WorldWideScience

Sample records for botswana

  1. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  2. Botswana Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Living conditions of Botswana have improved over the past decade and poverty has reduced significantly. This decrease was accompanied by a considerable decline in both depth and severity of poverty, indicating that consumption has improved among the poor. While rural areas led the poverty reduction, the share of the poor living in urban areas has increased. Botswana’s progress toward reduc...

  3. Building an Educated & Informed Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS year marks the 36th anniversary of the establishment of China-Botswana diplomatic ties.Invited by China’s Ministry of Education,a Botswana highlevel educational delegation headed by Pelonomi Venson-Moitoi,Botswana’s Minister of Education and Skills Development,paid a one-week visit to

  4. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  5. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  6. Conducting Assemblies in Botswana Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baamphatlha, Dinama

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author explored the teachers' experiences and their views regarding how assemblies are conducted in Botswana public schools. The author indicates that assemblies are a common feature in Botswana primary and secondary schools. The author adopted the Christian Privilege as the conceptual framework as espoused by Blumenfeld (2006)…

  7. Guinea Fowl Production in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl farming is still in its infancy in Botswana; hence the population of farmed guinea fowl is unknown, as well as, their contribution to human nutrition. Presently, production occurs mainly at subsistence level and females (women appear to dominate the industry. In Botswana, guinea fowl are raised mainly under the semi-intensive system. Guinea fowl meat is of high quality, being high in protein and low in fat content, thus it is highly prized compared to chicken meat. It appears that guinea fowl farming could be more suitable to the rural areas where commercial chicken production has failed because guinea fowl are tolerant to diseases than chickens. Some challenges to guinea fowl production include farmers’ inadequate management skills necessary to raise guinea fowl successfully, inadequate technical support and lack of financial support from government extension services. It appears that guinea fowl production could be an important supplier of high quality animal protein (meat and eggs, as well as, a job creator in the rural areas.

  8. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Moreki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Given the high feed costs in Botswana it is suggested that the use of poultry manure and/or litter as livestock feed should be considered in areas where foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic such as Chobe and North West Districts, as meat from these districts does not enter the European Union market.

  9. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Uganda And Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.

  11. Marketing Sports Facilities: Perspectives from Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohutsana, Basuti; Akpata, Dele

    2013-01-01

    The provision of sports facilities contributes immensely to the growth of sports and leisure activities in the countries where they are provided. In some countries, as was the case in Botswana, the government had to spend millions of dollars to provide new Integrated Sports Facilities (ISF's) as a panacea for the continued poor performance of its…

  12. The education system of Botswana after independence / Albert Ikhutseng Kekesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kekesi, Albert Ikhutseng

    1996-01-01

    The study is concerned with the education system of Botswana after independence. This period starts from the 30th September 1966, when Botswana became independent up to the present moment. Since then the education system has undergone many changes. Consequently the focus is on the nature and impact of these changes. The study identifies changes which took place with regard to the Education System of Botswana since independence as far as meeting the minimum requirements of educa...

  13. Pediatric Cancer Recognition Training in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy S; Ishigami, Elise; Mehta, Parth S

    2016-01-01

    Delayed presentation of children with cancer is a significant barrier to improving the survival from children's cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Botswana, a country of approximately 2 million people in southern Africa, has only 1 pediatric cancer treatment program, based at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH) in the capital of Gaborone. A pediatric cancer recognition training program was developed that reached 50% of the government hospitals in Botswana teaching 362 health care workers how to recognize and refer children with cancer to PMH. Through evaluation of attendees, limitations in pediatric cancer training and general knowledge of pediatric cancer were identified. Attendees demonstrated improvement in their understanding of pediatric cancer and the referral process to PMH following the workshop. PMID:27336006

  14. HIV/AIDS-Anxiety among Adolescent Students in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyewadume, Mary Adeola

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the incidence of HIV/AIDS anxiety among students in Botswana. The sample comprised 240 randomly selected students from six schools in three districts in Botswana, with data collected via a questionnaire. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the extent to which the students were anxious about HIV/AIDS and if…

  15. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Magowe MK; Ledikwe JH; Kasvosve I; Martin R; Thankane K; Semo BW

    2014-01-01

    Mabel KM Magowe,1 Jenny H Ledikwe,2,3 Ishmael Kasvosve,1 Robert Martin,2 Kabo Thankane,3 Bazghina-werq Semo2,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 3Botswana International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, BotswanaPurpose: To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the Univer...

  16. VOICES OF EXPERIENCE: BOTSWANA PRIMARY SCHOOLS TEACHERS ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to investigate teachers’ perceptions of the impact of inclusion of learners with special educational needs on their classes and the practice of inclusive education in Botswana. Thirty-six teachers from six primary schools of the South Central Region of Botswana were engaged in six focus group discussions. Focus group discussions were triangulated with document analysis, classroom observations and access-audit to get an insight about the school and clas...

  17. Botswana and Zimbabwe: Relative success and comparative failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mhone, Guy; Bond, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Botswana and Zimbabwe represent two cases of differential access to the world economy. Notwithstanding its lack of diversification and its reliance on a primary mineral export, Botswana has prospered while Zimbabwe has fallen into a deep crisis. Historical and comparative evidence allows us to transcend the superficial presumption common to much policy discourse, namely, that the basis for success depends upon adherence to the ‘Washington Consensus’ export-oriented strategy, or to good govern...

  18. Strategies for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fombad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a route map on how law firms in Botswana may utilise knowledge management to enhance their competitive edge amidst the changing legal environment. It draws from the multiple definitions and perspectives of knowledge management, several frameworks and models together with the empirical findings to recommend a strategy for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana. It underscores the fact that knowledge management is becoming an imperative for the survival of law firms as knowledge intensive organisations. Law firms in Botswana can no longer afford to rely on the traditional methods of managing knowledge because there is a need for the 'best minds' and the best knowledge in their area of practice. It is recommended that lawyers should be proactive, adaptive, innovative, effective and competitive in the provision of outstanding, cost-efficient and effective services to clients. Most previous studies in this area have been carried out in developed countries with large law firms.

  19. Analyzing Teaching Quality in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapire, Ingrid; Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying the quality of mathematics teaching in 183 randomly selected sixth grade classrooms: 100 from the North West province of South Africa and 83 from South East Botswana. The teaching quality is measured by coding videotaped lessons for three different components: mathematical proficiency, level of cognitive demand,…

  20. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Botswana Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Shafika

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Botswana is a small, dynamic country with visionary leadership particularly in the sector of...

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Gobopamang Letamo; Kannan Navaneetham

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI

  2. Micro Language Planning and Cultural Renaissance in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Modupe M.

    2016-01-01

    Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…

  3. Polymorphisms at 17 Y-STR loci in Botswana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Tiroyamodimo; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, María Eugenia

    2015-07-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (YSTRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS385a/b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4-were analyzed in 252 unrelated male individuals from Botswana. A total of 238 unique haplotypes were identified. The discrimination capacity (DC) was 0.9444 whereas the haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9990. A database search of the 238 unique haplotypes in the Y chromosome haplogroup database (YHRD) yielded three African American, six Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed South American matches. Five additional African-American matches were detected in the Applied Biosystems Y-STR database. RST, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and AMOVA were used to investigate population differentiation in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana. The populations in Sub-Saharan Africa were found to be heterogeneous, with Botswana showing significant differences from its neighbors. No geographic regional or ethnic differentiation was observed within Botswana. Regional and ethnic variation can be useful in forensic working hypotheses. PMID:25817844

  4. Learning with a Website for the Textile Industry in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…

  5. Albinism in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools: A Double Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Gareth; Nkanotsang, Tiroyaone; Chizwe, Ose; Kowa, Lily

    2010-01-01

    Pupils with albinism potentially face a number of challenges in accessing quality education in schools in Botswana. Physical issues such as poor eyesight related to the condition and the problems of sensitive skin in such a dry and warm climate are both contributing factors to making learning problematic for some pupils. This study by Gareth Dart…

  6. True bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Botswana-Bibliographical inventory and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of insect biodiversity of Botswana is far from perfect. By 2015, there were only inventories publicly available for butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers. Here we report 331 species and subspecies of true bugs (Heteroptera), of which 242 records were extracted from scattered published literature and online sources, and 89 (27%) are new records for Botswana. These data significantly increase the number of insect species known from Botswana by roughly 30%. PMID:27395110

  7. The challenges procuring of safe abortion care in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie Samantha

    2013-12-01

    Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances, women's reproductive health continues to suffer as a result of unsafe abortion. The personal, financial, and health costs of women seeking dangerous illegal terminations, or crossing national borders to procure a legal abortion, are evident. Twenty-one in-depth, qualitative interviews with Batswana were conducted to gain some insight into the factors which make terminating an unwanted pregnancy difficult in Botswana. This small study demonstrates that there are important socio-cultural constraints, in addition to the legal barriers, that make abortion problematic. These constraints are entrenched in the wider issue of women's rights and status in society. PMID:24558781

  8. A Sociolinguistic Perspective of the Indigenous Communities of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    CHEBANNE, Andy Monthusi

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous communities of Botswana discussed in this paper are generally referred to as the Khoisan (Khoesan). While there are debates on the common origins of Khoisan communities, the existence of at least fi ve language families suggests a separate evolution that resulted in major grammatical and lexical differences between them. Due to historical confl icts with neighboring groups, they have been pushed far into the most inhospitable areas of the regions where they presently live. The ...

  9. Histories of the Subaltern from the Kgalagadi's Fringe, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, David Reed

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses the cultural dynamics of contact and the changing social landscapes between `San-speaking' foragers and ancestral `Bakgalagadi' farmers who lived in the Metsemothlaba River valley of southeastern Botswana on the fringe of the Kgalagadi Desert, c. 500-200 years ago. Using a practice approach to examine the material remains of their daily lives, this research demonstrates the everyday dynamic of contact as well as the wider social and economic connections bo...

  10. The Impact of Financial Liberalization Policies: The Case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Dahir Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Financial liberalization enables market forces to play a greater role in mobiliz- ing resources, allocating credit, setting financial asset prices and improving financial intermediation. Many studies have claimed that these changes enhance savings, and improve efficiency of investment, which ultimately ameliorate economic growth. This paper attempts to analyse the Botswana experience, where despite having an open economy for many decades, financial liberalization was a major policy in the rec...

  11. Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor ma...

  12. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  13. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  14. Foreign Direct Investment – The Case of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lindelwa Makoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the occurrence of foreign direct investment (FDI in Botswana. Diamonds contribute more than 50% of Botswana’s gross domestic product (GDP, hence economic growth and development focus has been on the mining sector. The country’s other sectors of tourism, agriculture, financial services and manufacturing have not received as much support from the Government, private sector and even international investors. This article briefly examines FDI inflow trends and the country’s national economic-building policies which the Government has put in place to diversify its economy from the current export-oriented, diamond mining economy. A country-specific case study approach was adopted. The results yielded show that Botswana is overly dependent on export earnings from diamonds. This leaves the country vulnerable to external global economic shocks. Given that diamonds are a natural resource with a limited lifespan, the Government of Botswana needs to draw up investor-friendly policies to attract FDI inflows to expand its economic base. International capital inflows would complement domestic savings and further boost employment and trade opportunities in the country.

  15. Environmental impact of woody biomass use in Botswana - the case of fuelwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of fuelwood and deforestation in Botswana is presented. Details are given of the AFREPREN biomass research project to evaluate the methods for examining biomass energy sources in Botswana and Rwanda, and the contribution of fuelwood harvesting to deforestation. (UK)

  16. Aids Eestis nagu Botswanas / Mikk Jürisson ; interv. Svea Talving

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Mikk, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Kui Eesti ei taha jõuda olukorda, mis tekkis Botswanas, kus aidsiepideemia ravi ja tõkestamine haaras lõviosa riigi tuludest ning keskmine eluiga lühenes drastiliselt, tuleks haiguse levik võtta range tähelepanu alla ja uurida, mida tasuks õppida Botswana kogemusest

  17. Using System Dynamics to model the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi

  18. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandala NB

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1 Eugene K Campbell,2 Serai Dan Rakgoasi,2 Banyana C Madi-Segwagwe,3 Thabo T Fako41University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Division of Health Sciences; Populations, Evidence and Technologies Group, Warwick Evidence, Coventry, UK; 2Department of Population Studies, University of Botswana, 3SADC Secretariat, Directorate of Social and Human Development and Special Programmes, 4Vice Chancellor's Office, University of Botswana, Gaborone, BotswanaBackground: Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups.Methods: We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey.Results: Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4% than males (14.3%. HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3% than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively. We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25–35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36–49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more

  19. Botswana; 2006 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Authorities for Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    The staff report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation on Botswana highlights economic developments and monetary and exchange rate policy. Botswana’s growth has been fueled by continued increases in diamond production; and real diamond output is projected to level off, and then decline sharply after about 15 years. Diversification of the economy will require implementation of substantial structural reforms, in particular the authorities’ planned reforms in labor markets, the investment env...

  20. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  1. Perception of University Lecturers Towards Consumption of Genetically Modified Foods in Nigeria and Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2009-03-01

    The results showed that majority were males (77 and 57 percent respectively, with 51 percent of the lecturers in Botswana between the 51–60 years and 59 percent between 41–50 years in Nigeria. The percentage of lecturers in Botswana that are MSc degree holders (45 percent was higher than those from Nigeria. Lecturers from BCA agreed and were positively disposed to 12, while lecturers from south western universities in Nigeria agreed and are positively disposed to five out of the 15 statements on the rating scale. It is important to note that four of the statements were perceived positively by lectures from both countries. Also, significant difference existed in their perception (Z = –6.65, p < 0.05; with higher mean rank for Botswana (108.02 than for Nigeria (58.01. This further confirms that Botswana lecturers are more favorably disposed to genetically modified foods than Nigeria lecturers.

  2. The development of a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana / Delly Chatibura

    OpenAIRE

    Chatibura, Delly

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is the development a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana. This goal was achieved in five key objectives. Firstly the study set to review extant literature on tourists‟ cuisine experiences in general and in Botswana. An understanding of tourists‟ cuisine experiences is significant in paving the way for increased promotion in cuisine tourism, an alternative form of tourism that has remained relatively neglected in the country‟s tourism ...

  3. Knowledge management a competitive edge for law firms in Botswana in the changing business environment

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine Fombad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Law firms in Botswana offer a particularly interesting context to explore the effects of transition in the knowledge economy. Acquiring and leveraging knowledge effectively in law firms through knowledge management can result in competitive advantage; yet the adoption of this approach remains in its infancy. Objectives: This article investigates the factors that will motivate the adoption of knowledge management in law firms in Botswana, and creates an awareness of the potential ...

  4. Determinants of educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana / Jacob Herman Kgosi Malao

    OpenAIRE

    Malao, Jacob Herman Kgosi

    1985-01-01

    In the opening chapter the following matters are looked into: * PROBLEM OF RESEARCH The problem of research is: - to determine whether the influences of the Republic of South Africa on the Bophuthatswana system of education and that of England on Botswana are responsible for differences of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana; - to determine whether there are other determinants of the systems in question; and - a comparison of the determinants of the education...

  5. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Haretsebe Manwa; Farai Manwa

    2014-01-01

    Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest rese...

  6. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: Tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circum...

  7. Perception of University Lecturers Towards Consumption of Genetically Modified Foods in Nigeria and Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele; Stephen Kayode Subair

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of university lecturers’ perception towards consumption of genetically modified foods in Nigeria and Botswana was conducted in 2007. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 lecturers out of 685 from five faculties of agriculture in south western Nigeria and 47 from 67 in Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA). Data were collected through structured questionnaire on demographic characteristics and perception on consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods containi...

  8. An Investigation into Succession Planning Initiatives in Government : A Case of the Botswana National Archives and Records Service / Sylvia Siane

    OpenAIRE

    Siane, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This research is an investigation into Succession planning initiatives in government agencies in Botswana, a case of the Botswana National Archives and Records Services. The Botswana National Archives and Records Services has been experiencing a significant loss of employees over the years. When people leave the organisation in most cases the vacant position will take too long to fill, especially for those positions that require the technical qualification and experience in Arc...

  9. Rapid assessment of tuberculosis in a large prison system--Botswana, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-28

    Prisons are settings in which tuberculosis (TB) transmission occurs, and TB rates in prisons are often five to 10 times higher than national rates. Data on the prevalence of TB in prisons in Africa are limited; however, studies from Malawi, Ivory Coast, and Tanzania that used active screening found TB rates > or = 10 times higher than national rates. During 1989-2001, TB rates in Botswana increased threefold, from 199 cases per 100,000 population to 620 (Botswana National TB Program, unpublished data, 2002). This increase has been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. In Botswana, prisoners are not screened routinely for TB. To determine the prevalence of TB and drug-resistant TB in the Botswana prison system and to improve future screening for TB among prisoners and guards, CDC, in collaboration with the Botswana Ministry of Health and the Division of Prisons and Rehabilitation, screened prisoners and guards at four prisons during April-May 2002. This report summarizes the results of the survey, which indicate a high point prevalence of TB among prisoners in Botswana of 3,797 cases per 100,000 population and support the need for improved screening. PMID:12680520

  10. New law on HIV testing in Botswana: The implications for healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofiah O. Sarumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is one of the countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Innovative HIV testing strategies are required to ensure that those infected or at risk of infection become aware of their HIV status and are able to access treatment, care and support. Despite this public health imperative, HIV testing strategies in Botswana will in future be based around the principles in the new Public Health Act (2013. The present article describes the HIV testing norms in the Act, and sets out the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and its implications for healthcare professionals in Botswana.Objectives: To compare international norms on HIV testing with the provisions governing such testing in the new Botswana Public Health Act and to assess the extent to which the new Act meets international human rights norms on HIV testing.Method: A ‘desktop’ review of international human rights norms and those in the Botswana Public Health Act.Conclusion: HIV testing norms in the new Public Health Act in Botswana violate individual rights and will place healthcare workers in a position where they will have to elect between acting lawfully or ethically. Law reform is required in order to ensure that HIV testing achieves the joint goals of public health and human rights.

  11. Pteridophytes of the Okavango Delta, Botswana (Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Hernández, Efrén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Okavango Delta in Botswana constitutes one of the larger inland deltas in the world. Fifteen species of fern were found in this ecological system integrated into 10 genera and 9 families. Included in this report are descriptions of each family, genus and species. Also given are artificial keys to the genera, as well as keys for genera and species within the family when necessary. A documented distribution and ecological notes for each species also appears.Se estudian los pterid6fitos del delta del Okavango, uno de los deltas interiores ma's grandes del mundo. Se citan 15 especies, incluidas en 10 generos y 9 familias. Se aportan descripciones, claves de identification, datos sobre la distribucitin y ecologia. y mapas de distribuci6n detallada de cada una de las especies.

  12. Distance Learning and Teacher Education in Botswana: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Sikwibele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study at Molepolole College of Education (MCE involving teachers and tutors in the Diploma in Primary Education (DPE program by distance mode, an in-service program aimed at upgrading academic and professional qualifications of primary school teachers in Botswana. The study sought to understand the level of access and the challenges faced by teachers and tutors. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, survey, and document analysis. Findings showed that teachers should be enrolled in the program at a younger age, and issues that lead to delays in completion must be addressed. The paper recommends that the Ministry of Education (MOE hire full-time tutors to support teachers at their bases, provide resources for practical subjects, organize workshops to familiarize tutors with appropriate strategies for adult learners, increase the duration of residential sessions, explore the use of alternative instructional technologies, and institute regular customer evaluations.

  13. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

  14. Computer and Internet use Among Families: A Case of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ishaan Srivastava

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years, novel communication technologydevices have become familiar in African homes; among themare Personal Computers and the Internet. Social reviewers andother polemicists have debated whether these devices influencethe lives of families in a productive or a destructive way. Theauthors examined the literature about family use of Computersand the Internet.Though home Internet access in Botswana isconstantly increasing, there is diminutive information availableabout actual usage patterns in homes. The present study wascarried out across Botswana on 570 Batswana1 family unitswith children. It measured computer and Internet use of eachfamily member across 4 weeks. Data on actual computer andInternet usage were collected with the help of local leaders andteachers. They also played a key role in providing informationon a number of variables for several age groups separately,including children, adolescents, and adult men and women.Averages were revealed for the amount of time spent oncomputers and the Web, the percentage of each age grouponline, and the types of Web sites viewed. Overall, about 9% ofchildren ages 4 to 12, 40% of adolescents, 45% of adult womenand 70% of adult men access the Internet each week. Childrenspend an average of 9 hours/week on the computer, 38hours/week for adolescents. Adult women (non- working 2spend only about 2 hours per week, yet in general, women werefound to be spending long hours (25 hours on computerscorresponding with adult men who also spend 25 hours/week.The types of Web sites visited are accounted, including the topfive for each age group. In general, search engines and Webportals are the most commonly visited sites, regardless of agegroup. These data provide a baseline for comparisons acrosstime and cultures.

  15. Nitrate in groundwater and N circulation in eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstedt, E.; Jacks, G.; Sefe, F.

    1994-02-01

    Nitrate pollution due to deep leaching from pit latrines has caused water supply wells in eastern Botswana to exceed health limits concerning nitrate. It was deduced from the estimated intake of salt and protein by the population that, as an average, about 10 percent of the human nitrogen excretion is leached to the groundwater. This fraction was also found in southern India, where on-the-ground excretion is customary. The nitrogen circulation in general in the savanna ecosystem is not appreciably affected in spite of a large livestock density. Overall nitrate leaching is in the order of 1.5 kg N/ha/y, similar to that in another semiarid area in southern India. However, in India, there seems to be a more diffuse areal leaching from agriculture as well as from villages. Measures to minimize the nitrate leaching could be to plant deep-rooted trees adjacent to pit latrines or to use latrines that separate the urine from the faces for a more near-surface infiltration facilitating plant uptake. Measures to minimize leaching will also lessen the rick for bacterial pollution of the groundwater.

  16. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  17. Use of mobile learning by resident physicians in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Ghose, Sankalpo; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Anolik, Rachel B; Kyer, Andrea; Mazhani, Loeto; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of mobile health in recent years, learning through the use of mobile devices (mobile learning [mLearning]) has gained recognition as a potential method for increasing healthcare providers' access to medical information and resources in resource-limited settings. In partnership with the University of Botswana School of Medicine (SOM), we have been exploring the role of smartphone-based mLearning with resident (physicians in specialty training) education. The SOM, which admitted its first class of medical students and residents in 2009, is committed to providing high-level on-site educational resources for resident physicians, even when practicing in remote locations. Seven residents were trained to use an Android-based myTouch 3G smartphone equipped with data-enabled subscriber identity module (SIM) cards and built-in camera. Phones contained locally loaded point-of-care and drug information applications, a telemedicine application that allows for the submission of cases to local mentors, and e-mail/Web access. Surveys were administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks following distribution of phones. We found that smartphones loaded with point-of-care tools are effectively utilized by resident physicians in resource-limited settings, both for accessing point-of-care medical information at the bedside and engaging in self-directed learning at home. PMID:22171597

  18. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared under free range. Poultry diseases were mainly prevalent in Gaborone, Mochudi, Francistown and Molepolole districts with 225, 168, 148 and 135 cases, respectively. Newcastle disease was sporadic throughout the study period. In the present study, the common parasites of poultry were mites, fleas, lice, ticks and helminths, and helminths were the most prevalent followed by mites. Of all species, chickens were affected most by parasites followed by guinea fowl. These results suggest inadequacies in health management, indicating that strict biosecurity measures should be put in place in order to reduce mortalities. There is also a need for extension service to train farmers on health management.

  19. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana--The Silent Spring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Godrej, Adil

    2015-11-01

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%-79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%-22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p resources. Challenges in greywater disposal and pit latrines must be addressed with urgency as health behaviors directed at minimizing negative aspects may amplify the environmental impacts of both greywater and pit latrine excreta. PMID:26580640

  20. Morbidity and health care utilisation among elderly people in Mmankgodi village, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, F.; SANDBERG, E.; Ingstad, B.; Hjortdahl, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the health status among the elderly in a village in Botswana and their pattern of health care utilisation.
DESIGN—A descriptive study where all persons 60 years and older were invited to participate, including a medical examination, laboratory testing and a questionnaire aiming at gathering sociodemographic data.
SETTING—Mmankgodi village of Botswana.
SUBJECTS—419 persons were identified as elderly in the village, out of which 337 were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The...

  1. BAQMAP. Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 1 Report 4-22 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.; Dreiem, R.; Hermansen, O.; Knudsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This report is concerned with the start of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. NILU will provide assistance in the fields of (1) Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network, (2) Laboratory techniques, methods and routines, (3) Quality control and quality assurance procedures, (4) Emission data bases, (5) Statistical data analysis and reporting, (6) Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and assessment analysis. This is the report of the Norwegian team after their first visit to Botswana. 1 ref., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. El Negro, el Niño, witchcraft and the absence of rain in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, the remains of 'El Negro', a Tswana man who had died 170 years before and who, as a stuffed specimen, had been on display in Europe for over 160 years, were flown from Spain to Botswana and given a State funeral in the capital Gaborone. In early 2001, as it became clear that the rai

  3. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  4. Botswana Primary Schools Teachers' Perception of Inclusion of Learners with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of primary teachers towards inclusive education in the South Central regions of Botswana. The research employed a descriptive survey design that used both qualitative and quantitative research methodology. Two hundred and seventy-three primary teachers were drawn from a sample size of 2950…

  5. Mary's room : a case study on becoming a consumer in Francistown, Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents an extended case study of the personal experiences of a young Kalanga woman in Francistown, Botswana, as she moves from village girlhood to incipient urban consumerism. After describing the urban setting of Francistown and the expansion of the town's residential space under the

  6. Long term trends in economic inequality : Lessons from colonial Botswana 1921–1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Jutta; Hillbom, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing literature on colonial legacies influencing long-term development. It focuses on Botswana, a case where the post-independence diamond-led economy has been considered an economic success story, despite its high levels of inequality. Here it is argued that this

  7. Contextualised Inclusive Education: A Retrospective Look at Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalagae, Macdelyn Khufsafalo; Lukusa, Jean-Pierre Kabeya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to intrinsically explore how inclusive education (UNESCO, 1994) can be contextualized and applied within the cultural perspective of "Botho." The impending issue restraining reform of inclusion policies in Botswana and other Sub-Saharan countries is failure to tailor these policies to local context (ILO,…

  8. Basic Extension Skills Training (BEST): A Responsive Approach to Integrated Extension for Rural Development in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Modise, Oitshepile M.

    2008-01-01

    In a rapidly changing society like Botswana, the competition for employment, training and progression on the job has become very high. The development of skills is therefore a crucial and integral part of nation building, which needs a direct link to a training programme to continuously help staff to cope with the different needs they meet in the…

  9. The Theory into Practice Dilemma: Lesson Planning Challenges Facing Botswana Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikhutso, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the problems facing University of Botswana's Post-Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) student-teachers with respect to their pedagogical practices during school placements. The study attempts to locate the issue of lesson plans and use of behavioural objectives within the general discourse on school…

  10. The Relationship between Followership Style and Job Performance in Botswana Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunji, Christianah O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the followership style and job performance in Botswana private universities. Attempt was made to determine if there is a significant relationship between followership styles in relation to job performance. A total of 102 randomly selected lecturers from the two private universities completed followership and job performance…

  11. The effect of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, H; Byskov, Jens

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy of all infected individuals, using praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose, was the initial component of the recently introduced control programme against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Ngamiland, Botswana. To evaluate the effect of praziquantel in Ngamiland, 81 children were...

  12. Agriculture on the Brink: Climate Change, Labor and Smallholder Farming in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Moseley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Botswana is a semi-arid, middle-income African country that imports 90 percent of its food. Despite its relative prosperity, Botswana also suffers from one of the highest measures of income inequality in the world, persistent poverty, and relatively high levels of food insecurity. The objective of this paper is to explore how political economy, climate change and livelihood dynamics are synergistically impacting household food security. The major finding is that the marginalization of smallholder farming in Botswana has as much or more to do with domestic, regional and international political economy as it does with climate change. As such, international efforts to support climate change adaptation in Botswana will have a limited effect on smallholder farming livelihoods and rural food security unless such efforts take account of political economic constraints. Effective support must be based on a grounded understanding of the real drivers of marginalization and food insecurity. One initiative that merits further exploration is the government’s backyard gardening initiative, which could be viewed as a pro-poor climate adaptation strategy. The findings of this paper are based on semi-structured interviews with policymakers and surveys with urban, peri-urban and rural households undertaken in 2012 and 2015.

  13. A Review of the Literature on Reading in Botswana Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, M.; Ketsitlile, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In this review the authors considered all the documents pertaining to the teaching of reading in Botswana primary schools from independence to the present. The purpose was to get the big picture with regard to the status of reading education. The results are reported in four categories: (1) Reading in the Classroom; (2) Reading and Policy; (3)…

  14. Perceptions of the Water Cycle among Primary School Children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A. A.; Motswiri, M. J.; Masene, R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes qualitative and quantitative methods used to elucidate the nature of the perception of the water cycle held by Botswana primary-grade pupils in three different geographic areas. Concludes that the students' perception of the water cycle was positively influenced by schooling but negatively impacted upon, to some extent, by the untutored…

  15. Inclusive Education for Learners with Special Educational Needs in Botswana: Voices of Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the roles and responsibilities of the special education teachers, and challenges they encounter in supporting the inclusion of learners with special educational needs (SEN) in regular primary schools of the south central regions of Botswana. Thirty-eight Senior Teacher Advisors Learning Disabilities…

  16. The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Almon; Abosi, Okey C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the exact number of children with disabilities in Botswana is unknown. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to…

  17. The Use of Digital Library Skills in the Emergent Information Market in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Ayoku A.; Moahi, Kgomotso H.

    2007-01-01

    This study probed the use of digital library skills by MLIS graduates, and their perception of employment preparation for the emergent information market in Botswana. The study used a survey approach. The study was carried out in 2004. A total of 32 MLIS graduates (1996-2003) of the Department of Library and Information Studies in employment were…

  18. Using Student Notebooks to Measure Opportunity to Learn in Botswana and South African Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cheryl; Major, Thenjiwe

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how a detailed notebook analysis was used to assess and compare the opportunity to learn of a sample of grade 6 students from 126 classes in South East Botswana and North West Province, South Africa. Students' mathematics notebooks provided the main data source for estimating how much time is spent on the subject during the…

  19. Communication Strategies in Primary Schools in Botswana: Interventions Using Cooks, Teacher Aides and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokibelo, Eureka B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the micro planning activities that schools engage in to address learners' needs to make education work in rural primary schools of Botswana. The national language plan prescribes the use of English and Setswana only as languages of instruction at the primary school level. However, this plan is not practical in some regions…

  20. In-School HIV & AIDS Counselling Services in Botswana: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefhedi, Sheila; Montsi, Mercy; Mpofu, Elias

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the provision of HIV & AIDS counselling services in Botswana junior secondary schools as perceived by teachers. A total of 45 teachers (age range = 20-55; teaching experience range = 0-21 years) from three schools participated. The participants completed a questionnaire on the types of HIV & AIDS-related…

  1. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  2. Soil carbon inventories and d 13C along a moisture gradient in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, M.I.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Lloyd, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories and d 13C values for 625 soil cores collected from well-drained, coarse-textured soils in eight areas along a 1000 km moisture gradient from Southern Botswana, north into southern Zambia. The spatial distribution of trees and grass in the d

  3. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  4. Mentor Development in Higher Education in Botswana: How Important Is Reflective Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, H.; Nyanjom, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Mentor development in higher education in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Botswana is explored in this article. Changes in education policy require mentors to engage in individual as well as organisational change and transformation. Most studies focus on mentee development and the resulting organisational change but there is very little…

  5. Parents' Participation in Public Primary Schools in Botswana: Perceptions and Experiences of Headteachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiri, Nkobi Owen; Bulawa, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The idea of involving parents in the school system is universal and as old as the history and philosophy of education itself. This study investigated the public school headteachers' experiences and perceptions about the level of parental involvement in the public primary school system in Botswana. The theories guiding this study are that of…

  6. Indicators of desiccation-driven change in the distal Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringrose, S.; Vanderpost, C.; Matheson, W.; Wolski, P.; Huntsman-Mapila, P.; Murray-Hudson, M.; Jellema, A.

    2007-01-01

    This work seeks to determine whether riparian woody plant variables respond to drying and salinity regimes in the semi-arid distal Okavango Delta, northern Botswana. Structural and compositional variables were obtained from 47 field sites. Mapping using satellite imagery illustrated differences in t

  7. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  8. Effective Utilization of ICT in English Language Learning--The Case of University of Botswana Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunnakwe, Ngozi; Sello, Queen

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by first year undergraduates of the University of Botswana (UB) in their reading and writing skills. The first year students are not first language (L1) learners of English. They have not utilized computers for learning reading and writing in their…

  9. "Mbizi": Empowerment and HIV/AIDS Prevention for Adolescent Girls in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitza, Amy; Chilisa, Bagele; Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a small group intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescent girls in Botswana. The psychoeducational group model is designed to empower girls to overcome the gender inequality that puts women at increased risk of HIV infection in the country. Group goals include heightening group members' awareness of the influence…

  10. Eddy flux and leaf level measurements of biogeni VOC emissions from Mopane woodland of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, J.P.; Guenter, A.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Hewwit, C.N.; James, A.E.; Owen, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were measured in a mopane woodland near Maun, Botswana in January–February 2001 as part of SAFARI 2000. This landscape is comprised of more than 95% of one woody plant species, Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpinaceae). Mopane woodlands extend over a

  11. Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

  12. Validation of AIDS-related mortality in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taffa Negussie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality data are used to conduct disease surveillance, describe health status and inform planning processes for health service provision and resource allocation. In many countries, HIV- and AIDS-related deaths are believed to be under-reported in government statistics. Methods To estimate the extent of under-reporting of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths in Botswana, we conducted a retrospective study of a sample of deaths reported in the government vital registration database from eight hospitals, where more than 40% of deaths in the country in 2005 occurred. We used the consensus of three physicians conducting independent reviews of medical records as the gold standard comparison. We examined the sensitivity, specificity and other validity statistics. Results Of the 5276 deaths registered in the eight hospitals, 29% were HIV- and AIDS-related. The percentage of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths confirmed by physician consensus (positive predictive value was 95.4%; however, the percentage of non-HIV- and non-AIDS-related deaths confirmed (negative predictive value was only 69.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the vital registration system was 55.7% and 97.3%, respectively. After correcting for misclassification, the percentage of HIV- and AIDS--related deaths was estimated to be in the range of 48.8% to 54.4%, depending on the definition. Conclusion Improvements in hospitals and within government offices are necessary to strengthen the vital registration system. These should include such strategies as training physicians and coders in accurate reporting and recording of death statistics, implementing continuous quality assurance methods, and working with the government to underscore the importance of using mortality statistics in future evidence-based planning.

  13. Corporate entrepreneurship orientation and the pursuit of innovating opportunities in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Botha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: A causal relationship between the independent variable (introduction of innovation and the dependent variable (Corporate Entrepreneurship orientation is explored by addressing the question: Do companies in Botswana have a corporate entrepreneurship (CE orientation that leads them to pursue innovating opportunities? The primary objective is to investigate how CE orientation in companies in Botswana is linked to individual employees' pursuit of innovation within corporate boundaries. Secondary objectives are to identify the prerequisites and factors of CE orientation, individual employees' perceptions and the importance of innovation factors in established companies. Problem investigated: To determine whether existing firms in Botswana represent the concept of an entrepreneurial company within the sphere of corporate entrepreneurship by pursuing innovating opportunities. The intention is to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of individuals as potential corporate entrepreneurs, their ability to be innovative and how such innovation is brought to fruition. Design and methodology: To obtain quantifiable measures of the link between CE orientation and innovation, a quantitative approach is used: a formalised, cross-sectional research design. The sample consists of 100 individuals at supervisory levels and above in large corporate companies, from eight different provinces in Botswana. A research instrument is used and convenience sampling employed. Factor analysis is performed on the questionnaire to determine its validity and reliability. A Pearson correlation coefficient test is conducted on the three factors identified in factor analysis. The chi-square test and T-test (Mann-Whitney U test are used to illustrate the statistically significant differences between the different variables and factors. Findings and implications: This paper proves the inextricable link between CE orientation and the pursuit of innovation

  14. SCALING UP A MOBILE TELEMEDICINE SOLUTION IN BOTSWANA: KEYS TO SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagiso eNdlovu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana’s health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialised medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients’ access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT network infrastructure characterised by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today’s health care demands is a tedious, long and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilising wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced a tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialised health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as Kgonafalo. Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU between the Botswana government and

  15. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  16. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Gierga, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Alphonse Kayembe, Mukendi K. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Pathology, University of Botswana School of Medicine, Gaborone (Botswana); Mmalane, Mompati [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Russell, Anthony H.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Carolyn [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Musimar, Zola [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Abramson, Jeremy S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bruce, Kathy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Karumekayi, Talkmore [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Clayman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hodgeman, Ryan [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Kasese, Joseph [Bokamoso Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Makufa, Remigio [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Bigger, Elizabeth [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology and Leonard David Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Busse, Paul M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources.

  17. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources

  18. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Ditsapelo

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included ...

  19. Les antirétroviraux au Botswana. Observatoire des mutations de l'intervention internationale sur la santé en Afrique

    OpenAIRE

    Fanny Chabrol

    2013-01-01

    By focusing on access to free antiretroviral treatments in Botswana, this article analyses recent transformations of international cooperation on health issues. The partnership between the government of Botswana, the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation was made possible through pre-existing biomedical collaboration between the government of Botswana and the Harvard School of Public Health. This configuration of actors and interests offers a vantage poin...

  20. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  1. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magowe MK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mabel KM Magowe,1 Jenny H Ledikwe,2,3 Ishmael Kasvosve,1 Robert Martin,2 Kabo Thankane,3 Bazghina-werq Semo2,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 3Botswana International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, BotswanaPurpose: To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the University of Botswana, to advance diploma-holding laboratory technicians towards becoming laboratory scientists holding Bachelor’s degrees. An evaluation was conducted, which described the outcomes of the program and the lessons learned from this novel approach to meeting human resource needs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods evaluation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with graduates of the Bachelor of Science (BSc Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS bridging program, along with the graduates’ current supervisors, and key informants who were involved in program development or implementation. The quantitative data collected included a written questionnaire, completed by program graduates, with a retrospective pre-test/post-test survey of graduates’ confidence, in terms of key laboratory competencies.Results: The BSc MLS bridging program produced thirty-three laboratory scientists over 3 years. There was a significant increase in confidence among graduates, for specified competencies, after the program (P<0.05. Graduates reported acquiring new skills and, often, accepting new responsibilities at their former workplace, particularly in relationship to leadership and management. Five graduates enrolled in advanced degree programs. Most graduates assumed increased responsibility. However, only two graduates were promoted after completing the training program. The lessons learned include: the importance of stakeholder involvement, the need for

  2. How can we assess the burden of muscle, bone and joint conditions in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    , organisational and clinical characteristics for the burden of living with and caring for people living with musculoskeletal conditions in rural Botswana. In this paper, we describe the community context, theoretical framework, and research methods to address the project aim with a qualitative study. METHODS......- and middle-income countries in Africa. Since 2011, World Spine Care, a nongovernmental organisation, has collaborated with the Botswana Ministry of Health to open spine care centres and to conduct research. The broad aim of the Muscle, Bone and Joint (MuBoJo) research project is to examine the sociocultural......-participant and participant observations, and informal and in-depth interviews with villagers and healthcare providers. Villager interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in the language spoken with Setswana contextually translated into English. Computer...

  3. WP 81 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Botswana on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work an...

  4. Fuelwood procurement, consumption and substitution in selected areas of Botswana: implications for theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summaries the results of the AFREPREN biomass research project examining environmental and socio-economic effects of biomass procurement, consumption and substitution. The economy, energy sector, physical features and population of Botswana are discussed, and household economics and fuelwood scarcity, fuelwood consumption and energy transitions in public institutions and small-scale industries are examined. Policy implications of the project findings are considered. (UK)

  5. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Tonya Arscott-Mills; Poloko Kebaabetswe; Gothusang Tawana; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Orabile Makgabana-Dintwa; Kagiso Sebina; Masego Kebaetse; Lucky Mokgatlhe; Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim: This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice.Setting: The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye.Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-yea...

  6. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaeste, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice. Setting The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year ...

  7. Impact of infield irrigation management by Botswana cabbage farmers on soil salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Molatakgosi, Goitsemodimo

    2006-01-01

    Some vegetable farmers in the semi- arid Botswana are struggling or closing down their enterprises citing the cost of irrigation and salty water as the problem. Irrigation with water from the salt-laden underground water is known to be the main sources of salts for arid and semi-arid agricultural land. Crops grown in saline environments show symptoms similar to those shown by drought-affected crops hence more irrigation is needed therefore increasing the irrigation cost. Resear...

  8. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to ...

  9. Computing knowledge and Skills Demand: A Content Analysis of Job Adverts in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ayalew; Z. A. Mbero; T. Z. Nkgau; P. Motlogelwa; A. Masizana-Katongo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content analysis of computing job adverts to assess the types of skills required by employers in Botswana. Through the study of job adverts for computing professionals for one year (i.e., January 2008 to December 2008), we identified the types of skills required by employers for early career positions. The job adverts were collected from 7 major newspapers (published both daily and weekly) that are circulated throughout the country. The findings of the sur...

  10. DISSEMINATION OF AND USE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretta Wamunza; Benzies Boadi; Stephen Mutula

    2007-01-01

    Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categoriza...

  11. Solid Waste Generation & Composition in Gaborone, Botswana. Potential for Resource Recovery.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabooshnam, Jayesh kumar

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of solid waste management was performed in Gaborone, Botswana to identify the quantity of different types of solid waste that are generated annually and the possible strategies for improved waste management. In order to achieve the objective of the project, present waste management practice in Gaborone was analysed and waste composition study was carried out in Gamodubu landfill, Gaborone. Waste from household, commercial, industrial and others (defence and institutional) stratums...

  12. The Impact of Market Orientation on SMMEs in Developing Economies: A Case-study of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Jaiyeoba

    2011-01-01

    The anecdotal research conducted on market orientation in service small businesses and the mixed findings on the impact of market orientation and business performance reported complicate efforts amongst both academics and practitioners to conclude on the real effects of the construct upon business performance. This is exacerbated by the acute paucity of empirical research conducted on Market Orientation (MO) construct in Botswana, thus representing both an empirical and theoretical gap to whi...

  13. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Torres Solís; Keonethebe Moroka

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study case on innovative corporate social responsibility as a very important aspect of management planning and, in the process, explores some trends and new ideas pertaining to corporate social responsibility in mining industries. Some pertinent literature is reviewed as a theoretical frame to introduce the presentation of the Debswana Mining Company case to show innovative corporate social responsibility in the mining industries in Botswana. The paper also critically di...

  14. Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa are sub-Saharan African countries that stand out for their development progress. Each of these countries has succeeded against the odds, against expectations. This paper synthesizes the common ingredients of these countries' success, and derives lessons. It concludes that smallness, landlockedness, tropical location, distance from world markets, racism, colonialism and other challenges can be overcome through appropriate institutions, governance and...

  15. Assessing the impact of airborne outreach to build clinical capacity in rural Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. A. Reid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana has been an important catalyst for improving specialist service delivery across the spectrum of clinical care. The success of Botswana’s airborne program is a consequence of many country-specific determinants as well as external funding support. We argue that lessons learned from the experience in Botswana are normative for other African settings. Specialist medical airborne outreach to rural hospitals can improve access to and quality of care, when part of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary intervention. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HIV funded program can be a vehicle for enhanced access to essential sub-specialist clinicians in rural Botswana.

  16. Comparative assessment of water infiltration of soils under different tillage systems in eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroke, T. S.; Dikinya, O.; Patrick, C.

    Water infiltration is an important component of water balance for improving crop production potential in dryland soil tillage systems in Botswana, particularly in the eastern region. Hardsetting soils common in arable lands of Botswana, often require some kind of tillage such as mouldboard ploughing, chiselling and ripping to improve waterharvesting and crop growth conditions. The objective of this study was to compare ponded cumulative infiltration, steady state infiltration rate and sorptivity of soils cultivated using deep ripping, single and double mouldboard ploughing. This study was conducted on Chromic Luvisols (sandy loam), Haplic Luvisols (sandy clay loam), Ferric Luvisols (clay loam), and Ferric Arenosols (sand). Infiltration was measured using double ring infiltrometer method for 4 h. Although infiltration was smaller on traffic line of deep ripping system at all sites, it was only significantly ( P 0.05) different under deep ripped. Cumulative and steady state infiltration rate was greater under sandy than loamy soils, smaller under double ploughing compared with single ploughed and deep ripped soils. Sorptivity was not significantly ( P > 0.05) different among tillage systems but was greater under sandy than sandy loam soils. Information on tillage and infiltration can improve implementation of waterharvesting technologies and crop production in Botswana.

  17. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  18. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance.

  19. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  20. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  1. Small Business Critical Success/Failure Factors In Developing Economies: Some Evidences From Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelealem T. Temtime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the discovery of diamond has propelled Botswana from one of the poorest countries in 1966 to its current economic status as a middle-income country, the country still faces the problems of economic diversification, employment creation, income generation and distribution and poverty alleviation. Governmental and non- Governmental organizations have put many efforts on the development of small and medium Enterprises (SMEs to diversify the economy away from mining, to create jobs, generate income and alleviate poverty. However, the pace of development of SMEs, after 30 years, is very slow. The small business failure rate is currently estimated to be over 80%. There is a general consensus among policy makers, politicians and researchers in Botswana that this trend should not be allowed to continue indefinitely. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Perceived Critical Success/Failure factors (PCSFs affecting the development of SMEs by collecting primary data from 203 SMEs in 3 cities in the republic of Botswana through a questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to present the empirical data. The findings showed that ten PCSFs (human resources development; organizational development, managerial background; managerial leadership and competitive strategy affect the performance of SMEs. The PCSFs are strongly related among themselves, indicating the need for a holistic and systematic approach in addressing them. Important relationships were also found between the PCSFs and firm-specific demographic variables such as ownership status, experience and operation period. Recommendations and implications for the policy and research are also forwarded.

  2. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haretsebe Manwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest reserves for ecotourism. Data was collected through mixed methods involving in-depth interviews with government departments, traditional leaders, quasi-government organisations and the Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana. Focus group discussions were also held with village development committees, Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT and Kasane, Lesoma and Pandematenga Trust (KALEPA members, and a consultative national workshop of stakeholders was also held. The findings indicate that opening up forest reserves for ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty among the disadvantaged groups living adjacent to forest reserves through direct (employment, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, secondary (linkages/partnerships and dynamic effects (sustainable livelihoods. The study concludes by cautioning that whilst pro-poor tourism may yield short- and medium-term benefits, in keeping with sustainability objectives, participants in the programme need to be mindful of forestry encroachment and come up with strategies to ensure the sustainability of the Botswana forest reserves.

  3. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  4. DISSEMINATION OF AND USE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauretta Wamunza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categorization.Key findings revealed that the HIV/AIDS information disseminated to students include information on behaviour change; information on HIV/AIDS prevention; transmission and treatment. The means of disseminating information to students include the use of multiple channels such as the university Health and Wellness Centre, Lectures, peer groups, seminars/workshops, students meetings, the University Clinic and the library. The study found that the most common media used to disseminate information to students include video, print, CDs and verbal means. Finally, factors that affect access to and use of HIV/AIDS information by students include: religious orientations, substance abuse, low income levels, multiple relationships, age and gender.There is need for the University of Botswana to review its overall approach of disseminating HIV/AIDS information to students in order to make it more effective. Moreover, strong liaison among agencies involved in the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS at the University is needed. Furthermore, a more rigorous research into issues of students’ attitudes and values in relation to HIV/AIDS is needed. Similarly, more efforts are needed to create awareness and educate students on the dangers associated with substance abuse, multiple partners and practicing unprotected sex. The need to encourage testing for HIV/AIDS among students is needed so that appropriate interventions can be put in place.The world over, HIV/AIDS has

  5. Ethnozoological survey of traditional medicinal uses of tortoises in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Rinah Setlalekgomo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to document the traditional medicinal uses of tortoises at Ramankhung, Lekgalung and Dikateng fields near Lentsweletau village and at Mmaphoroka and Moleleme fields near Botlhapatlou village in Kweneng district of Botswana. A formal questionnaire was administered to 47 respondents (nearly 10 respondents per study site.  The respondents were 46.81% farmers, 36.17% cattle herders, 14.89% farm labourers and 2.13% unemployed.  The study showed that different parts of tortoises are used in traditional medicine to treat various human ailments in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana.

  6. Role of Business Management into the Success and Survival of Small Businesses: The Case of Star Learning Centre in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the aspects of management, which have led to the survival, and success of the small-scale businesses in Botswana- a case of Star Learning Centre. The questions explored were 1) What is the role of management in the survival or success of Star Learning Centre? 2) What management styles, systems and practices are appropriate for Star Learning Centre and other small scale businesses in the Botswana? 3) What work culture is appropriate for business success? 4) What fa...

  7. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie E K Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo, leopard (Panthera pardus, spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist

  8. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana. PMID:26754167

  9. Evaluation of a well-established task-shifting initiative: the lay counselor cadre in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H Ledikwe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. METHODS: This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%, in-depth interviews (n = 79, lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7, lay counselors observations (n = 25, and client exit interviews (n = 47. RESULTS: Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9% were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. CONCLUSION: Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services

  10. The Botswana - Namibia boudary dispute. Towards a diplomatic solution or military confrontation.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, C J B

    1998-01-01

    Die regerings van Botswana en Namibië is tans in 'n dispuut gewikkel oor die twee klein rivier-eilande van Sedudu (bekend as Kasikili onder die Namibiërs) en Situngu (bekend as Luyondo, Singobeka, Mbala of Zoti onder die Namibiërs). Die dispuut oor Sedudu-eiland dien tans voor die wêreldhof in Den Haag, terwyl Situngu-eiland die onderwerp is van 'n gesamentlike tegniese komitee bestaande uit verteenwoordigers van die twee regerings. Daar is min hoop dat die tegniese komitee 'n ...

  11. ¿La maldición de los recursos como mito? El caso de Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Hilda

    2011-01-01

    Cuando obtuvo la independencia, en 1966, Botswana era uno de los diez países más pobres del mundo y era prácticamente desconocido. En los primeros años de vida independiente, con el descubrimiento por parte de la compañía De Beers de un depósito de diamantes, empezó a gestarse una experiencia exitosa y singular en África subsahariana, caracterizada por el surgimiento de un Estado desarrollista con un enfoque pragmático vis-à-vis las inversiones extranjeras y que ha dado como resultado ingreso...

  12. Botlhoko, botlhoko! How people talk about their musculoskeletal complaints in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    : Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months in the Botswana Central District included participant observations and interviews with 34 community members with MSK complaints. Audio-recorded interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter, transcribed verbatim, and contextually translated into English...... the complexities of pain expression among respondents. MSK pains were described as 'bursting, exploding, aching, numbness, hot, pricking, stabbing, swollen, and pain in the heart'. Language subtleties manifested during interviews, where 'meat' or 'flesh' implied soft tissue pains; waist pains were voiced yet...

  13. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac C. Mogotsi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowledge sharing behaviour and gender, age, or professional tenure. Only organisational tenure weakly negatively correlated with knowledge sharing behaviour. Thus, according to these findings, demographic variables do not appear to be important determinants of knowledge sharing behaviour.

  14. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  15. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Torres Solís; Keonethebe Moroka

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan una serie de consideraciones sobre la forma en que una importante compañía africana hace frente a su responsabilidad social, en lo que podría ser una innovación en la industria minera dedicada a la explotación del diamante. De esta manera se realiza un caso de estudio referido a la compañía Debswana que opera en Botswana, uno de los países africanos más destacados en la producción diamantífera mundial. Se discuten y critican algunas acciones implementadas por esa ...

  16. Epidemic transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, C.C.; Ellery, W.N.; Byskov, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    A well documented epidemic of human intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni occurred at Maun in the seasonal part of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, building from very few cases in the 1950s and early 1960s to a peak prevalence of >80% in the 1980s. A retrospective analysis...... was performed on all available records of the prevalence of S. mansoni in the Maun area and the corresponding flow records of the Thamalakane River. These revealed a statistically significant correlation between prevalence and flow, but only when a lag period was introduced. The correlation was greatest...

  17. Biochemical composition of urine from farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus in Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and qualitative evaluation of the supernatant of urine from hydrated farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus indicated that the urine was comparable to that described by other workers. The disparities obtained between the biochemical constituents in the present and previous studies were partly attributed to the state of hydration influenced by climatic factors. Results of the cytological examination of the supernatant and the sediment concurred with the observations of other workers. It was therefore concluded that parameters from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses could be used as a guideline to monitor the health status of farmed ostriches in Botswana.

  18. The Bolivian, Botswana, and Bilybara Highs and Southern Hemisphere drought/floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Semipermanent anticyclones in the midlevel troposphere over the subtropical landmasses are a prominent component of Southern Hemisphere climate. Typically, they occur over Bolivia, Botswana/Namibia, and northwestern Australia from austral spring to about April and are strongest in late summer. Here a mode of variability is studied that modulates the strength of these midlevel anticyclones and which is not strongly tied to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This mode leads to variations in January-March rainfall over large parts of South America, southern Africa, and Australia on both interannual and near-decadal scales.

  19. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to…

  20. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…

  1. Insights into Attempts at Using Action Research in a Collaborative Work in a Policy Review Exercise in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony Tsatsing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I embrace the thinking that writing on one's experiences in the use of qualitative educational research strategies and principles could potentially contribute to furthering knowledge in the field. In adopting an action research framework to guide collaborative work in a policy review exercise in Botswana, I found that collaborative…

  2. Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of University of Botswana English as Second Language students of different academic reading proficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Magogwe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.

  3. "Children of the fence" : the maintenance of extra-marital children under law and practice in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molokomme, Athaliah

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with the laws regulating compensation for extramarital pregnancy and maintenance of extramarital children in Botswana. More specifically, it aims to comprehend the reasons for the increase in extramarital reproduction and its seeming tolerance by the society; to make an in-de

  4. Exploration of Experiences and Perceptions of Three Botswana Basic Education Stakeholders on Employment and Unemployment of Graduates of Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidimane, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study used a phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of three groups of stakeholders of the Botswana basic education program related to the employment and unemployment of graduates of basic education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants from three groups of stakeholders, graduates of basic…

  5. Constraints to Senior Management's Capacity to Implement the Performance Management System in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulawa, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The performance management system in different forms has been in existence in many countries for some years. In 1999 Botswana like other countries decided to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. At its introduction, the government explained the purpose for which this reform was being…

  6. A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Development and Review at the University of Zimbabwe and Botho University, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Svotwa, Douglas; Rudhumbu, Norman; Mutsau, Morgen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make comparative study of the development and review process of the entrepreneurship curriculum at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) Faculty of Commerce and Botho University, (BU) Faculty of Business and Accounting in Gaborone, Botswana. The study focused on the processes and influences of curriculum development…

  7. The Impact of Lack of Resources on Declining Students' Enrolments in Design and Technology in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaotlhobogwe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Lack of resources has resulted in declining students' enrolment in design and technology in Botswana junior secondary schools by up to 6% per year over 10 years, despite positive encouragement by the government. Based on the PATT (pupils' attitude towards technology) theoretical framework this study indicated how a lack of resources in Botswana…

  8. Exploring Responses to Transformative Group Therapy for Orphaned Children in the Context of Mass Orphaning in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamuku, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In the context of AIDS, the Botswana Government has adopted a group therapy program to help large numbers of orphaned children cope with bereavement. This study explores the effectiveness of the therapy and examines how it interacts with cultural attitudes and practices concerning death. Ten orphaned children were involved in five rounds of data…

  9. Comparing Teachers' Non-Teaching Roles in Curriculum Reforms from an Organization Studies Perspective: Cases from Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Nii Antiaye

    2012-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the academic aims of curriculum reforms and the teaching roles related to them are similar, but non-teaching roles are likely to vary across countries. Taking an organization studies perspective, this article compares teachers' roles in reform along the Botswana-South Africa border. Though these teachers share language and…

  10. Integrating eLearning to Support Medical Education at the New University of Botswana School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebaetse, Masego B.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Haverkamp, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Since the enrolment of its first cohort of students in 2009, the University of Botswana School of Medicine (UB SoM) has employed elearning as a key element to support and strengthen its model of decentralised medical education. Significant investments have been made in setting up the physical infrastructure, and in acquiring relevant expertise to…

  11. European Swallows Hirundo rustica in Botswana during three non-breeding seasons: the effects of rainfall on moult

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Bijlsma, R.G.; Brink, van der B.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of moult of European Swallows spending the non-breeding season in Botswana was studied during December-January of 1992/93, 1993/94 and 1994/95 to investigate the effects of variability in rainfall and roosting habitat availability. In January 1994, 2-3 million European Swallows were counted

  12. An advocacy project for multicultural education: The case of the Shiyeyi language in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati-Saleshando, Lydia

    2011-12-01

    Multicultural education respects cultural differences and affirms pluralism which students, their communities and teachers bring to the learning process. It is founded on the belief that a school curriculum which promotes the ideals of freedom, justice, equality, equity and human dignity is most likely to result in high academic achievement and quality education. In Botswana, English is the official language and medium of instruction and Setswana is the national lingua franca which is used for formal occasions in the villages and other informal settings. Any other languages spoken by unrecognised tribes are banned from use in schools or the media, including minority languages taught before independence in 1966, This paper describes the Shiyeyi Language Project, initiated by the Wayeyi tribe, which advocates for a multicultural model of education where children learn in their mother tongue and about their local culture at an early stage, then add the national language, and eventually an international language as medium of instruction. The project operates within an unfriendly political and legal context, but has achieved some results. Continued efforts, especially as supported by similar language projects, have the potential to change the situation in Botswana.

  13. A retrospective study of the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at major abattoirs in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochankana, M Ernest; Robertson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services in Gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Botswana. Meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to Fasciola gigantica infection. Only 1250 of the approximately 1.4 million cattle slaughtered were infected with F. gigantica (0.09%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.0% - 0.3%). No distinct seasonal pattern was observed in condemnation rates of livers. However, the pattern of distribution of fasciolosis was higher (but not significant) in cattle that originated from areas with high rainfall and more permanent water bodies than those from relatively low rainfall areas with a transitory water system. It is recommended that a longitudinal survey should be carried out at the abattoirs and farms to determine the prevalence of the disease in cattle of different ages, sex and breed as well as the place of origin in the country. The present study indicated that the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle is low and the disease is therefore of less significance in Botswana than other African countries for which information is available. PMID:27380655

  14. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  15. A case of rhinolithiasis in botswana: a mineralogical, microscopic and chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Bernard W; van Hasselt, Piet; Wormald, Richard

    2002-12-01

    A case of rhinolithiasis in Southeast Botswana was treated and after removal in hospital, the rhinolith was subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscope analysis and partial botanical analysis. The rhinolith consists of a strongly elliptical core of calcium stearate (C36H70CaO4.H2O), surrounded by approximately 30 elongated concentric growth rings, consisting of sodium-containing whitlockite (Ca18Mg2(Na,H)(PO4)14). The different layers have various degrees of porosity and red staining, probably due to traces of amorphous iron oxide. The origin of the rhinolith started with a piece of plant material, lodged in the nose, which was replaced by calcium stearate, leaving some remnants of resistant epidermal plant tissue. During subsequent years, thin layers of whitlockite were deposited periodically around the core with the reddish brown bands representing deposition during the dry season when atmospheric dust rich in amorphous iron oxide is at its highest in Botswana.

  16. Improving the quality of care for patients with hypertension in Moshupa District, Botswana: Quality improvement cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Kande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no prevalence studies on hypertension in Botswana, this condition is thought to be common and the quality of care to be poor.Aim: The aim of this project was to assess and improve the quality of primary care forhypertension.Setting: Moshupa clinic and catchment area, Botswana.Methods: Quality improvement cycle.Results: Two hundred participants were included in the audit. Sixty-eight per cent were women with a mean age of 55 years. In the baseline audit none of the target standards were met. During the re-audit six months later, six out of nine structural target standards, five out of 11 process target standards and one out of two outcome target standards were achieved. Statistically-significant improvement in performance (p < 0.05 was shown in 10 criteria although the target standard was not always met. In the re-audit, the target of achieving blood pressure control (< 140/90 in 70% of patients was achieved.Conclusion: The quality of care for hypertension was suboptimal in our setting. Simple interventions were designed and implemented to improve the quality of care. These interventions led to significant improvement in structural and process criteria. A corresponding significant improvement in the control of blood pressure was also seen.

  17. Evaluation of a Mobile Health Approach to Tuberculosis Contact Tracing in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonhee P; Tesfalul, Martha A; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Antwi, Cynthia; Green, Rebecca S; Mapila, Tumelo O; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Ncube, Ronald T; Mugisha, Kenneth; Ho-Foster, Ari R; Luberti, Anthony A; Holmes, John H; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is typically conducted in resource-limited settings with paper forms, but this approach may be limited by inefficiencies in data collection, storage, and retrieval and poor data quality. In Botswana, we developed, piloted, and evaluated a mobile health (mHealth) approach to TB contact tracing that replaced the paper form-based approach for a period of six months. For both approaches, we compared the time required to complete TB contact tracing and the quality of data collected. For the mHealth approach, we also administered the Computer System Usability Questionnaire to 2 health care workers who used the new approach, and we identified and addressed operational considerations for implementation. Compared to the paper form-based approach, the mHealth approach reduced the median time required to complete TB contact tracing and improved data quality. The mHealth approach also had favorable overall rating, system usefulness, information quality, and interface quality scores on the Computer System Usability Questionnaire. Overall, the mHealth approach to TB contact tracing improved on the paper form-based approach used in Botswana. This new approach may similarly benefit TB contact tracing efforts in other resource-limited settings. PMID:27668973

  18. Indoor and outdoor radon levels and its diurnal variations in Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, V.R.K., E-mail: murtyvrk@mopipi.ub.b [Radiation Physics Laboratories, Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone (Botswana); King, J.G. [Radiation Physics Laboratories, Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone (Botswana); Karunakara, N. [University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Raju, V.C.C. [Department of Mathematics, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2010-07-21

    Studies on radon monitoring are essential for countries actively involved in mining activities. Since large-scale mining activities have the potential to enhance the background radiation levels, a detailed study on indoor and outdoor radon levels, its diurnal variation with temperature, pressure and humidity for Botswana is initiated. The study is important because such studies for Botswana are non-existent and the database on indoor and outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentration and the resulting inhalation dose to the population of the region is not available. Measurements were carried out using the AlphaGuard (Genitron,Germany) Professional Radon Monitor. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil was also measured by gamma spectrometry using a 41% relative efficiency n-type HPGe detector (Canberra, USA). Initial results show that the indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration vary in the range 3.0-93.0 Bq m{sup -3} with a mean of 24.5 Bq m{sup -3}. Diurnal variation studies show that the concentration is higher in the early morning hours and lower in the early afternoon hours. All the results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper.

  19. Indoor and outdoor radon levels and its diurnal variations in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, V. R. K.; King, J. G.; Karunakara, N.; Raju, V. C. C.

    2010-07-01

    Studies on radon monitoring are essential for countries actively involved in mining activities. Since large-scale mining activities have the potential to enhance the background radiation levels, a detailed study on indoor and outdoor radon levels, its diurnal variation with temperature, pressure and humidity for Botswana is initiated. The study is important because such studies for Botswana are non-existent and the database on indoor and outdoor 222Rn concentration and the resulting inhalation dose to the population of the region is not available. Measurements were carried out using the AlphaGuard (Genitron,Germany) Professional Radon Monitor. The concentration of 226Ra in soil was also measured by gamma spectrometry using a 41% relative efficiency n-type HPGe detector (Canberra, USA). Initial results show that the indoor 222Rn concentration vary in the range 3.0-93.0 Bq m -3 with a mean of 24.5 Bq m -3. Diurnal variation studies show that the concentration is higher in the early morning hours and lower in the early afternoon hours. All the results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper.

  20. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Setlhare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definitionand scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation andinefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators canhelp inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made duringa visit to family physicians (FPs in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice offamily medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different andsometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly andenmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effectiveinformation technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staffattended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to morecomplicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed toundergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients andhealthcare workers (HCW may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting shouldbe formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective informationtechnology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure isnecessary to achieve good health indicators.Keywords: task shifting, Family Medicine, Family Physician, Denmark, health expenditure, egalitarian

  1. Continuing Discontinuities: Local and State Perspectives on Cattle Production and Water Management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Manzungu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1885 when the modern state of Botswana was founded until the discovery of significant mineral deposits in 1967, one year after independence, the livestock industry, particularly cattle production, played a significant role in the country’s economy. Today there are concerns about how the livestock industry, because of its importance to many rural households, and its potential to diversify the mineral-dominated economy, can be revived. In recognition of the country’s semi-arid climate, the government has promoted a policy of developing water sources for livestock watering. The state has acknowledged the policy has largely been ineffective, but continues to implement it. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by examining state and local perspectives in the management of water and related resources in the Botswana part of the Limpopo river basin. The discontinuities between the local inhabitants and state practitioners are analyzed within the wider physical social, political, and economic landscape. We ascribe the continued implementation of an ineffective policy to modernisation claims.

  2. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

  3. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  4. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  5. Perceptions and attitudes towards food choice in adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corbett; Shaibu, Sheila; Maruapula, Segametsi; Malete, Leapetswe; Compher, Charlene

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the factors that influence adolescent and adult perceptions and attitudes related to adolescent diet in Botswana. A series of 15 focus groups [12 adolescent focus groups (6 male and 6 female) & 3 parent focus groups] of approximately six to eleven members each were conducted in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana in 2009-2010. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that the main drivers of adolescent food choices have much to do with where the adolescent is in terms of time of day as well as with whom the adolescent is with. Outside of the home adolescents suggest that the real or perceived influence of companions place social standing on the ability to purchase and consume non-traditional foods, and that traditional foods leave adolescents open to ridicule. Additionally parents of adolescents suggest that while they prefer for their children to consume healthy foods, they frequently purchase unhealthy food items for their children based on the child's taste preferences as well as social influence to prove you can buy "nice things" for one's family. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that increasing the availability and decreasing the costs of healthy food options are preferred possible interventions to increase healthful eating among adolescents. However, the adolescents also suggest that these healthy food options should not crowd out or completely replace unhealthy options, thus preserving the adolescents' freedom to choose. This could pose a major challenge in any school-based adolescent obesity prevention program.

  6. New family medicine residency training programme: Residents’ perspectives from the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshitenge, Stephane; Setlhare, Vincent; Tsima, Billy; Adewale, Ganiyu; Parsons, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Background Family Medicine (FM) training is new in Botswana. No previous evaluation of the experiences and opinions of residents of the University of Botswana (UB) Family Medicine training programme has been reported. Aims This study explored and assessed residents’ experiences and satisfaction with the FM training programme at the UB and solicited potential strategies for improvement from the residents. Methods A descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions was used to collect data from FM residents at the UB. Results Eight out the 14 eligible residents participated to this study. Generally, residents were not satisfied with the FM training programme. Staff shortage, inadequate supervision and poor programme organisation by the faculty were the main reasons for this. However, the residents were satisfied with weekly training schedules and the diversity of patients in the current training sites. Residents’ potential solutions included an increase in staff, the acquisition of equipment at teaching sites and emphasis on FM core topics teachings. They had different views regarding how certain future career paths will be. Conclusions Despite the general dissatisfaction among residents because of challenges faced by the training programme, we have learnt that residents are capable of valuable inputs for improvement of their programme when engaged. There is need for the Department of Family Medicine to work with the Ministry of Health to set a clear career pathway for future graduates and to reflect on residents’ input for possible implementation.

  7. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E; Stronza, Amanda L

    2011-08-01

    Negative attitudes of resident communities towards conservation are associated with resource decline in developing countries. In Botswana, Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was adopted to address this challenge. CBNRM links rural development and conservation. However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively sampled villages of Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo. Household data using variables like: economic benefits from CBNRM; level of satisfaction with CBNRM; co-management of natural resources between resident communities and government agencies; and collective action was collected. This data was supplemented by secondary and ethnographic data. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived from CBNRM, co-management in resource management; and, collective action of communities in CBNRM development. Positive attitudes towards conservation and tourism are the first building blocks towards achieving conservation in nature-based tourism destinations. As a result, decision-makers should give priority to CBNRM and use it as a tool to achieve conservation and improved livelihoods in nature-based tourism destinations of developing countries. PMID:21482448

  8. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E; Stronza, Amanda L

    2011-08-01

    Negative attitudes of resident communities towards conservation are associated with resource decline in developing countries. In Botswana, Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was adopted to address this challenge. CBNRM links rural development and conservation. However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively sampled villages of Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo. Household data using variables like: economic benefits from CBNRM; level of satisfaction with CBNRM; co-management of natural resources between resident communities and government agencies; and collective action was collected. This data was supplemented by secondary and ethnographic data. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived from CBNRM, co-management in resource management; and, collective action of communities in CBNRM development. Positive attitudes towards conservation and tourism are the first building blocks towards achieving conservation in nature-based tourism destinations. As a result, decision-makers should give priority to CBNRM and use it as a tool to achieve conservation and improved livelihoods in nature-based tourism destinations of developing countries.

  9. An epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an HIV endemic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack S Rowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cross-sectional study examined laboratory records of stool specimens analyzed by the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana from February 2003 through July 2008. In 4485 specimens the median subject age was 23 [interquartile range 1.6-34] years. Overall, 14.4% (644 of 4485 of samples yielded a pathogen. Bacteria alone were isolated in 8.2% (367 of 4485, parasites alone in 5.6% (253 of 4485 and both in 0.5% (24 of 4485 of samples. The most common bacterial pathogens were Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., isolated from 4.0% (180 of 4485 and 3.9% (175 of 4485 of specimens, respectively. Escherichia coli (22 of 4485 and Campylobacter spp. (22 of 4485 each accounted for 0.5% of pathogens. Comparing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. between two periods, February 2003 to February 2004 and July 2006 to July 2008, revealed an increase in ampicillin resistance among Shigella spp. from 43% to 83% (p<0.001. Among Salmonella spp., resistance to chloramphenicol decreased from 56% to 6% (p<0.001. The absence of stool white and red blood cells correlated with a high specificity and negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most gastroenteritis stools were culture and microscopy negative suggesting that viral pathogens were the majority etiologic agents in this Botswana cohort. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most common bacteria; Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most common parasites. Resistance to commonly used

  10. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsima BM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Billy M Tsima,1 Vincent Setlhare,1 Oathokwa Nkomazana2 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An integrated symptom-based guideline was developed so as to translate the Botswana national guidelines to those applicable in primary care. The Botswana Primary Care Guideline (BPCG integrates the care of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases, by frontline primary health care workers.Methods: The Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, together with guideline developers from the Knowledge Translation Unit (University of Cape Town collaborated with the Ministry of Health to develop the guideline. Stakeholder groups were set up to review specific content of the guideline to ensure compliance with Botswana government policy and the essential drug list.Results: Participants included clinicians, academics, patient advocacy groups, and policymakers from different disciplines, both private and public. Drug-related issues were identified as necessary for implementing recommendations of the guideline. There was consensus by working groups for updating the essential drug list for primary care and expansion of prescribing rights of trained nurse prescribers in primary care within their scope of practice. An integrated guideline incorporating common symptoms of diseases seen in the Botswana primary care setting was developed.Conclusion: The development of the BPCG took a broad consultative approach with buy in from relevant stakeholders. It is anticipated that implementation of the BPCG will translate into better

  11. Aspirations and realities in a North-South partnership for health promotion: lessons from a program to promote safe male circumcision in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: International donors support the partnership between the Government of Botswana and two international organisations: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership to implement Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision with the target of circumcising 80 % of HIV negative men in 5 years. Botswana Government had started integration of the program into its health system when international partners brought in the Models for Optimizing Volume an...

  12. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    OpenAIRE

    Tsima,; Setlhare, Vincent; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Billy M Tsima,1 Vincent Setlhare,1 Oathokwa Nkomazana2 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An in...

  13. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is associated with

  14. The role of nursing education in preventing medication errors in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wananani B. Tshiamo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors take stock of the extent to which nursing curricula address the prevention of medication errors, highlighting strengths and pinpointing weaknesses yet to be addressed. The exercise involved review of curricula at various levels of nursing education as well as nursing regulatory documents. Findings from the review were corroborated with published work on the subject. Recommendations for strengthening basic nursing curricula at both diploma and undergraduate levels’ coverage of medications errors are proposed. Also recommended are measures to improve the system in the practice arena as well as research to establish the magnitude of medication errors and their related risk factors in Botswana. The exercise is envisaged to improve patients’ safety and reduce the risk of litigation for nurses.

  15. The Creation of Students' Academic Slang Expressions in the University of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arua, Arua E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the creation of students' academic slang expressions at the University of Botswana with data obtained from 32 items in a questionnaire consisting of 89 items. The semantic process of extension is the most widespread creative process, producing 101 (66% out of 153 selected slang expressions. Five morphological processes, compounding, derivation, conversion, acronymy and reduplication, together produce the remaining 52 (34% expressions. Also the process of semantic extension features in all aspects of the students' academic life in contrast with the other five morphological processes which are restricted. These findings show that the students draw extensively on and exploit the language resources at their disposal to create new meanings for describing their academic life. The findings also show that all the word formation processes highlighted relate to certain areas of the students' academic life, notably, the students' relationships with their lecturers, difficult courses and those who teach them, performances and grades.

  16. A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gumbricht, T.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the endorheic Okavango River system in southern Africa a balance between human and environmental water demands has to be achieved. The runoff generated in the humid tropical highlands of Angola flows through arid Namibia and Botswana before forming a large inland delta and eventually being......, spectacular wildlife, and a first- class tourism infrastructure, depend on the combined effect of the highly seasonal runoff in the Okavango River and variable local climate. The annual fluctuations in the inflow are transformed into vast areas of seasonally inundated floodplains. Water abstraction...... patterns derived from satellite imagery ( NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer). Scenarios were designed to study major upstream and local interventions and their expected impacts in the Delta. The scenarios' results can help decision makers strike a balance between environmental and human water...

  17. Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE and Satellite Altimetry in the Okavango Delta (Botswana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    New technology can for the first time enable the accurate retrieval of the global and regional water budgets from space-borne and ground-based gravity surveys. Water is mankind’s most critical natural resource, but it is being heavily used throughout the globe. The aim of this paper is to outline...... the HYDROGRAV project dealing with improving large scale hydrological model with time variable gravity observations. Also preliminary HYDROGRAV investigationsa of terrestrial water storage variations in the Okavango delta in Botswana are presented. Data from 4 years of satellite altimetry, GRACE derived TWS...... and GLDAS hydrological model all show a clear annual variation corresponding to the well known seasonality of the delta. However, they also all show an increasing trend in the amount of water storage in the region over the last 4 years....

  18. Formative Work and Community Engagement Approaches for Implementing an HIV Intervention in Botswana Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S; Cham, Haddi J; Taylor, Eboni M; Berrier, Faith L; Duffy, Meghan; Vig, Jessica; Chipazi, Lily; Chakalisa, Chawada; Sidibe, Sekou; Swart, Kenau; Tau, Nontobeko Sylvia; Clark, Leslie F

    2016-08-01

    Providing adolescents with evidence-based sexual risk reduction interventions is critical to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Project AIM (Adult Identity Mentoring) is an innovative, evidence-based, youth development intervention that is being evaluated for the first time in Botswana through a 3-year (2015-2017), 50-school cluster randomized controlled trial, including testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 as a sexual activity biomarker. Conducting a trial of this magnitude requires the support and collaboration of government and community stakeholders. All school staff, including teachers, must be well informed about the study; dedicated staff placed at each school can help to improve school and community familiarity with the study, improve the information flow, and relieve some of the burden study activities places on schools. PMID:27196663

  19. Pastoralists’ Perception and Ecological Knowledge on Savanna Ecosystem Dynamics in Semi-arid Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbra A. Harvie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated vegetation dynamics in relation to livestock grazing as perceived by pastoral farmers in different regions of Botswana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect farmers’ understanding of vegetation changes and causes within three different grazing lands. The pastoral farmers’ description of dominant vegetation differed significantly both at the local and district level, which suggests that rangelands consist of patches dominated by different grasses and woody vegetation. Most pastoralists indicated that grass composition has undergone changes, and unpalatable grasses such as Aristida congesta and Megaloprotachne albescens are increasing. The different factors perceived by pastoral farmers to cause changes in vegetation composition included rainfall, overgrazing, and fire. Bush encroachment is considered to be more common in communal grazing land than in ranches. According to pastoral farmers, the ranching system is less degrading to the environment and more sustainable for livestock production than is communal grazing.

  20. Investigation of processes leading to nitrate enrichment in soils in the Kalahari Region, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiede, M.; Duijnisveld, W. H. M.; Böttcher, J.

    In Southern Africa elevated nitrate concentrations are observed in mostly uninhabited semi-arid areas. In the Kalahari of Botswana groundwater locally exhibits concentrations up to 600 mg/l. It is assumed, that nitrate found in the groundwater originates mainly from nitrogen input and transformations in the soils. Our investigations in the Kalahari between Serowe and Orapa show that cattle raising is an important source for enhanced nitrate concentrations in the soils (Arenosols). But also in termite mounds very high nitrate stocks were found, and under natural vegetation (acacia trees and shrubs) nitrate concentrations were mostly unexpectedly high. This nitrate enrichment in the soils poses a serious threat to the groundwater quality. However, calculated soil water age distributions in the unsaturated zone clearly show that today’s nitrate pollution of the groundwater below the investigation area could originate from natural sources, but cannot be caused by the current land use for cattle raising.

  1. Walking sticks for muscle, bone and joint health in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Salsbury, Stacie A; Nissen, Nina;

    or household objects. From a therapeutic perspective, homemade and commercial aids were improperly fitted and poorly maintained. Villagers reported walking stick use to: uphold posture and balance; relieve MuBoJo pain; honour fashionable tradition; and assist visually impaired persons to negotiate rough...... providers, villagers claimed little or no instruction for use; no educational notes were identified in villager health cards. Conclusions: Many walking sticks are homemade and most are used without professional instruction. To promote MuBoJo health amongst villagers in Botswana, it is essential...... that healthcare providers are educated to assess and train villagers for mobility aid fit, use, and maintenance. Frequent follow-up observations also are important. Engaging trusted opinion leaders might be valuable to initiate and sustain community-based interventions for walking sticks to support muscle, bone...

  2. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles.

  3. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  4. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    The wetlands of the Okavango Delta accommodate a multitude of ecosystems with a large diversity in fauna and flora. They not only provide the traditional livelihood of the local communities but are also the basis of a tourism industry that generates substantial revenue for the whole of Botswana...... of the Delta has to be understood. This article reviews scientific work done for that purpose, focussing on the hydrological modelling of surface water and groundwater. Research providing input data to hydrological models is also presented. It relies heavily on all types of remote sensing. The history...... of hydrologic models of the Delta is retraced from the early box models to state-of-the-art distributed hydrological models. The knowledge gained from hydrological models and its relevance for the management of the Delta are discussed....

  5. Cryptic indicators of provenance from the geochemistry of the Okavango Delta sediments, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman-Mapila, P.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Vink, B.; Ringrose, S.

    2005-01-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Okavango inland Delta of northwest Botswana have a modal composition of quartz arenites and result from a complex history, including transport by river and deposition in a nascent rift basin located in a desert environment with input of aeolian sands. The geochemical composition of sediments from the Okavango Delta was determined in order to constrain the role of weathering at the source and the composition of the source rocks. The chemical analyses and the interelement ratios show a broad compositional range usually encompassing the PAAS composition. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the A-CN-K diagram define an evolution trend which can be interpreted using a mixing model involving a strongly weathered component which corresponds to the sedimentary fraction transported by the Okavango River and a relatively immature component which corresponds to the aeolian sand component of the Okavango sediments. Field geological data supported by geochemical ratios involving elements with affinity for mafic-ultramafic and felsic rocks such as Th/Cr, Th/Sc, La/Sc, La/Co and Eu/Eu* support a source area including mafic-ultramafic and felsic rocks, with or without intermediate rocks. The relationships between certain elements (Cr-Ni, Na 2O-Al 2O 3, K 2O-Al 2O 3) refine the interpretation by pointing to the existence of at least three source rock end-members, including a felsic rock source and pyroxene-rich and olivine-rich mafic-ultramafic source rocks. Proterozoic granitoid-gabbro and related volcanic and ortho-metamorphic rock complexes exposed in NW Botswana and adjacent Angola and Namibia are the source rocks of the sediment component which was mixed with aeolian sand and interacted with a variable proportion of diagenetic carbonates to produce the Okavango sediments.

  6. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Moagabo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 ± 1.48 %. About 85.7 % (2 074/2 419 of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2 % (343/2 419 cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1 % were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997 the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 ± 1.85 % (1 645/2 620 positive whereas during the second half (1998-2006 it was estimated at 45.91 ± 2.38 % (774/1 686 positive and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (Δ % = 16.88, SE 95 diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P < 0.001. Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99 % (50.92 % bovine, 28.40 % caprine and 0.67 % ovine whereas canine (domestic dog and feline (domestic cat accounted for 16.01 and 0.87 %, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13 % with 1.35 and 1.78 %, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60 % of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988, its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana.

  7. Food insufficiency is associated with high-risk sexual behavior among women in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.36, sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.93, intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24-2.28. Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.

  8. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Russell

    Full Text Available Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-γ increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-α, D-dimer, and IFN-γ concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-α remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.16, p = 0.001. In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-α level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.

  9. People living with AIDS/HIV in Botswana: a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuyderduin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in information and knowledge regarding people living with AIDS in Botswana, hampering health care planning and satisfactory health care delivery to these people, necessitated the needs assessment reported on in this paper. Not only did self-imposed alienation and societal levels of stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS force many people living with AIDS/HIV (PLWAH into silence and denial of their HIV+ve diagnosis, thereby creating knowledge and information deficits. These same factors also pose challenges for conducting a needs assessment among these persons. Consequently, a 73 item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 39 male and 77 female PLWAH in Botswana. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs served as a general theoretical point of departure for the needs analysis and the 73 items represented needs at all levels of this hierarchy. Analysis of the data indicates that 65% of the respondents lived in urban areas. The majority of individuals (42% were tested for HIV because they became ill, while 28% did so voluntarily. Other reasons for testing were: child becoming ill, partner becoming ill, being pregnant and having been raped. Only 7% indicated that their HIV status had been disclosed to other persons. With regards to love and belongingness 70% of the respondents indicated that they were not in an intimate relationship, nearly one third experienced multiple deaths within their families due to AIDS, 61% had access to a support group, and 48% had not informed their parents about their HIV+ve status. Stigmatisation weighed down self-esteem. Despite the deficiencies in the fulfilment of safety, belonging

  10. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission in HIV audit in Xhosa clinic, Mahalapye, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mahalapye district health management team (DHMT conducts regular audits to evaluate the standard of services delivered to patients, one of which is the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT programme. Xhosa clinic is one of the facilities in Mahalapye which provides a PMTCT programme.Aim: This audit aimed to identify gaps between the current PMTCT clinical practice in Xhosa clinic and the Botswana PMTCT national guidelines.Setting: This audit took place in Xhosa clinic in the urban village of Mahalapye, in the Central District of Botswana.Methods: This was a retrospective audit using PMTCT Xhosa clinic records of pregnant mothers and HIV-exposed babies seen from January 2013 to June 2013.Results: One hundred and thirty-three pregnant women registered for antenatal care. Twenty-five (19% knew their HIV-positive status as they had been tested before their pregnancy or had tested HIV positive at their first antenatal clinic visit. More than two-thirds of the 115 pregnant women (69% were seen at a gestational age of between 14 and 28 weeks. About two-thirds of the pregnant women (67% took antiretroviral drugs. Of the 44 HIV-exposed infants, 39 (89% were HIV DNA PCR negative at 6 weeks. Thirty-two (73% children were given cotrimoxazole prophylaxis between 6 and 8 weeks.Conclusion: The PMTCT programme service delivery was still suboptimal and could potentially increase the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Daily monitoring mechanism to track those eligible could help to close the gap.

  11. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moagabo, K T; Monyame, K B; Baipoledi, E K; Letshwenyo, M; Mapitse, N; Hyera, J M K

    2009-12-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 +/- 1.48%. About 85.7% (2 074/2 419) of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2% (343/2 419) cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1%) were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997) the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 +/- 1.85% (1645/2620 positive) whereas during the second half (1998-2006) it was estimated at 45.91 +/- 2.38% (774/1686 positive) and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (delta % = 16.88, SE(95) diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60% of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988), its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana. PMID:21344790

  12. Botlhoko, botlhoko! How people talk about their musculoskeletal complaints in rural Botswana: a focused ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hondras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting interpretations about the structure and function of the body contribute to discordance in communication between healthcare professionals and lay people. Understanding musculoskeletal (MSK complaints presents additional complexities when discussed in more than one language or in cross-cultural settings. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, few healthcare professionals have specialist MSK training and not all practitioners speak the primary language of patients. Objective: Our goal was to understand how people in rural Botswana perceive and express MSK complaints. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months in the Botswana Central District included participant observations and interviews with 34 community members with MSK complaints. Audio-recorded interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter, transcribed verbatim, and contextually translated into English. Abductive qualitative analysis was used as the interpretive methodology. Results: Whereas initial responses about MSK troubles yielded the exclamation botlhoko, botlhoko! combined with animated non-verbal gestures and facial expressions indicating widespread body pains, in-depth interviews revealed the complexities of pain expression among respondents. MSK pains were described as ‘bursting, exploding, aching, numbness, hot, pricking, stabbing, swollen, and pain in the heart’. Language subtleties manifested during interviews, where ‘meat’ or ‘flesh’ implied soft tissue pains; waist pains were voiced yet portrayed as low back or sacroiliac pain; and ‘veins’ variously referred to structural and functional types of pain. Psychological and social stressors accompanied many accounts of MSK troubles. Conclusions: Respondents offered diverse MSK symptom descriptions consistent with biopsychosocial illness models, yet few communicated complaints using the biomedical language of healthcare providers. Although research interview and

  13. Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphande, Fingani A; Siame, Bupe A; Taylor, Joanne E

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are important food commodities, but they are susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. Raw peanuts were purchased from retail outlets in Botswana and examined for fungi and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) contamination. Zygomycetes were the most common fungi isolated; they accounted for 41% of all the isolates and were found on 98% of the peanut samples. Among the Zygomycetes, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus stolonifer were the most common. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 35% of all the isolates, with Aspergillus niger being the most prevalent (20.4%). Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus were also present and accounted for 8.5% of all the isolates, with A. flavus accounting for the majority of the A. flavus/parasiticus identified. Of the 32 isolates of A. flavus screened for mycotoxin production, 11 did not produce detectable aflatoxins, 8 produced only aflatoxins B1 and B2, and 13 produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in varying amounts. Only 6 of the A. flavus isolates produced cyclopiazonic acid at concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 microg/kg. The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. When the raw peanut samples (n = 120) were analyzed for total aflatoxins, 78% contained aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12 to 329 microg/kg. Many of the samples (49%) contained total aflatoxins at concentrations above the 20 microg/kg limit set by the World Health Organization. Only 21% (n = 83) of the samples contained cyclopiazonic acid with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microg/kg. The results show that mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi are common contaminants of peanuts sold at retail in Botswana. PMID:14717358

  14. ODL and the Impact of Digital Divide on Information Access in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbade Oladokun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL has created room for the emergence of virtual education. Not only are students found everywhere and anywhere undertaking their studies and earning their degrees, but geographical boundaries between nations no longer appear to have much relevance. As the new education paradigm irretrievably alters the way teaching and learning is conducted, the application of modern educational ICTs has a major role to play.With students of transnational or cross-border education dispersed into various nooks and crannies of Botswana, many others enlist for the “home-baked” distance learning programmes from their diverse locations. Like the face-to-face conventional students, distance learners also have information needs which have to be met. But blocking the distance learners’ realization of their information needs is the digital divide, which further marginalizes the underclass of “info-poor.”The survey method was used, and a questionnaire administered to 519 students of four tertiary level distance teaching institutions that met the criteria set for the study yielded a 70.1% response rate. The results showed that while the Government of Botswana has made considerable effort to ensure country-wide access to ICT, which now constitutes an effective instrument for meeting information needs, a number of problems still exist. The factors impeding easy access are unearthed. The findings of an empirical study portraying some learners as information-rich and others as information-poor, and the consequence of distance learners studying on both sides of the digital divide, are discussed. Suggestions on bridging the digital divide are offered.

  15. BAQMAP Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 2 Report 27 January - 18 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.

    1997-12-31

    This report is concerned with Mission 2 of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. Mission 2 was undertaken as part of the annual meeting on 4 February 1997. Discussions and decision on the air quality program was performed after the annual meeting. Passive samplers for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} were installed in Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The samplers measured air pollution from the BCL smelter and traffic, respectively, during the first two weeks of February 1997. The samplers have been analysed and the results are given in this report, which also includes a status report. 13 tabs.

  16. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Shyngle K. Balogun; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more lik...

  17. Assessing intervention measures for anti-social behaviour : A case study of secondary school in Lobatse, Botswana. / Heather Modiane Sechele

    OpenAIRE

    Sechele, Heather Modiane

    2012-01-01

    Intervention for students' antisocial behaviour is a challenging issue for teachers in secondary schools. Even though Government has implemented intervention measures in secondary schools to assist teachers in interveni.ng in curbing antisocial behaviour by students, the problems of student misconduct still prevail. The purpose of this study was to investigate intervention measures employed to curb antisocial bebaviour by students in a secondary school in Lobatse Botswana. The researcher w...

  18. Influence of soil, tree cover and large herbivores on field layer vegetation along a savanna landscape gradient in northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Masunga, G.S.; Hytteborn, H.; Pitlagano, M.L.; Marokane, W.; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The response of the field layer vegetation to co-varying resource availability (soil nutrients, light) and resource loss (herbivory pressure) was investigated along a landscape gradient highly influenced by elephants and smaller ungulates at the Chobe River front in Botswana. TWINSPAN classification was used to identify plant communities. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used to explore the vegetationeenvironment relationships. Four plan...

  19. The performance of Botswana's traditional arable agriculture: growth rates and the impact of the accelerated rainfed arable programme (ARAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Seleka, Tebogo B.

    1999-01-01

    This study assesses the performance of Botswana's traditional arable agriculture for the 1968-90 period. Growth rate and arable sub-sector production models are specified and estimated to determine how the sub-sector performed over time, and to capture the impact of the Accelerated Rainfed Arable Programme (ARAP). Growth rate model results indicate that cultivated area increased by about 2.2% per year during the 1968-90 period. However, crop output remained unchanged and yields declined by ab...

  20. GPS-corrected and GIS-based remapping of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent area in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available GPS-equipment was used to map the interior roads, major pans and the location of all windmills and solar-equipped boreholes in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent areas of Botswana. The final map was generated with GIS-equipment, and supplies managers and planners with the first error-free map of the area. The major errors of previous maps are indicated.

  1. Effects of single-parenthood on school-going adolescents in Gaborone District of Botswana / Portia Gobona Morebodi.

    OpenAIRE

    Morebodi, Portia Gobona

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effects of single parenthood on school going adolescents on a group of male and female children schooling in Gaborone District of Botswana. The research questions focused on investigating the effects of. single parenthood on the social interactions of school-going adolescents, effects on their performance in class, the attitude of the community on such adolescents and whether single parenthood affected boys and girls differently. T...

  2. Bone Accumulations of Spotted Hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Erxleben, 1777) as Indicators of Diet and Human Conflict; Mashatu, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Brian F. Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    In a region where free ranging domestic species mix with wildlife, it is imperative to determine what, if any, predation may have occurred on domestic stock. As human settlements continuously encroach upon wild habitats, determining the types of predator-human conflicts that exist can be crucial to conserve numerous predator species. The partial diet of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) of the Mashatu Game Reserve, Botswana, was established via analyses of faunal remains associated with four ...

  3. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  4. The role of nurses in the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome policy process in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaladze, N A

    2003-03-01

    In Botswana, there is dearth of literature on the role of nursing in health-care policy and resource allocation and yet nurses constitute the majority (85%) of health manpower. The health-care delivery system depends mostly on nurses for service provision. There were two main purposes of this study: first, to gather descriptive data from major key players (with particular emphasis on nurses) concerning knowledge of the policy process and resource allocation for management and care of clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Botswana; and, second, to identify nurse characteristics (e.g. position, education, experience, job category) associated with motivation to influence health-care policy in HIV/AIDS management and care in Botswana. A policy process conceptual framework was used to guide data collection and analysis. A case-study research method was used to conduct in-depth interviews from a purposive sample of 19 policy makers, and a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 95 registered nurses from six study sites in Botswana. The study findings indicate minimal participation of nurses in health-care policy process and resource allocation. The demographic variable of position was a predictor of the involvement of nurses in policy and in budgetary decisions. Both survey and interview data indicated that this minimal participation of nurses in the policy process resulted in implementation problems, thus compromising service provision. Implications of the findings for the nursing profession, nursing practice and policy, which address the importance of nurses' involvement, are discussed. PMID:12581124

  5. Association of respiratory viruses with outcomes of severe childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kelly

    Full Text Available The highest incidence of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI is in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether detection of respiratory viruses predicts ALRI outcomes in these settings.We conducted prospective cohort and case-control studies of children 1-23 months of age in Botswana. Cases met clinical criteria for pneumonia and were recruited within six hours of presentation to a referral hospital. Controls were children without pneumonia matched to cases by primary care clinic and date of enrollment. Nasopharyngeal specimens were tested for respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction. We compared detection rates of specific viruses in matched case-control pairs. We examined the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and other respiratory viruses on pneumonia outcomes.Between April 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 310 cases, of which 133 had matched controls. Median ages of cases and controls were 6.1 and 6.4 months, respectively. One or more viruses were detected from 75% of cases and 34% of controls. RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent among cases than controls, but only enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected from asymptomatic controls. Compared with non-RSV viruses, RSV was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure at 48 hours [risk ratio (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20, 2.84], more days of respiratory support [mean difference (MD: 1.26 days; 95% CI: 0.30, 2.22 days], and longer duration of hospitalization [MD: 1.35 days; 95% CI: 0.20, 2.50 days], but lower in-hospital mortality [RR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.80] in children with pneumonia.Respiratory viruses were detected from most children hospitalized with ALRI in Botswana, but only RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent than among children without ALRI. Detection of RSV from children with ALRI predicted a protracted illness course but lower mortality compared with non-RSV viruses.

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  7. Establishing and Delivering Quality Radiation Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: The Story of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Jason A; Heunis, Magda; Karumekayi, Talkmore; Makufa, Remigio; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Gierga, David P; Suneja, Gita; Grover, Surbhi; Kasese, Joseph; Mmalane, Mompati; Moffat, Howard; von Paleske, Alexander; Makhema, Joseph; Dryden-Peterson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    There is a global cancer crisis, and it is disproportionately affecting resource-constrained settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Radiotherapy is a critical and cost-effective component of a comprehensive cancer control plan that offers the potential for cure, control, and palliation of disease in greater than 50% of patients with cancer. Globally, LMICs do not have adequate access to quality radiation therapy and this gap is particularly pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are numerous challenges in implementing a radiation therapy program in a low-resource setting, providing more equitable global access to radiotherapy is a responsibility and investment worth prioritizing. We outline a systems approach and a series of key questions to direct strategy toward establishing quality radiation services in LMICs, and highlight the story of private-public investment in Botswana from the late 1990s to the present. After assessing the need and defining the value of radiation, we explore core investments required, barriers that need to be overcome, and assets that can be leveraged to establish a radiation program. Considerations addressed include infrastructure; machine choice; quality assurance and patient safety; acquisition, development, and retention of human capital; governmental engagement; public-private partnerships; international collaborations; and the need to critically evaluate the program to foster further growth and sustainability. PMID:26578607

  8. Body Image Dissatisfaction Is Increased in Male and Overweight/Obese Adolescents in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW or obesity (OB using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and body image satisfaction using the Body Ideals Questionnaire. SES was described by private school versus public school attendance. Results and Discussion. OW/OB students felt farther from ideal and greater dissatisfaction with their weight and body proportions than optimal weight students. Boys felt greater difference from ideal and more dissatisfaction with muscle tone, chest size, and strength than girls. Lower SES students and those from rural villages had more minutes of PA than higher SES or urban students. In this rapidly developing African country, these trends reflect the nutrition transition and offer opportunity to motivate OW/OB students and boys for PA as a health promotion obesity prevention behavior. Conclusions. As urbanization and improved SES are desirable and likely to continue, the public health system will be challenged to prevent obesity while preserving a healthy body image.

  9. Participation of Females in Physics Programs at the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabong, Kelebogile

    2005-10-01

    The number of females enrolling in medical and health-related fields is substantially higher than in engineering and technology. Females tend to express a preference for careers with a strong element of social services. The level of interest and achievement in science and technology between females and males is quite different. Much of the research argues that stereotyping influences the attitudes and beliefs of young children, and these attitudes and beliefs are reinforced at home and school to create a marked effect on participation of females and their subject choices in science and technology education. These attitudes affect the level of self-confidence and enjoyment that females develop about science, especially physics. Girls tend to view physics in a negative way, claiming that it is difficult, time consuming, and masculine. They may believe that they can only understand a concept if they can put it into a broader world view, whereas males are pleased if there is internal coherence within the concept learned, and appear to enjoy physics more than biology and chemistry, viewing it as valuable in itself. The University of Botswana is facing this low participation and lower performance of females in physics programs compared with males.

  10. Personal views about womanhood amongst women living with HIV in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Michelle Marian; Taylor, Myra; Gungqisa, Nontombi; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The social construction of womanhood in Africa can be said to have two central defining elements: being a wife and being a mother. The interplay between HIV and these elements is not well understood outside of prevention efforts. We conducted a qualitative study of womanhood in Botswana; specifically the sexual and reproductive lives of women living with HIV. Twelve focus-group discussions were held with 61 women, with a median age of 35, taking anti-retroviral therapy. Major themes describing womanhood, before and after HIV diagnosis, were identified using grounded theory strategies. Findings illustrate that womanhood is synonymous with motherhood and that women are expected to have sex in order to please a partner. HIV was said to create a barrier to fulfilling these expectations as it caused anxiety over disclosing one's HIV status and/or infecting the partner. The sense of pride and dignity that traditionally accompanied pregnancy was said to be lost and a common refrain was concern about passing HIV to an unborn child, having pregnancy complications or advancing HIV infection. Fear, shame and stigma play a large role in these negative perceptions. Interventions to address stigma, societal views of women and the integration of holistic family planning into HIV care are needed.

  11. Factors influencing health care workers’ implementation of tuberculosis contact tracing in Kweneng, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlale, Lebapotswe; Frasso, Rosemary; Kgosiesele, Onalenna; Selemogo, Mpho; Mothei, Quirk; Habte, Dereje; Steenhoff, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction TB contact tracing rates remain low in high burden settings and reasons for this are not well known. We describe factors that influence health care workers' (HCW) implementation of TB contact tracing (CT) in a high TB burden district of Botswana. Methods Data were collected using questionnaires and in-depth interviews in 31 of the 52 health facilities in Kweneng East Health District. Responses were summarized using summary statistics and comparisons between HCW groups were done using parametric or non-parametric tests as per normality of the data distribution. Results One hundred and four HCWs completed questionnaires. Factors that influenced HCW TB contact tracing were their knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as personal factors including decreased motivation and lack of commitment. Patient factors included living further away from the clinic, unknown residential address and high rates of migration and mobility. Administrative factors included staff shortages, lack of transport, poor reporting of TB cases and poor medical infrastructure e.g. suboptimal laboratory services. A national HCW strike and a restructuring of the health system emerged as additional factors during in-depth interviews of TB coordinators. Conclusion Multiple factors lead to poor TB contact tracing in this district. Interventions to increase TB contact tracing will be informed by these findings. PMID:27800084

  12. Coupled flow and salinity transport modelling in semi-arid environments: The Shashe River Valley, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Held, Rudolf J.; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Linn, Flenner; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Numerical groundwater modelling is used as the base for sound aquifer system analysis and water resources assessment. In many cases, particularly in semi-arid and arid regions, groundwater flow is intricately linked to salinity transport. A case in point is the Shashe River Valley in Botswana. A freshwater aquifer located around an ephemeral stream is depleted by the combined effect of transpiration and pumping. Quantitative system analysis reveals that the amount of water taken by transpiration is far more than the quantities pumped for water supply. Furthermore, the salinity distribution in and around Shashe River Valley as well as its temporal dynamics can be satisfactorily reproduced if the transpiration is modelled as a function of groundwater salinity. The location and dynamics of the saltwater-freshwater interface are highly sensitive to the parameterization of evaporative and transpirative salt enrichment. An existing numerical code for coupled flow/transport simulations (SEAWAT) was adapted to this situation. Model results were checked against a large set of field data including water levels, water chemistry, isotope data and ground and airborne geophysical data. The resulting groundwater model was able to reproduce the long-term development of the freshwater lens located in Shashe River Valley as well as the decline in piezometric heads observed over the last decade. Furthermore, the old age of the saline water surrounding the central freshwater lens could be explained.

  13. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts.

  14. Counselling and Pentecostal modalities of social engineering of relationships in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rijk

    2013-01-01

    In African societies where HIV and AIDS are widespread, counselling is being used in an attempt to control people's sexual relationships and has become an important industry. Counselling is centrally placed in many AIDS-related policies in Botswana and is sponsored by both the government and religious organisations. Within the broad spectrum of Christianity, Pentecostal churches are very active. They emphasise the refashioning of relationships by mediating moral imperatives and by engaging with psychological knowledge on personal behaviour and on techniques of counselling in a changing context of sexuality. This paper explores the significance of religious counselling in terms of the disciplining effects concerning personal behaviour and the ways in which this form of communication is generating a wider interest in this society. This is particularly attractive to members of the educated classes who are engaging with Pentecostal counselling as a way of refashioning their domain of intimate relations. Yet, it does not only provide informed ideas on intimate relations--being often one of the proclaimed objectives of counselling - it also produces a communication about intimate matters that is intended to inform a critique of socio-cultural conventions. This is a counter-cultural dynamic of counselling, which has been little noticed in the academic study of counselling practices in Africa. PMID:24070165

  15. National guidelines not always followed when diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with HIV in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurayi A Tafuma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB is challenging, especially in patients with HIV. The Botswana National Tuberculosis Program (BNTP guidelines give guidance in diagnosing and treating SNPTB. Patients with chronic cough should be screened for TB by 3 sputum smear investigations. If negative, a chest x-ray (CXR should be performed. If negative for TB, antimicrobial treatment for other infections should be started. We investigated the clinicians' use of the guidelines in clinical practice. METHODS: Data regarding the medical history (coughing period, requested and conducted investigations concerning tuberculosis diagnosis (sputum smear or culture or CXR or alternative diagnoses (sputum microscopy or blood or sputum culture for diagnosis of other organisms, in SNPTB HIV-positive patients (outpatients and admitted patients from 2006-2009 in a district hospital in Botswana were extracted from all available hospital medical records. Additionally, a survey was done in all doctors diagnosing SNPTB in this hospital using a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding the application of the BNTP guidelines in practice. Descriptive analyses of collected data were performed to test the compliance to the guidelines. RESULTS: Data from medical records showed that in 47.0% (132/281 of patients, TB treatment was started without microbiological results from sputum smears. Other methods to rule out or confirm PTB were used in 2.1% (6/281; and 99.6% (280/281 of SNPTB patients had received a CXR. The survey in 7 clinicians found that all always used CXR, and all clinicians requested three sputum results only sometimes. Six out of 7 clinicians started antibiotics before starting TB treatment. Reasons clinicians gave for difficulties in following the guidelines included inability of patients to produce sputum; and laboratory delays in releasing sputum results. CONCLUSION: Between 2006 and 2009 a high proportion of SNPTB

  16. Ethnozoological survey of traditional medicinal uses of tortoises in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Rinah Setlalekgomo

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to document the traditional medicinal uses of tortoises at Ramankhung, Lekgalung and Dikateng fields near Lentsweletau village and at Mmaphoroka and Moleleme fields near Botlhapatlou village in Kweneng district of Botswana. A formal questionnaire was administered to 47 respondents (nearly 10 respondents per study site).  The respondents were 46.81% farmers, 36.17% cattle herders, 14.89% farm labourers and 2.13% unemployed.  The study showed that different parts of tort...

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  18. Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement concluded between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  19. A Report of the Responses of Botswana Junior Secondary School Teachers on the Three Subscales of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the findings of the study on teacher efficacy and classroom management. To collect data a survey was administered to 1006 Botswana participants. Out of 1006 participants only 6 did not complete the survey. Pearson-product moment correlation was computed to analyze the data using Statistical Package of Social…

  20. A comparison of flocked swabs and traditional swabs, using multiplex real-time PCR for detection of common gastroenteritis pathogens in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokomane, Margaret; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Pernica, Jeffrey M; Lechiile, Kwana; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek; Goldfarb, David M

    2016-10-01

    We compared the performance of flocked and matched traditional rectal swabs collected from 236 children admitted with gastroenteritis in Botswana. All samples were tested using real time multiplex-PCR assays for nine enteric pathogens. There was a 20% higher detection of Shigella from flocked swabs, but most other pathogens had similar detection rates. PMID:27460427

  1. Teachers' Understandings of Curriculum Adaptations for Learners with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Botswana: Issues and Challenges of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otukile-Mongwaketse, Mpho; Mangope, Boitumelo; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives from research carried out in a number of Botswana primary schools on teachers' understanding of curriculum adaptations for learners who experience learning difficulties (LD) as part of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' understanding play a crucial role in how they make curriculum accessible for learners with LD during…

  2. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-07-22

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings

  3. University of Botswana Undergraduates Uses of the Internet: Implications on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Tella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognized potential of technology to improve education has led to several initiatives to foster effective use and integration in the curriculum. The Internet as a new invented technology holds the greatest promise humanity has known for learning and universal access to quality education. It allows students to broaden their academic experience, access important information and communicate to others within academic community. In the light of these therefore, this study examined undergraduate’s uses of the Internet and its implications on their academic performance at the University of Botswana, Gaborone. Three hundred and six undergraduate students from thirteen systematically selected departments formed the study sample. A modified Internet Use scale was used to gather data for the study. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and Friedman test. The results indicate that: majority of the respondents (66% access the Internet 1-5 hours per week, 33.3% of respondents access the Internet 6-20 hours per week and 0.7% of respondents access the Internet between 21-25 hours per week. Moreover, most respondents use the Internet for the purpose of obtaining course related information. The results also reveal that Internet contributes significantly to academic performance of the respondents. To enhance and optimise the use of the Internet so that learning can take place at any time and anywhere, providing more access to computers and the Internet on campus constitutes the major recommendations. Future areas of research could include determining variations in Internet use by students from different disciplines, determining the nature and relationships between Internet use and academic performance.

  4. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised.Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers.Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts.Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list.Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork.Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  5. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Torres Solís

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan una serie de consideraciones sobre la forma en que una importante compañía africana hace frente a su responsabilidad social, en lo que podría ser una innovación en la industria minera dedicada a la explotación del diamante. De esta manera se realiza un caso de estudio referido a la compañía Debswana que opera en Botswana, uno de los países africanos más destacados en la producción diamantífera mundial. Se discuten y critican algunas acciones implementadas por esa compañía en materia de responsabilidad social y se concluye con algunos señalamientos y opiniones al respecto. Podemos señalar que los resultados del estudio de este caso muestran como altamente positivas las interacciones de esta compañía minera con la sociedad en la que se desenvuelve sin que deje de puntualizarse la existencia de algunos inconvenientes serios que deben ser superados en conjunción con las políticas públicas del gobierno de ese país. Es importante señalar que lo que se intenta hacer en este trabajo es mostrar algunos hechos que consideramos importantes en la responsabilidad social de una organización en particular, buscando construir un caso de estudio que pudiera ser relevante para las disciplinas administrativas en cuya literatura han sido escasamente tratados.

  6. Detailed geohydrology with environmental isotopes: A case study at Serowe, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Karoo sedimentary system, which underlies the generally flat Kalahari thirstland, has an unusual topographic feature in the area west of Serowe, Botswana, characterized by a low scarp. The hydrogeology is complicated by intensive faulting, downthrown blocks and intrusions. A groundwater mound has steep rest level gradients towards the village in the east and a more gradual decline to the west. Numerical modelling ascribes the mound to a local microclimate, which would generate enhanced recharge just west of the scarp. Mound stability and chloride mass balance considerations produce recharge estimates which tend towards zero, with decreasing rest level gradients and increasing salinity, in a westerly direction. Depth profiles of isotopic values show occasional measurable first strike tritium, and increasing 14C age with depth, reaching limiting ages for some confined sections. For the first time, geohydrological and environmental isotope methods have independently demonstrated significant recharge through substantial thicknesses of sand overburden. Chloride balance calculations of recharge are shown to be questionable as they are influenced by the mobility and provenance of the groundwater. Radiocarbon values failed to demonstrate locally enhanced infiltration suggested by the microclimate theory. The mound is shown to be due to topological and hydrogeological, rather than meteorological, factors. Very uniform stable isotope values, similar to other areas of the Kalahari, demonstrate the averaging of recharge through the Kalahari Beds cover of 10-30 m thickness. Calculations based on aquifer porosity, borehole depths and radiocarbon model ages give mean rain recharge rates of some 2-4 mm/a. This indicates that recharge estimates based on mound stability probably employ an overestimate of regional transmissivity. Environmental isotope data therefore proved to be an indispensable component in assessing this geohydrological system and the assumptions used in its

  7. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  8. Tswanarising global gayness: the 'unAfrican' argument, Western gay media imagery, local responses and gay culture in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies. PMID:23171131

  9. Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among General Medical Outpatients in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Nkomazna, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14.4%) with no significant differences between the gender (20% versus 12.5%, P = 0.26). The area under curve for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.55–0.72) for the total population, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.56–0.75) for women, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52–0.83) for men. The optimal cut-off point for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 17 (sensitivity = 48% and specificity = 73%) for the total population, 17 (sensitivity = 56% and specificity = 66%) for females, and 13 (sensitivity = 53% and specificity = 77%) for males. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20% and 89.5%, respectively. The findings indicate that the Finnish questionnaire was only modestly effective in predicting undiagnosed diabetes among outpatients in Botswana.

  10. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grignon JS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR

  11. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  12. Economic valuation of selected direct and indirect use values of the Makgadikgadi wetland system, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhogile, Tshepo; Arntzen, Jaap; Mabiza, Collin; Mano, Reneth

    Economic valuation of wetlands aims to investigate public preferences for changes in the state of the wetland and the natural resources it constitutes in monetary terms. It provides a means of quantifying the direct and indirect benefits that people derive from wetlands. In addition, it informs management planning and practice about resource options, optimal allocation and also provides information for conservation of the resource. The Makgadikgadi wetland is a unique system that mostly consists of dry pans during most of the year. This study aimed at estimating the value of groundwater recharge and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) activities within the Makgadikgadi wetland and how these goods and services contribute to the local and national economy. The study used the Total Economic Valuation approach, which considers both the direct and indirect use values of the resource. In essence, the study concentrated on one direct use value (use of resources through CBNRM) and one indirect use value (groundwater recharge). With regard to CBNRM, three community-based organisations (CBOs) were selected for the study and static and dynamic cost-benefit models for these CBOs were developed. The groundwater recharge value was largely determined through desktop review and interviews with stakeholders. The results indicate a small positive contribution of CBOs towards the economy of Botswana and a high potential for communities to derive substantial benefits from the projects because currently benefits realised by communities are limited. CBOs involved in joint venture partnerships with tourism and hunting enterprises benefit more from utilising the wetland’s resources. Groundwater recharge often occurs in areas away from the physical location of the wetland and may not be easily attributable to the wetland. However, the study assessed the value taking into consideration the various sectors which rely on the groundwater resource. The groundwater recharge

  13. Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or "opt-out" HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81% reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%, HIV-related stigma (60%, and violence toward women (55%, and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%. At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9, higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7, more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7, perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5, and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1. Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9 or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76. While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%, lack of perceived HIV risk (43%, and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%. CONCLUSIONS: Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce

  14. Knowledge about breast cancer and reasons for late presentation by cancer patients seen at Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogratias Mbuka-Ongona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Botswana, breast cancer, the second most common malignancy amongst women, is often diagnosed late, with 90% of patients presenting at advanced stages at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH Gaborone, the only referral hospital with an operational oncology department. The reasons for this late presentation have not been studied. Determination of these reasons is critical for the formulation of strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer in Botswana. The aim of this study was to explore existing knowledge about breast cancer and the reasons for late presentation amongst patients attending the oncology unit of Princess Marina Hospital.Method: A descriptive qualitative study using free attitude interview was performed.Twelve breast cancer sufferers were purposefully selected and eleven interviews conducted. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Thematic analysis of data was performed.Results: This study found that breast cancer sufferers had had poor knowledge of the disease prior to the diagnosis. Their knowledge improved markedly during their attendance to the oncology clinic. Screening methods such as breast self-examination (BSE were not used frequently. The majority of participants had delayed going to the hospital because of a lack of knowledge, fear of the diagnosis and fear of death, misinterpretation of the signs, the influence of lay beliefs and advice from the community. In some cases, however, advice from family and friends resulted in a timely medical consultation. The poor clinical practices of some healthworkers and the inadequate involvement by decision makers regarding the issue of cancer awareness discouraged patients from seeking and adhering to appropriate therapy.Conclusions: Awareness and knowledge of breast cancer was found to be poor amongst sufferers prior to their diagnosis, but their awareness and knowledge improved after the diagnosis. There was limited use of

  15. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND COMPLEXITIES OF BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: The case of the University of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina K. MASALELA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended/hybrid learning is dominating news in higher education as a training and educational delivery method of choice. It is seen as a link between instructors, learners and classrooms located in different places to enhance learning. Based on the interviews with 15 faculty members and one administrator that had direct experience with this form of delivery at the University of Botswana (UB the findings suggested two major themes that dominated faculty members ’accounts: potential benefits and challenges of blended learning. The study was guided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory. The potential benefits of blended learning included improved pedagogy; engagement in learning; and added flexibility in the teaching and learning to mention a few. Faculty members perceived complexities such as lack of students’ readiness to use the course management system, slow network and breakdowns; lack of computers for students and lack of time. The article concludes by suggesting future directions for blended learning (BL at the UB.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  17. Bone Accumulations of Spotted Hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Erxleben, 1777 as Indicators of Diet and Human Conflict; Mashatu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region where free ranging domestic species mix with wildlife, it is imperative to determine what, if any, predation may have occurred on domestic stock. As human settlements continuously encroach upon wild habitats, determining the types of predator-human conflicts that exist can be crucial to conserve numerous predator species. The partial diet of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta of the Mashatu Game Reserve, Botswana, was established via analyses of faunal remains associated with four dens to determine predation/scavenging on wild or domestic species. Domestic species composed less than 3% of identified faunal remains. We acknowledge that this methodology is biased against small mammals, but, when combined with sociological studies, this methodology will aid in determining alleged predation on domestic stock by spotted hyaenas. Results indicated that the spotted hyaenas in question feed primarily on wild species.

  18. Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenville D. Barnes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social–ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

  19. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  20. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32], higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86], and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81] were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74], living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65], having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74], anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed (2.04 [1.27-3.29], and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41] were independently associated with depression. DISCUSSION: Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

  1. Value Chain Analysis of Botswana Poultry Industry: The Case of Gaborone, Kgatleng, Kweneng and South East Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charity Masole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Botswana has experienced tremendous growth over time and remains the most celebrated example of import substitution, which has resulted in the achievement of national food self-sufficiency. This study evaluated and characterized the structure of poultry value chain in Botswana. Specifically, it identified the actors, linkages, challenges faced by the players; and also assessed the relative importance of specific flows of poultry products. A structured questionnaire was administered to 40 poultry farmers, 10 input dealers, 10 retail stores and 5 Ministry of Agriculture extension staff using a purposive sampling technique. The results showed market access for small-scale farmers was undermined by the increasing complexity of value chain and increased vertical coordination of resources. Therefore, the reality of economies of scale and the need to establish strong marketing links with existing supermarkets by smallholder farmers for a more competitive poultry industry is inevitable. The poultry market structure is dominated by a few large-scale farmers. On a Likert scale of 1 to 4, these farmers scored an average of 3.62 in comparison to 2.60 scored by small-scale farmers, when their working relationship levels with other players were explored. These results implied that large-scale farmers have stronger linkages. The study also found out that poultry industry still faces some challenges that impede its growth and one such challenge is high feed prices. Therefore, policies aimed at supporting the industry players must be developed with a view to ensuring sustainable development of the subsector and enhancing the benefit derived by the player.

  2. Translating a National Laboratory Strategic Plan into action through SLMTA in a district hospital laboratory in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keoratile Ntshambiwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ministry of Health (MOH of Botswana adopted Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA, a structured quality improvement programme, as a key tool for the implementation of quality management systems in its public health laboratories. Coupled with focused mentorship, this programme aimed to help MOH achieve the goals of the National Laboratory Strategic Plan to provide quality and timely clinical diagnosis.Objectives: This article describes the impact of implementing SLMTA in Sekgoma Memorial Hospital Laboratory (SMHL in Serowe, Botswana.Methods: SLMTA implementation in SMHL included trainings, improvement projects, site visits and focused mentorship. To measure progress, audits using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist were conducted at baseline and exit of the programme, with scores corresponding to a zero- to five-star scale.Turnaround times and customer satisfaction were tracked.Results: The laboratory scored 53% (zero stars at the baseline audit and 80% (three stars at exit. Nearly three years later, the laboratory scored 85% (four stars in an official audit conducted by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Turnaround times became shorter after SLMTA implementation, with reductions ranging 19% to 52%; overall patient satisfaction increased from 56% to 73%; and clinician satisfaction increased from 41% to 72%. Improvements in inventory management led to decreases in discarded reagents, reducinglosses from US $18 000 in 2011 to $40 in 2013.Conclusion: The SLMTA programme contributed to enhanced performance of the laboratory,which in turn yielded potential positive impacts for patient care at the hospital.

  3. The perfidious experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. The article recommends: (1 a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2 making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3 Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4 diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5 and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government.

  4. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayondi, Gloria K.; Wirth, Kathleen; Morroni, Chelsea; Moyo, Sikhulile; Ajibola, Gbolahan; Diseko, Modiegi; Sakoi, Maureen; Magetse, Jane Dipuo; Moabi, Kebaiphe; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Kammerer, Betsy; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. Methods: We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in southern Botswana. Participants were interviewed about their knowledge of their HIV status prior to pregnancy, intendedn...

  5. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayondi, Gloria K.; Wirth, Kathleen; Morroni, Chelsea; Moyo, Sikhulile; Ajibola, Gbolahan; Diseko, Modiegi; Sakoi, Maureen; Magetse, Jane Dipuo; Moabi, Kebaiphe; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Kammerer, Betsy; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. Methods We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in southern Botswana. Participants were interviewed about their knowledge of their HIV status prior to pregnancy, intendednes...

  6. Stigma and discrimination : social encounters, identity and space; a concept derived from HIV and AIDS related research in the high prevalence country Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Geiselhart, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    How do social encounters conjure up stigma and discrimination? How do social identities emerge and how do people reject or integrate each other in local settings and social space? How do individuals affected build their self-identities and cope with the socially divisive effects of their stigma? The book provides an unconventional view on the subject matter. It is based on empirical fieldwork on the social effects of HIV and AIDS in Botswana. A broad review of geographical, sociological, ...

  7. A study of pupils with moderate learning difficulties integrated in mainstream Scottish primary schools and some implications for teachers and curriculum support in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Gower, Peggy Masego

    1993-01-01

    This small scale study investigates the success or otherwise of educating children with moderate learning difficulties in mainstream schools in Scotland. The purpose of the study was that the investigator would gain an insight into what factors contribute to effective functional integration. From these factors the investigator would select those which she believes could be useful in Botswana. The investigator employed an "Action Research" approach model and therefore used several techniques t...

  8. Potential Benefits And Complexities Of 
Blended Learning In Higher Education:
The Case Of The University Of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    MASALELA, Regina K.

    2009-01-01

    Blended/hybrid learning is dominating news in higher education as a training and educational delivery method of choice. It is seen as a link between instructors, learners and classrooms located in different places to enhance learning. Based on the interviews with 15 faculty members and one administrator that had direct experience with this form of delivery at the University of Botswana (UB) the findings suggested two major themes that dominated faculty members ’accounts: potential benefits an...

  9. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Nomsa H. Malete; Indiran Govender; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradhere...

  10. The influence of sex education on sexual behaviour of junior secondary school learners in Maokane-Jwaneng school in Botswana / L.G. Tumedi

    OpenAIRE

    Tumedi, L G

    2011-01-01

    Education is an ongoing process and it is never 'complete' in anyone's life. Sex education is relevant in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) in Botswana. The study was under taken to investigate the influence of sex education on the sexual behaviour of JSS learners. Adolescents today are faced with challenges and they need support to face these challenges. The study was guided by the following research objectives: What constitutes the nature and characteristics of sex education? Wh...

  11. The Perfidious Experiences of Men as Palliative Caregivers of People Living with HIV/AIDS and other Terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender ...

  12. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  13. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  14. Developing a spatial-statistical model and map of historical malaria prevalence in Botswana using a staged variable selection procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several malaria risk maps have been developed in recent years, many from the prevalence of infection data collated by the MARA (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa project, and using various environmental data sets as predictors. Variable selection is a major obstacle due to analytical problems caused by over-fitting, confounding and non-independence in the data. Testing and comparing every combination of explanatory variables in a Bayesian spatial framework remains unfeasible for most researchers. The aim of this study was to develop a malaria risk map using a systematic and practicable variable selection process for spatial analysis and mapping of historical malaria risk in Botswana. Results Of 50 potential explanatory variables from eight environmental data themes, 42 were significantly associated with malaria prevalence in univariate logistic regression and were ranked by the Akaike Information Criterion. Those correlated with higher-ranking relatives of the same environmental theme, were temporarily excluded. The remaining 14 candidates were ranked by selection frequency after running automated step-wise selection procedures on 1000 bootstrap samples drawn from the data. A non-spatial multiple-variable model was developed through step-wise inclusion in order of selection frequency. Previously excluded variables were then re-evaluated for inclusion, using further step-wise bootstrap procedures, resulting in the exclusion of another variable. Finally a Bayesian geo-statistical model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was fitted to the data, resulting in a final model of three predictor variables, namely summer rainfall, mean annual temperature and altitude. Each was independently and significantly associated with malaria prevalence after allowing for spatial correlation. This model was used to predict malaria prevalence at unobserved locations, producing a smooth risk map for the whole country. Conclusion We have

  15. Structural determinants of adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV: views from community members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Skinner, Joanna; Osman, Nadia; Schwandt, Hilary

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three to four times more likely than adolescent boys to be living with HIV/AIDS. A literature review revealed only four studies that had examined HIV vulnerability from the perspective of community members. None of the studies focused specifically on adolescent girls. To fill this gap, in 2008 12 focus group discussions were held in selected peri-urban and rural sites in Botswana, 12 in Malawi, and 11 in Mozambique to identify factors that render girls vulnerable to HIV infection from the community members' perspective. The preponderance of comments identified structural factors--insufficient economic, educational, socio-cultural, and legal support for adolescent girls--as the root causes of girls' vulnerability to HIV through exposure to unprotected sexual relationships, primarily relationships that are transactional and age-disparate. Community members explicitly called for policies and interventions to strengthen cultural, economic, educational, and legal structures to protect girls, recognized community members' responsibility to take action, and requested programs to enhance adult-child communication, thus revealing an understanding that girls' vulnerability is multi-level and multi-faceted, so must be addressed through a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  16. Variation in Assemblages of Small Fishes and Microcrustaceans After Inundation of Rarely Flooded Wetlands of the Lower Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziba, Nqobizitha; Chimbari, Moses J.; Masundire, Hillary; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Ramberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Water extraction from floodplain river systems may alter patterns of inundation of adjacent wetlands and lead to loss of aquatic biodiversity. Water reaching the Okavango Delta (Delta), Botswana, may decrease due to excessive water extraction and climate change. However, due to poor understanding of the link between inundation of wetlands and biological responses, it is difficult to assess the impacts of these future water developments on aquatic biota. Large floods from 2009 to 2011 inundated both rarely and frequently flooded wetlands in the Delta, creating an opportunity to examine the ecological significance of flooding of wetlands with widely differing hydrological characteristics. We studied the assemblages of small fishes and microcrustaceans, together with their trophic relationships, in temporary wetlands of the lower Delta. Densities of microcrustaceans in temporary wetlands were generally lower than previously recorded in these habitats. Microcrustacean density varied with wetland types and hydrological phase of inundation. High densities of microcrustaceans were recorded in the 2009 to 2010 flooding season after inundation of rarely flooded sites. Large numbers of small fishes were observed during this study. Community structure of small fishes differed significantly across the studied wetlands, with poeciliids predominant in frequently flooded wetlands and juvenile cichlids most abundant in rarely flooded wetlands (analysis of similarity, P human food source, and their decline in fish catches will negatively affect livelihoods. Hence, priority in the management of the Delta's ecological functioning should be centred on minimising natural water-flow modifications because any changes may be detrimental to fish-recruitment processes of the system.

  17. Adopting an ethical approach to global health training: the evolution of the Botswana - University of Pennsylvania partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacso, Matthew; Chandra, Amit; Friedman, Harvey

    2013-11-01

    Global health training opportunities for medical students and residents have proliferated in recent years. These short-term elective rotations allow trainees to learn about global health issues by participating in various aspects of education and health care in resource-limited settings. Recently published consensus-based ethical guidelines have suggested considerations for the design of international electives that address the activities of host and sending sites, visiting students and residents, and sponsors.The authors analyze the value of global health training opportunities for medical students, residents, faculty, host and sending institutions, and other stakeholders from the perspective of the Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, a program that has provided global health experiences for health care trainees for more than 10 years. Drawing from the Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training framework, they illustrate the ethical and logistical challenges faced by the program's organizers and the solutions that they implemented alongside their host site partners. They conclude with a summary of recommendations to guide implementation of ethically sound international health electives in resource-limited settings.

  18. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  19. Ramifications of ostracism as a consequence of revelation of HIV positive status: its effect o individuals and families in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeni, Tabitha T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using primary data and a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods the study looks into ramifications of ostracism as a factor influencing people’s behavior towards the spread of HIV/AIDS, which have devastating effects on the structure and composition of the family in Botswana. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would abandon an HIV positive partner (58.4% occurs among young people aged 15 to 19 years; and that the propensity to abandon an HIV positive partner diminishes with advancement in age. In-depth inquiries on why HIV positive partners would be abandoned produced responses that revolved around fear of exposure, vulnerability and association with an HIV positive individual. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would not reveal their HIV positive status occurs among those who have lost a relative or a friend to AIDS. Fear of being isolated, rejected, stigmatized and unwanted featured among the top reasons why respondents would not reveal their HIV positive status. Society’s reaction towards HIV positive individuals and families with HIV/AIDS patients appeared strong enough to drive individuals to hide their positive status and to go ahead and take the risk of onward transmission of the virus.

  20. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-17

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  1. Seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (Equus asinus in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period March to September 2000, a study was conducted in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. Monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. The only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. The most prevalent tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (98.4 %, followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma species. The only haemoparasite seen on microscopy was Babesia equi at low parasitaemia in 26.8% of the donkeys. However, no clinical babesiosis was evident. Coprological examination showed the presence of strongyle eggs in moderate numbers. Very low numbers of coccidia oocysts were found in the faecal samples. High tick numbers and worm egg counts coincided with the warm, wet months in contrast to the low numbers recovered during the cold, dry months. An interview conducted by the authors indicated that donkeys were nutritionally marginalised by owners. Supplementary feeding was therefore recommended, especially during the winter months when grazing is poor.

  2. Single-arm evaluation of the AccuCirc device for early infant male circumcision in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Rebeca M; Wirth, Kathleen E; Ndubuka, Nnamdi O; Abdullahi, Rasak; Nkgau, Maggie; Lesetedi, Chiapo; Powis, Kathleen M; Mmalane, Mompati; Makhema, Joseph; Shapiro, Roger; Lockman, Shahin

    2014-05-01

    : Existing devices for early infant male circumcision (EIMC) have inherent limitations. We evaluated the newly developed AccuCirc device by circumcising 151 clinically well, full-term male infants with birth weight ≥2.5 kg within the first 10 days of life from a convenience sample in 2 hospitals in Botswana. No major adverse events were observed. There was 1 local infection, 5 cases of minor bleeding, and 1 case of moderate bleeding. In 3 cases, the device made only partial incisions that were completed immediately by the provider without complications. Parental satisfaction was high: >96% of mothers stated that they would circumcise a future son. The pre-assembled, sterile AccuCirc kit has the potential to overcome obstacles related to supply chain management and on-site instrument disinfection that can pose challenges in resource-limited settings. In our study, the AccuCirc was safe and it should be considered for programmatic EIMC in resource-limited settings. PMID:24594500

  3. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  4. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89% agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%, with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n=143 on the same day. Thirty participants (15% tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80% were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  5. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  6. Examining student understanding of the science of a societal issue in Botswana: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suping, Shanah Mompoloki

    Science has had such an impact on our way of life that it has been at the centre of discussion for all issues of health, education, development, and the safe stewardship of the Earth's resources. Science has advanced so quickly in the last 50 years that the amount of knowledge generated by scientists is overwhelming. Science teachers who have persistently introduced children to science from a very young age, have been charged with a daunting task of presenting science knowledge to students in ways that not only make it easy to understand, but also make it relevant to them. The methods of how best they should go about this task have been debated from time immemorial. Due to the many concerns and demands placed on science teachers and science education programs in general, there have been a number of efforts to reform and redefine the science curriculum. Science education reform efforts in the US and elsewhere have examined all possible nucleotides in the building up of the reform DNA molecule. Many studies have measured people's level of understanding on given issues that affect their communities, but little attention has been given to conceptions and level of scientific literacy among students in developing countries. This study assessed Botswana school children's knowledge about ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its effects on human health using a scientific literacy lens. Results show that students do not know as much as one would expect them to know, from public school through the first year in college. Exploratory factor analysis identified four indicators of knowledge about UVR. These are: (a) diseases related to UVR, (b) items that can be used for protections against UVR, (c) misconceptions held about UVR, and (d) general issues surrounding UVR. MANOVA analysis showed that whereas there are no differences in general based on school location, certain groups of students performed differently depending on the school type, type of science pursued at school and or

  7. Indigenous knowledge and land use policy: Implications for livelihoods of flood recession farming communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsumi, Sekgowa; Magole, Lapologang; Kgathi, Donald

    Flood recession farming commonly known as molapo farming in the Okavango Delta is an important land use and livelihood activity for poor and vulnerable communities living on its fringes. Molapo farming is mainly practised by subsistence farmers. The study on the system was conducted in the villages of Shorobe and Tubu in the Okavango Delta in Ngamiland District, Botswana. The objective of the study was to find out if indigenous knowledge (IK) still has a role in molapo farming and if current land use policy supports or stifle the practice and the attendant IK. Indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) within molapo farming were studied using focused group discussions, Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) and open ended interviews. Policy content and process analysis was done through document perusal and stakeholder analysis. The study found that in Tubu more than 50% of molapo farms are owned by women making molapo farming an important livelihood activity for marginalised groups. The Ngamiland land use plan acknowledges the importance of stakeholder participation and IK in land management. However the use of IK is not evident in the plan and subsequent recommendations. Molapo farming is considered a potential threat to the ecological functioning of the Delta, through use of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Consequently farmers have been discouraged from practicing molapo farming on floodplains. However according to the farmers, ploughing in floodplains minimizes cutting of trees and renders use of fertilizer unnecessary due to annual deposition of nutrients through flood waters. We conclude that although IK still plays an important role in molapo farming there exists no policy environment to use the knowledge and support the practice. We recommend that sustainable molapo farming requires the use of IK within an Integrated Land Use Planning process.

  8. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  9. The effectiveness of the South African Triage Toll use in Mahalapye District Hospital – Emergency Department, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mbuka, Deogratias O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to determine the proportion of each priority level of patients, time of performance in each priority level, and the reliability of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) tool at the Mahalapye District Hospital - Emergency Department (MDH-ED), a setting where the majority of the nurses were not formally trained on the use of the SATS. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using case records in MDH-ED from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. A panel of experts from the Mahalapye site of the Family Medicine Department, University of Botswana, reviewed and scored each selected case record that was compared with the scores previously attributed to the nurse triage. Results From the 315 case records, both the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage assigned the majority of cases in the routine category (green), 146 (46%) and 125 (40%), respectively, or in the urgent category (yellow), they assigned 140 (44%) and 111 (35%) cases, respectively. Overall, there was an adequate agreement between the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage (k = 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5), although the level of agreement was satisfactory. Conclusion Findings of the study reported that the profile of the priority-level categories in MDH-ED was made in the majority of routine and urgent patients, only the routine and the emergency patients were seen within the targeted time and they had a satisfactory level of reliability (between 0.4 and 0.6). PMID:27543284

  10. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  11. Determining the Total Volume of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Magmatic Event: Correlation of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Pitcavage, E.; Bybee, G. M.; Feineman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa, erupted 2.05 billion years ago, is the world's largest layered intrusion in the range of 710-1060 x 103 km3 conservatively. However, the total volume of the magmatic event that produced the BIC remains poorly known. Several other intrusions occurred approximately contemporaneously with the BIC, but a clear relationship between these multiple intrusions is yet to be determined. The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous complex of similar age 2.044 Ga ­± 24 Ma located in Botswana, 200km west of the far western limb of the BIC, with a total volume of 1300 km2. Using trace element analysis, this study makes an attempt to find a correlation between the magma that emplaced the Molopo Farms Complex with the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The MFC is related to the BIC and is located under approximately 200m of Kalahari sands, which prevents any direct sampling or observation. Unlike the BIC, the MFC is poorly studied creating a lack of information for the complex. Drill core samples from the MFC were analyzed to determine the trace element composition using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using previously reported values for the BIC; a comparison can be made on both complexes to find possible correlations. The comparison of trace element schematics in the MFC and the BIC suggest that both complexes are derived from the same parental magma, often referred to as the "B1" magma. These comparisons allow for an assumption that the initial parental magma of the BIC may have also emplaced the MFC.

  12. Integration of sources in academic writing: A corpus-based study of citation practices in essay writing in two departments at the University of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitumelo T. Ramoroka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to cite sources appropriately is an important feature of academic writing. Academic writers are expected to integrate ideas of others into their texts and take a stance towards the reported material as they develop their arguments. Despite this importance, research has shown that citation presents considerable difficulties for students, particularly non-native English speakers. Such difficulties include using citations effectively in writing and understanding them in reading, expressing one’s voice and signalling citations in writing so that there is a clear distinction between one’s ideas and those derived from source materials. This study investigates the types of reporting verbs used by students to refer to the work of others and the extent to which they evaluate the work of others in their writing. It draws from a corpus of approximately 80 000 words from essays written by students in two departments at the University of Botswana (Botswana. The findings show that students used more informing verbs, associated with the neutral passing of information from the source to the reader, without interpreting the information cited, compared with argumentative verbs (which signify an evaluative role. The results of the study underscore the importance of teaching reporting verbs in the English for academic purposes classroom and making students aware of their evaluative potential.

  13. Heavy metal distribution in soils near Palapye, Botswana: An evaluation of the environmental impact of coal mining and combustion on soils in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, M.; Totolo, O.; Modisi, M.P.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kelesitse, S.M.; Menyatso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Morupule Colliery near Palapye in eastern Botswana is the only coalmine in production in Botswana at present. Its coal is mainly used in the nearby coal-fired Morupule Power Station, which generates approximately 1,000 GWh of electricity per annum. After more than 30 years mining and more than 20 years of combustion, the sedimentation of outlet fly ash from the Morupule Power Station has increased concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn and As by 13, 2.5, 16 and 5 ppm, respectively, in the fine portion (<53 ??m) of surface soils for approximately 9 km downwind. Elements that have higher concentrations in coal have stronger small-particle association during coal combustion and are less mobile in surface soils, thus showing stronger contaminations in surface soils around the coal-fired plant. Although the degree of contamination of Cr, Ni, Zn and As from coal combustion in the Palapye area at present is low, it is necessary to monitor concentrations of these elements in surface soils routinely in the future. This study also reveals moderate Pb and Zn contaminations in the Palapye area. The former is due to the use of leaded petroleum in motor vehicle traffic and the latter is mainly due to the use of galvanized iron sheets in construction. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Repeated assessments of informed consent comprehension among HIV-infected participants of a three-year clinical trial in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia H Chaisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Informed consent (IC has been an international standard for decades for the ethical conduct of clinical trials. Yet frequently study participants have incomplete understanding of key issues, a problem exacerbated by language barriers or lack of familiarity with research concepts. Few investigators measure participant comprehension of IC, while even fewer conduct interim assessments once a trial is underway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed comprehension of IC using a 20-question true/false quiz administered in 6-month intervals in the context of a placebo-controlled, randomized trial for the prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Botswana (2004-2009. Quizzes were offered in both Setswana and English. To enroll in the TB trial, participants were required to have ≥ 16/20 correct responses. We examined concepts understood and the degree to which understanding changed over three-years. We analyzed 5,555 quizzes from 1,835 participants. The participants' highest education levels were: 28% primary, 59% secondary, 9% tertiary and 7% no formal education. Eighty percent of participants passed the enrollment quiz (Quiz1 on their first attempt and the remainder passed on their second attempt. Those having higher than primary education and those who took the quiz in English were more likely to receive a passing score on their first attempt (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 3.1 (2.4-4.0 and 1.5 (1.2, 1.9, respectively. The trial's purpose or procedures were understood by 90-100% of participants, while 44-77% understood randomization, placebos, or risks. Participants who failed Quiz1 on their initial attempt were more likely to fail quizzes later in the trial. Pass rates improved with quiz re-administration in subsequent years. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a comprehension quiz at enrollment and during follow-up was feasible in a large, international collaboration and efficiently determined IC comprehension

  15. Ethno-meteorology and scientific weather forecasting: Small farmers and scientists’ perspectives on climate variability in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in abrupt weather changes continue to pose a challenge to agricultural production most especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper specifically addresses the questions on how local farmers read and predict the weather; and how they can collaborate with weather scientists in devising adaptation strategies for climate variability (CV in the Okavango Delta of Botswana. Recent trends in agriculture-related weather variables available from country’s climate services, as well as in freely available satellite rainfall products were analysed. The utility of a seasonal hydrological forecasting system for the study area in the context of supporting farmer’s information needs were assessed. Through a multi-stage sampling procedure, a total of 592 households heads in 8 rural communities in the Okavango Delta were selected and interviewed using open and close-ended interview schedules. Also, 19 scientists were purposively selected and interviewed using questionnaires. Key informant interviews, focus group and knowledge validation workshops were used to generate qualitative information from both farmers and scientists. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in summarising the data. Analysis of satellite rainfall products indicated that there was a consistent increase in total annual rainfall throughout the region in the last 10 years, accompanied by an increase in number of rain days, and reduction of duration of dry spells. However, there is a progressive increase in the region’s temperatures leading to increase in potential evaporation. Findings from social surveys show that farmers’ age, education level, number of years engaged in farming, sources of weather information, knowledge of weather forecasting and decision on farming practices either had a significant relationship or correlation with their perceptions about the nature of both local [ethno-meteorological] and scientific weather knowledge. Nonetheless, there was a

  16. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  17. Joint inversions of three types of electromagnetic data explicitly constrained by seismic observations: results from the central Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Thomas; Blake, Sarah; Podgorski, Joel E.; Wagner, Frederic; Green, Alan G.; Maurer, Hansruedi; Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark; Ntibinyane, Ongkopotse; Tshoso, Gomotsang

    2015-09-01

    The Okavango Delta of northern Botswana is one of the world's largest inland deltas or megafans. To obtain information on the character of sediments and basement depths, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) and central-loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were collected on the largest island within the delta. The data were inverted individually and jointly for 1-D models of electric resistivity. Distortion effects in the AMT and CSAMT data were accounted for by including galvanic distortion tensors as free parameters in the inversions. By employing Marquardt-Levenberg inversion, we found that a 3-layer model comprising a resistive layer overlying sequentially a conductive layer and a deeper resistive layer was sufficient to explain all of the electromagnetic data. However, the top of the basal resistive layer from electromagnetic-only inversions was much shallower than the well-determined basement depth observed in high-quality seismic reflection images and seismic refraction velocity tomograms. To resolve this discrepancy, we jointly inverted the electromagnetic data for 4-layer models by including seismic depths to an interface between sedimentary units and to basement as explicit a priori constraints. We have also estimated the interconnected porosities, clay contents and pore-fluid resistivities of the sedimentary units from their electrical resistivities and seismic P-wave velocities using appropriate petrophysical models. In the interpretation of our preferred model, a shallow ˜40 m thick freshwater sandy aquifer with 85-100 Ωm resistivity, 10-32 per cent interconnected porosity and saturated sands with 15-20 Ωm total resistivity, 1-27 per cent interconnected porosity and 15-60 per cent clay content. A third ˜60 m thick sandy layer with 40-50 Ωm resistivity, 10-33 per cent interconnected porosity and <15 per cent clay content is underlain by the basement with 3200-4000 Ωm total resistivity. According to an

  18. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods: We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV. Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results: A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0% were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men. HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%, was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0% was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001. The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions: The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities

  19. Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndiaye M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maimouna Ndiaye,1,2 Peter Nyasulu,1 Hoang Nguyen,6,7 Elizabeth D Lowenthal,8,9 Robert Gross,10 Edward J Mills,3 Jean B Nachega4–6 1School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Central Medical Stores, Ministry of Health, Gaborone, Botswana; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 4Department of Medicine and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research Program, Pittsburgh University Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Departments of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Tay Ho Clinics, Department of Medicine, Hanoi Health Services, Hanoi, Vietnam; 8Departments of Pediatrics and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Departments of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient's clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (>95% and virologic suppression

  20. Lessons Learned From Transitioning PEPFAR Track 1.0 Care and Treatment Programs: Case Studies in Financial Management Capacity Building in Zambia and Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Chuck; Tidwell, George; Vhugen, Jann; Sharma, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the United States government mandated transition of internationally managed HIV care and treatment programs to local country ownership. Three case studies illustrate the US Health Resources Services Administration's fiscal assessment and technical assistance (TA) processes to strengthen local organizations' capabilities to absorb and manage United States government funding. Review of initial, TA and follow-up reports reveal that the 1 Botswanan and 2 Zambian organizations closed 10 of 17 financial capacity gaps, with Health Resources Services Administration assisting on 2. Zambian organizations requested and absorbed targeted TA on the basis of the consultant's desk review, their finance staff revised fiscal policies and procedures, and accordingly trained other staff. In Botswana, delays in integrating recommendations necessitated on-site TA for knowledge building and role modeling. Organizational maturity may explain differences in responsiveness, ownership, and required TA approaches. Clarifying expectations of capacity building, funding agreement, and nonmonetary donor involvement can help new organizations determine and act on intervening actions. PMID:25514757

  1. Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molebatsi Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments. The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. Methods A national population based prospective survey was undertaken in Botswana; twelve rural areas and three urban centers were included. 372 community-dwelling persons aged sixty years and over, were included; 265 were followed-up. Sixteen subjects were deceased at follow-up. Subjects were interviewed and clinically assessed at home. Measures of cognitive function, depression and physical function and sociodemographic information were collected. Subjects were followed-up at average 6.8 months after baseline. Results Overall mortality rate was 10.9 per 100 person years. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR for death during follow-up were; 4.2 (CI 1.4–12.5 and 3.6 (CI 1.0–12.7 for those with diminished physical- and cognitive function, respectively. Indicators of limited social support; household with only 1 or 2 persons and eating alone, yielded age adjusted ORs of 4.3 (CI 1.5–12.5 and 6.7 (CI 2.2–20, respectively, for death during follow-up. Conclusion Older community dwelling persons with diminished cognitive- or physical function, solitary daily meals and living in a small household have a significantly increased risk of rapid deterioration and death. Health policy should include measures to strengthen informal support and expand formal service provisions to older persons with poor function and limited social networks in order to prevent premature deaths.

  2. Gender inequity norms are associated with increased male-perpetrated rape and sexual risks for HIV infection in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Shannon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical research on the underlying gender inequity norms shaping gender-based violence, power, and HIV risks in sub-Saharan Africa, or how risk pathways may differ for men and women. This study is among the first to directly evaluate the adherence to gender inequity norms and epidemiological relationships with violence and sexual risks for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were derived from population-based cross-sectional samples recruited through two-stage probability sampling from the 5 highest HIV prevalence districts in Botswana and all districts in Swaziland (2004-5. Based on evidence of established risk factors for HIV infection, we aimed 1 to estimate the mean adherence to gender inequity norms for both men and women; and 2 to model the independent effects of higher adherence to gender inequity norms on a male sexual dominance (male-controlled sexual decision making and rape (forced sex; b sexual risk practices (multiple/concurrent sex partners, transactional sex, unprotected sex with non-primary partner, intergenerational sex. FINDINGS: A total of 2049 individuals were included, n = 1255 from Botswana and n = 796 from Swaziland. In separate multivariate logistic regression analyses, higher gender inequity norms scores remained independently associated with increased male-controlled sexual decision making power (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.09-2.35; AORwomen = 2.05, 95%CI:1.32-2.49, perpetration of rape (AORmen = 2.19 95%CI:1.22-3.51, unprotected sex with a non-primary partner (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.14-2.31, intergenerational sex (AORwomen = 1.36, 95%CI:1.08-1.79, and multiple/concurrent sex partners (AORmen = 1.42, 95%CI:1.10-1.93. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the critical evidence-based need for gender-transformative HIV prevention efforts including legislation of women's rights in two of the most HIV affected countries in the world.

  3. HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Baral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the generalized epidemics of HIV in southern Sub-Saharan Africa, men who have sex with men have been largely excluded from HIV surveillance and research. Epidemiologic data for MSM in southern Africa are among the sparsest globally, and HIV risk among these men has yet to be characterized in the majority of countries. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured survey instrument and HIV screening with the OraQuick(c rapid test kit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241; 20.0% (42/210 among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84 among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8. In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0, and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9 were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527 reporting at least one abuse. CONCLUSIONS: MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana. Concurrency of sexual partnerships with partners of both genders may play important roles in HIV spread in these populations. Further epidemiologic and evaluative research is needed to assess the contribution of MSM to southern Africa's HIV epidemics and how best to mitigate this. These countries should initiate and adequately fund evidence-based and targeted HIV

  4. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  5. mHealth to revolutionize information retrieval in low and middle income countries: introduction and proposed solutions using Botswana as reference point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Luberti, Anthony A; Kovarik, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) practice is invaluable in health care, where the growth of medical knowledge has long surpassed human memory capabilities, and health care workers often have unmet information needs. While the information and communications technology (ICT) revolution is improving, IR in the Western world, the global digital divide has never been wider. Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) have the least advanced ICT infrastructure and service provision, and are also burdened with the majority of the world's health issues and severe shortages of health care workers. Initiatives utilizing mobile technology in healthcare and public health (mHealth) have shown potential at addressing these inequalities and challenges. Using Botswana as a reference point, this paper aims to broadly describe the healthcare and ICT challenges facing LMICs, the promise of mHealth as a field in health informatics, and then propose health informatics solutions that specifically address IR content and needs. One solution proposes utilizing Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) for accessing treatment guidelines, and the other solution outlines applications of smart devices for IR. PMID:23920687

  6. mHealth to revolutionize information retrieval in low and middle income countries: introduction and proposed solutions using Botswana as reference point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Luberti, Anthony A; Kovarik, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) practice is invaluable in health care, where the growth of medical knowledge has long surpassed human memory capabilities, and health care workers often have unmet information needs. While the information and communications technology (ICT) revolution is improving, IR in the Western world, the global digital divide has never been wider. Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) have the least advanced ICT infrastructure and service provision, and are also burdened with the majority of the world's health issues and severe shortages of health care workers. Initiatives utilizing mobile technology in healthcare and public health (mHealth) have shown potential at addressing these inequalities and challenges. Using Botswana as a reference point, this paper aims to broadly describe the healthcare and ICT challenges facing LMICs, the promise of mHealth as a field in health informatics, and then propose health informatics solutions that specifically address IR content and needs. One solution proposes utilizing Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) for accessing treatment guidelines, and the other solution outlines applications of smart devices for IR.

  7. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  8. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  9. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the mobility of arsenic in groundwater of a through-flow island in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Natalie; Wolski, Piotr; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Enriquez, Hersy; Damaraju, Sivaramakrishna; Galkaduwa, Madhubhashini B.; McKnight, Diane M.; Masamba, Wellington

    2014-10-01

    The Okavango Delta of Botswana is a large arid-zone wetland comprising 20,000 km2 of permanent and seasonal floodplains and over 100,000 islands. It has been shown that island groundwater can have very high dissolved arsenic (As) concentration, but the abiotic and biotic controls on As mobility are not well understood in this setting. At New Island, an island located in the seasonal swamp, dissolved As concentration increased from below detection limits in the surface water to 180 μg/L in groundwater, present as As(III) species. We investigated the relative importance of hydrologic, geochemical, and geomicrobial processes, as well as influences of recent extreme flooding events, in mobilizing and sequestering As in the shallow groundwater system under this island. Our results suggest that evapotranspiration and through-flow conditions control the location of the high arsenic zone. A combination of processes is hypothesized to control elevated As in the concentration zone of New Island: high evapotranspiration rates concentrate As and other solutes, more alkaline pH leads to desorption of arsenic or dissolution of arsenic sulfides, and formation of thioarsenic complexes acts to keep arsenic in solution. Evidence from X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) measurements further suggests that SRBs influence arsenic sequestration as orpiment (As2S3). Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) was not significantly correlated to dissolved As in the groundwater, our results suggest that DOM may serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction or other microbial reactions that influence redox state and As mobility. These results have important implications for water management in the region and in other large wetland environments. The processes evaluated in this study are also relevant for arsenic removal in subsurface constructed wetland systems that may exhibit rapidly changing processes over small spatial scales.

  10. Slow CD4+ T-Cell Recovery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis B Virus-Coinfected Patients Initiating Truvada-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Motswedi; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Moyo, Sikhulile; Thami, Kerapetse P.; Mohammed, Terence; Setlhare, Ditiro; Sebunya, Theresa K.; Powell, Eleanor A.; Makhema, Joseph; Blackard, Jason T.; Marlink, Richard; Essex, Max; Musonda, Rosemary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. We determined the response to Truvada-based first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/HBV-coinfected verus HIV-monoinfected patients in Botswana. Methods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load were determined from baseline and follow-up visits in a longitudinal cART cohort of Truvada-based regimen. We assessed predictors of HBV serostatus and viral suppression (undetectable HBV DNA) using logistic regression techniques. Results. Of 300 participants, 28 were HBsAg positive, giving an HIV/HBV prevalence of 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3–13.2), and 5 of these, 17.9% (95% CI, 6.1–36.9), were HBeAg positive. There was a reduced CD4+ T-cell gain in HIV/HBV-coinfected compared with HIV-monoinfected patients. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and HBeAg loss was 38% and 60%, respectively, at 24 months post-cART initiation. The HBV DNA suppression rates increased with time on cART from 54% to 75% in 6 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusions. Human immunodeficiency virus/HBV coinfection negatively affected immunologic recovery compared with HIV-1C monoinfection. Hepatitis B virus screening before cART initiation could help improve HBV/HIV treatment outcomes and help determine treatment options when there is a need to switch regimens.

  11. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  12. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the key parameters controlling ecological and hydrological activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams separately and simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurements, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both data streams LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 14.9% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 8.5% for assimilating LHF only, and 6.1% for assimilating FAPAR only. The set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction for all three cases is found for a parameter quantifying maximum plant-available soil moisture. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  13. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the mechanisms controlling ecological and hydrogical activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams either separately or simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurement, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The closest agreement is found for each observed data stream when only the same data stream is assimilated. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 16.1% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 9.2% for assimilating LHF only, and 7.8% for assimilating FAPAR only. Furthermore, the set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction is found for a parameter describing maximum plant-available soil moisture for all three cases. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  14. Quantitative mapping of elemental distribution in leaves of the metallophytes Helichrysum candolleanum, Blepharis aspera, and Blepharis diversispina from Selkirk Cu-Ni mine, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosaletse-Mswela, Pulane; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Cloete, Karen J.; Barnabas, Alban D.; Torto, Nelson; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2015-11-01

    Multi-element profiling is essential in understanding the metal-tolerant behavior of metallophytes. Although previous reports using multi-elemental analyses show that the metallophytes Blepharis aspera, Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) and Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) take up metals, no information exists on elemental spatial distribution and concentrations in specific tissues of these plants. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of copper, nickel and other elements in leaf tissues of these plants using micro-PIXE. Whole plants were collected with soil in pots from an operational copper and nickel mine (i.e., a copper and nickel mineralized area), Selkirk, about 40 km north-east of Francistown, Botswana. On the same day the samples were transported by air to iThemba LABS in South Africa. Leaf specimens were cryofixed in liquid propane cooled by LN2. Parallel samples were embedded in resin for anatomical studies to facilitate interpretation of elemental maps. The distribution and concentration of copper, nickel, and other elements in leaf tissues were determined using micro-PIXE and proton backscattering spectrometry. Data evaluation was performed using GeoPIXE II software. Micro-PIXE showed that H. candolleanum had the highest whole leaf content of copper (70 ± 3 μg g-1 DW) and nickel (168 ± 5 μg g-1 DW), followed by B. aspera (Cu: 25 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni: 166 ± 4 μg g-1 DW) and B. diversispina (Cu: 3 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni, below detection limit). For specific leaf tissues, the highest levels of copper were found in the vascular bundle for H. candolleanum (167 ± 7 μg g-1 DW) and the lower epidermis for B. aspera (70 ± 9 μg g-1 DW). The highest levels of nickel were present in the vascular bundle of B. aspera (479 ± 10 μg g-1 DW) and H. candolleanum (90 ± 5 μg g-1 DW). Elemental maps showed a similar distribution pattern for copper and nickel in B. aspera and B diversispina, with these

  15. No thermal anomalies in the mantle transition zone beneath an incipient continental rift: evidence from the first receiver function study across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Moidaki, M.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms leading to the initiation and early-stage development of continental rifts remain enigmatic, in spite of numerous studies. Among the various rifting models, which were developed mostly based on studies of mature rifts, far-field stresses originating from plate interactions (passive rifting) and nearby active mantle upwelling (active rifting) are commonly used to explain rift dynamics. Situated atop of the hypothesized African Superplume, the incipient Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) of northern Botswana is ideal to investigate the role of mantle plumes in rift initiation and development, as well as the interaction between the upper and lower mantle. The ORZ developed within the Neoproterozoic Damara belt between the Congo Craton to the northwest and the Kalahari Craton to the southeast. Mantle structure and thermal status beneath the ORZ are poorly known, mostly due to a complete paucity of broad-band seismic stations in the area. As a component of an interdisciplinary project funded by the United States National Science Foundation, a broad-band seismic array was deployed over a 2-yr period between mid-2012 and mid-2014 along a profile 756 km in length. Using P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by the stations, the 410 and 660 km discontinuities bordering the mantle transition zone (MTZ) are imaged for the first time. When a standard Earth model is used for the stacking of RFs, the apparent depths of both discontinuities beneath the Kalahari Craton are about 15 km shallower than those beneath the Congo Craton. Using teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals obtained by this study and lithospheric thickness estimated by previous studies, we conclude that the apparent shallowing is the result of a 100-150 km difference in the thickness of the lithosphere between the two cratons. Relative to the adjacent tectonically stable areas, no significant anomalies in the depth of the MTZ discontinuities or in teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals are

  16. Human schistosomiasis in Ngamiland, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Magnussen, Pascal; Wouters, J S;

    1985-01-01

    To reassess the schistosomiasis problem in Ngamiland and especially in Maun area 552 primary school children and 213 adult labourers were examined with urinalysis and rectal snip. Of the pupils 80.3% were found positive for S. mansoni and 1.4% for S. haematobium; of the labourers 35.7% were infec...

  17. 援博茨瓦纳医疗队队员 HIV 职业暴露分析%Analysis occupational exposure to HIV for secondary aid to botswana medical team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the risk factors of aid to Botswana medical team AIDS ( HIV) occupational exposure, improve and perfect the protective measures.Methods:To analyze 13 cases of occupational exposure to HIV occurred to China medical team members in Botswana between March 2012 to April 2014.Results:The highest occurrence rate of occupational exposure to HIV in operating,53.8% of the expose items most blades or hollowneedle,stitches, and secondary and tertiary exposed to the highest.Conclusion:The occurrence rate of occupational exposure to HIV could be effectively reduced through im-proving the occupational safety education and training of preventing such exposure for the medical staff ,strengthening the ability of assessing the risks of oc-cupational exposure to HIV as well as enhancing self-protection and post-exposure treatment.%目的:分析援博茨瓦纳医疗队队员获得性人类免疫缺陷病毒( HIV)职业暴露的危险因素,健全和完善防护措施。方法:对援博茨瓦纳医疗队队员在2012年3月~2014年4月发生的13例次HIV职业暴露进行分析。结果:HIV暴露环节以手术操作为最高,暴露物品分类以空心针、缝针或刀片为最高,暴露分级二级三级最高。结论:应加强医务人员卫生职业安全教育、预防职业暴露培训等措施,并加强 HIV职业暴露风险的评估,自我防护,以及暴露后处理,才能有效降低HIV职业暴露的发生率。

  18. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  19. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  20. Performativity in School Management and Leadership in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiri, Nkobi Owen

    2011-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that the uncritical adoption of Western models of education management and leadership policies results in poor performance in schools in disadvantaged communities in developing countries. The argument shows that this has led to the institutionalization of generic education policies that are not contingent to the…

  1. CONTEXTUALIZING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE CASE OF BOTSWANA'S YOUNG FARMERS FUND

    OpenAIRE

    MIKE WILLIAMS; Hovorka, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is well established as a development strategy to facilitate youth empowerment in Africa. Existing scholarship on youth entrepreneurship, while informative, remains limited given its focus on either normative institutional structures or individual decision-making behaviors. Recent research offers a contextualist approach, featuring the dynamic relationship between individual behavior and structural context. Engaging and building upon a contextualist approach, this paper offers...

  2. Intra-rural migration and settlement changes in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silitshena, R.M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The system of land use as practised in the mid-20th century was as follows: the fields, called the lands, were found outside the village at distances varying from 5 to 50 km. Every household maintained a temporary shelter at the lands for use during the agricultural season. Beyond the zone of fields

  3. Everyday burden of musculoskeletal conditions among villagers in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Hartvigsen, Jan; Myburgh, Corrie;

    2016-01-01

    with an interpreter. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim, with Setswana contextually translated into English. The theoretical lens included Bury's biographical disruption, in which he distinguishes between "meaning as consequence" and "meaning as significance". RESULTS: Interviews revealed co-existing accounts...... for the consequences and significance of musculoskeletal burden related to 3 themes: (i) hard work for traditional lives; (ii) bearing the load of a rugged landscape; and, (iii) caring for others with disrupted lives. Physical labour with musculoskeletal symptoms had economic and subsistence consequences. The loss...... of independence and social identity to fulfil traditional roles held meaning as significance. Outmigration for wage labour and other shifts in family structure compounded everyday musculoskeletal burden. CONCLUSION: Uncovering burden is an important first step to address musculoskeletal care needs in developing...

  4. Education Reform in Botswana: Reflections on Policy Contradictions and Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabulawa, Richard Tjombe

    2009-01-01

    Literature on globalisation claims that changed global patterns of production and industrial organisation have intensified international economic competition, prompting nations globally to restructure their education systems in an attempt to position themselves favourably in an increasingly competitive economic environment. This is an environment…

  5. Englishising African Cultures: Revisiting Acculturated Forms of English in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2014-01-01

    Many "African English" researchers (see Kachru, B. B. (1983). "The Indianization of English." "The English language in India." Singapore: Singapore University Press.) have argued that when English is used in non-native environments, many aspects of its lexicon, grammar and pronunciation are modified and…

  6. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Karen Leiter; Michele Heisler; Willi McFarland; Fiona Percy-de Korte; DeMonner, Sonya M.; Sheila Tlou; Nthabiseng Phaladze; Vincent Iacopino; Bangsberg, David R

    2006-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is most commonly spread through unprotected sex with an infected partner. HIV enters the body through the lining of the sex organs, rectum, or mouth, and destroys immune system cells, leaving the infected person susceptible to other viruses and bacteria. Although HIV education and prevention campaigns emphasize the importance of safe sex in reducing HIV transmission, people...

  7. Information Communication Technology Adoption in Higher Education Sector of Botswana: a Case of Botho University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Matsoga Lekopanye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunities, benefits and achievements are emerging factors for institutions, lecturers, and learners from the increasing availability of Information Communication Technologies (ICT. These factors are relevant especially for new and growing higher educational institutions (HEI whose survival depends on, among other factors, the use of ICT to develop new organizational models to enhance their internal and external communication relationship and produce quality graduates. Given the relevance of the topic, the researchers studied positive impact of the adoption of ICT by higher educational institutions in an attempt to justify the use of ICT. In this paper, adoption refers to institutions migrating from traditional modes of paper based school management and student engagement to a computerized environment. This shift is hoped to enhance academic development and flexibility, increase level of student engagement, enhance cost-effectiveness, and create a sustainable environment through interactive learning resources. Although the study was conducted at a single institution (i.e. Botho University, it restricts its focus exclusively to the educational motivations for institutions to adopt ICT. In order to ascertain the current state of knowledge, an extensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the collected data and literature have been undertaken. The authors conclude the paper by identifying and examining potential benefits and achievements of institutions in adopting ICT.

  8. An integrated model for skilled labour retention for the Botswana Police Service / Vincent Stompi Mothupi

    OpenAIRE

    Mothupi, Vincent Stompi

    2014-01-01

    Skilled labour retention continues to receive attention from researchers as a critical challenge faced by organisations globally. The loss of skilled labour in an organisation contributes to the high labour replacement costs, which may result in an organisation‟s failure to achieve its mandate since it is deprived of its high performance, experienced and knowledgeable labour. Organisations must, therefore, be able to diagnose the factors that contribute to the loss of skilled l...

  9. ANALYSING VOLATILITY IN EQUITY INDICES – A MARKOV APPROACH FOR BOTSWANA DOMESTIC COMPANY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Madhava Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TIn financial economics, forecasting volatility in stock indices and currency returns has received considerable attention in the last two decades. Many traditional econometric methods forecast asset returns by a point prediction of volatility. The central contribution of this paper is to suggest an alternative approach for modelling and related analysis of asset returns. In this approach, the volatility in stock returns is defined in terms of categories depending on the mean of stock returns and its standard error. This classification naturally allows the study of volatility in terms of a Markov model. The approach suggested here will be of interest to academics, stock market investors, and analysts.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Op die terrein van die finansiële ekonomie het die vooruitskatting van volatiliteit in die aandeelindekse en wisselkoerse baie aandag getrek oor die afgelope twee dekades. Verskeie tradisionele ekonometriese vooruitskattingsmodelle baseer die vooruitskatting van opbrengste op ‘n puntvooruitskatting van die wisselvalligheid. Die bydrae van hierdie artikel is om ‘n alternatiewe metode voor te stel vir die modellering. Volgens die model word die volatiliteit van opbrengste gekategoriseer op grond van die gemiddelde opbrengste en die standaardfout. Dit skep geleetheid vir die toepassing van ‘n Markov-model. Die model sal akademici, beleggers en analiste interesseer.

  10. A sustainable internal marketing strategy for the National Parks in Botswana / Elmarie de Bruin

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruin, Elmarie

    2007-01-01

    Internal marketing is the key to the success of external marketing and therefore to the success and profitability of the organisation, especially the service organisation. Most organisations emphasise only external marketing, forgetting that a moment of truth contact with the internal market (employees) can destroy the most expensive and creative external marketing campaign. If expectations raised in external marketing are not met when the customer interacts with the employee, everything is l...

  11. Occupational care giving conditions and human rights: A study of elderly caregivers in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article′s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers′ human rights: (1 Aging; (2 Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3 Risk of contagion; (4 Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1 Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2 Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3 Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4 Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers′ occupational hazards and risks.

  12. An Illuminative Evaluation on Practical Art, Craft and Design Instruction: The Case of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannathoko, Magdeline C.; Major, Thenjiwe E.

    2013-01-01

    Art, craft and design (ACD) is a practical subject that provides learners the opportunity to explore various media and techniques. This includes creating two and three dimensional work in order to help learners develop their practical skills which may benefit them in future. Learners may create products to sell and earn a living as the National…

  13. Educational Research Within Postcolonial Africa: A Critique of HIV/AIDS Research in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the postcolonial lens to highlight that mainstream research in postcolonial societies still ignores, marginalizes and suppresses other knowledge systems and ways of knowing. The marginalization of local knowledge systems, it is argued, was established in the colonial times that relegated all things indigenous or from the colonized…

  14. Teaching and Learning Theology and Religion at the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togarasei, Lovemore

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  15. Grandmother and household viability in Botswana: family planning, child care and survival in changing tswana society.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingstad B

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles and influence of grandmothers with respect to nutrition, breastfeeding, quality of child care and family planning usage; the maternal grandmother is much more involved with grandchildren than the paternal grandmother. Accordingly this category may be a target for programmes and activities to promote child welfare and family planning.

  16. Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area and its influence on the communities in its Botswana borders

    OpenAIRE

    Ziobro, Weronika

    2014-01-01

    This thesis attempts to examine the influence of a nature conservation area, also called a ‘peace park,’ on the lives of the people living and working within its borders. The particular focus of this study is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA). The objectives of this peace park, located in southern Africa, include improvements in quality of life for the local people through development mainly instigated by tourism increased due to enhanced nature protection. Anoth...

  17. Costs and Consequences of Additional Chest X-Ray in a Tuberculosis Prevention Program in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samandari, Taraz; Bishai, David; Luteijn, Michiel; Mosimaneotsile, Barudi; Motsamai, Oaitse; Postma, Maarten; Hubben, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Isoniazid preventive therapy is effective in reducing the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLWH); however, screening must exclude TB disease before initiating therapy. Symptom screening alone may be insufficient to exclude TB disease in PLWH because some PLWH with TB

  18. The diabetic foot risks profile in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed: (1 to evaluate the proportion of each diabetic foot (DF risk category, according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF consensus, in patients attending the diabetic clinic in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital (SPGH and (2 to examine some of the factors that may be associated with the progression to higher risk categories such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile.Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional chart review of patients who had attended the diabetic clinic in SPGH from January 2013 to December 2013 was performed. Patients were included if they had undergone a foot examination. Patients with amputation due to accident were excluded. The DF risk category was assessed by determining the proportion of patients in each of four risk categories, as described by the IWGDF consensus.Results: The study encompassed 144 records from patients reviewed for foot examination from January to December 2013. Patients’ ages were between 16 and 85 years, 46 (40% were male and 98 (60% were female. The majority (122, [85%] of patients were in DF risk category 0, whilst a limited number of patients were classified in risk category 1 (10, [6.9%], risk category 2 (7, [4.9%] and risk category 3 (5, [3.5%]. Most of the patients had the type 2 diabetes mellitus (139, [97%; 95% CI 92% − 99%]. Patients’ ages were associated with the progressively higher DF risk categories. The adjusted odd ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 1.03−1.14; p = 0.004.Conclusion: The present study revealed that about 15% of patients attending the SPGH diabetic clinic were categorised in higher risk groups for diabetic foot; patients’ ages were linked to the higher DF risk categories.

  19. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  20. Facebook and Classroom Group Work: A Trial Study Involving University of Botswana Advanced Oral Presentation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magogwe, Joel M.; Ntereke, Beauty; Phetlhe, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, the use of information technology in the classroom is advancing rapidly, especially in higher education. The Internet, through social networking, has made it possible for students to learn and teachers to teach outside the classroom walls. Facebook in particular has made it possible for students to interact and communicate…

  1. Ethics Education Adherence by Teacher Trainees during Teaching Practice: A Botswana Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moswela, Bernard; Gobagoba, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to find out the extent to which teacher trainees understand and observe professional ethics. It also sought the contribution of the Faculty of Education and secondary schools make in promoting teacher ethics among trainees on teaching practice. Data were gathered from randomly chosen 90…

  2. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Walter De Neve, MD

    2015-08-01

    Funding: Takemi Program in International Health at the Harvard T.H.Chan School of Public Health, Belgian American Educational Foundation, Fernand Lazard Foundation, Boston University, National Institutes of Health.

  3. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  4. Parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica in Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The following parasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons kept in Sebele: a haemoprotozoan, Haemoproteus columbae (80 %; endoparasite metazoan nematodes, Ascaridia columbae(30 % and Dispharynx spiralis(10 %; a cestode, Raillietina sp. (80 % and coccidian oocysts (40 %; 2 ectoparasites, namely the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (50 % and the louse, Columbicola columbae (30 %. The pigeons also had high antibody titres, (1:256 to the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (100 %. The latter infection in these domestic pigeons has public health implications.

  5. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    deposited in the huge Paleo Lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), which once covered a 90,000km2 area that encompassed the delta, Lake Ngami, the Mababe Depression, and the Makgadikgadi Basin. Examples of PLM sediments are intersected in many boreholes. Low permeability clay within the PLM unit seems to be a barrier......, and (iii) geological details extracted from boreholes in northeastern and southeastern parts of the delta. The upper heterogeneous unit is the modern delta, which comprises extensive dry and freshwater-saturated sand and lesser amounts of clay and salt. It is characterized by moderate to high electrical...... resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands and clays...

  6. A Quest for Sustainable Quality Assurance Measurement for Universities: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awino, J. O.; Agolla, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh look at measurement-based assessment of learning at university level. The paper draws on a rich literature that informs what quality entails for our universities. The quality assessment measurement (QAM) scale used has been designed centering on six set of competency parameters: resources, teaching and learning, research,…

  7. Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

    Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included livelihood diversification, long-term mobility and training in non-agricultural skills. The study concludes that household capacity to adapt to extreme flooding in the study villages largely depends on access to natural capital. This is threatened by population growth, land use changes, policy shifts, upstream developments, global economic changes and flood variations due to climate variability and change.

  8. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Botswana: The Role of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangope, Boitumelo; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The continuing professional development of teachers is crucial for implementation of inclusive education and improving the quality of educational service delivery of all learners. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore teachers' beliefs about professional development for inclusive education in two primary and two secondary schools in…

  9. Freedom of Information and records management: a learning curve for Botswana.

    OpenAIRE

    Sebina, P. M. I. M.

    2006-01-01

    Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation is mostly adopted on the presumption that good records management exists. However, it is pertinent that the functionality of records management in the creation, management and making records available for access internally within government and externally to citizens be established as the legislation is being planned for. Through the planning process, the capacities of records management in providing access to information will be known. This study empl...

  10. Bipolar Factor and Systems Analysis skills of Student Computing Professionals at University of Botswana, Gaborone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U. Okike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperamental suitability (personality traits could be a factor to consider in career placement and professional development. It could also be an indicator of professional success or failure in any profession such as Systems Analysis and Design (SAD. However, there is not sufficient empirical evidence in support of the personality traits to which systems analysts and designers may be categorized. The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the main personality traits to which systems analysts and designers may belong, then propose a new approach to composing a personality matrix based on sound computational model. The study employed a quantitative research approach to measure the personality traits of 60 student systems analysts and designers using a human metric tool such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and some pre designed additional questionnaires. A mathematical model of the form a_(ij=ß_0+ß_1 x_(1j+ ß_2 x_(2j+ ß_3 x_(3j+ ß_4 x_(4j+ …ß_n x_nj was employed in order to measure achievement in systems analysis and design examination. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS was used to analyse the data. Using linear regression, the model was not significant, implying that achievement in SAD examination does not depend only on personality traits, motivation variables and study habit variables which were the independent variables. However, the R squared value indicated that these variables account for 52% variation in the dependent variable SAD score (achievement. The best achievers in the personality traits are ENFJ, ENTJ, ISFJ and INFJ all scoring 70% each. Therefore, the best achievers possess the personality traits of extroversion (E, iNtuition (N, Feeling (F, Judging (J, Thinking (T, Introversion (I, Sensing (S. Overall, the highest passes are students of the traits INFJ (11, INTJ (11 passes, ENTJ (10 passes, ENFJ (10 passes, ESFP (3passes, ISFJ (3passes, ISTJ (3 passes, ESFP (2 passes, ENFP (1, ISTP (1, and ISFP (1.

  11. To assess the value of satellite photographs in resource evaluation on a national scale. [Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, J. V. (Principal Investigator); Hutton, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The limit of resolution on ERTS imagery is normally acknowledged to be about 60 miles although very long features such as roads and railways which are often less than 10 miles long are easily detectable. An example is the north-south road and railway from Lobatse to Francistown. Vegetation growth from winter to summer is readily monitored on false color imagery. The limits of government ranches and special farming areas can be quite accurately ascertained from ERTS imagery. Another aspect to which ERTS imagery lends itself is the location and demarcation of bush fires, many of which were seen on the first imagery which was acquired at the end of the cold, dry season. As a whole, MSS 7 offers maximum reflectance contrast among black and white imagery and is the wavelength used most for interpretation.

  12. Neotectonic formation of drainage patterns and their palaeohydrological implications for the Okwa River catchment, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Schmidt, Mareike; Shemang, Elisha; Zhang, Shuping; Frank, Riedel

    2014-05-01

    Large inter- and intramontane endorheic basins provide long term archives of environmental change, often integrating regional to continental climate driven process dynamics of huge drainage systems. On one hand the large-scale integration can be regarded as an advantage by averaging small-scale variations of either local hydrological peculiarities or random triggered drainage behaviour (e.g. internal thresholds, tectonics, etc.) and thus just recording atmospheric circulation pattern up to hemispherical scales with millennial resolution. Otherwise, with increasing basin size the process dynamic and their response system along one or more sediment cascades often become a complexity resulting in crucial problems of sedimentological archive interpretations by e.g. signal interference, equifinality or even multiple reworking. Therefore, studies of geomorphological or hydrological response processes and ecological adaption can only be undertaken on sub-catchment scale considering process dynamics along pathways. For southern-hemispheric palaeoclimate reconstruction of land-ocean linkages, Makgadikgadi Basin - as the largest (c. 37,000 km2) and deepest depression in the middle Kalahari - provides a fluvio-lacustrine archive in high-continental position since at least 300 kyr BP. Recent studies suggest a mega-lake high-stand within the basin for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) For the hydrological persistence of the lake for about 6 kyrs, the since Heinrich Event 1 (17-16 ka) inactive Okwa River seems to play a key role indicating a northward-shift of the winter rainfall zone. However, beside some dating of exposed shell bearing sediments at the river mouth, a thorough investigation of the c. 129,000 km2 drainage system is missing. Our presentation aims to point out the linkages between neotectonic activity and sediment transport. The combination of adaptive DEM-filter and multispectral remote sensing data reveals obvious traps (of neotectonic origin) of small temporary sinks filled partly with still-water sediments along the W-E-striking main course of Okwa. First two radiocarbon-dating of fossil shells within a c. 1.50m outcrop in a small basin of the upper reaches suggest an age of about 20-22 kyr cal. BP of the basin fill. To some extent, the related faults can clearly be traced by perpendicular river courses or vegetation changes related to wetness changes of the soils. In contrast, the influence of tectonics affecting the river courses become increasingly fuzzy until the immediate final gorge of the river mouth. A DGPS-profile exhibits an asymmetric cross-profile with two terraces at the southern slope and an additional terrace at the opposite slope. The asymmetric terrace-setting can apparently be attributed to the twin-featured Gidikwe-fault to the north and its single featured continuation to the south. Thus, the terraces within the gorge can obviously be related to intersecting faults. The eastward propagating delta consists of four generation of sub-fans. Morpho-stratigraphic analyses show that two of them can be directly attributed to young faulting dynamics with short-distance sediment transportation. However, the oldest fan is obviously developed by fluvial sedimentation during the last high-stand and conserved by a fast decreasing erosion base.

  13. Developing Staff for the Implementation of Problem-Based Learning: Experiences from Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Educational transformation in higher education places new demands on academics, especially in terms of shifting from traditional methods of teaching and learning to the application of innovative methods. Whereas outcomes-based education leans towards a philosophy, problem-based learning (PBL) offers a structured methodology in which teaching and…

  14. Adolescent Obesity Prevention in Botswana: Beliefs and Recommendations of School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibu, Sheila; Holsten, Joanna E.; Stettler, Nicolas; Maruapula, Segametsi D.; Jackson, Jose C.; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokone, George; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Compher, Charlene W.

    2012-01-01

    The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in…

  15. The Fiscal Dimension of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lule, Elizabeth; Haacker, Markus

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS imposes enormous economic, social, health, and human costs and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The challenge is particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa, home to two-thirds (22.5 million) of the people living with HIV/AIDS globally, and where HIV/AIDS has become the leading cause of premature death. But now, after decades of misery and frustration with the disea...

  16. Relationship between mining revenue, government consumption, exchange rate and economic growth in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegomoditswe Koitsiwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es investigar en forma empírica las relaciones dinámicas entre ingreso minero, consumo del gobierno, tipo de cambio y crecimiento económico en Bostwana. Se analizó información trimestral de 1994 a 2012 usando un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR no restringidos que consiste en la función de respuesta al impul - so y descomposición de varianzas. Adicionalmente, se empleó la causalidad Granger del VAR para examinar la dirección de la causalidad entre variables. La función de respuesta al impulso mostró la respuesta positiva y negativa a impactos mineros mientras que la descomposición de varianzas indica que el ingreso minero define la variabilidad en creci - miento económico y consumo del gobierno. Los resultados empíricos también sugieren que el ingreso minero y la tipo de cambio causan en el sentido de Granger, el crecimiento económico mientras que el consumo del gobierno es causado por el ingreso minero y el crecimiento económico. Estas observaciones revelan lo vulnerable que es la economía de Bostwana a los impactos de choques externos. Concluimos que, aunque el sector minero tiene un papel importante en la economía de Bostwana, es necesario que el gobierno adopte reformas estructurales adicionales que fomenten el desarrollo del sector no minero para diversificar la exportación. Derechos Reservados©2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  17. A Future beyond HIV/AIDS? Health as a Political Commodity in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bochow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Referencing scholarly debates on humanitarianism and specifically HIV interventions, this article analyses the commodification of health in Botswana’s political arena throughout the HIV pandemic and beyond, contributing to a re-evaluation of the distribution of public wealth and international support in welfare states in Africa. The starting point of the analysis is a project to build a private hospital – a move to create a centre of excellence exclusive of international HIV/AIDS donations – and the staging of political responsibilities around it. Public investment into private health is an attempt to reform infrastructures built with HIV/AIDS money and to develop a market of high-paying jobs within the country. This process transforms the inalienable and indivisible condition of health and survival into a political commodity.

  18. The career planning needs of senior public secondary school learners in Gaborone, Botswana / Nnananyana K.E. Mekgwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mekgwe, Nnananyana Khutsafalo Erminah

    2010-01-01

    Career choice is one of the most daunting decisions one has to make, since it has implications that affect a variety of aspects in one’s life. For adolescents, career decision–making is even more challenging because it is done at a time when adolescents are going through a period of identity formation, and when their core personalities have not yet been fully formed. It is therefore essential to provide systematic career guidance programmes that will assist adolescents in their career develop...

  19. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  20. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

  1. The relationship between leadership and performance management : a case of Kgatleng land board (Botswana) / B.P Diane

    OpenAIRE

    Diane, B P

    2012-01-01

    The Land Board has been. experiencing delays in allocation of land to the applicants. Some applicants have been waiting for land allocation for over 12 years. Other challenges faced by the Land Board include poor records management that has led to double allocation. After identification of these challenges faced by the Land Board, the researcher was convinced that the challenges faced by the Land Board could be addressed through performance management. The current study therefo...

  2. Geomorphology and reflectance patterns of vegetation-covered dunes at the Tsodilo Hills, north-west Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.; Hooper, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Seasonal reflectance variations in semigrid environments provide a means of assessing vegetation health and density as well as monitoring landform processes. Multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes with field measurements are used to map geomorphology and vegetation density in a stabilized dune environment and to measure seasonal reflectance changes for a series of ten geomorphological and vegetation units on the Kalahari-age linear dunes. Units were chosen based on differences in landform and proportion of trees, forbs and bare soil. Reflectance curves and normalized-difference vegetation indices (NDVI) show that dune crests have the strongest seasonal variability in color and brightness. The geomorphological link with reflectance and NDVI values are linked to biomass production and zoning of vegetation with slope, drainage and subtle soil differences.

  3. Assessment of Computer Technology Availability, Accessibility and Usage by Agricultural Education Student Teachers in Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulela, K.; Rammolai, M.; Mpatane, W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the availability, accessibility and usability of computer as a form of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by student teachers in secondary schools. 44 out of 51 student teachers of Agriculture responded to the questionnaire. Means and percentages were used to analyze the data to establish the availability,…

  4. Preserving and transmitting indigenous knowledge in diminishing bio-cultural environment: Case studies from Botswana and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    BATIBO, Herman M.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid bio-diversity loss due to the effects of urbanization, socio-economic demands, change in life style, technological advancement and globalization has resulted in the depletion of the ecosystem. At the same time, the younger generations are no longer acquiring knowledge in their indigenous environment, partly because of the new lifestyle of going to school instead of going hunting or herding, and partly because the fauna and flora is being destroyed and therefore no longer available f...

  5. Does Teaching Practice Effectively Prepare Student-Teachers to Teach Creative and Performing Arts? The Case of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannathoko, Magdeline C.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher Education involves the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge and skills they require to teach effectively. Teaching practice (TP) is an integral part in teacher education because it allows student-teachers to apply the theories into practice. Effective preparation of student-teachers in practical subjects…

  6. Conceptualizing and Designing a Qualitative Study:Insights From a Doctoral Study on Youth Livelihoods in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Molefe

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research used to be viewed as a confused and unthinkable research approach. This research approach is increasingly gaining recognition in many disciplines including those focused on the development notions of gender and empowerment in developing countries. This paper details how the author has conceptualized, designed and conducted a qualitative case study for the award of a doctoral degree in international development. The study sought to inform development interventions in Botsw...

  7. The phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Botswana soils : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramolemana, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdec.) is a legume crop grown especially by small farmers mainly in semi-arid parts of Africa both in mixed cultivation and pure stands. It is considered as a hardy crop because of its drought tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases and ability to yie

  8. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  9. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Botswana: Educating Children as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensson, Gabriella; Brundrett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS can no longer be regarded solely as a public health issue as its impact extends well into all spheres of life, sectors of society and levels of the education system. This paper argues that not only is it paramount to draw on children's understanding of the impact of AIDS on their lives, but it is equally important to draw on their…

  10. Socialisation as a Factor in Poverty Identity Formation: A Pilot Case Study of the Poor in Selected Areas of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditloaneng, Wapula Nelly

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illuminate that acquisition of knowledge, positive attitudes, skills and identity formation are by-products of primary socialisation and secondary interaction with people and institutions from all walks of family life, environmental experiences, and lifestyles. Based on the first phase of a qualitative case study on…

  11. An investigation into the causes and effects of student disciplinary problems in community Junior Secondary schools of Botswana / Obonetse Masalila

    OpenAIRE

    Masalila, Obonetse

    2006-01-01

    The researcher intended to establish the types of student disciplinary problems in Gaborone Community Junior Secondary Schools as well as ways of combating these problems. The opening chapter states the problem, purpose of study and also provides background to the problem. Data was collected from teachers and the students using questionnaires. All in all sixty (60) subjects were used to collect data. The other chapter that has substantially enriched the project is chapter tw...

  12. The effects of peer harrassment in a school curriculum : a case study of Botswana Junior Secondary schools / Merapelo Kate Mosenki

    OpenAIRE

    Mosenki, Merapelo Kate

    2006-01-01

    The opening chapter states the problem, purpose of study and also provides background to the problem as well as preliminary literature of the study. The other chapter that has substantially enriched the project is chapter two, which provided all the literature, related to the research. The third chapter explains the methodology used in this research study. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires from learners in Gaborone Junior Secondary Schools. All in all, a s...

  13. Integrating Dendrochronology, Climate and Satellite Remote Sensing to Better Understand Savanna Landscape Dynamics in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the integration and potential uses of linkages between climate dynamics, savanna vegetation and landscape level processes within a highly vulnerable region, both in terms of climate variability and social systems. We explore the combined applications of two time-series methodologies: (1 climate signals detected in tree ring growth, from published literature, chronologies from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank, and minimal preliminary field data; and (2 new primary production (NPP data of vegetation cover over time derived from remotely sensed analyses. Both time-series are related to the regional patterns of precipitation, the principle driver of plant growth in the area. The approach is temporally and spatially multiscalar and examines the relationships between vegetation cover, type and amount, and precipitation shifts. We review literature linking dendrochronology, climate, and remotely sensed imagery, and, in addition, provide unique preliminary analyses from a dry study site located on the outer limit of the Okavango Delta. The work demonstrates integration across the different data sources, to provide a more holistic view of landscape level processes occurring in the last 30-50 years. These results corroborate the water-limited nature of the region and the dominance of precipitation in controlling vegetation growth. We present this integrative analysis of vegetation and climate change, as a prospective approach to facilitate the development of long-term climate/vegetation change records across multiple scales.

  14. Minority language, ethnicity and the state in two African situations : the Nkoya and the Kalanga of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Furniss, G.

    1994-01-01

    The chapters in this collection record a workshop held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, in April 1991, on African languages, development and the State. The book is divided into an introductory chapter, by Richard Fardon and Graham Furniss, and three parts. Part 1, West Africa, contains

  15. A note on endoparasites of wild ostriches (Struthio camelus in the Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of endoparasites of wild ostriches at Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, over a 7-month period. Large numbers of strongyle eggs were recovered from faecal material in April and September and a decline in the strongyle egg counts was evident during June and July. Noteworthy was the absence of helminth eggs in faecal samples collected from chicks and coccidia oocysts from any of the ostriches.

  16. Spatiotemporal Variation and the Role of Wildlife in Seasonal Water Quality Declines in the Chobe River, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tyler Fox

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of dryland river systems is often complicated by extreme variability of precipitation in time and space, especially across large catchment areas. Understanding regional water quality changes in southern African dryland rivers and wetland systems is especially important because of their high subsistence value and provision of ecosystem services essential to both public and animal health. We quantified seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli and Total Suspended Solids (TSS in the Chobe River using spatiotemporal and geostatistical modeling of water quality time series data collected along a transect spanning a mosaic of protected, urban, and developing urban land use. We found significant relationships in the dry season between E. coli concentrations and protected land use (p = 0.0009, floodplain habitat (p = 0.016, and fecal counts from elephant (p = 0.017 and other wildlife (p = 0.001. Dry season fecal loading by both elephant (p = 0.029 and other wildlife (p = 0.006 was also an important predictor of early wet season E. coli concentrations. Locations of high E. coli concentrations likewise showed close spatial agreement with estimates of wildlife biomass derived from aerial survey data. In contrast to the dry season, wet season bacterial water quality patterns were associated only with TSS (p<0.0001, suggesting storm water and sediment runoff significantly influence E. coli loads. Our data suggest that wildlife populations, and elephants in particular, can significantly modify river water quality patterns. Loss of habitat and limitation of wildlife access to perennial rivers and floodplains in water-restricted regions may increase the impact of species on surface water resources. Our findings have important implications to land use planning in southern Africa's dryland river ecosystems.

  17. Exploring states of panacea and perfidy of family and community volunteerism in palliative care giving in Kanye CHBC program, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations: The study recommends: (1 Socializing boys early enough in life into care giving; (2 Offering incentives to the caregivers; (3 Use of public forums to persuade men to accept helping women in carrying out care giving duties; (4 And enlisting support of all leaders to advocate for men′s involvement in care giving.

  18. Conservation Fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa in the Presence of Land Restitution

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the conservation fee to charge South African residents to maximise park revenue. We conducted contingent behaviour experiments at KTP and three other national parks, which we assume are either substitutes or complements for visitors to KTP. Our random effects Tobit model shows that there is a wide variation in the own-price elasticities of demand between the parks, but they are gen...

  19. Conservation Fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa in the Presence of Land Restitution

    OpenAIRE

    Johane Dikgang and Edwin Muchapondwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the conservation fee to charge South African residents to maximise park revenue. We conducted contingent behavior experiments at KTP and three other national parks, which we assume are either substitutes or complements for visitors to KTP. Our random effects Tobit model shows that there is a wide variation in the own-price elasticities of demand between the parks but they are gener...

  20. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  1. Tourism for development: Environmental sustainability, poverty reduction and empowering communities; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 6, Gaborone, Botswana, 1-3 July, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellmer, K.; Duim, van der R.; Saarinen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promoti

  2. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsauer, S; Bay, G.; Meli, M; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  3. Should healthcare in rural Botswana focus on integration and group activities to ease the burdens associated with muscle, bone and joint disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Johannessen, Helle; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    : Villagers expressed gratitude for dialogue about MuBoJo conditions to improve daily lives. Interviews revealed social suffering related to drought, poverty and outmigration or other shifts within family structures. The temporal sequence of lives disrupted by MuBoJo troubles was less important than loss...... and thatch. Villagers conveyed interest for group activities to improve MuBoJo health. Word of mouth fueled villager concerns about treatment adverse effects, but most were interested in what “the westerners offer at the caravan.” Providers encouraged integration of MuBoJo care with health and lay personnel...

  4. Dose assessment of natural radioactivity in fly ash and environmental materials from Morupule a coal-fired power station in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been undertaken to estimate the occupational and public radiation doses due to natural radioactivity at Morupule, a Coal-Fired Power Station and its environs. The radiation doses were reconstructed to include 60 year period from 1985 to 2045. Direct gamma ray spectroscopy was used to determine the natural radionuclides Th-232, U-238, and K-40 both qualitatively and quantitatively for fly ash, coal, soil and water (from the fly ash ponds) samples. The average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 in fly ash samples were 64.54 Bq/kg, 49.37 Bq/kg and 40.08 Bq/kg respectively. In the case of coal, the corresponding average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 27.43 Bq/kg, 18.10 Bq/kg and 17.38 Bq/kg respectively. For soil samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 10.11 Bq/kg, 6.76 Bq/kg and 118.03 Bq/kg respectively. In water samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 0.79 Bq/l, 0.32 Bq/l and 1.01 Bq/l respectively. These average activity concentrations were generally comparable to the average world activity concentrations in the case of coal samples, but were generally lower than the average world activity concentrations in the case of fly ash, soil and water samples. The average annual effective doses for the study area were estimated as 0.320 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.069 mSv and 0.003 mSv for fly ash, coal, soil and water samples respectively. Dose reconstruction modelling estimated the average fly ash annual effective doses for the years 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, 2025, 2035 and 2045 to be 0.182 mSv, 0.459 mSv, 0.756 mSv, 0.320 mSv, 0.183 mSv, 0.137 mSv and 0.124 mSv respectively. The reconstructed average coal annual effective doses for similar years were 0.070 mSv, 0.182 mSv, 0.303 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.070 mSv, 0.060 mSv and 0.046 mSv respectively. The dose reconstruction modelling also estimated the average soil annual effective doses for the same years as above to be 0.048 mSv, 0.091 mSv, 0.136 mSv, 0.070 mSv, 0.048 mSv, 0.041 mSv and 0.039 mSv respectively. Likewise, the reconstructed average annual effective doses for water were 0.0016 mSv, 0.0049 mSv, 0.0083 mSv, 0.0033 mSv, 0.0016 mSv, 0.0011 mSv and 0.0010 mSv respectively. All estimated and reconstructed average annual effective doses are within the recommended public and occupational dose limits of 1 mSv and 20 mSv respectively. The radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external and internal hazard indices for all samples are within recommended international values for their safe use as building materials. Results from this study reveal that there is no significant radiological impact to both the workers and the public within Morupule, a Coal-Fired Power Station and its environs. (au)

  5. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  6. Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

  7. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  8. Flooding dynamics in a large low-gradient alluvial fan, the Okavango Delta, Botswana, from analysis and interpretation of a 30-year hydrometric record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wolski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okavango Delta is a flood-pulsed wetland, which supports a large tourism industry and the subsistence of the local population through the provision of ecosystem services. In order to obtain insight into the influence of various environmental factors on flood propagation and distribution in this system, an analysis was undertaken of a 30-year record of hydrometric data (discharges and water levels from one of the Delta distributaries. The analysis revealed that water levels and discharges at any given channel site in this distributary are influenced by a complex interplay of flood wave and local rainfall inputs, modified by channel-floodplain interactions, in-channel sedimentation and technical interventions, both at the given site and upstream. Additionally, cyclical variation of channel vegetation due to intermittent nutrient loading, possibly sustained by nutrient recycling, may play a role. It is shown that short and long-term flood dynamics are mainly due to variation in floodplain flows. As a consequence, discharge data collected within the main channels of distributaries do not adequately represent flooding dynamics in the system. The paper contributes to the understanding of seasonal and long-term flood pulsing and their variation in low gradient systems of channels and floodplains.

  9. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent. PMID:27306229

  10. Tourism, tourists and sustainable development in Africa; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 7, Gaborone, Botswana, July 1-3, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saarinen, J.; Duim, van der R.; Zellmer, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promoti

  11. Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens (BurchDC ex. Meisn from Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlhanka D.M.T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative phytochemical analysis [TLC method] and antioxidant activity of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens were done. Total phenolic content [Folin-Ciocalteu method] and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay] of both chloroform and methanol extracts were determined. Analysis of ex situ cultivated plant material showed presence of phytochemicals comparable with those found in the wild plants. The total phenolic contents (mg GAE/L of methanolic tuber extracts from wild plants (3366±22.68 were comparable to the methanolic tuber extracts (3297.00±54.56 from ex situ cultivated plants. The total phenolic contents of methanolic leaf extracts from wild (2562±158.77 plants were also not significantly different from the ex situ (2686.00±10.49 cultivated H. procumbens. Similar trends were observed in the chloroform extracts of both wild and ex situ cultivated H. procumbens. The free radical scavenging activities also correlated well with the total phenolic contents of both wild and ex situ cultivated plants. At all tested concentrations, the methanolic extracts of both wild and ex situ cultivated plants were ≥80%. The scavenging potencies of chloroform extracts were consistently lower than the methanol extracts in both ex situ cultivated plants and wild species. The consistency in presence of phenolic compounds in these plant materials is of interest from both the pharmacological and conservation point of view given the role played by these compounds in oxidative stress. These results indicate that ex situ cultivation can be both a conservation strategy and can provide an alternative and sustainable source of therapeutically active compounds.

  12. The problems of pricing and selling socio-economic grey literature in Africa : the case of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR), University of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwafo-Akoto, Kate (NIR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    In Africa, socio-economic grey literature (GL) constitutes a substantialproportion of literature produced especially in the universities through their research activities. The paper analyses some of the key problems encountered in pricing and selling GL produced by universities in Africa such as their specialised subject content which fail to appeal to the general public. Discusses the role being played by the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation in building the resear...

  13. The role of the community mental health nurse in Botswana: The needs and problems of carers of schizophrenic clients in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kgosidintsi

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the role of the psychiatric/community mental health nurse in the context of primary health care in which mental health is an integral part of the general health care system and in a specific socio-economic background. Nine (9 community mental health nurses who graduated from a local training program for community mental health nurses at post basic level, twenty five (25 carers responsible for daily care and welfare of schizophrenic clients from rural, semi-rural, urban and semi-urban areas country wide participated in the study. The study was exploratory and both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using semi structured interviews, unstructured observation and documentary search methods were used. Data analysis for both qualitative and quantitative data was done through simple frequency counts.

  14. Causes of Gender Differences in Accounting Performance: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally-Dima, Lillian; Mbekomize, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the survey method to investigate the factors that cause academic differences between female and male students at the largest university in Botswana. The population of this research was the students of the last three years of the 4 year Bachelor of Accountancy degree programme at the University of Botswana. Anchored on the prior…

  15. 外国直接投资对博茨瓦纳经济发展的正效应%The Positive Efficiency of Foreign Direct Investment to Botswana's Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风

    2007-01-01

    长期以来,外国直接投资与经济发展的关系不仅是国内外经济学家关注的问题,更是世界各国,特别是发展中国家政府亟待解决的问题。世界上经济发展最落后、普遍受资金短缺困扰的非洲国家,对利用外国直接投资发展经济尤为关注。然而,由于投资环境欠佳和政策不到位等因素,大多数非洲国家未能很好地利用外资来发展本国经济。当然,其中也有特例,南部非洲小国博茨瓦纳正是这样一个国家。该国在利用外资拉动经济增长与发展方面,取得了显著的成效,值得其他非洲国家借鉴。

  16. Flooding Patterns of the Okavango Wetland in Botswana between 1972 and 2000%博茨瓦纳欧科范果湿地1972~2000年泛滥方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny M. McCarthy; Thomas Gumbricht; Terence McCarthy; Philip Frost; Konrad Wessels; Frank Seidel

    2003-01-01

    @@ 欧科范果三角洲地区泛滥范围年年在变化.这种变化与安哥拉高地集水区的区域性降水及当地降雨量有关.我们采用了1972~2000年的3000多幅卫星图像来描绘湿地的格局,其中从1985~2000年的图像几乎是NOAAAVHRR每日连续传送的,1972年以来的其它图像是从Landsat传感器上传下来的,其连续性次之.对AVHRR图像每10天为一期,用无监督分类方法分成陆地和水体.对LandsatTM和ERS2-ATSR数据进行分析的结果,与测算的淹没区域89%相吻合.结果显示欧科范果湿地近期30年期间的变化约在2450~11400km2之间.

  17. Spatio-temporal ephemeral streamflow as influenced by climate variability in Botswana%气候变率影响下博茨瓦纳河流流量的时空变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnyaladzi BATISANI

    2011-01-01

    The fourth assessment report of the IPCC highlights that the global average surface temperature is projected to increase by 1.8 to 4.0℃ by the year 2100 compared to current climate. Given that climate is the most important driver of the hydrological cycle, the rise in temperature could cause changes in occurrence patterns of extreme hydrologic events like streamflow droughts. An increase in frequency and severity of these events could pose serious challenges for sustainable management of water resources particular in arid regions.However, the understanding of water resources dynamics and the possible impacts of climate change on these dynamics is hindered by uncertainties in climate change models and complex hydrological responses of streams and catchments to climatic changes. Therefore observational evidence of streamflow dynamics at the local scale could play a crucial role in addressing these uncertainties and achieving a fuller reconciliation between model-based scenarios and ground truth. This paper determines spatial and temporal changes in streamflow volumes and their association with climatic factors based on the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and ANOVA to determine possible changes in streamflow over the years and their relation to climatic factors. Streamflow is generally stochastic highlighting the importance of factoring in temporal flow variability in water resources planning. There is no clear evidence that changes in climatic variables are related to streamflow behaviour.

  18. 'Cultures do not exist' : Exploding self-evidences in the investigation of interculturality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    This volume brings together fifteen essays investigating aspects of interculturality. Published between 1969 and 2002, the essays operate at the borderline between anthropology and intercultural philosophy. Ethnographic data are derived from field research carried out in Tunisia, Zambia and Botswana

  19. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    This volume brings together fifteen essays investigating aspects of interculturality. Published between 1969 and 2002, the essays operate at the borderline between anthropology and intercultural philosophy. Ethnographic data are derived from field research carried out in Tunisia, Zambia and Botswana

  20. PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE IMPACTS OF A SOUTHERN AFRICAN CUSTOMS UNION-EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ON BOTSWANA’S IMPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyani Thomy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botswana along with its Southern African Customs Union (SACU states is negotiating a European Union (SACU-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA. The negotiations are contentious both within SACU and against the EU and not surprisingly, the initial 2007 deadline not met. This study investigates the effects of such an agreement on Botswana’s import of food, beverages and tobacco using the Vinerian partial equilibrium method. The authors attempt to quantify the impacts of a reciprocal duty and quota free EPA on Botswana’s imports of food, beverages and tobacco under SACU-EU EPA’s. The partial equilibrium analysis suggests that a net welfare benefit for the Botswana consumers is possible. Although there are some trade diversion and tariff revenue losses these do not appear to be large enough to negate the effects of the welfare enhancing trade creation.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Byskov, Jens

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys in Ngamiland, Botswana, indicate increasing prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. With the introduction of a schistosomiasis control programme, 354 of 373 schoolchildren were examined quantitatively for eggs of S. mansoni, and 317 were examined clinically for hepato...

  2. Monetary Policy, Governance and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chibba

    2007-01-01

    Botswana is at a crossroads, as economic growth has slowed significantly in recent years while social problems remain largely unresolved. Exacerbating this situation is a monetary policy in crisis as over a decade of generally high interest rates have failed to address inflationary pressures. Thus, the Botswana experience challenges generally accepted wisdom on the relationship between interest rates and inflation. The main lessons learned highlight the need for (i) enhancing the knowledge an...

  3. Cross-disciplinarity and hybrid methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Knudsen, Jakob

    This paper describes experiences with a multidisciplinary course where architecture students worked together with urban planning and engineering students looking at urban developments in peri-urban areas in Gaborone. Added to a multidisciplinary approach the course also invilved an international...... collaboration between Botswana and Danish students and staff. Despite its relatively small population, estimated at around 200.000 the capital of Botswana is known to be one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. A problem/project centred approach was adopted whereby the issue of urban development in peri...

  4. Using Video as Pedagogy for Globally Connected Learning about the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Diana; Kabwira, Davie; Mmatli, Tlamelo; Rankopo, Morena; Long, Dennis D.

    2012-01-01

    How might U.S. social work students' perceptions of HIV/AIDS differ from those of social work students in sub-Saharan Africa? Furthermore, what can students learn from hearing how students from other countries view them? Social work students in the United States, Botswana, and Malawi were video-recorded; they then viewed the videos of students at…

  5. Hearing Ancestral Voices through Creative Art--A Tool for Environmental Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi; Khudu-Petersen, Kelone

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this paper draws on a study in the Kgalagari region of Botswana where participant observation workshops were conducted to illustrate the impact of using the Arts in Education approach (AiE). This approach was used through traditional storytelling in lessons on environmental issues in a rural primary school in the…

  6. Kenya Airways Increase Flight Frequency to Inner African Continent For Chinese Passengers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways recently announced Chinese passengers would have a much easier transfer to the Gaborone of Botswana from Nairobi in Kenya.From June 30 Kenya Airways will increase its flight frequency to Gaborone to four flights every week.And from September 1,the number will reach five.Flights to Abidjan of Ivory Coast were also resumed again on May 2.

  7. The Impact and Implementation of National Qualifications Frameworks: A Comparison of 16 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides some of the key findings of a comparative study commissioned by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which attempted to understand more about the impact and implementation of national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). Sixteen case studies were produced, on qualifications frameworks in Australia; Bangladesh; Botswana;…

  8. Higher Education and Employment: An International Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    The relationship between higher education and employment (particulary underemployment and unemployment) is discussed in terms of a synthesis of 21 case studies of developing and developed nations. The countries discussed are: Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Pakistan, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen,…

  9. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  10. Global perpectives on adult education and learning policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Brazil, Mexico, Botswana, Ghana, Palestine, South Korea and India) and five international organisations, this book explores recent changes in their overall contexts and policies about adult education, how such policies intersect with developments in higher education and how they may contribute to debates...

  11. Emerging tuberculosis pathogen hijacks social communication behavior in the group-living banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium mungi, a novel M. tuberculosis complex pathogen (MtbC), has emerged in wild banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. Unlike other members of the MtbC, M. mungi is not transmitted through a primary aerosol route. Rather, pathogen invasion occur...

  12. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  13. The Planning and Development of Educational Programmes for Personnel in Oral Health. WHO Offset Publication No. 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, H.; Hobdell, M. H.

    This report addresses issues relating to the planning and development of educational programs for oral health personnel in World Health Organization (WHO) communities. Opinions and ideas were obtained from professionals in Sweden, Denmark, Canada, Botswana, Australia, Yemen, United Republic of Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Czechoslovakia.…

  14. The Impact of International Teacher Migration on Schooling in Developing Countries--The Case of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Simon; Sives, Amanda; Morgan, W. John

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the migration of teachers has been a phenomenon for hundreds of years, the advent of "globalisation" has seen such migration return to prominence. This article focuses on the experiences of two developing countries in Southern Africa which have been on different ends of the process: South Africa as a net sender of teachers and Botswana as a…

  15. Using the Movie, "The Gods Must Be Crazy," in Interpersonal Communications Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, David

    Opening in 1981 to moviegoers in Japan, France, and the United States, "The Gods Must Be Crazy" became an international hit. Set in Botswana, the film covers a relatively small geographic area yet nevertheless can open classroom discussions about how many cultures and how much cultural diversity can exist in a small area. It has three main groups…

  16. Is Investment in Africa Too Low or Too High? Macro and Micro Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shantayanan; Easterley, William R.; Pack, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between weak growth performance and low investment rates in Africa. The cross-country evidence suggests no direct relationship. The positive and significant coefficient on private investment appears to be driven by Botswana's presence in the sample. Allowing for the endogeneity of private investment, controlling for policy, and positing a nonlinear ...

  17. Environmental Processes and Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Associated with Soil Erosion in Desert Fringe Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of analysis of spectral variation of sand dunes in El Ghorabi, Bahariya, Egypt; Tombouctou/Azaouad, Mali; and Tsodilo Hills, western Botswana are presented. Seasonal variations in dune extent and location of dune crests and their relationship to such factors as wind and weather variations are emphasized.

  18. "When I Grow up I Would Like to Be …": Factors Affecting Career Choice of Community Disability Workers in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Sarah; Kahonde, Callista; Lorenzo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of community based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes depends on the calibre of staff recruited and employed. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the life experiences of community disability workers (CDWs) in Malawi, Botswana and South Africa influenced their choice of career. A life history approach was used to gather…

  19. After the International Ethics Conference, What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana from 6-10 December 2009 brought together over 250 delegates, speakers, and other participants from a wide range of disciplines. The theme of the conference, "Retrieving the Human Face of Science: Understanding Ethics and Integrity in Healthcare, Medicine and Research," was…

  20. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  1. Airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic mapping of groundwater salinity in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Vest Christiansen, Anders; Tembo, Alice;

    2015-01-01

    is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater quality variations and has been used extensively to explore the Kalahari sediments, e.g., in Botswana and Namibia. Recently, airborne and groundbased mapping of groundwater salinity was conducted in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia, using the versatile...

  2. Management of Information Services. Reports and Papers of a Training Course (Arusha, Tanzania, April 11-22, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musana, A., Ed.; And Others

    These reports and papers from a training course which brought together information services professionals from Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, the Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland address the following topics: (1) information systems analysis; (2) the state of the art in bibliographic control in Eastern and…

  3. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Maloka, E.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius,

  4. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  5. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  6. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  7. Universal Basic Education and the Provision of Quality Mathematics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazima, Mercy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss Universal Basic Education (UBE) in relation to the teaching and learning of mathematics in Southern Africa. I present the status of UBE for all countries in the region and then use 3 selected examples: Botswana, Malawi, and Zambia, to illustrate the provision of mathematics in the general framework of UBE in the countries.…

  8. Language Maintenance or Shift? Attitudes of Bakalanga Youth towards Their Mother Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsholo, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study whose objective was to investigate whether there was a likelihood of a language shift (or loss) from Ikalanga (a minority language spoken in Botswana) to either Setswana or English. The focus of the investigation was 17-25 year olds. The findings indicate that although Ikalanga (unlike indigenous…

  9. Molecular epidemiology of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.;

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 60 field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (M,. mycoides), comprising 56 isolates from cattle in Tanzania, one from Kenya, two from Botswana and one from Portugal, as well as the type (PG1(T)) and vaccine (T-1-SR49) strains, was ivestigated...

  10. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine). PMID:26199278

  11. Opportunities for Distance Education in the Commonwealth African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTELECON Research & Consultancy Ltd., Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The geo-demographic, economic, and infrastructural makeup of 12 African countries (Botswana. Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) were compared to determine the potential benefits to them of a Commonwealth of Learning (COL) distance education initiative. Data were collected on…

  12. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into reci

  13. The Introduction of Data Processing in Middle-Level Accountancy Training Programs in Developing Countries: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Examines the impact of introducing data processing in middle-level accountancy training programs in Botswana. Hardware and software considerations for the program are also examined. Since the beginning of the program, some 300 students have been trained in accounting. (JN)

  14. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  15. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  16. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  17. Mantle Flow Implications across Easter and Southern Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across southern Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.

  18. Kimberlites in a karoo graben of northern Mozambique : tectonic setting, mineralogy and RB-Sr geochronology

    OpenAIRE

    Key, R.M.; Bingen, B.; Barton, E; Daudi, E.X.F.; Manuel, S.; Moniz, A.; Melezhik, V.

    2007-01-01

    Kimberlites in northern Mozambique are aligned with the northeastern extremity of a trans-continental northeast to southwest trending kimberlite corridor that stretches from southern Namibia across Botswana into central Zimbabwe. The northern Mozambique kimberlites occur as dykes up to 3 m thick and as small pipes in the southern part of a northeast to southwest trending Karoo graben across the Mozambique Belt. U-Pb zircon dates from the Mozambique Belt basement of northern Mozambique indicat...

  19. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    OpenAIRE

    Dan SEABO; Esu WAUGH; Chistopher TSOPITO; Funnie COOPER

    2015-01-01

    Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The result...

  20. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>2014-2017 The World Journal of Hepatology Editorial Board consists of 469 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in hepatology.They are from 53 countries,including Algeria(1),Argentina(6),Armenia(1),Australia(1),Austria(4),Bangladesh(2),Belgium(3),Botswana(2),Brazil(13),Bulgaria(2),Canada(3),Chile(1),China(98),Czech Repoublic(1),Denmark(2),Egypt(12),France(6),Germany(19),Greece(11),Hungary(5),India(15),Indonesia

  1. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study m...

  2. Transformation: the trickster jackal in motion

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The photograph was taken at Mabuasahube Pan in southern Botswana. It depicts a Black-Backed Jackal looking for left-over food at dusk. While tricksters are invariably known to have many guises, the Jackal features prominently in the myth and folklore of the Khoisan, southern Africa's hunter-gatherer people, as a common instantiation of this conceptual figure. Like tricksters everywhere in the world, the Khoisan trickster is both "selfish and altruistic, destructive and creative, weak and powe...

  3. Universities as Development Hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lindegaard, Klaus; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Capacity-building in environment and development has been implemented and tested over the last decade through university and university consortia networking. Universities from Africa (Botswana and South Africa), Asia (Malaysia and Thailand), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua)...... technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society; and as indispensable partners in creating the innovative and auto-learning society necessary to curb poverty and facilitate prosperity....

  4. Financial deepening and economic growth: A System GMM Panel Analysis with application to 7 SSA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, R. Santos

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been a key study in economics field for a long time. This paper examines the link between financial development and economic growth in 7 Sub-Saharan African countries - Nigeria, South Africa, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Botswana and Kenya, over the period of 1981-2013. The study applied both static and dynamic panel data approach, to investigate the relation between financial development and economic growth. The results...

  5. Becoming a Qualitative Researcher:A Narrative Account of Conducting My First Qualitative Study Involving In-depth Life History Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Molefe

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wide range of literature on research methodology, first time researchers encounter practical and methodological challenges. This paper provides insights to first time researchers interested in qualitative research. The paper discusses how as a first time qualitative researcher I managed to work within a challenging context to explore livelihoods situation of low-income young women in urban Botswana. Data collection was based on a combination of methods involving in-depth life histor...

  6. Symposium on the Kalahari Ecosystem summary and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J Hall-Martin

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available This symposium has dealt largely with the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP, an area which has been under the control of the National Parks Board of Trustees since 1931. The park, which covers some 9 600 km2 is part of an international conservation area which includes the adjoining 26 600 km2 Gemsbok National Park in Botswana and adjoining wildlife management areas.

  7. Can Social Inclusion Policies Reduce Health Inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa?—A Rapid Policy Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia C. Rispel; Palha de Sousa, César A.D; Molomo, Boitumelo G

    2009-01-01

    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries—Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised...

  8. Malignant tumours of the genital tract among Batswana women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and pattern of malignant tumours of the female genital tract among Batswana women. A four-year retrospective histological study of the pattern of female genital tract malignancy in Botswana. University of Botswana and the National Health Laboratory Gaborone, Botswana. The National Health Laboratory is the only public tertiary referral laboratory that provides diagnostic pathology services in the South-Eastern part of Botswana. It is located just adjacent to Princess Marina Hospital, the major tertiary referral hospital in the country. All histologically confirmed diagnoses of female genital tract malignancies from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009 were reviewed by two pathologists and diagnoses re-confirmed by taking fresh tissue sections from paraffin embedded archival tissue blocks. The age of patients ranged from 13-96 years with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years. Cancer of the cervix constituted 80.6%, followed by uterine cancer (10.0%), carcinomas of the vulva (4.5%) and ovary (3.4%) in that order. Ovarian cancers predominated in the younger age group. There was a steady increase in the frequencies of cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers over the 4-year study period with a decline in uterine cancer in the 4th year. Cervical cancer incidence is high among Batswana women and all female genital tract cancers occurred at a relatively early mean age. Therefore the importance of established and accessible screening programs and awareness campaigns need more emphasis than it is being given currently. (au)

  9. ESTIMATING THE TOURISM POTENTIAL IN NAMIBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Eita, Joel Hinaunye; Jordaan, Andre C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of tourism in Namibia for the period 1996 to 2005. The results indicate that an increase in trading partners’ income, depreciation of the exchange rate, improvement in Namibia’s infrastructure, sharing a border with Namibia are associated with an increase in tourist arrivals. The results show that there is unexploited tourism potential from Angola, Austria, Botswana, Germany, South Africa and the United States of America. This suggests that it is impo...

  10. Towards Reducing Common Ergonomic Hazards and Alleviating Techno-Stress Associated with the Adoption of Information and Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji Akinlolu Agboola

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how to alleviate ergonomic hazard and techno-stress associated with the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The University of Botswana was used as a case study. Personal observation and interviews were used to elicit information from the staff and students of the University. The rate of adoption of ICT was very high in the University. Most daily routines of academic and administrative duties were done through the Webct and network connection to mopip...

  11. Intangible Heritage and Tourism Development at the Tsodilo World Heritage Site

    OpenAIRE

    Giraudo, Rachel Faye

    2011-01-01

    Through the case study of the Tsodilo World Heritage Site in Botswana, I investigate the relationship between heritage conservation and tourism development. This is done by analyzing what I argue are the opposing conservation aims of World Heritage status and the commodifying tendencies that this status encourages on cultural heritage through increased tourism. More specifically, "intangible heritage" (criterion vi of the World Heritage cultural listing criteria) is addressed as governments a...

  12. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    OpenAIRE

    N. Geyer; MD Peu; S Roussouw; J Morudi; E Uys

    2005-01-01

    The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN) for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 resea...

  13. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Bennitt; Mpaphi Casper Bonyongo; Stephen Harris

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system dou...

  14. Assessing Performance of Botswana’s Public Hospital System: The Use of the World Health Organization Health System Performance Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onalenna Seitio-Kgokgwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF. We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. Methods This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40 and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14, and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. Results The organizational structure of the Botswana’s public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. Conclusion While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved

  15. Jan Snyman papers

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Biographical history and context: Professor Jan Snyman spent most of his life researching the lesser known and marginalised San languages of Botswana and South West Africa (now Namibia). Together with O. Kohler, E. Westphal and A. Traill, he pioneered linguistic studies on these endangered languages of Africa. He contributed significantly in collection of the data that helped classify and understand the grammar of San languages. Snyman also wrote several grammars in the form of monographs and...

  16. The protection of infant industries in SACU : the Namibian poultry industries case / Stacey Mwewa Susa

    OpenAIRE

    Susa, Stacey Mwewa

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Africa Customs Union was first established in 1889 between the Cape of Good Hope and the Orange Free State. It has since undergone extensive change resulting in the current 2002 Agreement which includes an institutional framework. SACU’s member states comprise of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. The Agreement thrives on the principle of free trade within the customs union and common external tariffs on goods entering the customs area. However...

  17. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Ana; Andreas B Eisingerich; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Mark R Dybul; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Design Semistructured qualitative interview study. Setting Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. Participants 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Results Six themes emerged from the data: (1)...

  18. Improved diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) by standard serological techniques and DNA amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to improve the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Botswana by the implementation and establishment of the OIE standard complement fixation test (CFT) method, and to demonstrate a diagnostic system in a 96 well format coupled with a colorimetric detection of the PCR amplified product suitable for moderate to high sample numbers for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC (MmmSC) from nasal swabs, lung tissue and cultures

  19. Environmental impacts of the control with organophosphate pesticides and explosions of the red-billed quelea bird Quelea quelea in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheke, R.A.; E. van der Walt; Mbereki, C.; Mtobesya, B.N.; Magoma, R.N.; Farman, D.I.; Adranyi, E.; McWilliam, A

    2011-01-01

    Both spraying with pesticides and using explosions to kill red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea) may affect non-target organisms and leave hazardous contaminants in the environment. Results of monitoring such effects in Botswana and Tanzania showed that although few non-target mortalities were noted, indirect effects in terms of depressed cholinesterases in birds and small mammals were marked and pesticides and contaminants from products used for the explosions persisted at controlled sites at un...

  20. Review of Universal Salt Iodation in East Central and Southern Africa (ACSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Commonwealth Regional Hearth Community Secretariat for East Central and Southern Africa, CRHCS/ECSA

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a regional position on Universal Salt Iodation (USI) intervention in 14 countries ill the East, Central and Southern Africa( ECSA) region,namely;Botswana,Kenya,Malawi,Mauritius,Mozambique,Namibia,bells,South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe The is a follow-up to a resolution on the need to develop a regional position on USI intervention which was made at the Commonwealth Regional Health Community 25th Health Ministers Conference in Port Louis, Ma...

  1. Using grey literature in informal information service in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sturges; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of experiments (in countries as diverse as Sierra Leone, Sudan, Benin, Senegal, Botswana and Zimbabwe) with informal community information services dealing with health, hygiene, child care, cultivation, stock-rearing, trades, crafts and repair work, in the way in which surveys show that citizens require. Conventionally published material is in very short supply and seldom has relevant content. Services make use of such specially prepared materials as are available...

  2. Responsabilidad social corporativa en Botzwana. Un caso innovador en la industria diamantífera: la compañía minera Debzwana

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Solís José Ramón; Moroka Keonethebe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study case on innovative corporate social responsibility as a very important aspect of management planning and, in the process, explores some trends and new ideas pertaining to corporate social responsibility in mining industries. Some pertinent literature is reviewed as a theoretical frame to introduce the presentation of the Debswana Mining Company case to show innovative corporate social responsibility in the mining industries in Botswana. The paper also critically di...

  3. The foraging ecology of banded mongooses (Mungos mungo): Epidemiological and human-wildlife conflict implications

    OpenAIRE

    Laver, Peter Norman

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in northeastern Botswana are infected by a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi, which putatively infects mongooses through lesions in the skin (often the planum nasale) from an environmental reservoir. To understand the epidemiology of the yearly and highly seasonal outbreaks of M. mungi in this population of banded mongooses, researchers need to understand what factors influence banded mongoose exposure to M. mungi and band...

  4. Why does corruption havedifferent effects on economicgrowth? : – A case study of Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt Hjertstedt, Amalia; Cetina, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse how corruption can have different outcome on economic growth. A clear  division can be seen in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia where corruption have different economic outcomes. The countries in this study are the following: Botswana,  Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. The thesis composes of data over corruption indexes, annual growth in GDP, and socio-economic indicators such as political stab...

  5. Christa Kilian-Hatz: Khwe Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chebanne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Before an assessment of this dictionary is made, it is important to place the Khwe language in its historical and social context. Khwe dam (language of the Khwe, as its speakers would prefer to call it, is a Khoisan language belonging to the Southern African Central-Khoisan under the Khoe cluster (Güldemann and Vossen 2000. It is spoken in Northern Botswana and in the Western Capri-vi Strip of Namibia in the Kavango region. As the compiler correctly observes, there are about 10 000 Khwe-speaking people who live in the Caprivi Strip of North-Western Namibia, Angola, Botswana and Zambia, and at Schmidtsdrift, South Africa. As can be expected from a speech community such as the Khwe, who prefer living in small communities, there are dialects within the Khwe dam. In Botswana, the notable varieties are the Buga (Sand Khwe and the ≤Ani (River Khwe, which exhibit discernable linguistic differences at the lexical and grammatical levels. However, linguists agree, as Kilian-Hatz also indicates, that the Khwe dam dialectal varieties are definitely related and mutually fairly intelligible (cf. Güldemann and Vossen 2000. As a language that has not been elaborately codified, it is difficult to speak about a standard Khwe dam form. Many other social and linguistic activities need to be carried out to resolve the question of standard Khwe dam (cf. WIMSA 2001.

  6. Revision of world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Talamas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae are revised. Nineteen species are recognized, of which four were previously named and are redescribed: O. sechellensis Kieffer (Seychelles, O. turneri Nixon (Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, O. alluaudi (Risbec (Madagascar and O. rugosus Sundholm (South Africa. The following species are described as new: O. aequalis Talamas, n. sp. (Central African Republic; O. badius Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Botswana; O. coracinus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; O. cultrarius Talamas, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. gryphus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Cameroon, Central African Republic; O. iommii Talamas, n. sp. (South Africa; O. magnipennis Talamas, n. sp. (Kenya, Uganda; O. majikununuensis van Noort, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. megadontus Talamas, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. naevus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. paradoxus Talamas, n. sp. (Uganda, Zimbabwe; O. rostratus Talamas & Masner, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. scapularis Talamas, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. zulu Talamas & Polaszek, n. sp. (South Africa; O. zuzkae Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Benin, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. An electronic version of the identification key is available at WaspWeb.

  7. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM.

  8. "You want to have the size of family you can look after".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garekwe, M

    1992-01-01

    During the 60s in the Moshupa village of Botswana, Kebaswele's parents made traditional assumptions about his future. They hoped he would have a large family, a ranch house and cattle. However in the 90s the reality of life for the people of Botswana makes this only a dream. The reality is that 1.3 million people have to live in a country the size of France that is 80% Kalahari desert. Kebaswele married Nonofo and they live in the capital city of Gaborone. They have 3 children each spaced 2 years apart. They both work in order to afford housing and school. They chose to have a small family because it helps to them to cope in a country with limited resources. In the past, large families were desirable because daughters had value for their bride wealth and sons were a source of free labor. Men with only a few children were considered cursed and women were expected to stay home and care for the house and children. In the past, the infant and child mortality rate was very high so a large number of children was insurance against future loses. However, the economic situation in Botswana clearly indicates that 2 children in the maximum for an urban family. Modern medical care ensures that these children will survive, so people shouldn't feel the need to have such large families. Kebaswele and Nonofo believe that family planning is the responsibility of the both members of a couple. They also believe that family planning should be taught in the schools so that it will become more accepted by everyone.

  9. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  10. Bushmen Prevail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor; Maisiri

    2011-01-01

    Legal panel overturn eviction of Botswana’s Bushmen from their water resources ONE of the longest surviving traditions in Southern Africa is that of the Bushmen who have lived for tens of thousands of years in the natural setting of the continental wilderness.It is estimated that there is a population of about 100,000 Bushmen in the sub-continent spanning across South Africa,Angola,Botswana and Namibia. Their way of life has continued in its virgin status of "hunting and gathering" and has thus resisted the outright acculturation that has been synonymous with most altered ways of lifestyles on the

  11. China: Green Development and Green GDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Angang

    2005-01-01

    @@ During the past 20 years, China has been one of the countries whose economic growth rate is the fastest in the world, and whose domestic saving rate (as a percentage of GDP) and domestic investment rate (as a percentage of GDP) are the highest. According to the statistics of World Bank (2000a)[1] the average GDP growth rates of 1980s and 1990s in China are respectively 10.1% and 10.7%, ranking the second among the 206 countries and regions in the world (only second to Botswana, a natural abundant African Country), and the first.

  12. World mineral exploration trends and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded

  13. Pioderma Gangrenoso. A propósito de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Nasco Fariñas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la presentación de un caso de extremo interés dermatológico; pues se trata de un paciente que fue ingresado en el hospital “Princess Marina” de la República de Botswana presentando un cuadro de úlceras extensas diseminadas en miembros superiores e inferiores, desnutrición y anemia severa. Se realizaron estudios y se prescribió tratamiento médico. Se realiza revisión del tema y se presentan fotos del caso.

  14. Implications of multiple risk factors for delineation of disease control zones: Case study on foot-and-mouth disease occurrence in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrisostom, Ayebazibwe; Okurut, Ademun Anna Rose; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    strategies to promote disease control and livestock trade in endemic countries was to introduce the concept of disease-free zones within which specific sanitary and market standards have to be met. In Africa, it is only Namibia, Botswana and South Africa that have ever had FMD free OIE-declared zones....... In pursuit of possibilities of beef export to EU and other markets within Africa by the year 2020, Uganda delineated two disease control zones (DCZs) in areas with large livestock populations and as a consequence high risk for FMD, thus requiring high capital investment. This paper highlights the multiple...

  15. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post...

  16. Land Cover Change in the Okavango River Basin : Historical changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jafet

    2006-01-01

    The Okavango river flows from southern Angola, through the Kavango region of Namibia and into the Okavango Delta in Botswana. The recent peace in Angola hopefully marks the end of the intense suffering that the peoples of the river basin have endured, and the beginning of sustainable decision-making in the area. Informed decision-making however requires knowledge; and there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge regarding basin-wide land cover (LC) changes, and their causes, during the Angola...

  17. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals' evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals' evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  18. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  20. ONTWIKKELINGSBEHOEFTES EN ADMINISTRASIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Beer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With a colonial history of paternalistic administration behind it, the Third World burocracies have suddenly been given the task to playa development role apart from their administrative functions.In several countries (inter alia Malawi, Botswana and Swaziland variations in development committees and boards have been experimented with, with a varying degree of success. The ideal Institution for interaction between government and population must yet be created and will probably differ from country to country. A 'development administration-doctrine' is coming into being, but many shortcomings must still be dealt with before an ideal approach will emerge.

  1. Governance of Fracking in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Corrigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the environmental and ecological consequences of hydraulic fracturing have accompanied the shale boom in developed countries at the forefront of shale exploration and production. These environmental and ecological consequences may be of even greater concern in developing countries with less governance capacity. We present a conceptual framework that specifies several variables that are expected to contribute to sustainable hydraulic fracturing. We use the framework to characterize prospects for sustainable hydraulic fracturing in South Africa and Botswana. The framework and evidence clarifies the institutional capacity and institutional challenges confronting the sub-Saharan African countries as extraction of natural resources using hydraulic fracturing begins in earnest.

  2. The Threat of Counterfeit Devices: Complicity vs Vigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirelo Modise Moepswa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenges that arise as a result of high mobile phone penetration in developing countries such as counterfeiting and increasing product complexity, have largely been tackled from the supply side. This study explores this issue from the demand side by investigating the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and levels of Intellectual property vigilance as well as brand and quality awareness among urban mobile technology consumers in Botswana. Implications for both corporate and public policy are discussed at the end of this paper.

  3. Factors Associated with Intention to Donate Blood: Sociodemographic and Past Experience Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Pule Ishmael Pule; Boitshwarelo Rachaba; Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas Magafu; Dereje Habte

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the level of intention of the general public towards blood donation and the factors associated with it. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in South-East Botswana amongst participants aged 21–65 years. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed for 384 participants. Results. Of the 384 participants, 104 (27.1%) reported that they had donated blood in the past and 269 (70.1%) stated that they were...

  4. From Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2009-01-01

    TOJDE is appeared on your screen now as Volume 10, Number: 1. This is the first issue of the year 2009 and 10th anniversary of TOJDE. In this issue it is published four article are in “Notes for Editor Sectio”, 13 articles, 2 reviews. And this time, 26 authors from twelwe different countries are placed. These published articles are from Australia, Botswana, Canada, Italy India, Jordan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Srilanka, USA and Turkey. “Service Learning In Distance Education: Foreign Language Lear...

  5. Relating Optical Properties of Dusts to their Mineralogical and Physical Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.; Pincock, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The 38 μm, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and damage to equipment.

  6. Paleo-megalake and paleo-megafan in southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgorski, Joel E. J.E.; Green, Alan G. A.G.; Kgotlhang, Lesego L.;

    2013-01-01

    The near juxtaposition of the Makgadikgadi Basin (Botswana), the world's largest saltpan complex, with the Okavango Delta, one of the planet's largest inland deltas (technically an alluvial megafan), has intrigued explorers and scientists since the middle of the 19th century. It was clear from ea...... HTEM data, constrained by ground-based geophysical and borehole information, also provide evidence for a paleo-megafan underlying paleo-Lake Makgadikgadi sediments......The near juxtaposition of the Makgadikgadi Basin (Botswana), the world's largest saltpan complex, with the Okavango Delta, one of the planet's largest inland deltas (technically an alluvial megafan), has intrigued explorers and scientists since the middle of the 19th century. It was clear from......-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) data indicates that paleo-Lake Makgadikgadi extended northwestward at least into the region presently occupied by the Okavango Delta. The total area of paleo-Lake Makgadikgadi exceeded 90,000 km2, larger than Earth's most extensive freshwater body today, Lake Superior (North America). Our...

  7. Improving the climate data management in the meteorological service of Angola: experience from SASSCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Rafael; Nascimento, Domingos; Neto, Francisco Osvaldo S.; Riede, Jens; Kaspar, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on climate variability in parts of Southern Africa is limited because of the low availability of historic and present-day ground-based observations (Niang et al., 2014). However, there is an increased need of climate information for research, climate adaptation measures and climate services. To respond to the challenges of climate change and related issues, Angola, Botswana, Germany, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia have initiated the interdisciplinary regional competence centre SASSCAL, the "Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management". As part of the initiative, Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) cooperates with the meteorological services of Angola, Botswana and Zambia in order to improve the management and availability of historical and present-day climate data in these countries. The first results of the cooperation between the German and the Angolan Meteorological Services are presented here. International assessments have shown that improvements of the data management concepts are needed in several countries. The experience of this cooperation can therefore provide hints for comparable activities in other regions.

  8. Comparative Advantage In The Southern Africa Customs Union (Sacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleans Mzumara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors sought to find out whether the Southern African Customs Union (SACU possesses comparative advantage. They found that South Africa has comparative advantage in the production of 727 product lines, Botswana in 268 product lines, Swaziland 243 product lines, Namibia 213 product lines and Lesotho 85 product lines. They also found that the highest degree of specialization in a particular product was observed in Lesotho in the production of cartridges for rivet with an average RCA index of 19215. The authors concluded that SACU has comparative advantage although such comparative advantage has a narrow base for a customs union (CU. Further it was concluded that due to imposition of the common external tariff (CET in SACU and a narrow base of the products in which it has comparative advantage, it may be experiencing trade diversion rather than trade creation by replacing low cost producers outside SACU in favour of intra-SACU high cost producers. That South Africa, although not the least producer, is unfairly benefiting due to the imposition of CET which prevents other countries from exporting their products to Botswana, Swaziland, Namibia and Lesotho under the same conditions.  These countries are, therefore, disadvantaged. For this reason, the authors advocate communication at policy level, to facilitate expansion of SACU as means of narrowing trade diversion.

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder among spouses of patients discharged from the intensive care unit after six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dithole, Kefalotse; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Mgutshini, Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) can be traumatic, not only for patients, but also their closest relatives, especially spouses. Within Botswana, a developing country with very few ICUs and not so sophisticated machinery or a generalised lack of counselling for relatives, the ICU experience can be more traumatic. This study reports on the proportion of spouses who continued to experience mental distress, including the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder, at six months after the discharge of their spouse from an intensive care unit. Mixed data collected approaches were used on a convenience sample of 28 spouses of patients who had been hospitalised at the Princess Marina Hospital ICU, Gaborone, Botswana, in the six months prior to the interview sessions. Participants were interviewed six months after the discharge of their spouse from the Intensive Care Unit using the PCL-S (PTSD Checklist). All the patients had been mechanically ventilated and had been hospitalised in the ICU for more than three days. Fifteen spouses reported intrusive memories of ICU and avoided reminders of the experience six months later. Ten spouses reported feeling anxious for a short while after their spouse's discharge but that they had come to terms with the experience. In order to mitigate the trauma experienced by spouses the study suggests that pre- and post-counselling for close relatives, especially spouses, should be implemented at the point of hospitalisation, during admission, and after discharge for a period of at least six months. PMID:23301567

  10. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation.

  11. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  12. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  13. Local Perception of Risk to Livelihoods in the Semi-Arid Landscape of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bunting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deem many regions of southern Africa as vulnerable landscapes due to changing climatic regimes, ecological conditions, and low adaptive capacity. Typically in highly vulnerable regions, multiple livelihood strategies are employed to enable sustainable development. In Botswana, livelihood strategies have diversified over time to include tourism and other non-agricultural activities. While such diversification and development have been studied, little is known about how locals perceive livelihood risks. This article analyzes perceptions of risk through a risk hazards framework. During the summer of 2010, 330 surveys were completed within seven villages in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. During the survey respondents were asked to list the biggest threats/challenges to their livelihoods. Responses were grouped into categories of risk according to the capital assets on which livelihoods depend: natural, physical, financial, human, and social. A risk mapping procedure was utilized, for which indices of severity, incidence, and risk were calculated. It is hypothesized that people’s perception of risk is directly dependent on environmental conditions and employment status of the household. Results indicate that problems related to natural and financial assets are the greatest source of risk to livelihoods. Furthermore, flood, drought, and other measures of climate variability are perceived as influential, typically negatively, to livelihood strategies.

  14. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  15. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  16. Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perel Pablo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic

  17. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  18. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  19. Workshop discusses problems African scientists have in publishing their research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Diongue, Aida

    Geoscientists from developing nations often encounter multiple obstacles in disseminating the results of their research to fellow scientists in other countries. Some of these obstacles as they pertain specifically to researchers from West Africa and proposals to overcome them were discussed as a component of a recent three-day workshop. (However, these obstacles can be safely assumed to affect many geoscientists from developing countries, and from countries whose economies are in transition.)The purpose of the workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on July 27-29, was to examine scientific and social issues associated with climate variability and change in West Africa. It was attended by atmospheric scientists, and by some participants in the ocean sciences, from Algeria, Botswana, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia, and the United States, representing universities, research laboratories, and meteorological services. The common thread among them was active involvement in weather- and climate-related research in West Africa.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an emerging disease of free-ranging wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Pleydell, Eve; Williams, Mark C; Lane, Emily P; Nyange, John F C; Michel, Anita L

    2002-06-01

    Expansion of ecotourism-based industries, changes in land-use practices, and escalating competition for resources have increased contact between free-ranging wildlife and humans. Although human presence in wildlife areas may provide an important economic benefit through ecotourism, exposure to human pathogens may represent a health risk for wildlife. This report is the first to document introduction of a primary human pathogen into free-ranging wildlife. We describe outbreaks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a human pathogen, in free-ranging banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Botswana and suricates (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa. Wildlife managers and scientists must address the potential threat that humans pose to the health of free-ranging wildlife.

  1. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs.

  2. Discursive Depiction of Customary Conflict Management Principles in Selected African Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Yimulaw Gebregeorgis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore how proverbs of traditional African societies contribute to depicting the communities’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. To this end, proverbs collected from different parts of Africa, mainly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia were analysed using socio-semiotic approach to discourse studies and interpretive analysis. The findings of the study show that the proverbs of traditional African societies are instrumental in depicting the societies’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. Together with the ‘prevention is better than cure’ doctrine, taking communal responsibility, transparent truth-finding, participatory negotiation, win-win solution, and reconciliation and restoration of social harmony are among the traditional African conflict management principles that are portrayed through different African communities’ proverbs.

  3. Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

  4. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs. PMID:26963741

  5. Savannas of southern Africa: attributes and use of some types along the Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. van der Meulen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Two recent reconnaissance vegetation surveys of savanna in the Kalahari of Botswana and in the western Transvaal (RSA carried out on a landscape basis are described. Attributes and utilization of four selected stations along a transect of about 1 000 km near the Tropic of Capricorn, with a climate changing eastward from arid to subhumid. are compared. The stations represent microphyllous /íajcïfl-savannas and mesophvllous Burkea-Ochna-Terminalia savannas on deep red sands, covering extensive parts in both survey areas. Land attributes used are physiography, macro-climate, vegetation (growth, large herbivores and land use practices. The most striking difference between the four areas are the land use practices. Some notes on the survey methodology are presented. The authors conclude that for small-scale vegetation-land use surveys the 'holistic' landscape approach can be recommended.

  6. Improving leadership on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala

    2011-03-15

    The upcoming UN conference on climate change in Durban, South Africa throws a spotlight on African climate policy. As part of a knowledge-sharing initiative in Southern Africa, we assessed parliamentarians' needs for more information on climate threats and responses, and ways to improve their capabilities as key stakeholders influencing national and global decisionmaking. Funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and partnered with the Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa (AWEPA), IIED worked with parliamentarians in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) — Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland — through interviews, literature surveys, field trips and workshops. Similar studies in Malawi and Scotland also fed into this project.

  7. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  8. Variability of the propagation coefficients due to rain for microwave links in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulangu, C. T.; Afullo, T. J.

    2009-06-01

    We use the Mie scattering approach and the dielectric model of Liebe to determine the propagation coefficients and rain attenuation distribution for four locations in Botswana, southern Africa, using R0.01 = 68.9 mm/h for Gaborone, R0.01 = 137.06 mm/h for Selebi-Phikwe, R0.01 = 86.87 mm/h for Francistown, and R0.01 = 64.4 mm/h for Kasane over the frequency range of 1-1000 GHz. The results show that the extinction coefficients depend more strongly on temperature at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies for lognormal distribution. The absorption coefficient is significant but decreases exponentially with rain temperature at lower microwave frequencies. The application of the proposed model with various distributions is corroborated using practical results for Durban in South Africa.

  9. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  10. Coupled flow and salinity transport modelling in semi-arid environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Held, R.J.; Zimmermann, S.;

    2006-01-01

    and transpirative salt enrichment. An existing numerical code for coupled flow/transport simulations (SEAWAT) was adapted to this situation. Model results were checked against a large set of field data including water levels, water chemistry, isotope data and ground and airborne geophysical data. The resulting......Numerical groundwater modelling is used as the base for sound aquifer system analysis and water resources assessment. In many cases, particularly in semi-arid and arid regions, groundwater flow is intricately linked to salinity transport. A case in point is the Shashe River Valley in Botswana....... A freshwater aquifer located around an ephemeral stream is depleted by the combined effect of transpiration and pumping. Quantitative system analysis reveals that the amount of water taken by transpiration is far more than the quantities pumped for water supply. Furthermore, the salinity distribution...

  11. Exploring Blended Learning for Science Teacher Professional Development in an African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopelo Boitshwarelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a case of teacher professional development in Botswana, where a blended learning solution was attempted. The analysis of the implementation environment reveals deficiencies in policy, schools (workplaces, and training providers. The paper concludes with three recommendations: 1 Schools should support on-going teacher learning in the workplace and should manage ICT resources for use by both teachers and students; 2 Government should support participatory and localised learning and institutionalise ICT access and use; and 3 Training providers should use blended methods and should model good ICT practices. The author also notes that change is needed in the culture of teaching and learning so that ongoing, situated, participatory, and collaborative approaches are accepted. Finally, collaboration between the training providers and the schools is necessary as is a change in beliefs about the use of ICTs in education.

  12. Vashti and Sita: The Daring Sisters We Could Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebaneilwe Mmapula D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make a comparison between two female figures from two different religions. Vashti is one of the unsung heroines in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible, while Sita in the Book of Ramayana is a revered female figure among Hindus. The tales of these women seem to display similarities in the ideals they embody and hence we endeavour to read them together. We wish to explore the extent to which Vashti and Sita’s tales of female courage and daring could inspire women today who continue to suffocate under oppressive patriarchal contexts. This is relevant to the context of Botswana, where despite global efforts to bend gender-based inequality, women continue to be victimised.

  13. Tracking Nutritional Progress: IAEA Capacity Building Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwait: The IAEA has helped to establish a body composition assessment suite at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Facilities include an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for analysis of deuterium and oxygen-18 enrichment, and dual energy X ray absorptiometry for assessment of bone mineral content. Botswana: The IAEA has helped to establish facilities for analysis of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry at the National Food Technology Research Centre (NFTRC). Ecuador: Through national and regional technical cooperation projects, the IAEA has helped to establish facilities for analysis of deuterium enrichment by FTIR spectrometry in 17 Latin American countries, including Ecuador. Costa Rica: With the help of the IAEA, the University of Costa Rica has established a laboratory for the assessment of body composition using deuterium dilution techniques

  14. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-12-11

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (♀, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (♀, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (♀, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided.

  15. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  16. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  17. Uitdagings vir die Ned Geref Kerk in Suidelike Afrika met Malawi en Zambi� as illustrasiegebiede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crafford

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Challenges for the Dutch Reformed Church in Southern Africa with Malawi and Zambia as illustration areas What will be the challenges for the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa if in the coming decades its isolation from Africa could be ended because of political developments in a post-apartheid era? The Dutch Reformed Church planted indigenous churches in many African Countries like Botswana, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and Namibia. The role of the church in Africa will be determined by its relations with these younger churches. The challenges in the fields of evangelism, church ministry, the youth and in the socioeconomic and political areas are illustrated specifically in the cases of Malawi and Zambia.

  18. Agents of change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Capacity building for sustainable development has been implemented and tested over the last decade through university and university consortia networking. Universities from Africa (Botswana and South Africa), Asia (Malaysia and Thailand), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua...... established and proven successful in terms of mutual benefits. Activities comprise joint evolution of new study curricula (including shift of the learning paradigm to problem oriented and project based learning), human resource development, and joint research. The results are promising in terms of concrete...... results within each type of activity and together they provide vital steps in capacity building in tertiary education to the benefit of development and environment. Universities should play a central role in such global efforts to strengthen tertiary education. Modes of operation are still deficient...

  19. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. METHODS: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664 across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. RESULTS: The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%. A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%, Lesotho (37% and Zimbabwe (42%. The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Shifting Inundation and Fire Regimes: Disentangling Environmental Variability from Land Management Decisions in a Southern African Transboundary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa G. Pricope

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures and wildfire incidence and decreasing precipitation and river runoff in southern Africa are predicted to have a variety of impacts on the ecology, structure, and function of semi-arid savannas, which provide innumerable livelihood resources for millions of people. This paper builds on previous research that documents change in inundation and fire regimes in the Chobe River Basin (CRB in Namibia and Botswana and proposes to demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to disentangle the effect of environmental variability from land management decisions on changing and ecologically sensitive savanna ecosystems in transboundary contexts. We characterized the temporal dynamics (1985–2010 of vegetation productivity for the CRB using proxies of vegetation productivity and examine the relative importance of shifts in flooding and fire patterns to vegetation dynamics and effects of the association of phases of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO on vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that vegetation in these semi-arid environments is highly responsive to climatic fluctuations and the long-term trend is one of increased but heterogeneous vegetation cover. The increased cover and heterogeneity during the growing season is especially noted in communally-managed areas of Botswana where long-term fire suppression has been instituted, in contrast to communal areas in Namibia where heterogeneity in vegetation cover is mostly increasing primarily outside of the growing season and may correspond to mosaic early dry season burns. Observed patterns of increased vegetation productivity and heterogeneity may relate to more frequent and intense burning and higher spatial variability in surface water availability from both precipitation and regional inundation patterns, with implications for global environmental change and adaptation in subsistence-based communities.