, versus those who'd bottle-fed. It also appeared that the ... of breast-feeding per baby, the odds of cardiovascular trouble declined ...

  10. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain? Data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiday, R E; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K N

    2004-09-01

    To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. A longitudinal cohort study. Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the study. In all, 502 usable diaries were returned from 54% of the cohort. Breast-fed infants were fed more frequently (2.71 h between feeds) than bottle-fed infants (3.25 h between feeds) and mixed-fed infants (3.14 h between feeds) (Pweight gain at 6 weeks for breast-feeders, but no analysed factors were associated with higher weight gain for bottle-feeders. This large-scale study of first-week feeding patterns sheds light on the important and complicated issues of breast-feeding continuation and infant weight gain, with implications for the feeding advice given to mothers. Supplementary bottle feeds were clearly associated with discontinued breast-feeding at 6 weeks. Over that period, higher weight gain was associated with more frequent feeding for breast-fed infants only. Henry Smith Charity, SPARKS, Child Growth Foundation. Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  11. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  12. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  13. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  14. 27 CFR 25.142 - Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.142 Bottles. (a) Label requirements. Each bottle of beer shall show by label or otherwise the name or trade name of the brewer, the net contents of the bottle, the nature of the product such as beer, ale, porter, stout, etc., and the place of production...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device that is intended for medical purposes to induce a forced expiration from a patient. The patient blows...

  16. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  17. Symptoms of maternal depression immediately after delivery predict unsuccessful breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luigi; Petrozzi, Angela; Rusconi, Franca

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal depression may interfere with breast feeding. This study tested the ability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to predict later breast feeding problems, hypothesising that risk of unsuccessful breast feeding increased with increasing EPDS scores, even at low values. The authors administered the EPDS on days 2-3 after delivery to 592 mothers of a healthy baby. Feeding method was recorded at 12-14 weeks. Median EPDS score was 5 (IQR 2 -8); 15.7% of women scored >9. At 12-14 weeks, 50.7% of infants received full breast feeding, 21.0% mixed breast feeding and 28.4% bottle feeding. Mothers with higher EPDS scores were more likely to bottle feed at 3 months; the odds of bottle feeding increased with EPDS result, even at low scores (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11). Higher EPDS scores immediately after delivery were associated with later breast feeding failure.

  18. Os efeitos da estimulação sensório motora oral na sucção nutritiva na mamadeira de recém-nascidos pré-termo The sensory-motor-oral stimulation effects on nutritive sucking of preterm infants during bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Coube de Carvalho Yamamoto

    2010-04-01

    -motor-oral stimulation contributed for a better sucking performance, during bottle feeding, in preterm infants.

  19. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  20. The frequency of using different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sucking of some types of a pacifier may be a risk factor for mal-development of orofacial structures and malocclusion. This study assessed the prevalence of using of different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children in Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 mothers interviewed at 20 specialized private pediatric offices in Kerman. The mothers had 1-24 months old children. A checklist includes items about pacifier sucking, bottle feeding habits, as well as mothers’ ability to recognize different kinds of available pacifier and bottle nipple was used. RESULTS: The rate of pacifier-sucking was 37.3%, and use of bottle feeding was 42.3%, and among of the users, 24.0 and 35.7% were used orthodontic (functional types of pacifier and bottle nipple respectively. However, only 28.7% of mothers had adequate ability to recognize orthodontic pacifier and bottle nipple. CONCLUSION: The rates of using orthodontic kind of pacifier and bottle nipple were low, and a few mothers had adequate ability to recognize their differences.

  1. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W. A.; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four et...

  2. What factors explain pregnant women's feeding intentions in Bradford, England: a multi-methods, multi-ethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Waiblinger, Dagmar; Santorelli, Gillian; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2014-01-28

    Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding.

  3. Normalising the Breast: Early Childhood Services Battling the Bottle and the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Judith; Bartle, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Normalising practices as a tool for controlling the body and bodily processes have been well-documented using Foucault's theories, including debates around breastfeeding. In this article we explore how the ideas of "normalisation" of the bottle-feeding culture of infants in New Zealand early childhood settings has become the accepted…

  4. Outcome Differences between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sandra K.; And Others

    DiPietro, Larson, and Porges (1987) found behavioral and physiological differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed newborns. It was suggested that breast-feeding is associated with more optimal physiological organization and with increased irritable reactivity early in the neonatal period. The present study investigated whether breast-fed…

  5. Mutans Streptococci Colonization in Relation to Feeding Practices, Age and the Number of Teeth in 6 to 30-Month-Old Children: An in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rajesh; Prabhakar, AR; Gaur, Anupama

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Early childhood caries has been characterized as first affecting the primary maxillary anterior teeth, followed by the involvement of the primary molars. Other terms for dental caries in preschool children, which inappropriately may imply cause for the disease, includes baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, milk bottle syndrome, baby bottle caries, nursing bottle mouth and nursing mouth. Aim: To explore the relationships of feeding practices, age and number of teeth pr...

  6. Infant feeding practices and the decline of breast feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Nahedh, N N; Morley, D C

    1994-01-01

    Socioeconomic change in Saudi Arabia over the last two to three decades has introduced many foreign ideas into the country, many of which have influenced the Saudi people and changed long-established habits. The present level of breast feeding remains much higher in Saudi Arabia than in some other developing countries, but there is nonetheless a trend toward bottle feeding both in urban and rural areas. The increasing tendency to feed by bottle, especially among illiterate mothers and under bad hygienic conditions, must be stopped. Most of these mothers can successfully breastfeed their babies. A lack of breast milk and pregnancy have been stated as the reasons for giving artificial feeds by the majority of mothers in most studies from Saudi Arabia, although high purchasing capacity, easy availability, excessive advertisements, and acceptance of the promotion of artificial feeds may also be reasons for the increasing tendency to bottle feed. Widespread ignorance of modern research on breast feeding by the medical profession and nurses also drives many health personnel to either encourage or ignore the trend. The use of raw milk for infant feeding is a common practice in certain areas where brucellosis is endemic. Poor supplementation with solid food is a common problem in developing countries and is a major cause of malnutrition, since supplementation hastens the discontinuation of breast feeding. Supplementation and the allowance of fluids other than breast milk must be discouraged from the beginning.

  7. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  8. Acoustic Emission Test for Aircraft Halon 1301 Fire Extinguisher Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    An acoustic emission test for aircraft Halon 1301 bottles has been developed, a prototype acoustic emission test system constructed, and over 200 used bottles tested at the repair facilities of the two manufacturers of these bottles. The system monit...

  9. The influence of early counselling on weaning from a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S; Theriot, J; Greenwell, A

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive counselling on bottle weaning. A randomised prospective controlled study was conducted. Parents of 4-month-old babies who attended an inner-city clinic affiliated with the Department of Paediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky with predominately African-American, indigent population were invited to participate. The parent/infant pairs were randomized to either intervention or control groups. Demographic information was recorded and both groups were surveyed on the parent's beliefs and knowledge of weaning from the bottle. The intervention group parents received scripted counselling, including use of feeding cups, and were shown pictures of severe early childhood caries and a dental model of early childhood caries at four, six, nine, and 12 month visits. Two paediatricians who are on the clinic staff used the same script when talking to parents while showing the same photos and dental model to assure symmetry. The control group parents received brief counselling on the use of a feeding cup at 6 month and bottle weaning at nine and 12 months with no photographs or dental models shown. Two dentists, blinded to the group assignment, examined all of the children between the ages of 12 months and 24 months. One hundred eighty-five parent/infant pairs were enrolled and 132 pairs (65 control and 67 intervention) remained at the end of the study. Demographic variables, socioeconomic status and race were similar for both groups. When surveyed, more of the control mothers believed that children should be weaned by 12 months (p = 0.049). Yet, only 17% of their infants were weaned by 12 months, compared to 27% of the intervention infants (p = 0.168). This small study demonstrated no change in parental behaviour after intense counselling.

  10. Fertility, Infant Feeding, and Change in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howrigan, Gail A.

    1988-01-01

    Although the Yucatec pattern of child care conforms on the whole to the pattern seen in other agrarian societies, it is currently becoming destabilized as the society becomes more modern. Some of the developing customs, such as bottle-feeding, are maladaptive, at least in the short run. (RH)

  11. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  12. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber...

  13. Association between the use of a baby's bottle and pacifier and the absence of breastfeeding in the second six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Rigotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding for two years or more and advises against bottle feeding and pacifier use.Objective: Investigate the association between bottle feeding and pacifier use, and breastfeeding in the second half-year of life.Methods: Survey in a municipality of Rio de Janeiro state, in 2006, interviewing those responsible for 580 children aged 6-11 months. Bottle feeding and pacifier use, and variables which in the bivariate analysis were associated with the outcome 'absence of breastfeeding' (≥ 0.20, were selected for multiple analysis. Adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by a Poisson regression model.Results: 40% of the children 6-11 months were not being breastfed, 47% used a pacifier and 57% used a bottle. Pacifier use (PR = 3.245; CI95%: 2.490-4.228 and bottle feeding (PR = 1.605; CI95%: 1.273-2.023 were shown to be strongly associated with the outcome, and also with: mother's low schooling (PR = 0.826; CI95%: 0.689-0.990; low birth weight (PR = 1.488; CI95%: 1.159-1.910; mother not being the baby carer (PR = 1.324; CI95%: 1.080-1.622; and increasing age of the baby in days (PR = 1.004; CI95%: 1.002-1.006.Conclusions: The use of pacifiers and bottles can reduce continued breastfeeding. Stronger discouragement of these artifacts should be adopted in public health policies.

  14. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast feeding practices in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, M M; Al-tawil, K

    1989-01-01

    Medical staff at the neonatal outpatient clinic of the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar randomly distributed a questionnaire about breast feeding and socioeconomic characteristics to 340 women (53.5% Qataris and 46.5% other Arabic speaking women) from February-August 1988. Only 32% of the mothers exclusively breast fed at birth. This low incidence could be due to excessive advertising by formula manufacturers and the increasing purchasing power of the Qataris. 5l5% used both breast milk and formula. 13% only bottle fed their infants. 50% of the mothers from the below average income group (5000 Qatar Riyals) breast fed their infants, while only 12% of those from the high income group (10,000 Qatar Riyals) did. Further, 55% of the mothers with less than secondary school education exclusively breast fed whereas 25% of those with secondary school and above breast fed. This result confirmed the downward trend for breast feeding in Qatar as identified in the early 1980s. Even though most mothers decided themselves not to breast feed, 31% reported that their physician suggested feeding formula to their infants. The longer infants stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit the less likely their mothers would breast feed them. For example, 72% were breast fed if discharged 1 week after admission while none were breast fed if discharged 3 weeks after admission. The leading reasons for bottle feeding included that the infant was still hungry (634%), night feeding (12%), mother worked (11%), and maternal diseases (5%). Regardless of the reasons for the downward trend in breast feeding in Qatar, public health professionals and health practitioners must begin direct and specific health education efforts about the benefits of breast feeding.

  16. Baby-bottle tooth decay: are we on the right track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Moffatt, M E

    1998-01-01

    The baby-bottle tooth decay (BBTD) risk factor literature was critically assessed for strength of evidence, and the prevention literature for the identification of which risk factors are being addressed. "Inappropriate" feeding practices (non-nutritive sucking, prolonged bottle/breast feeding, nap-time feeding) are believed to cause BBTD. The association of these practices with BBTD is inconsistent and the strength of association varies greatly. These practices increase exposure to lactose, a cariogenic carbohydrate, but the current causation model fails to explain why the majority of children with these risk factors do not develop BBTD. The association of BBTD with low socioeconomic status is stronger and more consistent. Prevention has focused almost exclusively on education directed at changing the postnatal feeding practices despite the fact that teeth begin formation in utero. Prenatal deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D can lead to enamel defects, and enamel defects in turn predispose teeth to caries. Baby-bottle tooth decay is especially prevalent in Aboriginal people, for whom studies have consistently reported diets deficient in vitamin D and calcium. BBTD may be a consequence of the poor socioeconomic conditions and malnutrition. Perhaps more attention should be given to primary prevention.

  17. Suitability of Broken Bottles as Fine Aggregate for Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of broken bottles as partial replacement of river sand for production of concrete was investigated. The grading of the broken bottles and sand fell in zone II. The specific gravity of the bottles was 2.55 and that of sand was 2.65. Sand was replaced with the broken bottles in the proportions of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, ...

  18. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  19. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  20. Feeding Baby: Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese, Bosnian, Arabic, Somali, Nuer, Russian, Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    These three guides provide information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Arabic, Somali, Spanish, Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese, and Nuer on feeding infants. Topics covered include breastfeeding advantages and techniques, self-care by breastfeeding mothers, bottle feeding techniques, formula preparation, frequency of feeding, beginning solid foods,…

  1. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  2. COMPONENTS OF SUCCESS ON THE PATH TO PROLONGATION OF THE BREAST-FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kachalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a perfect nutrition for infants during their first year of life. Despite the enormous significance of breast feeding for the formation of children health, its prevalence is still very low. Careful doctors’ attention to every woman, consulting on the issues of breast feeding will help to overcome its inadequate prevalence and prolong its duration to the maximum. Advantages of the breast feeding, including situations when a child requires supplementary bottle feeding, are described in this article. Selection of appropriate nipples and bottles, for one thing, will help to reduce children’s anxiety, associated with colic, and, in the second place, will contribute to maintaining of the breast feeding, if the process of suction from bottles is analogous to the process of feeding from mother’s breast.

  3. On-Site Field-Feeding Waste to Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    operator’s duty is to feed relatively dry paper and plastic trash into the OFWEC’s shredder, having previously se- parated cans, glass bottles , and...ON-SITE FIELD- FEEDING WASTE TO ENERGY CONVERTER L. Knowlton* and D. Pickard U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering...field- feeding generates tons of solid waste that is a costly logistic burden, requiring personnel, vehi- cles, and fuel that could otherwise be used for

  4. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  5. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  6. Breast-feeding: The Problem of ‘Not Enough Milk’

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1986-01-01

    ‘Not enough milk’ is the most common cause for early weaning to a bottle. However, it is almost always a non-problem, which is partly iatrogenic, and partly due to ignorance of normal breast-feeding in our society. For a woman who desires to breast-feed, recourse to bottle feeding is almost never necessary. For most babies who are ‘not getting enough milk’, only simple measures are required: feeding on demand; banning formula or water supplements, pacifiers, and nipple shields; and proper pos...

  7. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical quality of bottled waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Bottled water has become very popular for quenching thirst and as a dietary (mineral) supplement. The plethora of natural mineral waters precludes any unequivocal system of classification, which makes it difficult for the consumer to choose a water with properties that suits him/her exactly. The ever-increasing popularity of bottled waters means that it is of the utmost importance to determine not only their mineral content, but above all, the content of possible contaminants, especially organic ones. In this respect bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic contamination from the environment, the water may become secondarily contaminated as a result of its being improperly transported and stored. Pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and carbonyl compounds have been detected in samples of bottled water. This overview shows the available published information on levels of inorganic constituents and organic contaminants in samples of bottled water in the context of sample preparation procedures and analytical techniques. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. What factors explain pregnant women’s feeding intentions in Bradford, England: A multi-methods, multi-ethnic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. Methods 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. Results TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Conclusions Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding. PMID:24472414

  10. Ultracold neutron storage in a fluid-walled bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. C.

    1982-04-01

    Theoretically possible wall-loss probabilities for ultracold neutrons stored in solid-walled bottles have not been achieved in practice, but preliminary measurements with a fluid-walled bottle seem promising.

  11. Prolonged feeding practice and its effects on developing dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, M; Tandon, S; Sajida, B

    2005-09-01

    Muscular activity of the lips, cheeks, and the tongue are important factors, which not only guide the occlusal development but also affect the growth of the jaws. Bottle feeding has been known to cause a myriad of changes in the oro-facial development. But the adverse effects of feeding practices with respect to developing dentition has been a subject of controversy. Hence a study was designed with the aim and objectives to check the commonly adopted feeding practices in South Kanara, to compare the occlusion of 3- to 5-year-old children with breast feeding, bottle feeding or combination, and to check whether prolonged feeding has any adverse influence on developing dentition. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to parents of 3- to 5-year-old children of which 153 were chosen for recording the impression and for studying the occlusion under various parameters. The results of the study indicated definite potential hazards of prolonged breast and bottle feeding especially with a tendency to develop openbite and posterior crossbite. It also suggested that an early preventive and interceptive approach.

  12. [Breast-feeding and the mother's sentiment towards child rearing. Analysis of database on health checkups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Murai, Chikako; Miyashita, Akane; Tatsumi, Tomomi; Fujioka, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the breast-feeding rate and associated factors and to get better understanding on the mother's sentiment towards child rearing due to differences in feeding methods. This information can be used as primary sources providing effective support through community-based health care for mothers and infants. The study was carried out in Osaka city from April 2005 to December 2009. Data from the health-checkup records on infants aged 3-5 months were used after excluding any personal information. The data used included feeding methods (exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottlefeeding), gestational age, multiple pregnancy status, gender, birth weight, use of an incubator, and birth year. Moreover, the data included the following maternal factors: planned or unplanned nature of pregnancy, smoking and drinking status during pregnancy, presence or absence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, maternal age at delivery, working status, presence or absence of financial anxiety, presence or absence of child-rearing support, presence or absence of individuals who can provide advice concerning child rearing, and sentiments of mothers during child rearing. From April 2005 to December 2009, 2552 infants underwent health checkups designed for infants. Of these, data on 2476 children, excluding 61 infants with unknown feeding methods and 15 infants aged 6 months, were used for analyses. The results showed that 56.6%, 28.7%, and 14.7% of children received exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottle-feeding, respectively. Infant feeding methods were significantly associated with the birth year: in recent years, a decrease in the number of mothers who chose to bottle-feed their infants was observed. Furthermore, the feeding methods were associated with multiple births, birth weight, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, and maternal age at delivery. The results revealed that mothers who chose to breast-feed exclusively enjoyed child rearing at

  13. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  14. Water bottle rocket in undergraduate laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, William

    2012-11-01

    In the winter semester of 2012, we implemented the modeling and testing of a water bottle rocket in ME 495, the Senior Laboratory in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. The four week lab was the most well received by the students in recent memory. There were significant challenges, but the result was a thorough review of their undergraduate fluids class with some advanced concepts such as directional stability of a projectile. The student teams designed their own rockets based on one of many standard 20 ounce soft drink bottles. The culminating contest brought impressive results and a surprise ending.

  15. Interfacial properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, P. M.; Naderi, A.; Iruthayaraj, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article is focused on interfacial properties of bottle brush polyelectrolytes, where side-chains are attached along a polymer backbone. This class of polymer has been much less studied than block copolymers, which is particularly true for bottle brush polyelectrolytes with a high graft density...... whereas on silica both electrostatic forces and interactions between silica and ethylene oxide chains drive the adsorption. On silica the adsorbed amount is very sensitive to solution ionic strength and pH. We also report on surface interactions and frictional forces obtained between surfaces coated...

  16. Bottle wars: England versus Scotland versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert B; Athanasopoulos, Athanassios A; Allan, Michael S; Atchia, Sarah M

    2002-05-01

    Four batches of four brands of bottled water from England, Scotland and France were tested for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during a 2-month study. The lowest priced brand of water had the highest nitrate content (46.9 mg/L), while the most expensive brand did not necessarily have the best values for pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity or plate count. While no sample was positive for E. coli, the range of other measured values varied widely between brands and batches during the study. The bottled water samples from France on average demonstrated better results than the other countries studied.

  17. A fluid sample bottle for use in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvallet, B.

    1991-11-15

    A new sample bottle for collecting mixtures of water and gas in deep wells is presented. The bottle, where vacuum is realized beforehand, is filled with a filtration system for solid particles. Pure water and gas may be delivered separately. The bottle is applicable to geothermics, nuclear plants, oceanography and geochemistry.

  18. Prospects for Recycling of Waste PET Bottles in Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    This paper analyses the status and prospects of waste PET (PolyEthylene. Terephthalate) bottles recycling in Mauritius. Over the past decade the packaging industry has witnessed a momentous swing away from glass bottles and cans into fully recyclable PET plastic bottles, being viewed as a more consumer friendly.

  19. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not break if dropped. If you choose plastic, it is best to buy new bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due ...

  20. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  1. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  2. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regarding motivation, struggle for breast feeding and long-term maintenance among medical personnel, mothers and their families. It is especially important to provide premature infants and sick children, who are often born unable to suck adequately, with breast feeding. The authors provide results of a study conducted at the SCCH demonstrating that special medical devices (nipples, feeding bottles developed on the basis of studies of maternal breast sucking physiology facilitate a gradual transition from tube feeding to breast feeding

  3. Infant feeding practices: a study of mothers attending a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habit of leaving the bottle or breast in child\\'s mouth while the child fell asleep was only significantly related to the mothers\\' age but not to the level of education or number of children. Conclusion: Mothers with more than four children practiced breast feeding more frequently while those with one or two children tend to ...

  4. Child factors associated with complementary feeding practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although bottle-feeding was highest among the children aged 6 to 11 months, amongst those reported with a fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) or diarrhoea, it had no statistically significant effect in either 2006 or 2011. Conclusion: Caregivers who take their children for deworming and DPT3 and measles vaccinations ...

  5. A qualitative approach for exploration of feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    context units in each SU, e.g. milk drinking practices under the topic of weaning. ... method/mixin g proce dures. Bottle feeding: - brands w ith reaso n s use d. WEANING. - milk drinking practices w ith w e aning. - utensils us ed for milk drinkin g. - frequenc ..... Guatemalan adults through improved nutrition in early childhood.

  6. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  7. Analysis of sites of bacterial contamination in an enteral feeding system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; Bredius, Marjan W. J.; Binnekade, Jan M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contamination of enteral feedings is an often overlooked source for bacterial infection in the intensive care unit. A new 1-L enteral feeding system with minimal chances of touching critical areas (Nutrison Pack) was compared with routinely used 0.5-L glass bottle systems. METHODS:

  8. Green Fiber Bottle:the fully biodegradable packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which cause...

  9. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, C.; Nickel, S.; O'Shea, D.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a subwavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1

  10. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water also comes from municipal sources—in other words, the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled. Examples ... regulations put in place and enforced by FDA. Water must be sampled, analyzed, and found to be safe and sanitary. These regulations also ...

  11. Ralstonia pickettii Traced in Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Boutros, Névine; Gonullu, Nevriye; Casetta, Anne; Guibert, Michèle; Ingrand, Didier; Lebrun, Léa

    2002-01-01

    Over a 9-month period, 14 strains of Ralstonia pickettii were isolated from various biological samples inoculated in a blood culture medium. Molecular epidemiological investigation confirmed the relatedness of the strains. The source of the contamination proved to be the blood culture bottle caps.

  12. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila

  13. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  14. Clinical Comparison of Nonvented Aerobic BacT/Alert Blood Culture Bottle and Standard Aerobic Bottle for Detection of Microorganisms in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James W.; Benzing, Karen S.; Munier, Gina K.; Bostic, Grace D.; Bozigar, Pamela S.; Hanna, Rami; Zervos, Marcus J.

    2000-01-01

    The current BacT/Alert standard aerobic (VA) blood culture bottle was redesigned and designated a nonvented aerobic (NVA) culture bottle; this bottle does not require venting. A total of 3,873 sets of blood samples for culture were obtained from adult patients with suspected bacteremia or fungemia. The NVA bottle showed performance equivalent to that of the VA bottle for recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms from blood without the need for venting the bottle. PMID:11015422

  15. An upright eyedrop bottle: accuracy, usage of excess drops, and contamination compared to a conventional bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies IJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Isaiah J Davies,1 Ninita H Brown,2 Joanne C Wen,3 Sandra S Stinnett,1 Kelsey Kubelick,4,5 Roma P Patel,6 Kristin L Benokraitis,7 Latoya Greene,1 Curry Cheek,1 Kelly W Muir1,8 1Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2Metrolina Eye Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 5Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 6University of California Davis Health System Eye Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 7EG-GILERO, Durham, NC, USA; 8Health Services Research & Development, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Purpose: This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB, a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. Patients and methods: Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered “yes” to the question, “Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?” After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops. Participants were instructed to instill a single eyedrop in each eye with both a standard bottle and the UEB. They repeated this process three times. With each trial, the amount of time taken to instill drops was recorded, as well as whether a drop landed in the eye (accuracy, if excess drops were used, and if the bottle tip was contaminated. Results: Forty participants were enrolled, with an average age of 72.4±8.9 years; the majority were females (24 females. Thirty-four participants had been using eyedrops for at least 1 year. The time required to instill eyedrops was significantly less with the UEB in the second and third trials. There was no difference in accuracy between the conventional bottle and the UEB

  16. Neonatal circumcision: is feeding behavior altered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattari, Theresa B; Bedway, Andrea R; Drongowski, Robert; Wright, Kristin; Keefer, Patricia; Mychaliska, Kerry P

    2013-10-01

    The effect of circumcision on feeding behavior in the newborn period is unknown. We hypothesized that circumcision would not have a significant effect on newborn feeding. This prospective study analyzed the effect of circumcision on neonatal feeding behavior. Inclusion criteria were healthy male infants WHO were exclusively bottle-fed and underwent a circumcision before discharge from the newborn nursery. We collected data (N = 42) on gestational age, birth weight, Apgar scores, maternal age, gravid status, anesthesia used during delivery, analgesia used after circumcision, time of circumcision, and volume and frequency of feeding before and after circumcision. Data were analyzed by using paired t tests, multivariable regression analysis, and analysis of variance (with SPSS version 18). Significance was P < .05 (2-tailed α). Descriptive statistics for the entire group (N = 42) are as follows: mean ± SD gestational age: 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks; mean birth weight: 3.3 ± 0.4 kg; maternal age: 26.7 ± 6.3 years; baseline feeding (mean of first 2 feedings before circumcision): 24.5 ± 9.9 mL; mean first feeding after circumcision: 21.7 ± 11.9 mL; and mean second feeding: 26.7 ± 13.5 mL. Forty-eight percent of patients increased their feeding volume after circumcision compared with baseline, and 52% of patients decreased their feeding volume, which persisted with the second feeding. There was no statistical difference between the baseline and first feeding (P = .11) or second feeding (P = .22). Our data suggest that circumcision does not alter feeding after circumcision. This information will be useful in counseling families regarding circumcision in the newborn period.

  17. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and methods: Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results: ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09–1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18–3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13–2.04). Conclusion: Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve

  19. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  20. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  1. Parental awareness, habits, and social factors and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, C; Echeverri, E A; Keene, H J

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental awareness, habits, and social factors in a particular parent population and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in their children. The sample consisted of Hispanic, Black, and White families and included 100 parents with 100 children from the Pediatric Clinic and the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at Houston Medical Center, University of Texas, Houston. Questionnaires including information related to demographic data, educational level, marital status, baby care, and knowledge and beliefs about BBTD were completed by the parents. Each child was examined with mouth mirror and tongue blade to determine the presence of BBTD. Overall, 19 of the children were found to have BBTD. The racial distribution of the children with and without BBTD was statistically significant (P = 0.03) with the Hispanic population being over-represented in the BBTD group (72.2% versus 37.0%) and Blacks under-represented (16.2% versus 50.6%). The ages at which babies with BBTD were weaned from the bottle were significantly (P bottle after 14 months old was higher (36.8%) than babies without the condition (26.5%). Awareness of BBTD was generally lower among parents of the BBTD children than parents of children without BBTD, as reflected by the feeding patterns of their children and their responses to questions dealing with their knowledge of BBTD.

  2. Kaleidoscope – Printed Textiles by Neil Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    One man show at Rochester Art Gallery. In the Kaleidoscope series, Neil Bottle explores the relationship between digital textile printing and craft printing techniques and how these seemingly opposing practices can coexist. A combination of the latest cutting-edge digital print techniques such as dye sublimation combined with craft traditions such as screen printing, discharge printing, pleating and shibori have been developed in the work. The Kaleidoscope series of wallhangings is pr...

  3. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2012-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the dire...

  4. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, C; O'Shea, D; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a sub-wavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of a Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1 Hz, yielding a residual transmission of (9 \\pm 3) \\times 10^-3 for more than an hour. Simultaneously, the frequency of the resonator mode is actively stabilized.

  5. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  6. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal S. K.; Irwan J.M; Othman N.; Wan Ibrahim M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET) fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibe...

  7. Dispatches from the DMZ: Bottle Cell Formation During Xenopus Gastrulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jen-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Bottle cell-driven blastopore lip formation externally marks the initiation of gastrulation in amphibian embryos. The blastopore groove is formed when bottle cells undergo apical constriction and transform from cuboidal to flask-shaped. Apical constriction is sufficient to cause invagination and is a highly conserved mechanism for sheet bending and folding during morphogenesis; therefore, studying apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells could provide valuable insight into this fundamental...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  9. Feeding at the Breast and Expressed Milk Feeding: Associations with Otitis Media and Diarrhea in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    To examine the associations of substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery with occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea in the first year of life. At 12 months postpartum, women (n = 813; 62% response) completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographics, infant occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea, and the timing of starting/stopping feeding at the breast, expressed milk, and formula. Women who intended to "bottle feed" exclusively were not recruited. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were conducted in the full sample (n = 491) and no-formula (n = 106) and bottle-only (n = 49) subsamples. Longer duration of expressed milk feeding was associated with increased odds of experiencing otitis media (6-month OR [OR6-month] 2.15, 95% CI 1.01-4.55) in the no-formula subsample. Longer durations of breast milk feeding (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92; 6-month incidence rate ratio [IRR6-month] 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.91), and feeding at the breast (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.89; IRR6-month 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88) were associated with less diarrhea, and longer formula feeding duration was associated with increased risk of diarrhea (IRR6-month 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.54) in the full sample. Substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery have different contributions to infant health depending on the health outcome of interest. Feeding at the breast may be advantageous compared with expressed milk feeding for reducing the risk of otitis media, and breast milk feeding compared with formula may reduce the risk of diarrhea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W. Brant

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Study Design and Methods Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R’ Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n=260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in one minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Results Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. Clinical Implications The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision-making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice. PMID:27008466

  11. THE APPLICATION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL MODES FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF BREAST FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of breast feeding when it is complicated due to mother and/or child health state is an important and difficult challenge. The application of bottles and nipples which contribute to imitation of the child’s suction process of mother’s breast is urgent to the lactation maintenance. The aim of the study was to perform comparative evaluation of different series bottles with nipples usage for artificial feeding of infants of the first months of life. The received results showed that the majority of children were more willingly to be fed with «Natural» series nipples, continuing to be breast-fed.

  12. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  13. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  14. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  15. Treatment of nursing bottle caries with ribbond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbond is a biocompatible, esthetic material made from high-strength polyethylene fiber. Lenowoven polyethylene ribbon (Ribbond has been used successfully for tooth splinting, replacement of missing teeth, reinforcement of provisional acrylic resin fixed partial dentures, and orthodontic retention. This article presents the application of this polyethylene ribbon - RIBBOND - for the treatment of nursing bottle caries. To conclude we suggest that this combined technique of polyethylene fibers and composite material could be a very efficient alternative procedure to conventional treatment plans in pedodontic practice, with excellent esthetics and functional results.

  16. Assessment Tools for Evaluation of Oral Feeding in Infants Younger Than 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt F; Park, Jinhee; Estrem, Hayley; Awotwi, Araba

    2016-04-01

    Feeding difficulty is common in infants younger than 6 months. Identification of infants in need of specialized treatment is critical to ensure appropriate nutrition and feeding skill development. Valid and reliable assessment tools help clinicians objectively evaluate feeding. To identify and evaluate assessment tools available for clinical assessment of bottle- and breastfeeding in infants younger than 6 months. CINAHL, HaPI, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for "infant feeding" and "assessment tool." The literature (n = 237) was reviewed for relevant assessment tools. A secondary search was conducted in CINAHL and PubMed for additional literature on identified tools. Eighteen assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Of these, 7 were excluded because of limited available literature or because they were intended for use with a specific diagnosis or in research only. There are 11 assessment tools available for clinical practice. Only 2 of these were intended for bottle-feeding. All 11 indicated that they were appropriate for use with breastfeeding. None of the available tools have adequate psychometric development and testing. All of the tools should be used with caution. The Early Feeding Skills Assessment and Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool had the most supportive psychometric development and testing. Feeding assessment tools need to be developed and tested to guide optimal clinical care of infants from birth through 6 months. A tool that assesses both bottle- and breastfeeding would allow for consistent assessment across feeding methods.

  17. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  18. levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accer

    ABSTRACT. The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania.

  19. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  20. Levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania. Analysis was ...

  1. Bisphenol A Detection in Various Brands of Drinking Bottled Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess whether bisphenol A contamination occurred in seven brands of bottled drinking water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction (using dichloromethane) was used to analytically extract bisphenol A from drinking water bottles and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was employed ...

  2. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  3. Bacteriological Evaluation of Water Bottles Used by Nursery School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological evaluation of water bottles used by nursery school pupils in Owerri metropolis was carried out. Eleven bacterial genera were isolated from the water bottle samples. These included Bacillus, E. coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella and ...

  4. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    KEYWORDS: Entrepreneur, Palm Wine Preservation, Palmwine Bottling Technology, Techno-Economic ... Nigeria Limited palm wine bottling plant installed by .... 680.02. FACTORY COST. 16,852.51. 17,880.39. 19,227.90. 20,309.98 21,405.66. Admin Overhead. Marketing Overhead. 1,135.12. 850.00. 1,191.88. 892.50.

  5. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  6. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to ...

  7. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  8. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  9. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB...

  10. Bottled or tap? Testing perceptions about water in Lebanon and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Researchers compared water quality available in two informal settlements in Lebanon and Jordan. Tests were conducted to compare water supplied by the municipality and bottled water. The results: tests showed that their quality is similar, although the brand of the bottled water and how it is stored affected ...

  11. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  12. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  13. Exposure assessment of Bisphenol A intake from polymeric baby bottles in formula-fed infants aged less than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BisphenolA (BPA or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropanepresent in polycarbonate baby bottles may have harmful effects for formula-fed infants. This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n = 7 and 8, respectively as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n = 2 were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49–8.58 and 0.63–2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing and sterilization practices, bottles types and manufacturers as well as the sex and weight of the infants were collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the surveyed infants were exposed to 0.1–0.3 μg/kg body weight (bw/d of BPA, which corresponded to approximately 2–7.5% of the defined t-TDI (4 μg/kgbw/d. These results suggested that the risk of the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA was very low in formula-fed Iranian infants even in the worst-case scenario.

  14. Prematurity, Immune Function and Infant Feeding Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Shelagh M

    1999-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in the literature in the role of early nutrition and the health of the individual in adulthood. A majority of infants in the UK are born full term, while pretem infants account for 4-6 % of the total births. Milk feeding practices are divided into three groups: breast, combination (breast-fed with formula as ‘top-up’) and bottle (formula). In studies conducted by our group and other researchers immune function in full-term and preterm infants has been...

  15. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  16. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or dispensing...

  17. Determining fluid level in a translucent eye-drop bottle: transillumination by penlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikcioğlu, O; Akkin, C; Ates, H

    We describe an easy way to determine eye-drop contents in translucent bottles. Transillumination of eye-drop bottles from behind or the bottom by using a penlight clearly defines the fluid levels. The described procedure may prevent disposal of eye-drop bottles containing useful amounts of medication and prevent Ophthalmologists and Patients unexpectedly coming across an empty bottle.

  18. 27 CFR 27.207 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 27.207 Section 27.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.207 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be imported and furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided each bottle is marked to show that...

  19. 27 CFR 19.635 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 19.635 Section 19.635 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.635 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Liquor bottles may be furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided that each bottle is marked to show that it is to...

  20. Relationship between feeding habits and mutans streptococci colonization in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Marta; González, Angel; Barbería, Elena; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2003-09-01

    (1) To determine the prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS) in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months, and (2) to analyze the relationship between early colonization and feeding habits. In a group of 56 children, various feeding habits with a possible influence on early MS colonization were registered using a questionnaire; saliva samples were taken with a tongue blade in order to detect MS presence. As many as 73% of the children used a nursing bottle at this age, often with sugar content (cereal was added in 83% of children, who were still bottle-fed). The percentage of MS colonization was relatively high (46%), although no child presented caries at the time. A statistically significant relationship (P colonization and sweetening of the bottle contents. A relation was also found, though not significant, between MS colonization and the absence of breastfeeding or, on the other hand, the excessive prolongation of natural or artificial feeding.

  1. Fluoride content of bottled waters available in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiropoulos, V

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking waters commercially available in northern Greece and to report on the accuracy of the labelling of fluoride concentration. Twenty-two randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water were obtained from three supermarkets in Thessaloniki, Greece. Three bottles of each brand were purchased. Following calibration, six tests were conducted on each bottle using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode (Orion, 96-09-00, MA, USA). The average reading for each brand was estimated and also compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. The mean (+/- SD) fluoride content of the bottled water samples was 0.35 (+/- 1.00) mg F/L with a range from 0.05 to 4.8 mg F/L. Only 18% (N = 4) of brands tested mention the fluoride concentration on the label, and 90% (N = 22) had a tested fluoride between 0.05 and 0.21 mg F/L. Of the remaining two brands, one was found to contain 0.3 mg F/L without having the fluoride concentration indicated on the label, and the other was labelled at 6 mg F/L, whereas the concentration was estimated as 4.8 mg F/L. The use of bottled water may be a significant source of systemic fluoride and therefore be considered as a risk factor for dental fluorosis in young children. This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations may be inaccurate. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the fluoride content of bottled waters used by paediatric patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3 mg F/L. In view of the wide variation of fluoride concentration in the tested bottled waters, regulatory guidelines for controlling concentration in order to prevent dental fluorosis are recommended.

  2. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  3. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  4. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A; New, K; Davies, M W

    2007-04-18

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for newborn infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible, as there are numerous reasons why a newborn infant may not be able to breastfeed and, as a result, require supplemental feeding. Currently, there are a variety of ways in which newborn infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, more recently, cup feeding has become a popular practice in many nurseries in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of supplementation. To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in newborn infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2006), CINAHL (1982 - April 2006) and MEDLINE (1966 - April 2006). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of newborn infants. Quality assessments and data extraction for included trials were conducted independently by the review authors. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain, proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge, proportion not feeding at three months of age, proportion not feeding at six months of age, proportion not fully feeding at hospital discharge, proportion not fully breastfeeding at three months of age, proportion not fully breastfeeding at six months of age, average time per feed (minutes), length of stay and physiological events of instability such as bradycardia, apnea, and low oxygen saturation. For continuous variables such as weight gain, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were reported. For categorical outcomes such as mortality, the relative risks (RR

  5. Occurrence of clostridia in glass bottled foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, T; Aikawa, K; Furukawa, I; Takahashi, T

    2000-03-25

    Forty-one marketed samples of imported and domestic glass bottled foods were tested for clostridia contamination. It was detected in nine (22%) samples. Clostridia were isolated from fish sauce (Nam pla, Nuoc-mam), dressing, mustard, hot and sour soup mix (Tom Yum), mysids boiled down in soy, and salmon flakes. The origin of all clostridia positive samples was Asia. Clostridium botulinum and C. perfringens were not detected. The frequency of occurrence was higher by enrichment broth culture detection methods than by agar plate or pouch methods. These findings suggest that the number of bacteria in most of these clostridia positive food samples is very low, and the use of enrichment methods for detection of clostridia is essential.

  6. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Rangel, J.I. E-mail: idavila@cantera.reduaz.mx; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E

    2002-06-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters.

  7. Ampoule Bottle Detection Equipment Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer vision technology, its application is more and more extensive. In recent years, the application of computer vision technology in the area of medical packing detection also made great achievements. This paper detailed a scientific and reasonable scheme of an ampoule bottle automatic detection equipment. In this scheme we use the computer vision technology and CNC technology, and select the appropriate transport mechanism and cameras to get images of ampoules. After getting the images, we use a software named MATLAB, which can deal with the images, to obtain some useful information about the ampoules. Then we can evaluate the quality of the ampoule according to these information.

  8. Complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    but should not be delayed beyond 6 months. Content: Infants should be offered foods with a variety of flavours and textures including bitter tasting green vegetables. Continued breast-feeding is recommended alongside CF. Whole cows' milk should not be used as the main drink before 12 months of age...

  9. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  10. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  11. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of bottle weaning intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Bonuck, Karen; Trombley, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Inappropriate baby bottle use is associated with tooth decay, anemia, and overweight, and it may adversely affect dietary patterns. Parents often do not follow guidance to wean by 18 months of life. We piloted a brief, counseling-based weaning intervention in an urban WIC agency among primarily Hispanic parent/toddler dyads. At baseline (n = 48), toddlers consumed a mean 4.7 bottles/day. At follow-up (n = 39), the intervention group consumed fewer mean bottles/day than controls (0.09 vs 2.0 bottles/day, P < .045). Half the toddlers in the experimental group and one third of the control groups weaned completely. Parents of weaned children were satisfied with the outcome.

  13. Relativistic Cyclotron Resonance Shape in Magnetic Bottle Geonium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hans Dehmelt; Richard Mittleman; Yuan Liu

    1988-01-01

    The thermally excited axial oscillation of the electron through the weak magnetic bottle needed for the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect modulates the cyclotron frequency and produces a characteristic...

  14. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  15. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ...

  16. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  17. The Closed-Loop Endeavour : A Case Study on Barriers and Enhancements of the PET Bottle-to-Bottle Recycling Systems in Germany and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Fabian; Bergmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Problem: The demand of beverages in PET bottles is constantly increasing. In this context, environmental, technological and regulatory aspects set a stronger focus on recycling. Generally, the reuse of recycled material from post-consumer PET bottles in bottle-to-bottle applications is seen as least environmentally harmful. However, closed-loop systems are not widely implemented in Europe. Previous research mainly focuses on open-loop recycling systems and generally lacks discussion about the...

  18. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production cost estimate varies between N37.85/bottle (60cl) in the first year and N35.37/bottle (60cl) in the fifth year. The annual net profits are N8, 460,430.00 and N12, 025,710.00 in years one and five respectively. Projected cash flow is positive in year one i.e. N5,329,960.00 while the projected balance sheet shows that ...

  19. Polyelectrolyte complexes of bottle brush copolymers : Solution and adsorption properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Shovsky

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work was to systematically investigate the physico-chemical properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed by bottle brush and linear polyelectrolytes in solution and at solid / liquid interfaces. Electrostatic self-assembly of oppositely charged macromolecules in aqueous solution is a versatile strategy to construction of functional nanostructures with easily controlled properties. Bottle brush architecture, introduced into the PEC, generates a number of distinc...

  20. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM; MOHAMED REHAN KARIM; MEHRTASH SOLTANI

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to i...

  1. Analysis of fluoride concentration in commercial bottled waters

    OpenAIRE

    BIZERRIL,Davi Oliveira; ALMEIDA, Janaína Rocha de Sousa; SALDANHA, Kátia de Góis Holanda; CABRAL FILHO,Ronaldo Emilio; Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate fluoride concentration in 500ml commercial brands of bottled water and compare it to the amount printed on the label. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted. Samples of nine different commercial brands of 500ml bottled water were collected at authorized distribution points in the city of Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, in 2013. Fluoride concentration was determined in duplicate using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The results were obtain...

  2. Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Pilwon; Park, Kiwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures for both stance conditions, a robustness measure was assessed for the perturbation condition. The results suggest that wearing heavy bottles significantly increased excursion and randomness of postural sway only in medial-lateral direction but not in anterior-posterior direction. This result may be due to stiffening of plantar-flexor muscles. A significant interaction was obtained between SCBA bottle design and vision in anterior-posterior postural sway, suggesting that wearing heavy and large SCBA air bottles can significantly threaten postural stability in AP direction in the absence of vision. SCBA bottle should be redesigned with reduced weight, smaller height, and COM closer to the body of the firefighters. Firefighters should also widen their stance width when wearing heavy PPE with SCBA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer based planar coupling of self-assembled bottle microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, I. A.; Berneschi, S.; Testa, G.; Baldini, F.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Bernini, R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of a simple and self-assembling method for realizing polymeric micro-bottle resonators is reported. By dispensing precise amounts of SU-8 onto a cleaved optical fiber, employed as mechanical support, bottle microcavities with different shapes and diameters are fabricated. The balancing of surface energy between glass fiber and polymeric microresonator with surface tension of SU-8 confers different shape to these microstructures. Planar single-mode SU-8 based waveguide, realized on polymethylmethacrylate, is chosen for exciting the micro-bottle resonators by evanescent wave. The reliability of the fabrication process and the shape of the bottle microcavities are investigated through optical analysis. We observe whispering gallery modes in these resonant microstructures by a robust coupling with single mode planar waveguides around 1.5 μm wavelength. The resonance spectra of micro-bottle resonators and the spectral characteristics, such as Quality-factor (Q factor) and free spectral range, are evaluated for all the realized microstructures. SU-8 micro-bottle resonators show high Q-factors up to 3.8 × 104 and present a good mechanical stability. These features make these microcavities attractive for sensing and/or lasing applications in a planar platform.

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle- ...

  5. Assessment Tools for Evaluation of Oral Feeding in Infants Less than Six Months Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt F.; Park, Jinhee; Estrem, Hayley; Awotwi, Araba

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding difficulty is common in infants less than six months old. Identification of infants in need of specialized treatment is critical to ensure appropriate nutrition and feeding skill development. Valid and reliable assessment tools help clinicians objectively evaluate feeding. Purpose To identify and evaluate assessment tools available for clinical assessment of bottle- and breast-feeding in infants less than six months old. Methods/Search Strategy CINAHL, HaPI, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for “infant feeding” and “assessment tool.” The literature (n=237) was reviewed for relevant assessment tools. A secondary search was conducted in CINAHL and PubMed for additional literature on identified tools. Findings/Results Eighteen assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Of these, seven were excluded because of limited available literature or because they were intended for use with a specific diagnosis or in research only. There are 11 assessment tools available for clinical practice. Only two of these were intended for bottle-feeding. All 11 indicated they were appropriate for use with breast-feeding. None of the available tools have adequate psychometric development and testing. Implications for Practice All of the tools should be used with caution. The Early Feeding Skills Assessment and Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool had the most supportive psychometric development and testing. Implications for Research Feeding assessment tools need to be developed and tested to guide optimal clinical care of infants from birth through six months. A tool that assesses both bottle- and breast-feeding would allow for consistent assessment across feeding methods. PMID:26945280

  6. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  7. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the ...

  8. Methane storage in bottle-like nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, A. V.; Suyetin, M. V.

    2009-03-01

    Because the traditional storage of methane in the condensed state in high-pressure vessels is rather dangerous, and to store a large amount of gas using adsorbents is impossible at normal ambient conditions, we have developed a nanocapsule, which combines the advantages of a high-pressure vessel and adsorbents—a large methane mass content and safe-keeping. A nanocapsule is a system of combined nanotubes forming bottle-like pores, the entrance to which is closed by a positively charged endohedral complex (K@C60) with the help of an electric field. In normal ambient conditions, the nanocapsule can retain the amount of methane adsorbed under charging conditions. The processes taking place during the storage of methane and the methane desorption from the nanocapsule are analysed and the value of the electric field intensity necessary for the transfer of the K@C60 in the nanocapsule is determined. The nanocapsule discussed can retain ~17.5 mass% of methane at an internal pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 300 K.

  9. Is there an advantage for preterm infants to feed orally in an upright or sidelying position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal

    2013-02-01

    Over the last decade, nursing staff and feeding therapists have promoted the upright and sidelying bottle feeding positions as 'optimal' for preterm infants. To verify such benefits, very low birth weight infants were randomized to being fed in the customary semi-reclined (control), upright, or side-lying position. The primary outcome was days from start to independent oral feeding. Secondary outcomes included infants' oral feeding skill levels monitored when taking 1,2, 3-5, and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Infants fed in the upright and sidelying groups attained independent oral feeding within the same number of days as control counterparts. There was no difference in the maturation of their oral feeding skills.

  10. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies.

  11. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  12. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  13. Characteristics of caregivers and households practicing bottle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is documented evidence of increased risk of infant mortality in formula-fed versus breast- fed infants and young children. The potential danger especially in resource-poor settings with poor water and sanitation conditions is well known. In reducing risks associated with the sanitation of feeding equipment, ...

  14. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  15. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  16. Improving preterm infant outcomes: implementing an evidence-based oral feeding advancement protocol in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Mary Z

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a preterm infant to exclusively oral feed is a necessary standard for discharge readiness from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Many of the interventions related to oral feeding advancement currently employed for preterm infants in the NICU are based on individual nursing observations and judgment. Studies involving standardized feeding protocols for oral feeding advancement have been shown to decrease variability in feeding practices, facilitate shortened transition times from gavage to oral feedings, improve bottle feeding performance, and significantly decrease the length of stay (LOS) in the NICU. This project critically evaluated the implementation of an oral feeding advancement protocol in a 74-bed level III NICU in an attempt to standardize the process of advancing oral feedings in medically stable preterm infants. A comprehensive review of the literature identified key features for successful oral feeding in preterm infants. Strong levels of evidence suggested an association between both nonnutritive sucking (NNS) opportunities and standardized feeding advancement protocols with successful oral feeding in preterm infants. These findings prompted a pilot practice change using a feeding advancement protocol and consisted of NNS and standardized oral feeding advancement opportunities. Time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS were compared pre- and postprotocol implementation during more than a 2-month evaluation period. Infants using NNS and the standardized oral feeding advancement protocol had an observed reduction in time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS, although statistical significance was not achieved.

  17. Delayed Development of Feeding Skills in Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia C. Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelays in gross motor development, sensory processing issues, and organic and behavioral problems are known to interfere in the development of feeding skills (FS; and—therefore—in the success of the process of feeding a child. Children with feeding difficulties (FD commonly present inadequacy of FS.ObjectivesAssessment of five FS in Brazilian children with FD, and search of associations with types of FD.MethodsCross-sectional study with 70 children below 10 years old. Data were obtained from medical records: age, gender, age at texture transitions, feeding phase (breastfeeding, weaning to solids or full solids at first complaint; characteristics of the meal (duration, environment, and shared meals with adults, self-feeding practices, use of feeding equipment and bottle, mouthing, feeding position and FD diagnosis. Skills were categorized according to standards for age. Chi-Square, Anova Test (or non-parametric equivalent and Multinomial logistic regression tests were used, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsThere was no difference in FS (p > 0.05 or in the number of FS inadequateness (p = 0.84 according to FD diagnosis. The majority (94% of children presented at least one delayed development of FS; 1/3 presented delays in more than half of the FS. The most prevalent inadequacies in FS were inadequate feeding position (73.5%, prolonged bottle feeding (56.9%, and inadequate self-feeding practices (37.9%. Feeding complaints first appeared at 10.9 ± 11.4 months, and picky eating was the most prevalent type of FD (37.1%. Most children were fed in inadequate environments (55.2%, without the company of adults (78%. Transition to solid foods occurred at 16 ± 5.6 months. Multinomial logistic regression showed no difference in likelihood of presenting any type of FD compared to picky eating, according to FS. Age at texture transition both from breastfeeding to complementary feeding (p = 0.95, and from

  18. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  19. Plastic bottle oscillator: Rhythmicity and mode bifurcation of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Magome, Nobuyuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    The oscillatory flow of water draining from an upside-down plastic bottle with a thin pipe attached to its head is studied as an example of a dissipative structure generated under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Mode bifurcation was observed in the water/air flow: no flow, oscillatory flow, and counter flow were found when the inner diameter of the thin pipe was changed. The modes are stable against perturbations. A coupled two-bottle system exhibits either in-phase or anti-phase self-synchronization. These characteristic behaviors imply that the essential features of the oscillatory flow in a single bottle system can be described as a limit-cycle oscillation.

  20. Plastic bottle oscillator: Rhythmicity and mode bifurcation of fluid flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Magome, Nobuyuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    The oscillatory flow of water draining from an upside-down plastic bottle with a thin pipe attached to its head is studied as an example of a dissipative structure generated under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Mode bifurcation was observed in the water/air flow: no flow, oscillatory flow, and counter flow were found when the inner diameter of the thin pipe was changed. The modes are stable against perturbations. A coupled two-bottle system exhibits either in-phase or anti-phase self-synchr...

  1. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  2. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  3. Investigating the Stability of a Bottle Filled with Different Amounts of Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Gantavya; Pingali, Rushil G.; Khubchandani, Aashish K.; Roy, Ekansh; Mudaliyar, Roshni R.; Mudaliyar, Rajesh P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of a bottle filled with different volumes of water, and to determine the angle at which it topples over for each volume of water. Data for the angle at which the bottle toppled were gathered experimentally using a cylindrical 1 litre bottle, and two theoretical models were then developed,…

  4. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  5. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines § 431.292 Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines...

  6. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product. Retail outlets sell local as well as imported bottled water to consumers. The microbiological quality of 10 different (8 local and 2 imported) bottled water products ...

  7. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  8. 27 CFR 26.317 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 26.317 Section 26.317 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.317 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be brought into the United States and may be furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes...

  9. Enteral tube feeding and infection control: how safe is our practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carolyn

    Enteral feed provides an ideal environment for the development of bacteria. Contamination of an enteral feeding system can have serious complications for the susceptible patient. This article explores the sources and symptoms of bacterial contamination within enteral feeding systems and makes recommendations on how these risks can be minimized. Manufacturers have acted to reduce contamination by enclosing enteral tube feeds within sterile bottles or collapsible packs. National guidance exists to provide standards for the handling of enteral feeding systems but at a clinical level poor hand hygiene and handling procedures are still identified as the main source of contamination indicating that there is a gap between practice and recommended standards of care. Nurses have a vital role to play implementation appropriate standards of care and in minimizing risks of bacterial contamination in enteral feeding systems.

  10. A comparative description of infant feeding practices in Zaire, the Philippines and St. Kitts-Nevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussler, J D; Mock, N

    1983-01-01

    Infant feeding issues and research commonly portray infant feeding practices as a dichotomous variable; i.e., breastfeeding vs. bottlefeeding. This research establishes the complexity and variability in infant feeding patterns in 3 sites in the developing world. Comparative data are presented on the modes and products used to feed infants in Kinshasa, Zaire; St. Kitts-Nevis, West indies; and Cebu City, Philippines. They demonstrate that in these areas most infants receive some breastmilk. Bottlefeeding is also common but is rarely the exclusive mode of feeding. And the prevalence, manner of use, and role of the bottle varies among the 3 sites. Early supplementation of breastmilk by a variety of liquids, semisolids, and solids is typical of all 3 areas. These findings have important implications for educators and policymakers, as well as for research efforts relating infant feeding practices to infant health outcomes.

  11. Infant feeding practices in an urban squatter community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor Geok Lin

    1989-06-01

    The pattern of infant feeding practice was studied among Malay mothers in Kg. Sentosa, a squatter community in Kuala Lumpur. Breastmilk only was provided by most mothers up to the 4th week, after which it was increasingly replaced by cow's milk. 95% of the working mothers and 54% of the full-time housewives had introduced bottle-feeding supplemented with precooked cereal and porridge by 2 months of age. Factors related to maternal employment, household income and occurrence of illness in child affect significantly the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Variability in the timing of commencement and completion of weaning could be attributed partially only (42.1% and 26.8% respectively) to the household, maternal and child variables taken together. This seems to imply that personal reasons largely govern decisions related to feeding infants. (Author's).

  12. Feeding practices and dental caries in an urban Canadian population of Vietnamese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R; Wong, T; Ewan, C; Contreras, B; Phung, Y

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the severity of nursing caries, and to examine contributing behavioral factors, in a group of Vietnamese families in British Columbia, Canada. The data collected became the basis for a community-based oral health promotion program. Information on feeding, dental health practices, and dental caries were collected for 60 mother/child pairs. For children > or = 18 mos, prevalence of nursing caries was 64 percent. Sixty-five percent of all children had a naptime bottle, and 85 percent > or = 18 mos had a "comfort" bottle that was carried around, and drunk from during the day. Milk was the most common beverage. A "comfort" bottle was significantly related to the presence of nursing caries, P = 0.02; a naptime bottle had a less significant association, P = 0.07. Dental knowledge questions revealed that all mothers knew that a child who had a "comfort" bottle could get tooth decay, but 63 percent thought that cavities were not a problem in baby teeth.

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common ... X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  14. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  15. Impact of infant feeding practices on caries experience of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Sowole, Christiana A; Owotade, Foluso J; Sote, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between breastfeeding, bottle feeding, night feeding, age, and sex of the child on the caries experience. Information was collected from the mothers of preschool children. Information included the age of the child, sex of the child, form of breastfeeding (whether exclusive, almost exclusive or mixed), duration of breastfeeding, night feeding habits of the child, and duration and content of bottle feeding. Intraoral examination was done to assess the dmft. The impact of the variables on the caries experience (rampant caries, no caries and the dmft) was then assessed. The duration of breast feeding (p = 0.002), and form of breast feeding (p = 0.03) were significant predictors of the dmft. The dmft was highest in children who were breastfed for longer than 18 months and highest for children who were exclusively breastfed. There is a strong association between rampant caries and duration of breast feeding only (p preschool children in Nigeria. The longer the duration, the higher the risk for caries.

  16. Maternal infant feeding behaviors and disparities in early child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Fierman, Arthur H; Hauser, Nicole R; Messito, Mary Jo

    2014-04-01

    Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis comparing mothers with infants (2 weeks to 6 months old) in a low-risk group of high-income white mothers to a high-risk group of low-income Hispanic mothers. Regression analysis was used to explore relationships between each group and (1) infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding, giving juice, and adding cereal to bottles, (2) controlling feeding styles, (3) beliefs about infant hunger and satiety, and (4) infant weight status. The sample included 412 mothers (low-risk group, n = 208; high-risk group, n = 204). The high-risk group was less likely to exclusively breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.83), more likely to introduce juice (AOR, 12.25; 95% CI, 3.44-43.62), and add cereal to the bottle (AOR, 10.61; 95% CI, 2.74-41.0). The high-risk group exhibited greater restrictive and pressuring feeding styles and was more likely to believe that mothers can recognize infant hunger and satiety and less likely to believe that infants know their own hunger and satiety. High-risk infants were more likely to have a weight-for-length percentile >85th percentile (AOR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.10-6.45). Differences in infant feeding behaviors may contribute to disparities in early child obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effect of these differences on child obesity.

  17. Severe ocular trauma—The hidden danger of plastic bottles when throwing out the rubbish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Philippin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of ocular trauma caused by a plastic bottle cap occurring accidentally without misuse. The mechanism involved an un-emptied plastic bottle containing orange juice being thrown away with other rubbish. The combination of this minor impact and the pressure built up within the bottle through fermentation caused expulsion of the cap at high velocity. This cap caused severe ocular trauma requiring urgent ophthalmic assessment and intervention. Our simple recommendation is that plastic bottles have their caps removed and are emptied before being thrown away. Keywords: Plastic, Bottle, Eye, Trauma

  18. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  19. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty conventional cultures (54%) were positive compared with 33 (89%) done according to the Bactec system (P < 0,002). In only 1 case did the former technique prove superior. Direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles is therefore superior to conventional methods and has obvious therapeutic ...

  20. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers ... For majority (65%) of the consumers, taste, convenience, fashion/status, safety and potential health benefits are important considerations. Dasani ...

  1. [Composition of fatty acid in commercially available bottled vegetable oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Chen, Yuexiao; He, Mei; Yang, Yuexin

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the fatty acid composition of commercially available bottled vegetable oil, and to explore its characteristic composition and content and the proportion of specific fatty acids. A total of eight varieties of bottled vegetable oil which are popular in use or famous with local brand from eight districts of Beijing, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Hunan, Henan, Harbin, Jiangsu and Gansu were collected, and selected two different batches for each variety. After being saponified and methyl esterified, the fatty acids of vegetable oil samples were analyzed by Shimadzu GC2014 gas chromatography. The commercially available bottled vegetable oils were mainly consisted of palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The average content of trans fatty acids was 1.05g/100g. The ratio of saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acid (S: M: P) of vegetable oil samples was in the range of 1:1. 6-9. 4: 0.9-7.4; the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6 : n-3 was in the range of 0.37-289.5 : 1. The content of trans fatty acid in commercially available bottled vegetable oil was low, however, most of the proportion of fatty acid did not meet the standards suggested by the Chinese Nutrition Society, and most of vegetable oils are lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contents of each bottle which was inverted three times to ensure suspension of any sedimented organisms. ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were identified from the. NA plates by subjecting the ... The BGLB containing inverted. Durham tubes to indicate gas production were incubated at 370 C ...

  3. Forecasting product demand of a bottling company in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forecasting product demand is crucial to any supplier, manufacturer, or retailer; as the process determines the quantities that might be purchased, produced, supplied or shipped in future. For forecasting product demand of a Bottling Company in Kumasi (Ghana), seasonality indices were calculated to predict the demand ...

  4. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  5. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  6. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor...

  7. The Rod and Bottle System: A Problem in Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Iain

    2005-11-01

    The rod and bottle system (sometimes called the "wine butler"), shown in Fig. 1, is a common statics demonstration in the introductory level physics course. One is immediately attracted to it by the craftsmanship in wood. Thomas Carlyle wrote, "Two men I honour, and no third. The scholar and the craftsman."2 This paper presents an analytic treatment of the system.

  8. Microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk in bottle and pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, R R; Loiola, C G; Oliveira, C A F

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life of pasteurized milk in Brazil ranges from 3 to 8 d, mainly due to poor cold chain conditions that prevail throughout the country and subject the product to repeated and/or severe temperature abuse. This study evaluated the influence of storage temperature on the microbiological stability of homogenized whole pasteurized milk (75 degrees C/15 s) packaged in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pouch, both monolayer materials pigmented with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The storage temperatures investigated were 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C. Microbiological evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts with 7 log CFU/mL and 6 log CFU/mL, respectively, set as upper limits of acceptability for maintaining the quality of milk. The microbiological stability for pasteurized milk packaged in HDPE bottle and stored at 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C was estimated at 43, 36, 8, 5, and 3 d, respectively. For milk samples packaged in LDPE pouch, shelf life was estimated at 37, 35, 7, 3, and 2 d, respectively. The determination of Q(10) and z values demonstrated that storage temperature has a greater influence on microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk packaged in LDPE pouch compared to HDPE bottle. Based on the results of this study, HDPE bottle was better for storing pasteurized milk as compared to LDPE pouch.

  9. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  10. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  11. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  12. Quality of some commonly consumed "pure" and bottled waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ogun State were investigated to establish the quality of the products and their suitability for human consumption. Generally, results of some physical parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH for the "pure" and bottled water samples were within WHO safe limits for drinking water.

  13. One Man's Rubbish … Active Learning Using Old Bottle Tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Clare; Orlando, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This is an activity for younger learners in which the concepts of relative frequency and probability are explored, illustrating how a creative, non-transmission teaching approach using bottle tops can enable students to develop their understanding in an engaging fashion and at almost no cost.

  14. The Bacteriological Quality assessment of some bottled water sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-nine (99) isolates were obtained and the completed test revealed the presence of Escherichia coli (3%) and Enterobacter species (97%). All the bottled water brands did not meet up with the standard stipulated by the Nigerian Industrial Standard for drinking water quality and the World Health Organization standard.

  15. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and protected as to minimize the hazard of contamination of the water supply. (c) On all new or... containers used for storing or dispensing potable water shall be kept clean at all times and shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...

  16. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  17. NASA-Enhanced Water Bottles Filter Water on the Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems on the ISS collect and recycle moisture from every possible source-including sweat and urine-to be filtered for recycled use. Greenbrae, California-based ÖKO now sells a water bottle that employs NASA filtration media to purify water as the user squeezes it through the device.

  18. Inoculation ofperitoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles im ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract The aiIn of the study was to detennine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected ...

  19. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  20. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  1. Nature of feeding practices among children with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the nature of feeding practices among children with cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 subjects of less than 2 years of age with cleft lip and palate were chosen and divided into three groups according to their chronological age. Group I included 47 subjects (M=35, F=12 who were <6 months old, Group II included 56 subjects (M=36, F=20 aged between 6 months and 1 year, and Group III included 52 subjects (M=28, F=24 of age between 1 and 2 years. Both the parents of the subjects with cleft lip and palate were interviewed and the details of the existing feeding practice were recorded on a standard proforma. Chi-square test was applied to find out any significant difference in the feeding method between males and females. Results: Spoon feeding was found as the most common feeding practice method. Breast feeding was the second most common feeding practice method among Group I subjects, whereas bottle feeding was the second most common feeding practice method among Group II and III subjects. The difference in the feeding practice between male and female subjects in all the three groups was very negligible and statistically not significant. Conclusion: Spoon feeding was found as the most common feeding method practiced by the parents of children with cleft lip and palate.

  2. [Mothers in the Netherlands do not have to feel guilty about bottle-feeding their babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, P J J

    2017-01-01

    Human milk provides optimal nutrition for the term new-born infant. This milk might give the infant certain advantages over formula milk, and the potential advantages are reviewed in this commentary. It is concluded that there are advantages to breastfeeding, but that these are limited for an infant in an industrialised country receiving adequate formula milk. Breastfeeding should be encouraged, but there is insufficient reason for a mother who either is not able or not willing to breastfeed to feel guilty about not doing so.

  3. Trajectories of Parasympathetic Nervous System Function before, during, and after Feeding in Infants with Transposition of the Great Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tondi M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Compromised parasympathetic response to stressors may underlie feeding difficulties in infants with complex congenital heart defects, but little is known about the temporal pattern of parasympathetic response across phases of feeding. Objectives To describe initial data exploration of trajectories of parasympathetic response to feeding in 15 infants with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries and to explore effects of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity on trajectories. Method In this descriptive, exploratory study, parasympathetic function was measured using high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), feeding skill was measured using the Early Feeding Skills assessment, and maternal sensitivity was measured using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Data were collected before, during, and after feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. Trajectories of parasympathetic function and relationships with possible contributing factors were examined graphically. Results Marked between-infant variability in HF HRV across phases of feeding was apparent at both ages, although attenuated at 2 months. Four patterns of HF HRV trajectories across phases of feeding were identified and associated with feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental increases in HF HRV were apparent in most breastfed, but not bottle-fed, infants. Discussion This exploratory data analysis provided critical information in preparation for a larger study in which varying trajectories and potential contributing factors can be modeled in relationship to infant outcomes. Findings support inclusion of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity in modeling parasympathetic function across feeding. PMID:21543958

  4. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems.

  5. Blood culture bottle culture of pleural fluid in pleural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Sarah M; Rahman, Najib M; Wrightson, John M; Davies, Helen E; Shorten, Robert; Gillespie, Stephen H; Davies, Christopher W H; Maskell, Nick A; Jeffrey, Andrew A; Lee, Y C Gary; Davies, Robert J O

    2011-08-01

    Pleural infection is common, and has a >30% major morbidity and mortality-particularly when infection is caused by Gram-negative, Staphylococcus aureus or mixed aerobic pathogens. Standard pleural fluid culture is negative in ∼40% of cases. Culturing pleural fluid in blood culture bottles may increase microbial yield, and is cheap and easy to perform. To determine whether inoculating pleural fluid into blood culture bottles increases the culture positivity of pleural infection over standard laboratory culture, and to assess the optimum volume of inoculum to introduce. 62 patients with pleural infection were enrolled. Pairs of aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles were inoculated at the bedside with 2, 5 or 10 ml of pleural fluid, and two pleural fluid specimens were sent for standard culture. Pleural fluid from nine control patients was cultured to test for 'false-positive' results. The addition of blood culture bottle culture to standard culture increased the proportion of patients with identifiable pathogens by 20.8% (20/53 (37.7%) to 31/53 (58.5%) (difference 20.8%, 95% CI difference 8.9% to 20.8%, p<0.001)). The second standard culture did not similarly improve the culture positivity (19/49 (38.8%) to 22/49 (44.9%) (difference 6.1%, 95% CI difference -2.5% to 6.1%, p=0.08)). The culture inoculum volume did not influence bacterial isolation frequency. The control fluids were culture negative. Blood culture bottle culture of infected pleural fluid increases microbial yield when used in addition to standard culture. This technique should be part of routine care.

  6. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiullah Khurram

    Full Text Available Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1 Container Comparison-to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw. seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2 Bottle Modification-to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control and container opacity (green, black, and clear on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology

  7. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  8. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T; Morrissey, Robert C; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison-to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification-to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  9. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  10. Prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices among preschool children of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi Narang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices in preschool children of Lucknow city. Materials & Method: A sample of 512 preschool going children was selected through multistage cluster random sampling. Mothers provided information regarding demographic data and feeding practices. Dental caries experience was recorded using Dentition status and treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997. Association between 2 variables was obtained using chi square test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.1%. Children having mixed type of feeding practices had statistically highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those children solely fed on bottle or breast. Also, children who were breast fed at night had a highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those who were not breast fed. Conclusions: The prevalence of nursing caries was high and was significantly associated with mixed type of feeding practices and who were breastfed or bottlefed at night. nursing caries, bottle feeding, breast feeding, preschool

  11. Oxytocin administered during labor and breast-feeding: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fortea, Pedro; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Cazorla, Olga; Delgado-Ríos, M; González-Valenzuela, María J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between labor physiology and the onset of lactation leads to assess the potential correlation between oxytocin administration during labor and duration of breast-feeding. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study where patients given synthetic oxytocin during labor induction were considered as the exposed cohort, and patients not given oxytocin formed the non-exposed cohort. Four hundred of the 7465 children born at our maternity during 2006 were randomly selected. Information about breast-feeding was available for 316 of these children. Eventual confounding or adjustment factors were analyzed using stratified and multivariate analysis. Oxytocin was used for delivery of 189 (59.8%) newborns, multiplying the risk of bottle-feeding by 1.451 (95% CI 1.28-1.63). The best-fit regression model of oxytocin use effect on bottle-feeding included sex and gestational age of the newborn. The use of oxytocin also multiplies the risk of breast-feeding withdrawal at 3 months by 2.29 (95% CI 1.41-3.74). This effect is confounded by maternal age, being higher for mothers under 27 years. Oxytocin administration during labor had some impact on both onset and duration of breast-feeding, particularly in mothers under 27 years of age and newborns delivered at term. Clinical Study registered at U.S. NCT01951040.

  12. Breast feeding and weaning practices of urban housewives in Srinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, C; Rowlands, R

    1988-11-01

    Researchers interviewed 125 mothers in Srinagar, India about breast feeding and weaning practices. Overall the mothers were generally illiterate (52%), housewives (67.2%), Muslim (76%), and from a nuclear family (56%). 39% were in the low income group. Most of the children (48%) ranged for 6-12 months old. 96% of the children had been breast fed. Some of the reasons for breast feeding included nutritional quality, economical, pleased the mother, and made the infant feel secure. 65.8% breast fed their infants on demand. 65.7% weaned their infants between 7-9 months yet 52% believed breast feeding should continue to 18 months. 96% breast fed their infants while ill with diarrhea. 57% believed colostrum to be unhygienic and did not feed it to their infants. 72% decided to breast feed before becoming pregnant while 36% decided to bottle feed before pregnancy. 89% of illiterate mothers breast fed while only 45% of literate mothers did. Further, only 11.8% of the mothers whose family income was 1500 rupees/month breast fed whereas 47% in the lower and 41.2% in the middle income groups did. At 7-9 months, 69.8% of illiterate and 69.5% of literate mothers had already introduced semi solid foods. 78.3% of literate mothers gave semi solid foods to their infants 2 times/day, but only 11.6% of the illiterate mothers did so. Moreover 81.4% of illiterate mothers only fed their infants semi solid foods once a day. Literate mothers were more likely than literate mothers to feed their infants solid foods (75% vs. 46.2%), introduce them at an earlier age (22.2% vs 10%, 7-9 months), and feed them more often (55.5% vs 16.6%; twice a day). In conclusion, the higher the educational status the more likely mothers were likely to breast feed.

  13. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C.

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P

  14. Odorant polyfunctional thiols issued from bottle beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nizet, Sabrina; Gros, Jacques; Collin, Sonia; XII Weurman flavour research symposium

    2011-01-01

    Bottle refermentation which imparts beer effervescence and resistance against infection and oxidation is also known to improve flavor profile and stability. By this process, some stale off-flavors exhaled by aldehydes (trans-2-nonenal, 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, 3- methylbutanal ..) are reduced into alcohols (1, 2). Unfortunately, yeast esterases can also strongly affect the beer fruity character by hydrolyzing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate (1, 2). Thio...

  15. Patulin detection from Penicillia in bottled water commodity system

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Ribeiro, Ana; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Control of Mycological Contaminants of BOttled Water (COMBOW) is an EU-CRAFT project which is investigating the significance of fungi to this commodity. Some fungi produce toxins (mycotoxins). These compounds contaminate food and drink with detrimental effects on human health and economies. Mycotoxins have been reported recently in stored water and production confirmed in vitro. Patulin is a mycotoxin and has been regulated by the EU since 1 November 2003 in apple juice and ingredients. Penic...

  16. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  17. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  18. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of method for supplemental feeding. To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in term and preterm infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 31 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 31 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 31 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of term and preterm infants. Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of Cochrane Neonatal. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.The review authors independently conducted quality assessments and data extraction for included trials. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain; proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge; proportion not feeding at three months of age; proportion not feeding at six

  19. The Effect of Consumer Learning Behavior on the Rising Bottled Water Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Yizao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of consumer learning behavior on the rising bottled water consumption. Consumers are assumed with initial prior beliefs about the distribution of health effect of beverages and update their beliefs using health information in a Baysian manner. We find that the health effect perception for bottled water is much higher than for sugar sweetened soft drinks, which can explain the increase in bottled water consumption over time. According to our findings, health info...

  20. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  1. Severe ocular trauma—The hidden danger of plastic bottles when throwing out the rubbish

    OpenAIRE

    H. Philippin; J. Abbott; J.A. Gilmour-White; P. Shah

    2016-01-01

    This is the first reported case of ocular trauma caused by a plastic bottle cap occurring accidentally without misuse. The mechanism involved an un-emptied plastic bottle containing orange juice being thrown away with other rubbish. The combination of this minor impact and the pressure built up within the bottle through fermentation caused expulsion of the cap at high velocity. This cap caused severe ocular trauma requiring urgent ophthalmic assessment and intervention. Our simple recommendat...

  2. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  4. Maternal perceptions of infant hunger, satiety, and pressuring feeding styles in an urban Latina WIC population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Fierman, Arthur H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Terry J; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Controlling feeding styles in which parents regulate feeding without responding to child cues have been associated with poor self-regulation of feeding and increased weight, but have not been well studied in infancy. We sought to assess maternal perception of infant feeding cues and pressuring feeding styles in an urban Latina Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population. Secondary analysis of a larger study of Latina mothers participating in New York City WIC programs. We examined maternal perception of infant feeding cues and pressuring feeding style. Using logistic regression, we assessed: 1) characteristics associated with perceptions of cues and pressuring to feed, including sociodemographics, breastfeeding, and maternal body mass index; and 2) whether perceptions of cues were associated with pressuring feeding style. We surveyed 368 mothers (84% response rate). Most mothers perceived that babies sense their own satiety. However, 72% believed that infant crying must indicate hunger. Fifty-three percent believed that mothers should always make babies finish the bottle ("pressure to feed"). Pressuring feeding style was associated with foreign maternal country of birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-5.60) and less than a high school education (AOR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12-2.91). Two perceptions of feeding cues were related to pressuring feeding style: belief that infant crying must indicate hunger (AOR 2.59; 95% CI, 1.52-4.42) and infant hand sucking implies hunger (AOR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.10-3.03). Maternal characteristics influence perception of infant hunger and satiety. Interpretation of feeding cues is associated with pressuring feeding style. Improving responsiveness to infant cues should be a component of early childhood obesity prevention. 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... Thank you! Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  13. [Historical evolution of utensils used to feed non breastfed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Cocetti, Monize

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the utensils used throughout history to feed non breastfed infants. The method used was article review, reference search on the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from 1966 to 2007 and documental analysis based on data from the internet, encyclopedias, art and history books, and museums. Utensils manufactured in a variety of materials and shapes, depending on availability, purchasing power and culture have been used since early history to feed babies who for different reasons were not breastfed. Many objects coexisted at the same time and place, others at distant sites and times. New alternatives have been accepted without evidence to prove or point toward the benefits of the change. Some of these alternatives were adopted again, even if infant mortality was high at the time in which they were used at first. In the beginning of the 20th century, bottles became conic-cylindrical. Technology brought about progress as to improve hygiene and enable contamination control. Glass gave way to plastic, and rubber nipples to silicone ones, but the bottle as we know it today is still the same of a 100 years ago.

  14. Infant feeding practices of migrant farm laborers in northern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, B; Brown, A C; Tate, M; Hertzler, A A; Rojas, M H

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive information on migrant farm laborers' infant feeding practices in northern Colorado. We used a survey questionnaire to interview 49 families with a 6- to 23-month-old child who was enrolled in the Migrant Head Start Center. Sixteen (33%) of the mothers breast-fed their infants, but only five (14%) of the 35 Mexican Americans breast-fed. Thirty-four (69%) of the mothers used formula and seven (14%) gave their child cow's milk at birth. Introduction of solids occurred at a mean of 6.6 months. Of the respondents, 13 (27%) introduced solids before 4 months of age, whereas 29 (59%) introduced solids before the age of 6 months. Thirty-six (73%) of the migrants put their child to bed with a sweetened beverage, milk, or formula in a bottle. Diarrhea in the children was reported by 39 (80%) of the migrants, with 15 (31%) stating that it occurred at least once per month. One third (n = 16) of the respondents reported that their children had constipation lasting 1 to 14 days, but for most (n = 10) it occurred less than once per month. Results suggest that migrant families need more dietary recommendations about breast-feeding, introduction of liquids/solid foods, proper formula preparation, avoidance of baby bottle tooth decay, and treatment of diarrhea and constipation.

  15. Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Hafsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have profound implications for the maternal and child health status of a society. Feeding practices in Pakistan are suboptimal, leading to adverse outcomes on child health. In Pakistan, the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH Program, in collaboration with several international organizations, including WHO and UNICEF, is working to improve these feeding practices in the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods Estimates on the various indicators for infant and young child feeding proposed by WHO were analyzed in light of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (1990-91 and 2006-07 and several other national studies conducted since 1995. Results Nearly half the core and optional indicators have improved over the years, though modestly; the others have demonstrated no statistically significant improvement over the years. Of the five indicators required in the WHO tool for the assessment of infant and young child feeding, introduction of complementary foods, bottle-feeding, and early initiation of breastfeeding, stand in the poor category, while exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding fall in the fair category, suggesting an overall poor status. Conclusions There is considerable scope to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Pakistan. Further programs should focus on improving the following indicators that have shown no significant development: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at two years, age appropriate feeding, and bottle feeding. Effective implementation of interventions that are known to improve breastfeeding practices is imperative, as is further research to yield data that can lead future endeavors.

  16. Knowledge of male and female midwestern college students about baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, H L; Baron, R S; Kanellis, M; Brennan, M; Brunsman, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this bellwether study was to establish the level of knowledge a group of young men and women college students had about baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) and the associated risk factors. The results show that knowledge about BBTD is very limited even among a well-educated group of young adults. Overall 39% of the respondents had heard of BBTD whereas 87% had heard of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Thirty-two percent thought BBTD was a fictional (vs. "real" or "unsure") health problem, while 3% of the respondents thought SIDS was a fictional health problem. Knowledge about overall risk factors for oral disease was greater than that for BBTD. Further, these subjects report that if they believed that adopting a certain feeding practice would reduce the risk of tooth decay for their babies, they would be likely to adopt it. Men and women significantly differed on the age at which a child should first see a dentist (chi sq = 19.56, df = 5, P < 0.01). Forty-five percent of the men selected either when the first tooth erupts or between 6-18 months as the time a child should first be seen by a dentist. Only 11% of the women thought a child should be seen that early. Forty-five percent of the women students selected 2-3 years as the earliest age at which a child should be seen by a dentist. Implications of this research are discussed.

  17. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  18. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  19. Direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, R

    2011-08-01

    Rates of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge are low in premature infants due to the many associated challenges. Although there are many benefits associated with breast milk, the effects of direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between direct breast-feeding (infant sucking directly from the breast) and duration and success with breast milk feedings until discharge in premature infants. This retrospective cohort was conducted on 66 very-low birth weight infants whose mothers initiated breast milk feedings in the NICU. Chart review revealed documented type (breast milk with or without fortifiers or type of infant formula), volume and mode (nasogastric tube, breast or bottle) of all gastric feeds for each day of NICU hospitalization. From this documentation, whether the mother initiated breast milk feedings, the number of times the mother put the infant to breast, the gestational age of the first direct breast-feeding, whether the first oral feeding was at the breast, the duration of breast milk feedings and whether breast milk feedings continued until NICU discharge were determined. Associations between breast-feeding participatory factors and breast milk feeding outcomes were investigated using linear and logistic regression. Positive associations were found between breast milk feedings at discharge and mothers putting their infants directly to breast in the NICU (P=0.0005). The duration of breast milk feedings was associated with: mothers putting their infants directly to breast (P=0.0110), whether the first oral sucking feeding was at the breast (P=0.0108) and the gestational age of the first breast-feeding attempt (PBreast milk feedings are encouraged in most NICU's, but direct breast-feeding is often overlooked as an important area of research in the tightly controlled environment of the NICU. This study demonstrates a link between direct

  20. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H. V. Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGiven the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding.ObjectivesTo identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile.MethodsCross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education, caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%.ResultsThe non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent—39.7%. The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children’s hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers’ profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06–0.88. Both Authoritarian (p = 0.000 and indulgent mothers (p = 0.007 breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in “responsive” parental style (OR 0.056; p = 0.01 compared to other feeding styles

  1. Baby bottle tooth decay and complications during pregnancy and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, B; Kafka, I

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate an association between maternal and/or fetal complications during pregnancy and/or delivery and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in the infant. The study population comprised 50 mothers of infants with BBTD (BBTD+ mothers): 50 mothers of aged-matched children with similar eating and bottle-use habits but without BBTD (BBTD-) served as comparisons. Interviews with the mothers focused on pregnancy complications (vaginal bleeding, premature uterine contractions, viral or bacterial infections, hospitalization, diabetes, or other causes of high-risk pregnancy), mode of delivery (normal or instrumental), fetal distress, gestational age, birth weight, and mother's age at delivery. Chi-square analysis and the Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Pregnancy complications and instrument delivery/cesarean section were significantly higher in the BBTD+ group than in the controls (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0004, respectively). In the BBTD+ group, vaginal bleeding/premature uterine contractions were most frequent (50%), while in the BBTD- group high-risk pregnancy dominated (20%). Normal deliveries were more frequent in the BBTD+ mothers (68%) than in the comparisons (40%). Gestational age and baby's birth weight did not differ between the two groups. The mean age of the BBTD+ mothers was significantly lower than that of the controls (P = 0.013). The results suggest that babies born after maternal complications during pregnancy or babies who experience a traumatic birth must be considered to be at risk of developing BBTD when exposed to excessive bottle nursing.

  2. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  3. Baby bottle tooth decay: a concern for all mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Burg, M M; Sanders, B J; Weddell, J A

    1995-01-01

    Health care professionals often inappropriately separate dental health from other health functions. Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) should be a concern for all professionals who work with expectant or new mothers and very young children. Research indicates that even though many mothers are aware of the etiology of the condition, they continue to allow prolonged nursing with milk or liquids other than water. Nurses can help promote good oral health for children by educating and training expectant and new mothers, children, and others who work with mothers and children in preventing BBTD.

  4. Analysis of residual vulcanization accelerators in baby bottle rubber teats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Inoue, T; Yamada, T; Tanimura, A

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method was established for the determination of dialkyldithiocarbamates (DTCs) in chloroform-acetone extracts from rubber teats for baby bottles. DTCs in the extracts were derivatized into ethyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography employing nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Dimethyldithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate were detected at levels up to 3.2 micrograms/g rubber and up to 4.6 micrograms/g rubber (as dithiocarbamic acid), respectively, in the extracts from commercially available isoprene rubber tests. DTCs can form secondary amines by acid hydrolysis, although the levels of DTCs in the extracts only made a minor contribution to the total level of measured secondary amine precursors.

  5. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  6. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  7. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published in... are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also amended its bottled...

  8. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and... clinic. On April 13, 2012, NIST convened the workshop ``Genome in a Bottle'' to initiate a consortium to...

  9. Green Fiber Bottle: Towards a Sustainable Package and a Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Kirilov, Kiril

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp, which is a renewable resource. Its development depends on the development of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, and FORMCELL, a method to speed the mold reconfiguration, have...

  10. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  11. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  12. 27 CFR 4.38a - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.38a Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets. (a) General. An individual covering, carton, or other container of the bottle used for sale at retail (other than a shipping container), or any...

  13. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... quality of 10 different (8 local and 2 imported) bottled water products were tested over a period of three ..... counts of E. coli (105 to 107 cfu·ml-1) in bottled water could not be .... et mise dans le commerce des eaux minerales naturelles. .... WARBURTON DW (1993) A review of the microbiological quality of.

  14. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  15. Do good things come in small packages? Willingness to pay for pomegranate wine and bottle size effects

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Drichoutis; Klonaris, Stathis; Papoutsi, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that bottle size formats signal quality changes, using a controlled laboratory experiment where we simultaneously auctioned two different sweet wines: a pomegranate wine and a grape wine. We varied on a between subjects basis the size of the bottle, from 500ml to 750ml, but kept the wine content of the bottle constant across bottle size formats. We also explored in a within subjects design the effect of expectations for the wines, blind tasting and information on willing...

  16. Mutans Streptococci Colonization in Relation to Feeding Practices, Age and the Number of Teeth in 6 to 30-Month-Old Children: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Prabhakar, Ar; Gaur, Anupama

    2012-05-01

    Early childhood caries has been characterized as first affecting the primary maxillary anterior teeth, followed by the involvement of the primary molars. Other terms for dental caries in preschool children, which inappropriately may imply cause for the disease, includes baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, milk bottle syndrome, baby bottle caries, nursing bottle mouth and nursing mouth. To explore the relationships of feeding practices, age and number of teeth present with mutans streptococci colonization in infants. A comparative clinical study conducted on 160 children aged from 6 to 30 months in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital in collaboration with Child Health Institute and Research Center and Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. Baseline data collection included: (i) Parents of the infants were asked open ended questions about the baby feeding practices, (ii) The age of the subjects were obtained from the immunization register maintained at Child Health Institute and Research Center and were grouped into group I (6-11 months), group II (12-17 months), group III (18-23 months) and group IV (24-30 months), (iii) Clinical examination of children was done by using mouth mirror and explorer in flash light.(6) For each child number and location of erupted teeth was recorded, (iv) Microbial screening for mutans streptococci involved sampling of saliva from each child was performed by placing a sterile wooden tongue blade on the dorsum of the tongue and the number of colony forming units (CFU) were recorded. According to feeding practices, 34 children were in breastfed category, 39 were in baby bottle category and 87 children reported no bottle usage. Out of 160 children examined, a total 142 children were colonized with mutans streptococci. 18 children were found to be colonized with low colony forming units, 78 children were found to be colonized

  17. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending...

  18. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  19. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  20. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  1. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  2. Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Cotta, Jordi Colomer; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8μg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150μg/L vs. water. More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Complex Feeding Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Miles PhD; Tanya Watt MSc; Wei-Yuen Wong MSc; Louise McHutchison BSc; Philippa Friary BSLT

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed ?risk feeding.? This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff ...

  4. Mixed feed evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  5. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  6. Feeding, artificial sucking habits, and malocclusions in 3-year-old girls in different regions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Esber; Larsson, Erik; Andersson, Els Marie; Hauge, Mariann S; Ogaard, Björn; Bishara, Samir; Warren, John; Noda, Tadashi; Dolci, Gabriel Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    The way babies and young children are reared is important to their health and development. Extensive breast-feeding has also been shown to reduce the development of artificial sucking habits like digit or pacifier-sucking. The aim of this study was to determine feeding methods, artificial sucking habits, and the presence of malocclusions in 3-year-old girls living in different regions of the world. Children from the following countries were involved in the present study: (1) Brazil (Porto Alegre); (2) Japan (Niigata); (3) Mexico (Mexico City); (4) Norway (Oslo); (5) Sweden (Falköping); (6) Turkey (Istanbul); (7) and the United States (Iowa City, Iowa). During the interview and examination, the following variables were evaluated and registered: (1) breastfeeding and bottle-feeding; (2) duration and frequency; (3) sucking habits; (4) posterior and anterior crossbites; and (5) other malocclusions/normal occlusion. The prevalence of breast-feeding was very high in all groups, ranging between 78% and 98%. The prevalence of bottle-feeding in the different areas was also high. Except for Iowa City, the prevalence of digit-sucking was relatively low. Pacifier-sucking is fairly popular in most areas, with the exception of Niigata. The prevalence of normal occlusion in different cities ranged from 38% to 98%. There are considerable differences in feeding, as well as artificial sucking habits, in different areas of the world and at different periods.

  7. Endocrine disruptor activity in bottled mineral and flavoured water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Frizzell, Caroline; Robinson, Victoria; Elliott, Christopher T; Connolly, Lisa

    2013-02-15

    A panel of reporter gene assays (RGAs) coupled with a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step was developed and used to screen bottled mineral water for the presence of four classes of endocrine disruptors (EDs), oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids. Fourteen brands of bottled mineral water in triplicate (42 samples) were analysed. Overall, hormonal activity was found in 78% of the samples. Oestrogenic, androgenic, progestagenic and glucocorticoid activity was found in 38%, 38%, 36% and 55% of the samples, respectively at an average concentration of 10 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalent (EEQ), 26 ng/l testosterone equivalent (TEQ), 123 ng/l progesterone equivalent (PEQ) and 13.5 ng/l hydrocortisone equivalent (HEQ). The level of oestrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic activity observed is not considered a matter of concern for the consumers' health. It is unknown whether the glucocorticoid levels observed are safe. The ED source, long term exposure and mixture effects remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nemova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius rco = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius rco = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme.

  9. Relativistic Cyclotron Resonance Shape in Magnetic Bottle Geonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmelt, Hans; Mittleman, Richard; Liu, Yuan

    1988-10-01

    The thermally excited axial oscillation of the electron through the weak magnetic bottle needed for the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect modulates the cyclotron frequency and produces a characteristic ≈ 12-kHz-wide vertical rise-exponential decline line shape of the cyclotron resonance. At the same time the relativistic mass shift decreases the frequency by ≈ 200 Hz per cyclotron motion quantum level n. Nevertheless, our analysis of the complex line shape shows that it should be possible to produce an abrupt rise in the cyclotron quantum number n from 0 to ≈ 20 over a small fraction of 200 Hz, when the 160-GHz microwave drive approaches the n = 0 → 1 transition, and a jump of 14 levels over a frequency increment of 200 Hz has already been observed in preliminary work. This realizes an earlier proposal to generate a very sharp cyclotron resonance feature by quasithermal excitation with a square noise band and should provide a way to detect spin flips when a weak bottle is used to reduce the broadening of the g - 2 resonance by a factor of 20.

  10. The use of bottle caps as submerged aerated filter medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno de Oliveira, Laurence; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Goel, Ramesh; de Souza Missagia, Beatriz; Alves de Abreu Filho, Benício; Lautenschlager, Sandro Rogério

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a submerged aerated filter (SAF) using bottle caps as a support medium was evaluated. The system was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system at ETE 2-South wastewater treatment plant, under different volumetric organic load rates (VOLRs). The population of a particular nitrifying microbial community was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. The system showed an average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) equal to 76% for VOLRs between 2.6 and 13.6 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1). The process of nitrification in conjunction with the removal of organic matter was observed from applying VOLRs lower than 5.5 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1) resulting in 78% conversion of NH4(+)-N. As the applied organic load was reduced, an increase in the nitrifying bacteria population was observed compared with total 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells. Generally, SAF using bottle caps as a biological aerated filter medium treating wastewater from an anaerobic system showed promising removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conversion of NH4(+)-N.

  11. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  12. PMMA Solid bottle optical microresonator for measure relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, D. A.; Horta, S. D.; Torres, C. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we studied experimentally the performance of an solid bottle optical resonator made of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) for measure the relative humidity of the medium. In the developed device, the WGMs modes within the microcavity are excited by the proximity of an optical fiber taper with an outer diameter of the order of 3-5 microns made from stretching a standard optical fiber of Silica by the flame brushing technique. In the resonant device, the field produced by a laser system tunable TLS is guided through the fiber taper and is coupled into the microcavity by the approach of the fiber taper to the equatorial zone of the microbottle, causing the excitation of the WGMs resonant modes inside the same. When the device is subjected to changes in relative humidity of the medium, the wavelengths of resonance of WGMs modes that have been coupled in the microresonator are shifted spectrally depending on the external humidity, showing an experimental sensitivity in the resonator due to changes in the relative humidity of the medium. In the experiment, it was possible to produce different samples of optical resonators with a profile shaped bottle with different maximum diameters achieving a maximum sensitivity of 0.032 nm/% RH for a resonator with equatorial diameter of 1250 μm.

  13. Feeding Practices and NEC

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, Manimaran; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm inf...

  14. The relative importance of social class and maternal education for breast-feeding initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2009-12-01

    To examine changes in breast-feeding take-up rates among young children in Scotland and to assess whether maternal education or occupation-based social class is a stronger and better predictor of breast-feeding take-up. Binary logistic regression models were developed from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland longitudinal survey, for the two cohorts of children. A national representative survey for Scotland. A baby cohort of 5012 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2004 and May 2005, and a toddler cohort of 2732 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2002 and May 2003. Mothers from more privileged social classes and those with more educational qualifications resulted as more likely to breast-feed. However, maternal education was a better and more robust predictor of breast-feeding take-up compared with social class. There were no significant differences in breast-feeding take-up between the two cohorts and only minor differences between mothers aged 20-29 years and those who stated an intention to bottle-feed prior to birth. The study suggests that the importance of maternal education in influencing breast-feeding has been somewhat overlooked in research based in more developed countries. The results indicate that, compared with occupation-related social class, maternal education is a more informative, accurate and useful lens through which to understand and explain patterns of breast-feeding take-up.

  15. The Relationship Between Breast Feeding and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally accepted that breast feeding has a beneficial effect on the health of infants and children. The evidence that breast feeding protects against obesity is inconclusive also the influence of breast feeding on blood pressure in later life is uncertain. The major aim of this study was to assess the association between method of infant breast feeding and components of the body mass index and blood pressure in pre-school children. Materials & Methods: In a cohort study, a total of 800 pre-school children, 359 (47.2% males, and 402 (52.8% females, born in 2003 in Yazd, Iran were selected based on a systematic stratified random model. Of eight hundred questionnaires sent, 761 (95% were returned to the investigators. At 6 years, blood pressure was measured on the right arm at rest. Body mass index (BMI was calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg/m2.Data on infants feeding were collected respectively during first two years of life .Data were managed and analyzed using SPSS (SPSS, Inc, version 13.0 Results: Of the 761 subjects included in this study, 452 (59.4% were exclusively breast fed, 136 (17.9% were bottle fed and 173 (22.7% were partially breast fed. Body mass index was not significantly different between bottle feeding, partial and exclusive breast feeding groups (P=0.398 ..No relationship was found between method and duration of breast feeding, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.244, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.781 and mean blood pressure (P=0.483. Conclusion: We did not find association between method of infant feeding, duration of breast feeding and systolic, diastolic mean blood pressures and also with body mass index

  16. Syringe-feeding as a novel delivery method for accurate individual dosing of probiotics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tillmann, Sandra; Wegener, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic administration to rodents is typically achieved using oral gavage or water bottles, but both approaches may compromise animal welfare, bacterial viability, dosing accuracy, or ease of administration. Oral gavage dosing may induce stress, especially when given daily over several weeks...... leftovers or clogging of the bottle further threaten the reliability of this method. To date, no method has been described that can provide non-stressful precise dosing of probiotics or prebiotics in individual rats. In accordance with the 3R principles (replace, reduce, refine), we propose syringe......-feeding as a refinement method for simple yet accurate administration of probiotics. Animals hereby voluntarily consume the solution directly from a syringe held into their home cage, thereby enabling controlled dosing of individual animals. This method requires a short training phase of approximately 3 days, but is very...

  17. Too hot to handle? Hot water bottle injuries in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Bruce, Eleanor; Darton, Anne; Thornbury, Kelly; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Hot water bottles are frequently used in the community as a source of warmth, and to alleviate a number of medical symptoms. In Australia it is believed that over 500,000 water bottles are sold annually (Whittam et al., 2010). This simple treatment is known to result in significant burns and has led to mandatory labeling requirements on hot water bottles in Australia. Despite this, few published studies have documented the incidence and nature of burns sustained through their use. This study aimed to assess the incidence, causation and outcome of hot water bottle burns presenting to a major burn trauma unit in Sydney (Australia). The New South Wales Agency for Clinical Innovation Statewide Burn Injury database and admission data to the Concord Hospital Burns Injury Unit (major treatment unit) provided information on hot water bottle burns occurring between 2005 and 2013. Demographic details, cause of burn, burn depth, total burn surface area (%TBSA), and outcome of burn were ascertained. In order to assess the burn potential of hot water bottles, a separate study examined the thermic properties of hot water bottles in 'real life' scenarios. There were 155 hot water bottle burn presentations resulting in 41 admissions and 24 grafts. The majority of patients were female, and most burns resulted from appliance rupture when used for local pain relief. Patients had an average TBSA of 2.4%. Burns patients were slightly more likely to reside in areas with greater socio-economic disadvantage. In real life scenarios, hot water bottles were shown to retain heat over 50°C for at least 3 hours (h). Hot water bottles are a source of common and preventable burns in the community, with women being more at risk than men. Hot water bottles may retain harmful levels of heat over an extended period of time. Additional labeling requirements pertaining to the longevity of hot water bottles and their use among people especially at risk of burns (i.e. children, the elderly, patients who

  18. The potential role of breast-feeding and other factors in helping to reduce early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Lee S; Erwin, Katherine; Lense, Elizabeth; Hicks, James

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in US children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is particularly virulent and can interfere with a child's ability to eat, grow, speak, and communicate. Studies on whether breast-feeding or bottle-feeding are more likely to reduce ECC have proven inconclusive. The study population included 175 children, aged 1 to 5, receiving dental care at the Hughes Spalding Children's Hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participation included a dental exam, chart data abstraction, and a personal interview with the mother. Too few exclusively breast-fed children prevented the adequate study of breast-feeding. However, children exclusively bottle-fed for at least 1.5 years had more decayed or filled tooth surfaces than children breast-fed part of that time but well short of a year. No bottle at night nor juice at irregular times, the mother's brushing of her child's teeth, and adequate dental care in the mother seemed to reduce ECC. Our results suggest measures that might reduce ECC risk. Medical providers must discuss oral health with new mothers and educate them on the important role they play in keeping their babies' teeth healthy

  19. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  20. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about local events, news, programs, and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all ...

  2. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Fe...

  3. Influence of infant feeding patterns on the deciduous second molar relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan S Sargod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatricians and pediatric dentists coincide in the great importance of breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life for the correct development of the mouth and for occlusion, breathing and swallowing during childhood. Lower prevalence and severity of malocclusions in breastfed children, in comparison with those that were bottle fed, have been reported. There exists substantial documentation that further credits breastfeeding with enhanced oral development and the formation of proper swallowing technique. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of infant feeding patterns on the deciduous second molar relationship in 3-5-year-old children of selected preschools in and around Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were given to parents of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Clinical examination was performed with the children comfortably seated, and the molar relationship was checked in maximal habitual intercuspation. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square. There was a significant difference between children who were breastfed (84.09% mesial step and those who were bottle fed (22.2% mesial step. Among the bottle-fed children, the conventional nipple group showed 23.52% of mesial step occlusion while in the physiologic nipple group, 55.26% had a mesial step occlusion. Conclusion: This study supports a correlation between infant feeding methods and primary molar relationship. Exclusively breastfed children showed better development of dental arches with a higher incidence of mesial step occlusion when compared to bottle-fed children.

  4. Development, Construct Validity, and Reliability of the Questionnaire on Infant Feeding: A Tool for Measuring Contemporary Infant-Feeding Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    The breastfeeding surveillance tool in the United States, the National Immunization Survey, considers the maternal-infant dyad to be breastfeeding for as long as the infant consumes human milk (HM). However, many infants consume at least some HM from a bottle, which can lead to health outcomes different from those for at-the-breast feeding. Our aim was to develop a construct-valid questionnaire that categorizes infants by nutrition source, that is, own mother's HM, another mother's HM, infant formula, or other and feeding mode, that is, at the breast or from a bottle, and test the reliability of this questionnaire. The Questionnaire on Infant Feeding was developed through a literature review and modified based on qualitative research. Construct validity was assessed through cognitive interviews and a test-retest reliability study was conducted among mothers who completed the questionnaire twice, 1 month apart. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten mothers from upstate New York between September and December 2014. A test-retest reliability study was conducted among 44 mothers from across the United States between March and May 2015. Equivalence of questions with continuous responses about the timing of starting and stopping various behaviors and the agreement between responses to questions with categorical responses on the two questionnaires completed 1 month apart. Reliability was assessed using paired-equivalence tests for questions about the timing of starting and stopping behaviors and weighted Cohen's κ for questions about the frequency and intensity of behaviors. Reliability of the Questionnaire on Infant Feeding was moderately high among mothers of infants aged 19 to 35 months, with most questions about the timing of starting and stopping behaviors equivalent to within 1 month. Weighted Cohen's κ for categorical questions indicated substantial agreement. The Questionnaire on Infant Feeding is a construct-valid tool to measure duration, intensity

  5. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  6. First Steps Towards Development of an Instrument for the Reproducible Quantification of Oropharyngeal Swallow Physiology in Bottle-Fed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton-Greif, Maureen A; McGrattan, Katlyn Elizabeth; Carson, Kathryn A; Pinto, Jeanne M; Wright, Jennifer M; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-09-11

    The incidence of feeding/swallowing impairments (deglutition disorders) in young children is rising and poses serious acute and long-term health consequences. Accurate detection and prompt intervention can lessen the impact of dysphagia-induced sequelae. Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies (VFSSs) are used to make critical decisions for medically fragile children despite procedural variability and the lack of agreed upon measures for interpreting and reporting results. This investigation represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool for the quantification of oropharyngeal swallow physiology from full-length VFSS examinations in bottle-fed children. The Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile MBSImP™© served as the conceptual assessment model for development of components and operational score variants to characterize distinguishable VFSS observations. Twenty-four components of swallowing physiology were validated via expert consensus. Training materials included a library of 94 digitized video images comprised of distinct score variants for each component. Materials were disseminated to seven speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who participated in didactic and self-training sessions, and rated components. All SLPs achieved ≥80% reliability criterion after completing two or three training sessions. Agreement for 17 (71%) components was achieved after two sessions. Nutritive sucking/oral and airway-related components were most difficult to distinguish. Three sessions were required for 2 (33%) of the sucking/oral components and 4 (57%) of the airway-related components. These findings support the feasibility to standardize training and reliably score swallowing physiology using precise definitions and unambiguous visual images, and represent preliminary steps towards content validity and reliability of a standardized VFSS tool for bottle-fed children.

  7. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  8. Actomyosin contractility and microtubules drive apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Harland, Richard M

    2007-11-01

    Cell shape changes are critical for morphogenetic events such as gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. However, the cell biology driving cell shape changes is poorly understood, especially in vertebrates. The beginning of Xenopus laevis gastrulation is marked by the apical constriction of bottle cells in the dorsal marginal zone, which bends the tissue and creates a crevice at the blastopore lip. We found that bottle cells contribute significantly to gastrulation, as their shape change can generate the force required for initial blastopore formation. As actin and myosin are often implicated in contraction, we examined their localization and function in bottle cells. F-actin and activated myosin accumulate apically in bottle cells, and actin and myosin inhibitors either prevent or severely perturb bottle cell formation, showing that actomyosin contractility is required for apical constriction. Microtubules were localized in apicobasally directed arrays in bottle cells, emanating from the apical surface. Surprisingly, apical constriction was inhibited in the presence of nocodazole but not taxol, suggesting that intact, but not dynamic, microtubules are required for apical constriction. Our results indicate that actomyosin contractility is required for bottle cell morphogenesis and further suggest a novel and unpredicted role for microtubules during apical constriction.

  9. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  10. Is nasal steroid spray bottle contamination a potential issue in chronic rhinosinusitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, N C-W; Drilling, A J; Jardeleza, C; Wormald, P-J

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal steroids are the first line of treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Although contamination of adjunctive devices (e.g. irrigation bottles) has been much investigated, little is known about nasal contamination of the metered-dose spray bottles used to deliver intranasal steroids, and the potential influence on disease chronicity. Twenty-five prospectively recruited patients with stable chronic rhinosinusitis underwent microbiological analysis of their nasal vestibule and middle meatus and also of their steroid bottle tip and contents. Additionally, bottle tips were inoculated in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus and various sterilisation techniques tested. For 18 of the 25 (72 per cent) patients, both nasal and bottle tip swabs grew either Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 7 of the 25 (28 per cent) patients, and 5 of these 7 had concomitant bacterial growth from both nose and steroid bottle. Thus, the cross-contamination rate was 71 per cent for Staphylococcus aureus infected patients and 20 per cent overall. Sterilisation was effective with boiling water, ethanol wipes and microwaving, but not with cold water or dishwashing liquid. Nasal steroid spray bottle tips can become contaminated with sinonasal cavity bacteria. Simple sterilisation methods can eliminate this contamination. Patient education on this matter should be emphasised.

  11. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  12. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Assessing the risk of irrigation bottle and fluid contamination after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John M; Nayak, Jayakar V; Doghramji, Laurie L; Welch, Kevin C; Chiu, Alexander G

    2010-01-01

    Saline nasal irrigation has become an important aspect of post-operative care following endoscopic sinus surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the risks of contamination of both the nasal irrigation bottle and fluid following endoscopic sinus surgery. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. All patients were given nasal irrigation bottles with detailed cleaning instructions preoperatively. Nasal irrigation bottles were collected and cultured at 1 and 2 weeks postoperatively. During the same visit, 5-ml of sterile normal saline was mixed into the irrigation bottle and then cultured separately. A total of 20 patients agreed to participate in the study. At 1 week postoperatively, 50% of the bottles had positive cultures with 40% of the irrigation samples testing positive for bacteria. At two weeks, the contamination in the irrigation bottle and fluid decreased to 26.7% and 20%, respectively. The most common bacteria cultured was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were no cases of postoperative infection. Despite detailed cleaning instructions, there is a relatively high risk of bacterial contamination in nasal irrigation bottles and fluid following endoscopic sinus surgery. Although these risks did not translate into higher infection rates postsurgery, it may be important for physicians to emphasize regular cleaning techniques to minimize a potential source of bacterial contaminant exposure.

  14. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  15. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of baby bottle versus breastfeeding graphics on products in national chain stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerson, Daphne; Hornsby, Paige P; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie A; Bressler, Colleen J; Burns, Whitney R; Friedman, Caroline F; Vaughn, Natalie H; Marshall, Stephanie P; Marshall, Trisha L; Park, Jennie; Kellams, Ann

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed the prevalence of bottle versus breastfeeding graphic images on products marketed for pregnant mothers and young children available for purchase in national chain stores. This was a product survey/content analysis. Eighteen national chain stores located in a 10-mile radius of Charlottesville, VA were visited. In total, 2,670 individual items in 11 categories of baby shower and baby gift merchandise (shower invitations, greeting cards, gift wrap, shower decorations, baby dolls, baby books, infant clothing, bibs, nursery decorations, baby blankets, and disposable diapers) were assessed. The main outcome measures were prevalences of baby bottle and breastfeeding graphic images. Baby bottle images were found on products in eight of the 11 categories of items surveyed. Thirty-five percent of baby dolls were marketed with a baby bottle. The prevalence of bottle images on items in all other categories, however, was low. Of the 2,670 items surveyed, none contained a breastfeeding image. The low prevalence of baby bottle images on commonly purchased baby gift and baby shower items is encouraging. However, the absence of breastfeeding images and the relatively high prevalence of baby dolls marketed with a baby bottle demonstrate that breastfeeding is not portrayed as the physiologic norm on these products. Product designers should explore ways to promote breastfeeding, consumers should make informed choices in product selection, and advocacy groups should promote guidelines for these products.

  17. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  18. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  19. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  20. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  1. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R

    2014-04-01

    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. 'Please don't put the whole dang thing out there!': a discursive analysis of internet discussions around infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Lazard, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of breastfeeding is an important focus of intervention for professionals working to improve infant health outcomes. Literature in this area focuses largely on 'choices' and 'barriers to breastfeeding'. It is our argument, however, that women's cultural context plays a key role in infant feeding 'choices'. In this article, we explore contested representations of infant feeding and infant feeding choices in public debates conducted on a large British parenting website. To sample dominant representations of infant feeding circulating in UK culture, two threads were chosen from the debating board of a busy online parenting community (105 and 99 individual posts, respectively). Participants on the threads were largely women. A feminist informed Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to deconstruct the intersecting constructions of gender, childhood and motherhood implicit in public discussions about infant feeding choices. We identify dominant constructions of women who breastfeed or bottle feed, social representations of both forms of infant feeding, and explore the relationship between constructions of infant feeding choices and constructions of 'good' or 'bad' motherhood. This analysis functions to trouble the individualist assumptions underpinning the notion of infant feeding 'choices', considering the cultural context within which British mothers 'choose' how to feed their babies.

  3. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-09

    sajas.v46i1.4. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence broiler breeder feeding time. R.M. Gous# & R. Danisman. School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal,.

  4. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  5. Microwave disinfection: assessing the risks of irrigation bottle and fluid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morong, Sharon; Lee, John M

    2012-01-01

    It was previously shown that 50% of irrigation bottles and 40% of irrigation fluids had evidence of bacterial contamination despite cleaning with hot water and soap. Although a novel method of microwave disinfection has recently been proposed to minimize contamination risk, this has not been studied in a real life setting. This study investigates the effectiveness of microwave disinfection for reducing both nasal irrigation bottle and irrigation fluid contamination risk after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Twenty consecutive patients underwent ESS for chronic rhinosinusitis. Patients were given NeilMed Sinus Rinse bottles (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Santa Rosa CA) to use twice daily, with microwave cleaning instructions preoperatively. Bottles were collected and cultured 1 week postoperatively. Sterile saline (5 mL) was mixed into the irrigation bottle and cultured separately. An additional 10 patients were recruited whereby the bottle was cultured at collection and immediately after microwave disinfection was performed in the clinic. For the first cohort of the study, 40% of the bottles and 20% of the irrigation samples had positive cultures 1 week postoperatively. Common bacteria included Acinetobacter, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Gram-negative bacilli. For the second cohort of patients, 20% of the irrigation bottles had positive cultures. However, after supervised microwave disinfection, there was a 0% contamination rate. Despite detailed instructions on microwave disinfection, positive bacterial cultures may still occur after ESS. This risk, however, appears to be significantly reduced when bottles are microwaved under supervision. These findings suggest either a reduced patient compliance to cleaning or a time-dependent recontamination risk after disinfection.

  6. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  7. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.

    2000-01-01

    , and the resulting dissolved CO2 concentration supported maximum algal growth rates without pH drift for algal densities up to 4 mg dry weight/L. Two-day toxicity tests with kerosene were performed with this new test design and compared with an open bottle test and with a closed bottle test with headspace. Exposure...... concentrations of the volatile fraction of kerosene decreased by 99% in the open test, by 77% in the closed flask test with headspace, and by 16% in the filled closed bottle test. Algal growth inhibition was observed at much lower additions of kerosene in the new test design because of the improved maintenance...

  8. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P<.001). Funding for the formal program was discontinued in 1990. In 1994, the Indian Health Service Dental and Head Start funded an assessment of the current prevalence of BBTD and the level of program implementation at the 12 original sites. This paper describes the findings. At the five sites where both one-to- one counseling and community-based educational activities had continued, BBTD prevalence was reduced by 38%(P<.001) over the eight-year period.

  9. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, E.; Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-09-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5``centre dot`` 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and confinement time {tau} = 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. (Author).

  10. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  11. Changes in maternal attitudes toward baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, M J; Logan, H L; Jakobsen, J

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant number of parents whose children have baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) admit prior knowledge regarding the harmful effects of putting their children to bed with a bottle. The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) offers a theoretical framework for better understanding why knowledge and attitude are often not predictive of behavior. The goal of this study was to use the ELM to analyze the manner in which information about BBTD is evaluated. One hundred twenty low-income women (either pregnant or with a child younger than 7 months of age) at a WIC clinic were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) 5-min audiotaped persuasive message about BBTD; 2) same audiotaped message with overheard audience response affirming the message; and 3) no intervention control group. Knowledge and attitudes about BBTD were measured before and after the experimental intervention. Participants hearing the audiotaped message also were asked to rate the expertise of the messenger and the quality of the message. Both groups hearing a taped message about BBTD showed a significant positive change in attitude and knowledge when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the attitude and knowledge of those who heard an audiotaped message accompanied by an audience response compared with those who heard the audiotaped message alone. No significant difference between the ratings of message quality or messenger expertise by group was found. It was concluded that the participants in this study processed the BBTD message primarily through the central route, that is, by careful evaluation of the issue-relevant information contained in the persuasive message.

  12. Solar Disinfection of Viruses in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Anna; Dionisio Calado, Alex; Mattle, Michael J; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-10-23

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is a simple, efficient point-of-use technique for the inactivation of many bacterial pathogens. In contrast, the efficiency of SODIS against viruses is not well known. In this work, we studied the inactivation of bacteriophages (MS2 and ϕX174) and human viruses (echovirus 11 and adenovirus type 2) by SODIS. We conducted experiments in PET bottles exposed to (simulated) sunlight at different temperatures (15, 22, 26, and 40°C) and in water sources of diverse compositions and origins (India and Switzerland). Good inactivation of MS2 (>6-log inactivation after exposure to a total fluence of 1.34 kJ/cm(2)) was achieved in Swiss tap water at 22°C, while less-efficient inactivation was observed in Indian waters and for echovirus (1.5-log inactivation at the same fluence). The DNA viruses studied, ϕX174 and adenovirus, were resistant to SODIS, and the inactivation observed was equivalent to that occurring in the dark. High temperatures enhanced MS2 inactivation substantially; at 40°C, 3-log inactivation was achieved in Swiss tap water after exposure to a fluence of only 0.18 kJ/cm(2). Overall, our findings demonstrate that SODIS may reduce the load of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as echoviruses, particularly at high temperatures and in photoreactive matrices. In contrast, complementary measures may be needed to ensure efficient inactivation during SODIS of DNA viruses resistant to oxidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Improved sealant retention with bonding agents: a clinical study of two-bottle and single-bottle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigal, R J; Musherure, P; Gillespie, B; Levy-Polack, M; Quelhas, I; Hebling, J

    2000-11-01

    Recent in vitro work and a short clinical study suggest that adding a bonding agent layer between sealant and saliva-contaminated enamel allows for adequate bond strength and retention of resin sealants and may improve success of all sealant applications. This five-year clinical study scored 617 occlusal and 441 buccal/lingual molar sealants, with use of a split-mouth design, with half receiving sealant alone and half bonding agent plus sealant. Treatment effects and potential risk factors for sealant failure were tested by means of a Cox regression model. Three bonding agent groups were analyzed for treatment effect: Tenure primer, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and 3 single-bottle dentin bonding agents as a third group. The single-bottle group was successful in reducing risk of sealant failure, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.53 (p = 0.014) for occlusal and 0.35 (p = 0.006) for buccal/lingual sealants. Scotchbond was detrimental to occlusal sealant success, with a HR of 2.96 (p = 0.0003). Tenure primer was neutral, showing HRs close to 1.0. Variables that affected success differed between occlusal and buccal/lingual sealants, suggesting that failures on these two surfaces may be dependent upon differing factors. Early eruption stage was a significant risk factor for both surfaces (HR = 2.91, p = 0.00001, occlusal; and HR = 1.52, p = 0.015, buccal/lingual). Behavior (HR = 1.96, p = 0.0007), salivary problems (HR = 1.73, p = 0.002), and visually apparent variations in enamel (HR = 1.51, p = 0.018) were significant risk factors for occlusal sealants only. In addition to completing detailed analyses of risk factors for sealant survival, this study shows that single-bottle bonding agents protect sealant survival, yielding half the usual risk of failure for occlusal sealants and one-third the risk of failure for buccal/lingual sealants.

  14. Breast-feeding multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  15. Breast-feeding: the role of multinational corporations in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M B

    1976-01-01

    The decline in birthrates in the developed countries of the world has forced multinational corporations engaged in the production of infant formula to seek out new markets in the developing countries, where burgeoning population rates potentially guarantee the long-term profitability of these corporations. This development, ostensibly benign and nutritionally advantageous to infants in developing countries, has serious public health consequences, due to the high relative cost of purchased formula and the paucity of hygienic facilities essential to the sterile preparation of bottle formula. This paper delineates in detail economic and contraceptive advantages of breast-feeding, and examines the role of health personnel and multinational advertising techniques which have catalyzed the decline in breast-feeding. In addition, the paper focuses on the question of cultural imperialism and current efforts to regulate the multinational firms through both United Nations groups and stock-holders' suits. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning ameliorative public policy approaches to the breast-feeding controversy.

  16. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  17. Determination Of Caustic Drain Out Period Of Glass Bottle Washerand Impact Of Total And Effective Caustic Strengths For Glass Bottle Washing In Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.MJ. Harshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests APC and Yeast amp Molds Methylene blue test Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days within two caustic drains out periods. Negative correlations in between total effective caustic strengths with time Days indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation P 0.05 in between Carbonates gml and time Days onward. Positive correlations P 0.05 indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference P 0.05.

  18. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C

    2017-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health.

  19. Respiratory inhibition after crying or gastroesophageal reflux and feeding hypoxemia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minowa, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present information on respiratory inhibition after crying (RIAC), feeding hypoxemia, and respiratory inhibition after gastroesophageal reflux (RIGER) to medical staff caring for infants. The author reviewed investigations of these conditions. These conditions have been observed in full-term healthy infants, and they are accompanied clinically by central cyanosis and a decrease in SpO2 to less than 70%. These conditions are easily diagnosed using pulse oximetry. Among Japanese infants with a gestational age of 36 weeks or older, the incidence of RIAC and feeding hypoxemia is 24% and 32%, respectively. The incidence of RIGER is approximately 4%. Feeding hypoxemia occurs significantly more often during bottle-feeding than during breastfeeding. RIAC, feeding hypoxemia, and RIGER are significantly associated with each other. The risk factors are maternal smoking during pregnancy, threatened premature labor, twin gestation, asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction, and abnormal cranial ultrasound findings. Almost all infants recover from RIAC by day 7 after birth. Some infants with feeding hypoxemia require additional assistance and monitoring by nursing staff until the day of discharge. Medical staff caring for infants should note the presence of RIAC, feeding hypoxemia, and RIGER.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for ... Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe ...

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    Full Text Available ... what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby ... breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on ...

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    Full Text Available ... started. Learn what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding ... Family health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? We've got answers. Reach out ...

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  18. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    -stageprocess, where the wood fibers are first thermoformed in the desired shape followed by drying of theformed geometry [2]. To ensure the robustness of the bottle and to avoid shrinkage of cellulose fibers,the wet-formed bottle is pressurized using a silicone core. The core is inserted inside the drying tooland...... inflated. This keeps the wet bottle under pressure thereby enhancing formation of good hydrogenbonds, and hence providing good strength. The feasibility of the tool design concept is supported withFinite Element Model. The hyperelastic behaviour of silicone is defined by the deformation energyfunction (W......). To simulate the inflation action of the core, Yeoh’s model is used for modelling of W. Thestrength of the GFB is correlated with the pressure the bottle can hold and the cut off burst pressurefrom experiments is also reported in this work....

  19. A cell-based model of Nematostella vectensis gastrulation including bottle cell formation, invagination and zippering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamulonis, C.; Postma, M.; Marlow, H.Q.; Magie, C.R.; de Jong, J.; Kaandorp, J.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrulation of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, is morphologically simple yet involves many conserved cell behaviors such as apical constriction, invagination, bottle cell formation, cell migration and zippering found during gastrulation in a wide range of more morphologically

  20. Chemical stability of two dentin single-bottle adhesives as a function of solvent loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismael Henry Yevenes; Maria Olga Baltra; Iván Urzua; Juan Reyes; Ljubica Petrasic

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two single-bottle dentin adhesive systems, Single-Bond and Prime and Bond NT, containing ethanol-water or acetone as solvents, respectively, were investigated for their chemical stability regarding solvent loss. Methods...