WorldWideScience

Sample records for botswana

  1. Botswana; 2013 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines fiscal policy implications for labor market and economic diversification in Botswana. The IMF report analyzes that large public employment significantly affect labor market outcomes in middle-income countries, including Botswana. It is noted that reforms aimed at reducing the rents and the size of the public sector is likely to significantly improve market outcomes in Botswana. As part of efforts to find new engines of growth and support sustainable long-te...

  2. Botswana country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  3. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  4. Botswana Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Living conditions of Botswana have improved over the past decade and poverty has reduced significantly. This decrease was accompanied by a considerable decline in both depth and severity of poverty, indicating that consumption has improved among the poor. While rural areas led the poverty reduction, the share of the poor living in urban areas has increased. Botswana’s progress toward reduc...

  5. Building an Educated & Informed Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS year marks the 36th anniversary of the establishment of China-Botswana diplomatic ties.Invited by China’s Ministry of Education,a Botswana highlevel educational delegation headed by Pelonomi Venson-Moitoi,Botswana’s Minister of Education and Skills Development,paid a one-week visit to

  6. Tinea capitis in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rameshwari ThakurDepartment of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaBackground: Tinea capitis (TC is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp that can also involve the eyebrows and eyelashes.Aim: This study aimed to find the causative fungus responsible for TC in Botswana and determine its association with the clinical types of TC.Methods: Samples for potassium hydroxide 10% mounts and fungal cultures were collected in a microbiology laboratory at the National Health Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana. Dermasel agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar were inoculated with the samples. Lactophenol cotton blue mounts were prepared from the culture-positive samples to study the morphological characteristics.Results: Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the predominant causative organism of TC. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from one patient. Both are anthropophilic species.Conclusion: TC was found to be most common in those aged 1–15 years (81%. Of 17 patients in this age group, 16 were younger than 10 years old and one was 14 years old. T. violaceum was the most common dermatophyte species isolated.Keywords: Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton violaceum white variant, Trichophyton tonsurans, dermatophyte

  7. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  8. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  9. Botswana : Skills for Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Botswana has pursued prudent macroeconomic policies to manage the revenue streams from diamond exports. It is now an upper-middle-income country that outperforms other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa on key indicators of socioeconomic performance including education, health, and social services. The economic structure in Botswana has undergone changes in recent years, but these changes hav...

  10. Guinea Fowl Production in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl farming is still in its infancy in Botswana; hence the population of farmed guinea fowl is unknown, as well as, their contribution to human nutrition. Presently, production occurs mainly at subsistence level and females (women appear to dominate the industry. In Botswana, guinea fowl are raised mainly under the semi-intensive system. Guinea fowl meat is of high quality, being high in protein and low in fat content, thus it is highly prized compared to chicken meat. It appears that guinea fowl farming could be more suitable to the rural areas where commercial chicken production has failed because guinea fowl are tolerant to diseases than chickens. Some challenges to guinea fowl production include farmers’ inadequate management skills necessary to raise guinea fowl successfully, inadequate technical support and lack of financial support from government extension services. It appears that guinea fowl production could be an important supplier of high quality animal protein (meat and eggs, as well as, a job creator in the rural areas.

  11. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Moreki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Given the high feed costs in Botswana it is suggested that the use of poultry manure and/or litter as livestock feed should be considered in areas where foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic such as Chobe and North West Districts, as meat from these districts does not enter the European Union market.

  12. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  13. Marketing Sports Facilities: Perspectives from Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohutsana, Basuti; Akpata, Dele

    2013-01-01

    The provision of sports facilities contributes immensely to the growth of sports and leisure activities in the countries where they are provided. In some countries, as was the case in Botswana, the government had to spend millions of dollars to provide new Integrated Sports Facilities (ISF's) as a panacea for the continued poor performance of its…

  14. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Uganda And Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.

  15. The education system of Botswana after independence / Albert Ikhutseng Kekesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kekesi, Albert Ikhutseng

    1996-01-01

    The study is concerned with the education system of Botswana after independence. This period starts from the 30th September 1966, when Botswana became independent up to the present moment. Since then the education system has undergone many changes. Consequently the focus is on the nature and impact of these changes. The study identifies changes which took place with regard to the Education System of Botswana since independence as far as meeting the minimum requirements of educa...

  16. Pediatric Cancer Recognition Training in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy S.; Ishigami, Elise; Mehta, Parth S.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed presentation of children with cancer is a significant barrier to improving the survival from children’s cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Botswana, a country of approximately 2 million people in southern Africa, has only 1 pediatric cancer treatment program, based at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH) in the capital of Gaborone. A pediatric cancer recognition training program was developed that reached 50% of the government hospitals in Botswana teaching 362 health care workers how to recognize and refer children with cancer to PMH. Through evaluation of attendees, limitations in pediatric cancer training and general knowledge of pediatric cancer were identified. Attendees demonstrated improvement in their understanding of pediatric cancer and the referral process to PMH following the workshop.

  17. Pediatric Cancer Recognition Training in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy S; Ishigami, Elise; Mehta, Parth S

    2016-01-01

    Delayed presentation of children with cancer is a significant barrier to improving the survival from children's cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Botswana, a country of approximately 2 million people in southern Africa, has only 1 pediatric cancer treatment program, based at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH) in the capital of Gaborone. A pediatric cancer recognition training program was developed that reached 50% of the government hospitals in Botswana teaching 362 health care workers how to recognize and refer children with cancer to PMH. Through evaluation of attendees, limitations in pediatric cancer training and general knowledge of pediatric cancer were identified. Attendees demonstrated improvement in their understanding of pediatric cancer and the referral process to PMH following the workshop. PMID:27336006

  18. Perceptions of Citizenship Responsibility Amongst Botswana Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, J.; Mosweunyane, D.

    2004-01-01

    Botswana is widely regarded as a model African democracy. Since independence in 1966, the country has enjoyed unparalleled peace and stability within the African continent. It has also experienced unprecedented changes from being one of the ten poorest countries in the world to its current status as a middle-income country. However, in spite of the advances of the last thirty years, it still experiences high levels of poverty and inequality. Perceived inhibitors to progress are attributed to ...

  19. E-waste management in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Taye, Mesfin; Kanda, Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Electr(on)ic equipments possess parts and components with high economic value and environmental peril which prompts a potential need to assess the EEE’s management at EoL. E-waste management in developing countries is one of the least revised environmental topics. In recent times however the subject is getting research limelight from scholars. This study aims at enhancing the existing e-waste management practice in Gaborone, Botswana through systematic investigation of the current circulation...

  20. HIV/AIDS-Anxiety among Adolescent Students in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyewadume, Mary Adeola

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the incidence of HIV/AIDS anxiety among students in Botswana. The sample comprised 240 randomly selected students from six schools in three districts in Botswana, with data collected via a questionnaire. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the extent to which the students were anxious about HIV/AIDS and if…

  1. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Magowe MK; Ledikwe JH; Kasvosve I; Martin R; Thankane K; Semo BW

    2014-01-01

    Mabel KM Magowe,1 Jenny H Ledikwe,2,3 Ishmael Kasvosve,1 Robert Martin,2 Kabo Thankane,3 Bazghina-werq Semo2,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 3Botswana International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, BotswanaPurpose: To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the Univer...

  2. Everyday burden of musculoskeletal conditions among villagers in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Hartvigsen, Jan; Myburgh, Corrie; Johannessen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the perspectives of villagers in rural Botswana about the everyday life burden and impact of their musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months included 55 in-depth interviews with 34 villagers. Interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with ...... care needs in developing country settings. Community-engaged partnerships are needed to develop rehabilitation programmes to ease the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in rural Botswana....

  3. VOICES OF EXPERIENCE: BOTSWANA PRIMARY SCHOOLS TEACHERS ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to investigate teachers’ perceptions of the impact of inclusion of learners with special educational needs on their classes and the practice of inclusive education in Botswana. Thirty-six teachers from six primary schools of the South Central Region of Botswana were engaged in six focus group discussions. Focus group discussions were triangulated with document analysis, classroom observations and access-audit to get an insight about the school and clas...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in Botswana : a management perspective / Mooketsi Moiketso

    OpenAIRE

    Moiketso, Mooketsi

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on corporate social responsibility from a management perspective. The study had the following objectives - to investigate the level of adoption of CSR by companies in Botswana; to find out why companies in Botswana have embraced CSR; to investigate the views of governments, pressure groups and stakeholders on companies which have embraced CSR in their communities; and to recommend to company management and stakeholders on how best they can use CSR to their be...

  5. Botswana and Zimbabwe: Relative success and comparative failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mhone, Guy; Bond, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Botswana and Zimbabwe represent two cases of differential access to the world economy. Notwithstanding its lack of diversification and its reliance on a primary mineral export, Botswana has prospered while Zimbabwe has fallen into a deep crisis. Historical and comparative evidence allows us to transcend the superficial presumption common to much policy discourse, namely, that the basis for success depends upon adherence to the ‘Washington Consensus’ export-oriented strategy, or to good govern...

  6. Strategies for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fombad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a route map on how law firms in Botswana may utilise knowledge management to enhance their competitive edge amidst the changing legal environment. It draws from the multiple definitions and perspectives of knowledge management, several frameworks and models together with the empirical findings to recommend a strategy for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana. It underscores the fact that knowledge management is becoming an imperative for the survival of law firms as knowledge intensive organisations. Law firms in Botswana can no longer afford to rely on the traditional methods of managing knowledge because there is a need for the 'best minds' and the best knowledge in their area of practice. It is recommended that lawyers should be proactive, adaptive, innovative, effective and competitive in the provision of outstanding, cost-efficient and effective services to clients. Most previous studies in this area have been carried out in developed countries with large law firms.

  7. Fossil papio cranium from !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills, western Ngamiland, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Blythe A; Ross, Callum F; Frost, Stephen R; Waddle, Diane M; Gabadirwe, Mohutsiwa; Brook, George A

    2012-09-01

    Three fossils, a cranium of Papio, a cercopithecid frontal bone, and a mandible of juvenile Papio, have been recovered from cave deposits in the !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills of western Ngamiland, Botswana. These specimens are significant because well-preserved crania of Papio are extremely rare in the fossil record outside of South Africa and because this is the first report of fossil primate cranial remains from Botswana. Thermoluminescence dating of surrounding cave matrix indicates an age of ≥317 ± 114 ka, within the Middle Pleistocene, although it may be older. Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, the adult !Ncumtsa specimen falls within the range of variation seen in extant forms of Papio, yet is distinct from any living species/subspecies and represents a new taxon, named here as a new subspecies of Papio hamadryas-Papio hamadryas botswanae. PMID:22639236

  8. Analyzing Teaching Quality in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapire, Ingrid; Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying the quality of mathematics teaching in 183 randomly selected sixth grade classrooms: 100 from the North West province of South Africa and 83 from South East Botswana. The teaching quality is measured by coding videotaped lessons for three different components: mathematical proficiency, level of cognitive demand,…

  9. Learning with a Website for the Textile Industry in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…

  10. Polymorphisms at 17 Y-STR loci in Botswana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Tiroyamodimo; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, María Eugenia

    2015-07-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (YSTRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS385a/b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4-were analyzed in 252 unrelated male individuals from Botswana. A total of 238 unique haplotypes were identified. The discrimination capacity (DC) was 0.9444 whereas the haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9990. A database search of the 238 unique haplotypes in the Y chromosome haplogroup database (YHRD) yielded three African American, six Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed South American matches. Five additional African-American matches were detected in the Applied Biosystems Y-STR database. RST, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and AMOVA were used to investigate population differentiation in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana. The populations in Sub-Saharan Africa were found to be heterogeneous, with Botswana showing significant differences from its neighbors. No geographic regional or ethnic differentiation was observed within Botswana. Regional and ethnic variation can be useful in forensic working hypotheses. PMID:25817844

  11. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Botswana Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Shafika

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Botswana is a small, dynamic country with visionary leadership particularly in the sector of...

  12. Botswana vahetas presidenti taas valimisteta ja rahumeelselt / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Botswana demokraatia eripäraks on, et ametisolev president astub vabatahtlikult ja ennetähtaegselt ametist tagasi ning loovutab koha määratud järeltulijale. Aprilli alguses pani 69-aastane president Festus Mogae ameti maha ja uueks riigipeaks vannutati senine asepresident Ian Khama

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Gobopamang Letamo; Kannan Navaneetham

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI

  14. Micro Language Planning and Cultural Renaissance in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Modupe M.

    2016-01-01

    Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…

  15. Albinism in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools: A Double Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Gareth; Nkanotsang, Tiroyaone; Chizwe, Ose; Kowa, Lily

    2010-01-01

    Pupils with albinism potentially face a number of challenges in accessing quality education in schools in Botswana. Physical issues such as poor eyesight related to the condition and the problems of sensitive skin in such a dry and warm climate are both contributing factors to making learning problematic for some pupils. This study by Gareth Dart…

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of HPV Vaccine Acceptability in Gaborone, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    DiAngi, Yumi Taylor; Panozzo, Catherine A.; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Andrew P Steenhoff; Brewer, Noel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Botswana and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to examine whether HPV vaccine is acceptable among parents in Botswana, which recently licensed the vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2009, around the time the vaccine was first licensed, with adults recruited in general medicine and HIV clinics in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana. Although only 9% (32/376)...

  17. True bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Botswana-Bibliographical inventory and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of insect biodiversity of Botswana is far from perfect. By 2015, there were only inventories publicly available for butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers. Here we report 331 species and subspecies of true bugs (Heteroptera), of which 242 records were extracted from scattered published literature and online sources, and 89 (27%) are new records for Botswana. These data significantly increase the number of insect species known from Botswana by roughly 30%. PMID:27395110

  18. The challenges procuring of safe abortion care in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie Samantha

    2013-12-01

    Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances, women's reproductive health continues to suffer as a result of unsafe abortion. The personal, financial, and health costs of women seeking dangerous illegal terminations, or crossing national borders to procure a legal abortion, are evident. Twenty-one in-depth, qualitative interviews with Batswana were conducted to gain some insight into the factors which make terminating an unwanted pregnancy difficult in Botswana. This small study demonstrates that there are important socio-cultural constraints, in addition to the legal barriers, that make abortion problematic. These constraints are entrenched in the wider issue of women's rights and status in society. PMID:24558781

  19. Rebranding an Institution of Higher Education in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Makgosa; Boikanyo A. Molefhi

    2012-01-01

    The issue of rebranding institutions of higher education has attracted little attention in scholarly publications. However, intense competition in the higher education market has forced institutions to modify elements of their brands. The current study seeks to shed light on the challenges of undertaking a rebranding exercise in an institution of higher education in Botswana, a context which is under researched. The purpose of the current study is to establish the perceptions of students of t...

  20. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  1. Histories of the Subaltern from the Kgalagadi's Fringe, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, David Reed

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses the cultural dynamics of contact and the changing social landscapes between `San-speaking' foragers and ancestral `Bakgalagadi' farmers who lived in the Metsemothlaba River valley of southeastern Botswana on the fringe of the Kgalagadi Desert, c. 500-200 years ago. Using a practice approach to examine the material remains of their daily lives, this research demonstrates the everyday dynamic of contact as well as the wider social and economic connections bo...

  2. Use of Mobile Learning by Resident Physicians in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Aileen Y; Ghose, Sankalpo; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Anolik, Rachel B.; Kyer, Andrea; Mazhani, Loeto; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of mobile health in recent years, learning through the use of mobile devices (mobile learning [mLearning]) has gained recognition as a potential method for increasing healthcare providers' access to medical information and resources in resource-limited settings. In partnership with the University of Botswana School of Medicine (SOM), we have been exploring the role of smartphone-based mLearning with resident (physicians in specialty training) education. The SOM, which admitted...

  3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J Ehlers

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations.Objective: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills.Method: A pre-test, intervention and re-test ...

  4. Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor ma...

  5. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. MOREKI; S.C. Chiripasi; T. MONTSHO; R. CHIBUA; K. GABANAKGOSI

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared un...

  6. The Impact of Financial Liberalization Policies: The Case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Dahir Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Financial liberalization enables market forces to play a greater role in mobiliz- ing resources, allocating credit, setting financial asset prices and improving financial intermediation. Many studies have claimed that these changes enhance savings, and improve efficiency of investment, which ultimately ameliorate economic growth. This paper attempts to analyse the Botswana experience, where despite having an open economy for many decades, financial liberalization was a major policy in the rec...

  7. Accelerating the spread of laboratory quality improvement efforts in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Kelebeletse O. Mokobela; Mpho T. Moatshe; Mosetsanagape Modukanele

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Botswana began its journey toward laboratory accreditation in an effort to enhance the quality of laboratory services. Aftera difficult start, the MoH recognised the need for a more practical and sustainable method for change that could be implemented nationally; they therefore adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme.Objective: This study describes the spread of laboratory quality improvement ...

  8. Why is the Cost of Financial Intermediation Rising in Botswana?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvanus Ikhide; Olalekan Yinusa

    2012-01-01

    The Botswana banking system has witnessed substantial deregulation in the past three decades with the entry of foreign banks, mergers and acquisitions in the banking system and policy aimed at deregulating interest rates by moving towards more market determined interest rates. These measures should increase competition and reduce inefficiency in the banking system both resulting in lower costs of financial intermediation. However, the cost of financial intermediation has not only remained hig...

  9. A Sociolinguistic Perspective of the Indigenous Communities of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    CHEBANNE, Andy Monthusi

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous communities of Botswana discussed in this paper are generally referred to as the Khoisan (Khoesan). While there are debates on the common origins of Khoisan communities, the existence of at least fi ve language families suggests a separate evolution that resulted in major grammatical and lexical differences between them. Due to historical confl icts with neighboring groups, they have been pushed far into the most inhospitable areas of the regions where they presently live. The ...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF INFORMAL CROSSBORDER TRADERS ACROSS SELECTED BOTSWANA BORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku O. Ama; Kagiso T. Mangadi; Helen A. Ama

    2014-01-01

    This study was cross-sectional and used the quantitative (survey methods) and qualitative methods (Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interviews) to characterize the informal cross-border traders drawn from four major activity border posts in the northern and southern parts of Botswana. The systematic random sampling and snow ball techniques were used in identifying the 520 informal cross-border traders who participated in the study. The study analysed the demographic characteristics of...

  11. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  12. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations.Objective: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills.Method: A pre-test, intervention and re-test time-series research design was adopted, and data were collected from 102 nurses from the 2 referral hospitals in Botswana. A multiple choice questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data.Results: All nurses failed the pre-test. Their knowledge and skills improved after training, but deteriorated over the three months until the post-test was conducted.Conclusion: The significantly low levels of registered nurses’ CPR skills in Botswana should be addressed by instituting country-wide CPR training and regular refresher courses.

  13. Aids Eestis nagu Botswanas / Mikk Jürisson ; interv. Svea Talving

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Mikk, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Kui Eesti ei taha jõuda olukorda, mis tekkis Botswanas, kus aidsiepideemia ravi ja tõkestamine haaras lõviosa riigi tuludest ning keskmine eluiga lühenes drastiliselt, tuleks haiguse levik võtta range tähelepanu alla ja uurida, mida tasuks õppida Botswana kogemusest

  14. The Perceptions of Senior Management Teams' (SMTs) Dominant Leadership Styles in Selected Botswana Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhozya, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study, which was funded by the office of research and development (ORD) in the University of Botswana, surveyed 65 primary schools in South Central region in Botswana, which aimed at establishing the perceptions of senior management teams dominant leadership style. The study was done in three phases; the first phase started in June 2008 to…

  15. An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Botswana, Volume 2. Detailed Results and Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the Botswana Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Botswana in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location specific factors that shape the opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These factor...

  16. An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Botswana : Volume I, Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the Botswana Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Botswana in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location specific factors that shape the opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These factor...

  17. Environmental impact of woody biomass use in Botswana - the case of fuelwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of fuelwood and deforestation in Botswana is presented. Details are given of the AFREPREN biomass research project to evaluate the methods for examining biomass energy sources in Botswana and Rwanda, and the contribution of fuelwood harvesting to deforestation. (UK)

  18. Using System Dynamics to model the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi

  19. Botswana; 2006 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Authorities for Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    The staff report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation on Botswana highlights economic developments and monetary and exchange rate policy. Botswana’s growth has been fueled by continued increases in diamond production; and real diamond output is projected to level off, and then decline sharply after about 15 years. Diversification of the economy will require implementation of substantial structural reforms, in particular the authorities’ planned reforms in labor markets, the investment env...

  20. Accelerating the spread of laboratory quality improvement efforts in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelebeletse O. Mokobela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2002, the Ministry of Health (MoH of Botswana began its journey toward laboratory accreditation in an effort to enhance the quality of laboratory services. Aftera difficult start, the MoH recognised the need for a more practical and sustainable method for change that could be implemented nationally; they therefore adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme.Objective: This study describes the spread of laboratory quality improvement efforts in Botswana.Methods: Eight laboratories were enrolled into the SLMTA programme in 2010, which included a series of workshops and improvement projects conducted over nine months. Four of these laboratories received supplementary training and focused mentorship from the Botswana Bureau of Standards (BOBS. Laboratory performance was measured at baseline and exit using the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa’s StepwiseLaboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist. One laboratory did not receive an exit audit and was thus excluded from the analysis.Results: An 18 percentage-point improvement was observed when comparing the median baseline score (53% to the median exit score (71% for the seven laboratories. Laboratories that received additional training and mentorship from BOBS improved 21 percentage points, whilst non-BOBS-mentored laboratories improved eight percentage points. Hospital management buy-in and strong laboratory staff camaraderie were found to be essential forthe positive changes observed.Conclusion: SLMTA facilitated improvements in laboratory quality management systems,yielding immediate and measurable results. This study suggests that pairing the SLMTA programme with additional training and mentorship activities may lead to further increases in laboratory performance; and that SLMTA is a practical approach to extending quality improvement to MOH laboratories.

  1. The Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Sgherri; Maitland MacFarlan

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the potential macroeconomic effects of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, focusing on the key channels through which the pandemic is likely to affect the economic outlook and on the uncertainties involved. To estimate the impact of HIV/AIDS, a dual-economy equilibrium model is constructed and simulated under different scenarios. Depending on exactly how AIDS affects the outlook, GDP growth is projected to fall from around 5½ percent a year without the pandemic to betwee...

  2. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; K. Itebeng

    2006-01-01

    his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in s...

  3. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  4. Nurses' perceptions about Botswana patients' anti-retroviral therapy adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie J. Ehlers; Esther Kip; Van der Wal, Dirk M.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) are supplied free of charge in Botswana. Lifelong adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is vital to improve the patient’s state of well-being and to prevent the development of strains of the human immunodef ciency virus (HIV) that are resistant to ART. Persons with ART-resistant strains of HIV can spread these to other people, requiring more expensive ART with more severe side-effects and poorer health outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, q...

  5. Reassessing the 'energy ladder': Household energy use in Maun, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of Sub-Saharan Africa's rapid urbanization, improved insight into urban energy use is increasingly important. Based on the predictions of 'energy transition' theory, a regional shift from biomass to 'modern' fuels has long been expected to occur in tandem with urban growth. However, trends observed in the region's towns and cities have often not followed such patterns and fuelwood continues to be important in most areas. This paper examines the practical relevance of transition theory using a recent case study, conducted by the authors in Maun, Botswana, and results previously reported in the literature. It finds that, despite the long-term link between socio-economic development and increased modern fuel consumption at the national scale, the notion of 'transition' does not accurately reflect ongoing energy-use patterns at lower levels of aggregation. This is chiefly because its model of household fuel switching largely dismisses the importance of active (and strategic) decision making by urban consumers and their responsiveness to structural factors such as relative fuel prices. As the Botswana case illustrates, this weakness can significantly distort expectations and policies around urban fuelwood use

  6. Developing a strategic perspective for construction industry of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ssegawa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the outcome of a study conducted to formulate the strategic perspective of the construction industry in Botswana. The study was sanctioned by the two influential entities namely the Ministry of Infrastructure and BOCCIM Construction Sector. The two entities not only represent the demand and supply side of the construction industry but also represent key professions, trades and interests of the industry. A focus group approach was used based on workshops to formulate the strategic perspective. Workshop participants were drawn from various organisations that play a role in the delivery of construction projects. Individually they also represented the various professions, trades, occupations and interests relating to the construction processes in Botswana. Specific statements for industry’s vision, mission, values and goals were formulated through constructive discussions and debates to describe the future desired state of the construction industry. These are to serve as guiding tools for the industry’s reform process. The paper provides a step by step approach that integrates several scholastic frameworks for developing a strategic perspective for the industry.

  7. Developing a strategic perspective for construction industry of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ssegawa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The paper discusses the outcome of a study conducted to formulate the strategic perspective of the construction industry in Botswana. The study was sanctioned by the two influential entities namely the Ministry of Infrastructure and BOCCIM Construction Sector. The two entities not only represent the demand and supply side of the construction industry but also represent key professions, trades and interests of the industry. A focus group approach was used based on workshops to formulate the strategic perspective. Workshop participants were drawn from various organisations that play a role in the delivery of construction projects. Individually they also represented the various professions, trades, occupations and interests relating to the construction processes in Botswana. Specific statements for industry’s vision, mission, values and goals were formulated through constructive discussions and debates to describe the future desired state of the construction industry. These are to serve as guiding tools for the industry’s reform process. The paper provides a step by step approach that integrates several scholastic frameworks for developing a strategic perspective for the industry. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption. PMID:12348506

  9. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  10. Perception of University Lecturers Towards Consumption of Genetically Modified Foods in Nigeria and Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2009-03-01

    The results showed that majority were males (77 and 57 percent respectively, with 51 percent of the lecturers in Botswana between the 51–60 years and 59 percent between 41–50 years in Nigeria. The percentage of lecturers in Botswana that are MSc degree holders (45 percent was higher than those from Nigeria. Lecturers from BCA agreed and were positively disposed to 12, while lecturers from south western universities in Nigeria agreed and are positively disposed to five out of the 15 statements on the rating scale. It is important to note that four of the statements were perceived positively by lectures from both countries. Also, significant difference existed in their perception (Z = –6.65, p < 0.05; with higher mean rank for Botswana (108.02 than for Nigeria (58.01. This further confirms that Botswana lecturers are more favorably disposed to genetically modified foods than Nigeria lecturers.

  11. An Investigation into Succession Planning Initiatives in Government : A Case of the Botswana National Archives and Records Service / Sylvia Siane

    OpenAIRE

    Siane, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This research is an investigation into Succession planning initiatives in government agencies in Botswana, a case of the Botswana National Archives and Records Services. The Botswana National Archives and Records Services has been experiencing a significant loss of employees over the years. When people leave the organisation in most cases the vacant position will take too long to fill, especially for those positions that require the technical qualification and experience in Arc...

  12. Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of University of Botswana English as Second Language students of different academic reading proficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Joel M. Magogwe

    2013-01-01

    This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1) What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2) Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3) What kind ...

  13. AIDS in Botswana: Evaluating the general equilibrium implications of healthcare interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, S; McDonald, S.; Roberts, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the effects of health care interventions designed to reduce the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the Botswana economy. The analyses were conducted using a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model for Botswana within which was embedded a compartmental epidemiological model. The health care interventions examined are reductions in other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that reduce the probability of HIV transmission and a mass media health ...

  14. LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES USE: A CASE STUDY OF BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Leslie Carole

    1991-01-01

    Pastoralism and communal livestock production are important economic activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to FAO production figures the number of cattle in two countries, Botswana and Namibia, outnumber the human population (FAO, 1989). In Southern Africa, Botswana's agricultural sector is largely dependent on livestock, because most of the country lacks adequate rainfall for arable agriculture. A complicating factor is the unreliability of the rainfall and the potential for recurrent ...

  15. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Haretsebe Manwa; Farai Manwa

    2014-01-01

    Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest rese...

  16. Perception of University Lecturers Towards Consumption of Genetically Modified Foods in Nigeria and Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele; Stephen Kayode Subair

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of university lecturers’ perception towards consumption of genetically modified foods in Nigeria and Botswana was conducted in 2007. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 lecturers out of 685 from five faculties of agriculture in south western Nigeria and 47 from 67 in Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA). Data were collected through structured questionnaire on demographic characteristics and perception on consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods containi...

  17. Economic Development in Pre-Independence Botswana, 1820-1966: Historical Trends, Contributing and Countervailing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavac, Marek

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the trajectory of economic development in Botswana between the years 1820 and 1966, when it achieved independence. First, I review the historical trends in the country’s economic and social development indicators. I then proceed to analyze what factors have encouraged or hindered economic development in Botswana: In particular, I focus on the roles of physical geography, climate, disease ecology, economic and political institutions, geopolitical relations, demographic tren...

  18. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. MOREKI; C.M. TSOPITO

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surf...

  19. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: Tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circum...

  20. Determinants of educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana / Jacob Herman Kgosi Malao

    OpenAIRE

    Malao, Jacob Herman Kgosi

    1985-01-01

    In the opening chapter the following matters are looked into: * PROBLEM OF RESEARCH The problem of research is: - to determine whether the influences of the Republic of South Africa on the Bophuthatswana system of education and that of England on Botswana are responsible for differences of the educational systems of Bophuthatswana and Botswana; - to determine whether there are other determinants of the systems in question; and - a comparison of the determinants of the education...

  1. The development of a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana / Delly Chatibura

    OpenAIRE

    Chatibura, Delly

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is the development a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana. This goal was achieved in five key objectives. Firstly the study set to review extant literature on tourists‟ cuisine experiences in general and in Botswana. An understanding of tourists‟ cuisine experiences is significant in paving the way for increased promotion in cuisine tourism, an alternative form of tourism that has remained relatively neglected in the country‟s tourism ...

  2. IMPACT OF GREY IMPORTS ON BRAND NEW CAR DEALERS : THE CASE OF MALAWI AND BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    Thunde, Dziko

    2010-01-01

    Title Impact of Grey Imports on Brand New Car Dealers: The Case of Malawi and Botswana Background Rapid change in technology causes frequent improvements in durable goods like cars. Planned obsolescence and strict legislation make most car owners in rich countries like Japan to dispose off their cars and get new ones. This has led to growth of the market of gray imports in many Third World countries like Malawi and Botswana because the main consideration in purchasing a car by average income ...

  3. New law on HIV testing in Botswana: The implications for healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofiah O. Sarumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is one of the countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Innovative HIV testing strategies are required to ensure that those infected or at risk of infection become aware of their HIV status and are able to access treatment, care and support. Despite this public health imperative, HIV testing strategies in Botswana will in future be based around the principles in the new Public Health Act (2013. The present article describes the HIV testing norms in the Act, and sets out the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and its implications for healthcare professionals in Botswana.Objectives: To compare international norms on HIV testing with the provisions governing such testing in the new Botswana Public Health Act and to assess the extent to which the new Act meets international human rights norms on HIV testing.Method: A ‘desktop’ review of international human rights norms and those in the Botswana Public Health Act.Conclusion: HIV testing norms in the new Public Health Act in Botswana violate individual rights and will place healthcare workers in a position where they will have to elect between acting lawfully or ethically. Law reform is required in order to ensure that HIV testing achieves the joint goals of public health and human rights.

  4. Rapid assessment of tuberculosis in a large prison system--Botswana, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-28

    Prisons are settings in which tuberculosis (TB) transmission occurs, and TB rates in prisons are often five to 10 times higher than national rates. Data on the prevalence of TB in prisons in Africa are limited; however, studies from Malawi, Ivory Coast, and Tanzania that used active screening found TB rates > or = 10 times higher than national rates. During 1989-2001, TB rates in Botswana increased threefold, from 199 cases per 100,000 population to 620 (Botswana National TB Program, unpublished data, 2002). This increase has been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. In Botswana, prisoners are not screened routinely for TB. To determine the prevalence of TB and drug-resistant TB in the Botswana prison system and to improve future screening for TB among prisoners and guards, CDC, in collaboration with the Botswana Ministry of Health and the Division of Prisons and Rehabilitation, screened prisoners and guards at four prisons during April-May 2002. This report summarizes the results of the survey, which indicate a high point prevalence of TB among prisoners in Botswana of 3,797 cases per 100,000 population and support the need for improved screening. PMID:12680520

  5. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Itebeng, K

    2006-09-01

    This study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6 +/- 6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28 +/- 0.56 kg and 1.70 +/- 0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected. PMID:17137053

  6. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

  7. Distance Learning and Teacher Education in Botswana: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Sikwibele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study at Molepolole College of Education (MCE involving teachers and tutors in the Diploma in Primary Education (DPE program by distance mode, an in-service program aimed at upgrading academic and professional qualifications of primary school teachers in Botswana. The study sought to understand the level of access and the challenges faced by teachers and tutors. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, survey, and document analysis. Findings showed that teachers should be enrolled in the program at a younger age, and issues that lead to delays in completion must be addressed. The paper recommends that the Ministry of Education (MOE hire full-time tutors to support teachers at their bases, provide resources for practical subjects, organize workshops to familiarize tutors with appropriate strategies for adult learners, increase the duration of residential sessions, explore the use of alternative instructional technologies, and institute regular customer evaluations.

  8. Pteridophytes of the Okavango Delta, Botswana (Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Hernández, Efrén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Okavango Delta in Botswana constitutes one of the larger inland deltas in the world. Fifteen species of fern were found in this ecological system integrated into 10 genera and 9 families. Included in this report are descriptions of each family, genus and species. Also given are artificial keys to the genera, as well as keys for genera and species within the family when necessary. A documented distribution and ecological notes for each species also appears.Se estudian los pterid6fitos del delta del Okavango, uno de los deltas interiores ma's grandes del mundo. Se citan 15 especies, incluidas en 10 generos y 9 familias. Se aportan descripciones, claves de identification, datos sobre la distribucitin y ecologia. y mapas de distribuci6n detallada de cada una de las especies.

  9. Computer and Internet use Among Families: A Case of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ishaan Srivastava

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years, novel communication technologydevices have become familiar in African homes; among themare Personal Computers and the Internet. Social reviewers andother polemicists have debated whether these devices influencethe lives of families in a productive or a destructive way. Theauthors examined the literature about family use of Computersand the Internet.Though home Internet access in Botswana isconstantly increasing, there is diminutive information availableabout actual usage patterns in homes. The present study wascarried out across Botswana on 570 Batswana1 family unitswith children. It measured computer and Internet use of eachfamily member across 4 weeks. Data on actual computer andInternet usage were collected with the help of local leaders andteachers. They also played a key role in providing informationon a number of variables for several age groups separately,including children, adolescents, and adult men and women.Averages were revealed for the amount of time spent oncomputers and the Web, the percentage of each age grouponline, and the types of Web sites viewed. Overall, about 9% ofchildren ages 4 to 12, 40% of adolescents, 45% of adult womenand 70% of adult men access the Internet each week. Childrenspend an average of 9 hours/week on the computer, 38hours/week for adolescents. Adult women (non- working 2spend only about 2 hours per week, yet in general, women werefound to be spending long hours (25 hours on computerscorresponding with adult men who also spend 25 hours/week.The types of Web sites visited are accounted, including the topfive for each age group. In general, search engines and Webportals are the most commonly visited sites, regardless of agegroup. These data provide a baseline for comparisons acrosstime and cultures.

  10. Nurses' perceptions about Botswana patients' anti-retroviral therapy adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs are supplied free of charge in Botswana. Lifelong adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART is vital to improve the patient’s state of well-being and to prevent the development of strains of the human immunodef ciency virus (HIV that are resistant to ART. Persons with ART-resistant strains of HIV can spread these to other people, requiring more expensive ART with more severe side-effects and poorer health outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was to determine nurses’ perspectives on Botswana patients’ anti-retroviral therapy (ART adherence, and to identify factors which could promote or hinder ART adherence. Four ART sites were randomly selected and all 16 nurses providing ART services at these sites participated in semi-structured interviews. These nurses indicated that patients’ ART adherence was inf uenced by service-related and patient-related factors. Service-related factors included the inaccessibility of ART clinics, limited clinic hours, health workers’ inability to communicate in patients’ local languages, long waiting times at clinics and delays in being informed about their CD4 and viral load results. Nurses could not trace defaulters nor contact them by phone, and also had to work night shifts, disrupting nurse-patient relationships. Patient-related factors included patients’ lack of education, inability to understand the significance of CD4 and viral load results, financial hardships, non-disclosure and non-acceptance of their HIV positive status, alcohol abuse, the utilisation of traditional medicines and side effects of ART. The challenges of lifelong ART adherence are multifaceted involving both patient-related and service-related factors. Supplying free ARVs does not ensure high levels of ART adherence.

    Opsomming

    Anti-retrovirale middels (ARMs word gratis verskaf in Botswana. Lewenslange getroue nakoming van ARM voorskrifte is

  11. Walking sticks for muscle, bone and joint health in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Salsbury, Stacie A; Nissen, Nina;

    Objectives: People of rural Botswana rely on walking as their principal mode of transport over long distances and rugged geographical terrain. For those who suffer from Muscle, Bone and Joint (MuBoJo) disorders, navigating spaces and places contributes to everyday burdens that are not well...... represented in the literature. In this qualitative study we observed the use of walking sticks amongst villagers in rural Botswana and examined how they might support MuBoJo health. Methods: Ethnographic fieldwork over eight months included participant observation, document review, and 70 interviews with 48...... providers, villagers claimed little or no instruction for use; no educational notes were identified in villager health cards. Conclusions: Many walking sticks are homemade and most are used without professional instruction. To promote MuBoJo health amongst villagers in Botswana, it is essential that...

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  13. The characteristics and economic importance of Pterocarpus angolensis in D.C. Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbile, A U; Kwerepe, B C; Kelatlhilwe, M

    2007-02-15

    Pterocarpus angolensis grows throughout northern Botswana and may be found in all woodland types as well as in evergreen and deciduous forests. It is among the few indigenous trees that thrive in the deep Kalahari sands. P. angolensis produces a hard wood timber of attractive appearance. Due to its flexibility, resistance and lightweight, the communities in Botswana use the species for making door frames, window frames, canoes, canoe peddles, spear handles for use in game hunting, fishing and general construction. The community also use it as a carving and sculpting medium. Traditionally, all parts of the tree are used for medicinal purposes. PMID:19069547

  14. The Characteristics and Economic Importance of Pterocarpus angolensis in D.C. Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Lumbile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus angolensis grows throughout northern Botswana and may be found in all woodland types as well as in evergreen and deciduous forests. It is among the few indigenous trees that thrive in the deep Kalahari sands. P. angolensis produces a hard wood timber of attractive appearance. Due to its flexibility, resistance andlightweight, the communities in Botswana use the species for making door frames, window frames, canoes, canoe peddles, spear handles for use in game hunting, fishing and general construction. The community also use it as a carving and sculpting medium. Traditionally, all parts of the tree are used for medicinal purposes.

  15. Processing and Utilization of Sorghum and Maize in Botswana: Current Status and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Nthoiwa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews the current sorghum and maize production, processing and utilization in Botswana. Most of the grains produced in Botswana are used for home consumption, while processing of commercial and export commodities are limited both in terms of quantity and extent of processing. The major processing activity by both small scale and large scale firms is grain milling into maize and sorghum flours. There is limited value-added commercial processing. This creates an opportunity for development and marketing of traditional and new value-added products. Opportunities for expanding and diversifying industrial or semi-industrial processing of maize and sorghum beyond grain milling are suggested.

  16. Use of mobile learning by resident physicians in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Ghose, Sankalpo; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Anolik, Rachel B; Kyer, Andrea; Mazhani, Loeto; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of mobile health in recent years, learning through the use of mobile devices (mobile learning [mLearning]) has gained recognition as a potential method for increasing healthcare providers' access to medical information and resources in resource-limited settings. In partnership with the University of Botswana School of Medicine (SOM), we have been exploring the role of smartphone-based mLearning with resident (physicians in specialty training) education. The SOM, which admitted its first class of medical students and residents in 2009, is committed to providing high-level on-site educational resources for resident physicians, even when practicing in remote locations. Seven residents were trained to use an Android-based myTouch 3G smartphone equipped with data-enabled subscriber identity module (SIM) cards and built-in camera. Phones contained locally loaded point-of-care and drug information applications, a telemedicine application that allows for the submission of cases to local mentors, and e-mail/Web access. Surveys were administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks following distribution of phones. We found that smartphones loaded with point-of-care tools are effectively utilized by resident physicians in resource-limited settings, both for accessing point-of-care medical information at the bedside and engaging in self-directed learning at home. PMID:22171597

  17. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared under free range. Poultry diseases were mainly prevalent in Gaborone, Mochudi, Francistown and Molepolole districts with 225, 168, 148 and 135 cases, respectively. Newcastle disease was sporadic throughout the study period. In the present study, the common parasites of poultry were mites, fleas, lice, ticks and helminths, and helminths were the most prevalent followed by mites. Of all species, chickens were affected most by parasites followed by guinea fowl. These results suggest inadequacies in health management, indicating that strict biosecurity measures should be put in place in order to reduce mortalities. There is also a need for extension service to train farmers on health management.

  18. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  19. BAQMAP. Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 1 Report 4-22 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.; Dreiem, R.; Hermansen, O.; Knudsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This report is concerned with the start of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. NILU will provide assistance in the fields of (1) Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network, (2) Laboratory techniques, methods and routines, (3) Quality control and quality assurance procedures, (4) Emission data bases, (5) Statistical data analysis and reporting, (6) Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and assessment analysis. This is the report of the Norwegian team after their first visit to Botswana. 1 ref., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  20. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  1. Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

  2. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  3. Studies on some spirurids (Nematoda: Spirurida) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Van As, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2015), s. 119-138. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Spirurida * Botswana Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  4. The Use of Digital Library Skills in the Emergent Information Market in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Ayoku A.; Moahi, Kgomotso H.

    2007-01-01

    This study probed the use of digital library skills by MLIS graduates, and their perception of employment preparation for the emergent information market in Botswana. The study used a survey approach. The study was carried out in 2004. A total of 32 MLIS graduates (1996-2003) of the Department of Library and Information Studies in employment were…

  5. Long term trends in economic inequality : Lessons from colonial Botswana 1921–1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Jutta; Hillbom, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing literature on colonial legacies influencing long-term development. It focuses on Botswana, a case where the post-independence diamond-led economy has been considered an economic success story, despite its high levels of inequality. Here it is argued that this

  6. An Investigation on Students Academic Performance for Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MolokoMphale, Luke; Mhlauli, Mavis B.

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to investigate factors which contribute to the decline in students' academic performance in junior secondary schools in Botswana since 2010. The study was mainly quantitative and used the positivist inquiry paradigm. The study employed critical theory for its theoretical framework. Questionnaires were used to…

  7. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  8. Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; R. Ndebele; T. Thibanyane

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

  9. Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

  10. Perceptions of the Water Cycle among Primary School Children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A. A.; Motswiri, M. J.; Masene, R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes qualitative and quantitative methods used to elucidate the nature of the perception of the water cycle held by Botswana primary-grade pupils in three different geographic areas. Concludes that the students' perception of the water cycle was positively influenced by schooling but negatively impacted upon, to some extent, by the untutored…

  11. Communication Strategies in Primary Schools in Botswana: Interventions Using Cooks, Teacher Aides and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokibelo, Eureka B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the micro planning activities that schools engage in to address learners' needs to make education work in rural primary schools of Botswana. The national language plan prescribes the use of English and Setswana only as languages of instruction at the primary school level. However, this plan is not practical in some regions…

  12. An Assessment of Academic Stress among Undergraduate Students: The Case of University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolla, Joseph E.; Ongori, Henry

    2009-01-01

    This research finding is based on the responses obtained from the undergraduate students at a higher learning institution (University) in Botswana. This paper investigated the stressors, symptoms and effects that are likely to be experienced by the undergraduate students in higher institutions (Universities). Stressors related to time, academic…

  13. Parents' Participation in Public Primary Schools in Botswana: Perceptions and Experiences of Headteachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiri, Nkobi Owen; Bulawa, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The idea of involving parents in the school system is universal and as old as the history and philosophy of education itself. This study investigated the public school headteachers' experiences and perceptions about the level of parental involvement in the public primary school system in Botswana. The theories guiding this study are that of…

  14. The Impact of Culture, Self-Determination, and Allies on Women's Educational Opportunities in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Nancy; Mazile, Bontshetse

    Higher education opportunities for women in Botswana were studied through a feminist theoretical framework and a participant conversation methodology. Nine female students, participants in a postgraduate diploma program for secondary teacher certification or a masters program in education, ranged in age from 23 to 49. All but one were first…

  15. The effect of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, H; Byskov, Jens

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy of all infected individuals, using praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose, was the initial component of the recently introduced control programme against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Ngamiland, Botswana. To evaluate the effect of praziquantel in Ngamiland, 81 children were...

  16. Entertainment-Education Radio Serial Drama and Outcomes Related to HIV Testing in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas-Deluca, Katina A.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Galavotti, Christine; Warner, Lee; Mooki, Maungo; Hastings, Phil; Koppenhaver, Todd; Roels, Thierry H.; Kilmarx, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    "Makgabaneng" is an entertainment-education radio serial drama written and produced in Botswana to promote prevention of HIV. This effort is part of the national response to HIV/AIDS. Broadcast of the serial drama began in August 2001, and two new 15-minute episodes air each week. We examined associations between exposure to "Makgabaneng" and…

  17. Learners' and Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Science Processes: The Case of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emereole, Hezekiah Ukegbu

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual knowledge of science processes possessed by University of Botswana science students and senior secondary school science teachers was sought through a three-part questionnaire. One part requested demographic data of subjects, the second part asked them to select their level of familiarity with the processes, and the third part probed…

  18. "Mbizi": Empowerment and HIV/AIDS Prevention for Adolescent Girls in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitza, Amy; Chilisa, Bagele; Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a small group intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescent girls in Botswana. The psychoeducational group model is designed to empower girls to overcome the gender inequality that puts women at increased risk of HIV infection in the country. Group goals include heightening group members' awareness of the influence…

  19. Inclusive Education for Learners with Special Educational Needs in Botswana: Voices of Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the roles and responsibilities of the special education teachers, and challenges they encounter in supporting the inclusion of learners with special educational needs (SEN) in regular primary schools of the south central regions of Botswana. Thirty-eight Senior Teacher Advisors Learning Disabilities…

  20. Agriculture on the Brink: Climate Change, Labor and Smallholder Farming in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Moseley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Botswana is a semi-arid, middle-income African country that imports 90 percent of its food. Despite its relative prosperity, Botswana also suffers from one of the highest measures of income inequality in the world, persistent poverty, and relatively high levels of food insecurity. The objective of this paper is to explore how political economy, climate change and livelihood dynamics are synergistically impacting household food security. The major finding is that the marginalization of smallholder farming in Botswana has as much or more to do with domestic, regional and international political economy as it does with climate change. As such, international efforts to support climate change adaptation in Botswana will have a limited effect on smallholder farming livelihoods and rural food security unless such efforts take account of political economic constraints. Effective support must be based on a grounded understanding of the real drivers of marginalization and food insecurity. One initiative that merits further exploration is the government’s backyard gardening initiative, which could be viewed as a pro-poor climate adaptation strategy. The findings of this paper are based on semi-structured interviews with policymakers and surveys with urban, peri-urban and rural households undertaken in 2012 and 2015.

  1. Why We Drop out of School: Voices of San School Dropouts in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokibelo, Eureka B.

    2014-01-01

    Among San communities in Botswana, the rate of student disengagement from both primary and junior secondary school is an ongoing concern for educators. San learners leave school at all levels of primary and junior secondary education. Students who leave school have tended not to provide reasons as to why they are dropping out. This study…

  2. Soil carbon inventories and d 13C along a moisture gradient in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, M.I.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Lloyd, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories and d 13C values for 625 soil cores collected from well-drained, coarse-textured soils in eight areas along a 1000 km moisture gradient from Southern Botswana, north into southern Zambia. The spatial distribution of trees and grass in the d

  3. Evolution of Botswana planning education in light of local and international requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavrić Branko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning problems have been with us ever since human beings realized that their wellbeing is very closely linked to the quality of their settlements and the environment. Over the last century this has led to the worldwide emergence of built environment education in general, and planning in particular. In many African universities planning education is a rapidly growing phenomenon reaching its maturity in terms of structure and number of programs. This development has been most significant in those countries that underwent rapid urbanization and environmental changes similar to those occurring in Botswana. The first Urban and Regional Planning Programme at the University of Botswana was established in 1993 as part of the Department of Environmental Science at the Faculty of Science. The continued growth and expansion of the planning profession world-wide as well as in Botswana, and its interdisciplinary ties with allied built-environment disciplines, have reached the point at which the University of Botswana is ready to continue with a new internationally recognized planning school. There is a belief that a combined (spatial and specialist accredited planning programme should support local and regional interests, focusing on the Southern African Region, while acknowledging global standards and innovation in teaching, research, and technology.

  4. Corporate entrepreneurship orientation and the pursuit of innovating opportunities in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Botha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: A causal relationship between the independent variable (introduction of innovation and the dependent variable (Corporate Entrepreneurship orientation is explored by addressing the question: Do companies in Botswana have a corporate entrepreneurship (CE orientation that leads them to pursue innovating opportunities? The primary objective is to investigate how CE orientation in companies in Botswana is linked to individual employees' pursuit of innovation within corporate boundaries. Secondary objectives are to identify the prerequisites and factors of CE orientation, individual employees' perceptions and the importance of innovation factors in established companies. Problem investigated: To determine whether existing firms in Botswana represent the concept of an entrepreneurial company within the sphere of corporate entrepreneurship by pursuing innovating opportunities. The intention is to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of individuals as potential corporate entrepreneurs, their ability to be innovative and how such innovation is brought to fruition. Design and methodology: To obtain quantifiable measures of the link between CE orientation and innovation, a quantitative approach is used: a formalised, cross-sectional research design. The sample consists of 100 individuals at supervisory levels and above in large corporate companies, from eight different provinces in Botswana. A research instrument is used and convenience sampling employed. Factor analysis is performed on the questionnaire to determine its validity and reliability. A Pearson correlation coefficient test is conducted on the three factors identified in factor analysis. The chi-square test and T-test (Mann-Whitney U test are used to illustrate the statistically significant differences between the different variables and factors. Findings and implications: This paper proves the inextricable link between CE orientation and the pursuit of innovation

  5. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  6. Les antirétroviraux au Botswana. Observatoire des mutations de l'intervention internationale sur la santé en Afrique

    OpenAIRE

    Fanny Chabrol

    2013-01-01

    By focusing on access to free antiretroviral treatments in Botswana, this article analyses recent transformations of international cooperation on health issues. The partnership between the government of Botswana, the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation was made possible through pre-existing biomedical collaboration between the government of Botswana and the Harvard School of Public Health. This configuration of actors and interests offers a vantage poin...

  7. The Characteristics and Economic Importance of Pterocarpus angolensis in D.C. Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    A. U. Lumbile; B. C. Kwerepe; M. Kelatlhilwe

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus angolensis grows throughout northern Botswana and may be found in all woodland types as well as in evergreen and deciduous forests. It is among the few indigenous trees that thrive in the deep Kalahari sands. P. angolensis produces a hard wood timber of attractive appearance. Due to its flexibility, resistance andlightweight, the communities in Botswana use the species for making door frames, window frames, canoes, canoe peddles, spear handles for use in game hunting, fishing and ...

  8. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  9. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Ditsapelo

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included ...

  10. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Gierga, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Alphonse Kayembe, Mukendi K. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Pathology, University of Botswana School of Medicine, Gaborone (Botswana); Mmalane, Mompati [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Russell, Anthony H.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Carolyn [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Musimar, Zola [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Abramson, Jeremy S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bruce, Kathy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Karumekayi, Talkmore [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Clayman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hodgeman, Ryan [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Kasese, Joseph [Bokamoso Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Makufa, Remigio [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Bigger, Elizabeth [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology and Leonard David Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Busse, Paul M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources.

  11. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources

  12. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  13. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magowe MK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mabel KM Magowe,1 Jenny H Ledikwe,2,3 Ishmael Kasvosve,1 Robert Martin,2 Kabo Thankane,3 Bazghina-werq Semo2,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 3Botswana International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, BotswanaPurpose: To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the University of Botswana, to advance diploma-holding laboratory technicians towards becoming laboratory scientists holding Bachelor’s degrees. An evaluation was conducted, which described the outcomes of the program and the lessons learned from this novel approach to meeting human resource needs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods evaluation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with graduates of the Bachelor of Science (BSc Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS bridging program, along with the graduates’ current supervisors, and key informants who were involved in program development or implementation. The quantitative data collected included a written questionnaire, completed by program graduates, with a retrospective pre-test/post-test survey of graduates’ confidence, in terms of key laboratory competencies.Results: The BSc MLS bridging program produced thirty-three laboratory scientists over 3 years. There was a significant increase in confidence among graduates, for specified competencies, after the program (P<0.05. Graduates reported acquiring new skills and, often, accepting new responsibilities at their former workplace, particularly in relationship to leadership and management. Five graduates enrolled in advanced degree programs. Most graduates assumed increased responsibility. However, only two graduates were promoted after completing the training program. The lessons learned include: the importance of stakeholder involvement, the need for

  14. Scaling up a Mobile Telemedicine Solution in Botswana: Keys to Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Kagiso; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Park, Elizabeth; Dikai, Zambo; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana's health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialized medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients' access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT) network infrastructure characterized by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today's health care demands is a tedious, long, and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilizing wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP) to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialized health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology, and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as "Kgonafalo." Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices, and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Botswana government and a private

  15. Climate Change and Poverty: Concerns for Botswana and the African Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgosietsile Maripe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses serious challenges and takes centre stage in the global agenda as an issue calling for corporate strategies and appropriate measures by countries, communities, and individuals. The United Nations and other actors are responding to the challenge with the major focus on the development of strategies, and policy framework. These approaches set standards for relevant and contextualized country’s specific approaches to attain sustainable community-climate related livelihoods. On this premises, this review is pre-occupied with Climate Change and Poverty as it concerns Botswana and the African Continent. It was revealed from the study that current trends indicate that Botswanans are gradually shifting from crop production and livestock to tourism partly due to drought related losses. Therefore, there is need for widespread Climate Change Community Education (CCCE and intensified advocacy at all levels of government in Botswana and the African Continent.

  16. Studies on Mukwa (Pterocarpus angolensis, D. C.) Dieback in Chobe Forest Reserves in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie Matlanaga Mmolotsi; Motshwari Obopile; Baone C. Kwerepe; Boingotlo Sebolai; Melusi P. Rampart; Amogelang T. Segwagwe; Gaebewe Ramolemana; Tlholego M. Maphane; Lerato Lekorwe; Ishmael Kopong; Moneedi Kelatlhilwe; Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out in forest reserves located in Chobe district in Botswana to assess the effect of dieback and associated causes on Mukwa tree, Pterocarpus angolensis Fire, elephant damage and dieback were assessed in Chobe and Kazuma forest reserves and Pandamatenga farming area. Fire damage frequency on mukwa trees ranged between 60 to 100 % and was highest in Pandamatenga and Chobe forest reserves. The frequency of elephant damage in Kazuma and Chobe forest reserves was 75 and 100 % ...

  17. An evaluation of the quality of care midwives provide during the postpartum period in northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of care midwives provide to clients during the postpartum period. Design: A cross sectional descriptive qualitative and quantitative survey among 65 practising registered nurse midwives. They were interviewed and observed in health institutions while examining the mother and baby prior to discharge. A convenient non-probability sampling was used to identify and select respondents from 14 primary health care facilities in northern Botswana, who were actively...

  18. Managing Development of a Rapidly Growing African City: a Case of Gaborone, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Cavrić; Marco Keiner

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the last four decades has brought a complete change to the urban image of Gaborone. Its original savannah landscape and surrounding green complexion has changed by cumulative impacts of numerous factors involved in creation of a contemporary settlement, from a small village to the capital city of Botswana. The concept of a "garden city" was introduced immediately after the country gained its independence from the British in 1966. Building on the legacy of "garden city", i...

  19. Assessment of the household availability of oral rehydration salt in rural Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Jammalamadugu, Swetha Bindu; Mosime, Botsang; Masupe, Tiny; Habte, Dereje

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea contributed for 17.6% of under-five deaths in Botswana. Oral rehydration salt (ORS) therapy has been the cornerstone in the control of morbidity and mortality secondary to diarrheal diseases. The study was aimed at assessing the household availability of ORS following the nationwide campaign of availing ORS at household level. Methods A cross sectional community based study was conducted in August 2012. EPI random walk method was used to identify households. Data was col...

  20. Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Trivariate investigation in Botswana with Capital Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakiru Adebola Solarin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between electricity consumption and real gross domestic product in Botswana (the world’s largest producer of diamonds). The study includes capital formation in a trivariate system for the period covering 1980-2008. Zivot and Andrews (1992) unit roots test; bound test for cointegration, and Granger causality test are employed. Unidirectional causality is found from electricity consumption to real gross domestic product is in line with study of Altinay a...

  1. Impact of infield irrigation management by Botswana cabbage farmers on soil salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Molatakgosi, Goitsemodimo

    2006-01-01

    Some vegetable farmers in the semi- arid Botswana are struggling or closing down their enterprises citing the cost of irrigation and salty water as the problem. Irrigation with water from the salt-laden underground water is known to be the main sources of salts for arid and semi-arid agricultural land. Crops grown in saline environments show symptoms similar to those shown by drought-affected crops hence more irrigation is needed therefore increasing the irrigation cost. Resear...

  2. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac C. Mogotsi; J.A. Boon; Lizelle Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowle...

  3. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran; Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to ...

  4. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. Lovely; A. J. Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Sev...

  5. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. Lovely; J.M. Pittman; A. J. Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were co...

  6. DISSEMINATION OF AND USE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretta Wamunza; Benzies Boadi; Stephen Mutula

    2007-01-01

    Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categoriza...

  7. Solid Waste Generation & Composition in Gaborone, Botswana. Potential for Resource Recovery.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabooshnam, Jayesh kumar

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of solid waste management was performed in Gaborone, Botswana to identify the quantity of different types of solid waste that are generated annually and the possible strategies for improved waste management. In order to achieve the objective of the project, present waste management practice in Gaborone was analysed and waste composition study was carried out in Gamodubu landfill, Gaborone. Waste from household, commercial, industrial and others (defence and institutional) stratums...

  8. Physico-chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Subsurface Sediments around Gaborone Landfill, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    EKOSSE, G E; TOTOLO, O; NGOLE, V M

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Studies were carried out on subsurface sediments obtained around the Gaborone landfill area Botswana, in order to characterize their mineralogy and physico-chemistry, appraise any contaminant inputs from the landfill and assess their ability to attenuate contaminants from the landfill. Physico-chemical properties investigated included particle size distribution (PSD), moisture content, bulk density (Db), porosity, surface area, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange c...

  9. Land use, rangeland degradation and ecological changes in the southern Kalahari, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dougill, AJ; Akanyang, L; Perkins, JS; Eckardt, FD; Stringer, LC; Favretto, N; Atlhopheng, J; Mulale, K.

    2016-01-01

    Dual-scale analyses assessing farm-scale patterns of ecological change and landscape-scale patterns of change in vegetation cover and animal distribution are presented from ecological transect studies away from waterpoints, regional remotely sensed analysis of vegetation cover and animal numbers across the southern Kalahari, Botswana. Bush encroachment is prevalent in semi-arid sites where Acacia mellifera Benth. is widespread in communal areas and private ranches, showing that land tenure ch...

  10. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estim...

  11. Making social relations and identities through consumption: A Botswana case study

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Juliet A.

    2013-01-01

    This research utilises the concepts in Miller’s anthropology of consumption (1987; 1988; 1994; 1995a; 1998a; 1998b) to enable an analysis of social relations, including gender, through looking at what and how people consume. Goods not only express individual identity and status, but are used as a means of objectifying personal and social systems of value, which, in the lives of people living in a central ward in the village of Mochudi, Botswana, signify the importance of social relationshi...

  12. Fuelwood procurement, consumption and substitution in selected areas of Botswana: implications for theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summaries the results of the AFREPREN biomass research project examining environmental and socio-economic effects of biomass procurement, consumption and substitution. The economy, energy sector, physical features and population of Botswana are discussed, and household economics and fuelwood scarcity, fuelwood consumption and energy transitions in public institutions and small-scale industries are examined. Policy implications of the project findings are considered. (UK)

  13. Computing knowledge and Skills Demand: A Content Analysis of Job Adverts in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ayalew; Z. A. Mbero; T. Z. Nkgau; P. Motlogelwa; A. Masizana-Katongo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content analysis of computing job adverts to assess the types of skills required by employers in Botswana. Through the study of job adverts for computing professionals for one year (i.e., January 2008 to December 2008), we identified the types of skills required by employers for early career positions. The job adverts were collected from 7 major newspapers (published both daily and weekly) that are circulated throughout the country. The findings of the sur...

  14. The Impact of Market Orientation on SMMEs in Developing Economies: A Case-study of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Jaiyeoba

    2011-01-01

    The anecdotal research conducted on market orientation in service small businesses and the mixed findings on the impact of market orientation and business performance reported complicate efforts amongst both academics and practitioners to conclude on the real effects of the construct upon business performance. This is exacerbated by the acute paucity of empirical research conducted on Market Orientation (MO) construct in Botswana, thus representing both an empirical and theoretical gap to whi...

  15. Body Image Dissatisfaction Is Increased in Male and Overweight/Obese Adolescents in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Malete, L.; Motlhoiwa, K.; Shaibu, S.; B. H. Wrotniak; Maruapula, S. D.; Jackson, J; Compher, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA) using the Intern...

  16. WP 81 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Botswana on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work an...

  17. E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Taye, Mesfin; Kanda, Wisdom; Krook, Joakim; Mattias, Lindahl

    2014-01-01

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/...

  18. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Torres Solís; Keonethebe Moroka

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study case on innovative corporate social responsibility as a very important aspect of management planning and, in the process, explores some trends and new ideas pertaining to corporate social responsibility in mining industries. Some pertinent literature is reviewed as a theoretical frame to introduce the presentation of the Debswana Mining Company case to show innovative corporate social responsibility in the mining industries in Botswana. The paper also critically di...

  19. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Tonya Arscott-Mills; Poloko Kebaabetswe; Gothusang Tawana; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Orabile Makgabana-Dintwa; Kagiso Sebina; Masego Kebaetse; Lucky Mokgatlhe; Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim: This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice.Setting: The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye.Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-yea...

  20. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaeste, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice. Setting The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year ...

  1. Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa are sub-Saharan African countries that stand out for their development progress. Each of these countries has succeeded against the odds, against expectations. This paper synthesizes the common ingredients of these countries' success, and derives lessons. It concludes that smallness, landlockedness, tropical location, distance from world markets, racism, colonialism and other challenges can be overcome through appropriate institutions, governance and...

  2. The leadership characteristics of the preceptor in selected clinical practice settings in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, A; K Jooste

    2006-01-01

    A non-experimental, explorative, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose was to explore and describe the views of preceptors and preceptees regarding the fulfilment of the role of the preceptor in selected clinical nursing practice settings in the Botswana context. The study included 72 preceptors and 200 nursing students/preceptees who voluntary agreed voluntarily to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analyzed by using descriptiv...

  3. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  4. Small Business Critical Success/Failure Factors In Developing Economies: Some Evidences From Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelealem T. Temtime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the discovery of diamond has propelled Botswana from one of the poorest countries in 1966 to its current economic status as a middle-income country, the country still faces the problems of economic diversification, employment creation, income generation and distribution and poverty alleviation. Governmental and non- Governmental organizations have put many efforts on the development of small and medium Enterprises (SMEs to diversify the economy away from mining, to create jobs, generate income and alleviate poverty. However, the pace of development of SMEs, after 30 years, is very slow. The small business failure rate is currently estimated to be over 80%. There is a general consensus among policy makers, politicians and researchers in Botswana that this trend should not be allowed to continue indefinitely. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Perceived Critical Success/Failure factors (PCSFs affecting the development of SMEs by collecting primary data from 203 SMEs in 3 cities in the republic of Botswana through a questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to present the empirical data. The findings showed that ten PCSFs (human resources development; organizational development, managerial background; managerial leadership and competitive strategy affect the performance of SMEs. The PCSFs are strongly related among themselves, indicating the need for a holistic and systematic approach in addressing them. Important relationships were also found between the PCSFs and firm-specific demographic variables such as ownership status, experience and operation period. Recommendations and implications for the policy and research are also forwarded.

  5. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  6. Assessing the impact of airborne outreach to build clinical capacity in rural Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. A. Reid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana has been an important catalyst for improving specialist service delivery across the spectrum of clinical care. The success of Botswana’s airborne program is a consequence of many country-specific determinants as well as external funding support. We argue that lessons learned from the experience in Botswana are normative for other African settings. Specialist medical airborne outreach to rural hospitals can improve access to and quality of care, when part of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary intervention. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HIV funded program can be a vehicle for enhanced access to essential sub-specialist clinicians in rural Botswana.

  7. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haretsebe Manwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest reserves for ecotourism. Data was collected through mixed methods involving in-depth interviews with government departments, traditional leaders, quasi-government organisations and the Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana. Focus group discussions were also held with village development committees, Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT and Kasane, Lesoma and Pandematenga Trust (KALEPA members, and a consultative national workshop of stakeholders was also held. The findings indicate that opening up forest reserves for ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty among the disadvantaged groups living adjacent to forest reserves through direct (employment, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, secondary (linkages/partnerships and dynamic effects (sustainable livelihoods. The study concludes by cautioning that whilst pro-poor tourism may yield short- and medium-term benefits, in keeping with sustainability objectives, participants in the programme need to be mindful of forestry encroachment and come up with strategies to ensure the sustainability of the Botswana forest reserves.

  8. DISSEMINATION OF AND USE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauretta Wamunza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categorization.Key findings revealed that the HIV/AIDS information disseminated to students include information on behaviour change; information on HIV/AIDS prevention; transmission and treatment. The means of disseminating information to students include the use of multiple channels such as the university Health and Wellness Centre, Lectures, peer groups, seminars/workshops, students meetings, the University Clinic and the library. The study found that the most common media used to disseminate information to students include video, print, CDs and verbal means. Finally, factors that affect access to and use of HIV/AIDS information by students include: religious orientations, substance abuse, low income levels, multiple relationships, age and gender.There is need for the University of Botswana to review its overall approach of disseminating HIV/AIDS information to students in order to make it more effective. Moreover, strong liaison among agencies involved in the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS at the University is needed. Furthermore, a more rigorous research into issues of students’ attitudes and values in relation to HIV/AIDS is needed. Similarly, more efforts are needed to create awareness and educate students on the dangers associated with substance abuse, multiple partners and practicing unprotected sex. The need to encourage testing for HIV/AIDS among students is needed so that appropriate interventions can be put in place.The world over, HIV/AIDS has

  9. Ethnozoological survey of traditional medicinal uses of tortoises in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Rinah Setlalekgomo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to document the traditional medicinal uses of tortoises at Ramankhung, Lekgalung and Dikateng fields near Lentsweletau village and at Mmaphoroka and Moleleme fields near Botlhapatlou village in Kweneng district of Botswana. A formal questionnaire was administered to 47 respondents (nearly 10 respondents per study site.  The respondents were 46.81% farmers, 36.17% cattle herders, 14.89% farm labourers and 2.13% unemployed.  The study showed that different parts of tortoises are used in traditional medicine to treat various human ailments in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana.

  10. Role of Business Management into the Success and Survival of Small Businesses: The Case of Star Learning Centre in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the aspects of management, which have led to the survival, and success of the small-scale businesses in Botswana- a case of Star Learning Centre. The questions explored were 1) What is the role of management in the survival or success of Star Learning Centre? 2) What management styles, systems and practices are appropriate for Star Learning Centre and other small scale businesses in the Botswana? 3) What work culture is appropriate for business success? 4) What fa...

  11. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana. PMID:26754167

  12. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974–2003, we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001 and October (ANOVA p < 0.001 in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001 in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001. Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001. Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem.

  13. The peasantariat and politics: migration, wage labor, and agriculture in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, J

    1984-01-01

    This article examines Botswana's wage labor migration in terms of 2 reigning theories: 1) as a dichotomy between traditional and modern society, with workers viewing agriculture as an alternative to more desirable wage employment; or 2) as a subordination of colonial society to capitalist society, with workers drawn from the resulting underdeveloped and impoverished areas and divorced from their agricultural potential. Approximately 90% of Botswanan households have a wage worker; less than 1/4 of households rely on the agricultural economy alone. 80% of the population works in agriculture in some way, but agriculture contributes only 35% of total rural income. Over 50% of households are below the poverty level, and most must rely on a variety of income sources for subsistence. 68% of rural households (Botswana is 84% rural) have absent wage earners while 45% have 1 or more wage earners present. Absent wage earners work mainly in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in Botswanan towns (44%) and villages (22%), and lands and cattlepost locations (5%) in South African mines (19%), and other jobs in South Africa (8%). Individuals with low socioeconomic status tend to migrate to South Africa; those with higher status move to Botswanan towns. Working for wages has become customary for most Botswanans. This article undermines conventional development theories by showing the close interweaving of the modern and traditional societies, and arguing that traditional retention of communal land rights and cattle ownership served the capitalistic system by becoming the basis for wage earning; previous income source (agriculture) did not disappear, but their use was altered. South African mining returns to the Botswanan government since 1965 largely benefited a growing petty-bourgeois class and marginally improved the life styles of the peasant labor class. Botswana's development depends on the relationship between the peripherial laboring class and the dominating petty-bourgeois and

  14. Gastric nematodes of Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junker

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920, Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929 Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861 Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis was present in most of the infected hosts, while the remaining species were mostly represented in single collections in one to three hosts. All four ascaridoid nematodes represent new geographic records.

  15. Gastric nematodes of nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Wallace, K; Leslie, A J; Boomker, J

    2006-06-01

    The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920), Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929) Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis was present in most of the infected hosts, while the remaining species were mostly represented in single collections in one to three hosts. All four ascaridoid nematodes represent new geographic records. PMID:16958261

  16. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, C J; Leslie, A J

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles. PMID:18846850

  17. ¿La maldición de los recursos como mito? El caso de Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Hilda

    2011-01-01

    Cuando obtuvo la independencia, en 1966, Botswana era uno de los diez países más pobres del mundo y era prácticamente desconocido. En los primeros años de vida independiente, con el descubrimiento por parte de la compañía De Beers de un depósito de diamantes, empezó a gestarse una experiencia exitosa y singular en África subsahariana, caracterizada por el surgimiento de un Estado desarrollista con un enfoque pragmático vis-à-vis las inversiones extranjeras y que ha dado como resultado ingreso...

  18. How can we assess the burden of muscle, bone and joint conditions in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    , organisational and clinical characteristics for the burden of living with and caring for people living with musculoskeletal conditions in rural Botswana. In this paper, we describe the community context, theoretical framework, and research methods to address the project aim with a qualitative study. METHODS...... translated into English. Computer software supported qualitative data management. Analysis is ongoing using constant comparison and a template organising style to facilitate pattern-finding and reveal insights for the burden and care of musculoskeletal conditions. DISCUSSION: Findings from the MuBoJo Project...... conduct musculoskeletal research in more than one language and in a cross-cultural setting may be useful for investigators and NGO healthcare personnel....

  19. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  20. The Botswana - Namibia boudary dispute. Towards a diplomatic solution or military confrontation.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, C J B

    1998-01-01

    Die regerings van Botswana en Namibië is tans in 'n dispuut gewikkel oor die twee klein rivier-eilande van Sedudu (bekend as Kasikili onder die Namibiërs) en Situngu (bekend as Luyondo, Singobeka, Mbala of Zoti onder die Namibiërs). Die dispuut oor Sedudu-eiland dien tans voor die wêreldhof in Den Haag, terwyl Situngu-eiland die onderwerp is van 'n gesamentlike tegniese komitee bestaande uit verteenwoordigers van die twee regerings. Daar is min hoop dat die tegniese komitee 'n ...

  1. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Meier, P.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2009-01-01

    The wetlands of the Okavango Delta accommodate a multitude of ecosystems with a large diversity in fauna and flora. They not only provide the traditional livelihood of the local communities but are also the basis of a tourism industry that generates substantial revenue for the whole of Botswana....... For the global community, the wetlands retain a tremendous pool of biodiversity. As the upstream states Angola and Namibia are developing, however, changes in the use of the water of the Okavango River and in the ecological status of the wetlands are to be expected. To predict these impacts, the...

  2. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac C. Mogotsi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowledge sharing behaviour and gender, age, or professional tenure. Only organisational tenure weakly negatively correlated with knowledge sharing behaviour. Thus, according to these findings, demographic variables do not appear to be important determinants of knowledge sharing behaviour.

  3. Procamallanus (Procamallanus) spp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, including the description of P. (P.) pseudolaeviconchus n. sp. parasitic in Clarias spp. (Clariidae) from Botswana and Egypt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Van As, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 137-149. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Camallanidae * Botswana * Egypt Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  4. Implementing the LASO Model: Development of a Pilot Online Course at the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip; Kiravu, Cheddi; Mothibi, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the process of developing a blended online engineering course at the Faculty of Engineering and Technology of the University of Botswana. It presents the actual development process in terms of its management, the University's preferred pedagogical approach to student-centred learning and the consequent technological choices…

  5. Constraints to Senior Management's Capacity to Implement the Performance Management System in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulawa, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The performance management system in different forms has been in existence in many countries for some years. In 1999 Botswana like other countries decided to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. At its introduction, the government explained the purpose for which this reform was being…

  6. Gastric nematodes of Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Junker, K.; Wallace, K.; A. J. Leslie; J. Boomker

    2006-01-01

    The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920), Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929) Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis ...

  7. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…

  8. The Impact of Lack of Resources on Declining Students' Enrolments in Design and Technology in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaotlhobogwe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Lack of resources has resulted in declining students' enrolment in design and technology in Botswana junior secondary schools by up to 6% per year over 10 years, despite positive encouragement by the government. Based on the PATT (pupils' attitude towards technology) theoretical framework this study indicated how a lack of resources in Botswana…

  9. Exploring Responses to Transformative Group Therapy for Orphaned Children in the Context of Mass Orphaning in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamuku, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In the context of AIDS, the Botswana Government has adopted a group therapy program to help large numbers of orphaned children cope with bereavement. This study explores the effectiveness of the therapy and examines how it interacts with cultural attitudes and practices concerning death. Ten orphaned children were involved in five rounds of data…

  10. "Children of the fence" : the maintenance of extra-marital children under law and practice in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molokomme, Athaliah

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with the laws regulating compensation for extramarital pregnancy and maintenance of extramarital children in Botswana. More specifically, it aims to comprehend the reasons for the increase in extramarital reproduction and its seeming tolerance by the society; to make an in-de

  11. Exploration of Experiences and Perceptions of Three Botswana Basic Education Stakeholders on Employment and Unemployment of Graduates of Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidimane, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study used a phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of three groups of stakeholders of the Botswana basic education program related to the employment and unemployment of graduates of basic education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants from three groups of stakeholders, graduates of basic…

  12. Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of University of Botswana English as Second Language students of different academic reading proficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Magogwe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.

  13. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  14. Comparing Teachers' Non-Teaching Roles in Curriculum Reforms from an Organization Studies Perspective: Cases from Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Nii Antiaye

    2012-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the academic aims of curriculum reforms and the teaching roles related to them are similar, but non-teaching roles are likely to vary across countries. Taking an organization studies perspective, this article compares teachers' roles in reform along the Botswana-South Africa border. Though these teachers share language and…

  15. The Influence of Cultural Bias on Motivation to Learn English: The Case of Khoe Primary School Students in Eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magogwe, Joel Mokuedi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cultural bias in the teaching of English and in the books used to teach English in primary schools attended by Khoe students in eastern Botswana. The study also explored the link between cultural bias and the attitudes and motivation of Khoe students learning English. One hundred and thirty-seven students…

  16. Instructional Leadership for Quality Learning: An Assessment of the Impact of the Primary School Management Development Project in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiri, Nkobi Owen

    2008-01-01

    A descriptive study using questionnaires was conducted in 2004 to assess the effectiveness of instructional leadership displayed by primary school management teams following the implementation of the Primary School Management Project in Botswana. Leadership skills, Coordination of instructional activities, management of curriculum and quality of…

  17. Integrating eLearning to Support Medical Education at the New University of Botswana School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebaetse, Masego B.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Haverkamp, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Since the enrolment of its first cohort of students in 2009, the University of Botswana School of Medicine (UB SoM) has employed elearning as a key element to support and strengthen its model of decentralised medical education. Significant investments have been made in setting up the physical infrastructure, and in acquiring relevant expertise to…

  18. Insights into Attempts at Using Action Research in a Collaborative Work in a Policy Review Exercise in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony Tsatsing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I embrace the thinking that writing on one's experiences in the use of qualitative educational research strategies and principles could potentially contribute to furthering knowledge in the field. In adopting an action research framework to guide collaborative work in a policy review exercise in Botswana, I found that collaborative…

  19. A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Development and Review at the University of Zimbabwe and Botho University, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Svotwa, Douglas; Rudhumbu, Norman; Mutsau, Morgen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make comparative study of the development and review process of the entrepreneurship curriculum at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) Faculty of Commerce and Botho University, (BU) Faculty of Business and Accounting in Gaborone, Botswana. The study focused on the processes and influences of curriculum development…

  20. Implementation of m-health applications in Botswana: telemedicine and education on mobile devices in a low resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Mibenge, Chikoti; Antwi, Cynthia; Chandra, Amit; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2013-02-01

    Although Botswana has recently been categorised as an upper middle income country, it is burdened by a scarcity of resources, both human and technological. There are barriers to patients' access to specialized care and healthcare providers' access to medical knowledge. Over the past three years, the Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership (BUP) has piloted four mobile telemedicine projects in the specialties of women's health (cervical cancer screening utilizing visual inspection with acetic acid), radiology, oral medicine and dermatology. Mobile telemedicine has been used in 11 locations in Botswana, training a total of 24 clinicians and successfully contributing to the management of 643 cases. In addition to mobile telemedicine, BUP has initiated an m-learning programme with the University of Botswana School of Medicine. While successfully providing patients and providers with improved access to healthcare resources, the m-health projects have faced numerous technical and social challenges. These include malfunctioning mobile devices, unreliable IT infrastructure, accidental damage to mobile devices, and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. BUP has worked with its local partners to develop solutions to these problems. To ensure sustainability, m-health programmes must have strategic goals that are aligned with those of the national health and education system, and the initiatives must be owned and led by local stakeholders. Whenever possible, open source technology and local IT expertise and infrastructure should be employed. PMID:23454821

  1. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to…

  2. An advocacy project for multicultural education: The case of the Shiyeyi language in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati-Saleshando, Lydia

    2011-12-01

    Multicultural education respects cultural differences and affirms pluralism which students, their communities and teachers bring to the learning process. It is founded on the belief that a school curriculum which promotes the ideals of freedom, justice, equality, equity and human dignity is most likely to result in high academic achievement and quality education. In Botswana, English is the official language and medium of instruction and Setswana is the national lingua franca which is used for formal occasions in the villages and other informal settings. Any other languages spoken by unrecognised tribes are banned from use in schools or the media, including minority languages taught before independence in 1966, This paper describes the Shiyeyi Language Project, initiated by the Wayeyi tribe, which advocates for a multicultural model of education where children learn in their mother tongue and about their local culture at an early stage, then add the national language, and eventually an international language as medium of instruction. The project operates within an unfriendly political and legal context, but has achieved some results. Continued efforts, especially as supported by similar language projects, have the potential to change the situation in Botswana.

  3. A retrospective study of the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at major abattoirs in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochankana, M Ernest; Robertson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services in Gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Botswana. Meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to Fasciola gigantica infection. Only 1250 of the approximately 1.4 million cattle slaughtered were infected with F. gigantica (0.09%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.0% - 0.3%). No distinct seasonal pattern was observed in condemnation rates of livers. However, the pattern of distribution of fasciolosis was higher (but not significant) in cattle that originated from areas with high rainfall and more permanent water bodies than those from relatively low rainfall areas with a transitory water system. It is recommended that a longitudinal survey should be carried out at the abattoirs and farms to determine the prevalence of the disease in cattle of different ages, sex and breed as well as the place of origin in the country. The present study indicated that the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle is low and the disease is therefore of less significance in Botswana than other African countries for which information is available. PMID:27380655

  4. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  5. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

  6. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definition and scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation and inefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators can help inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made during a visit to family physicians (FPs) in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice of family medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different and sometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly and enmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effective information technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staff attended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to more complicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed to undergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients and healthcare workers (HCW) may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting should be formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective information technology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure is necessary to achieve good health indicators.

  7. Improving the quality of care for patients with hypertension in Moshupa District, Botswana: Quality improvement cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Kande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no prevalence studies on hypertension in Botswana, this condition is thought to be common and the quality of care to be poor.Aim: The aim of this project was to assess and improve the quality of primary care forhypertension.Setting: Moshupa clinic and catchment area, Botswana.Methods: Quality improvement cycle.Results: Two hundred participants were included in the audit. Sixty-eight per cent were women with a mean age of 55 years. In the baseline audit none of the target standards were met. During the re-audit six months later, six out of nine structural target standards, five out of 11 process target standards and one out of two outcome target standards were achieved. Statistically-significant improvement in performance (p < 0.05 was shown in 10 criteria although the target standard was not always met. In the re-audit, the target of achieving blood pressure control (< 140/90 in 70% of patients was achieved.Conclusion: The quality of care for hypertension was suboptimal in our setting. Simple interventions were designed and implemented to improve the quality of care. These interventions led to significant improvement in structural and process criteria. A corresponding significant improvement in the control of blood pressure was also seen.

  8. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan W Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana.

  9. The composition of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) grown in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarteifio, J O; Munthali, D C; Karikari, S K; Morake, T K

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the composition of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), grown at Sebele, Botswana. The raw seeds of six varieties were analyzed for dry matter, crude fat, protein, fiber, and ash, using Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures. Major minerals, Ca, K, P, Mg, Na and trace minerals, Cu, Fe and Zn were also assessed. The range of nutrient contents obtained were: dry matter 86.6-88.0%, crude protein 19.0-21.7%, crude fat 1.2-1.3%, crude fiber 9.8-13.0%, and ash 3.9-4.3%. Minerals ranges (mg/100 g dry matter) were: K 1845-1941, P 163-293, Ca 120-167, Mg 113-127, Na 11.3-12.0, Zn 7.2-8.2, Fe 2.5-4.7 and Cu 1.6-1.8. There were no significant differences in Na among the six varieties (p > 0.05). For the other components, varietal differences (p subterranea). The levels of crude protein, crude fiber, K, Ca, P and Mg indicated that pigeon peas could be valuable in the diet of the people of Botswana. This crop would positively contribute protein in the diet and the diversification of agricultural produce. PMID:12049149

  10. Continuing Discontinuities: Local and State Perspectives on Cattle Production and Water Management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Manzungu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1885 when the modern state of Botswana was founded until the discovery of significant mineral deposits in 1967, one year after independence, the livestock industry, particularly cattle production, played a significant role in the country’s economy. Today there are concerns about how the livestock industry, because of its importance to many rural households, and its potential to diversify the mineral-dominated economy, can be revived. In recognition of the country’s semi-arid climate, the government has promoted a policy of developing water sources for livestock watering. The state has acknowledged the policy has largely been ineffective, but continues to implement it. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by examining state and local perspectives in the management of water and related resources in the Botswana part of the Limpopo river basin. The discontinuities between the local inhabitants and state practitioners are analyzed within the wider physical social, political, and economic landscape. We ascribe the continued implementation of an ineffective policy to modernisation claims.

  11. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E; Stronza, Amanda L

    2011-08-01

    Negative attitudes of resident communities towards conservation are associated with resource decline in developing countries. In Botswana, Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was adopted to address this challenge. CBNRM links rural development and conservation. However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively sampled villages of Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo. Household data using variables like: economic benefits from CBNRM; level of satisfaction with CBNRM; co-management of natural resources between resident communities and government agencies; and collective action was collected. This data was supplemented by secondary and ethnographic data. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived from CBNRM, co-management in resource management; and, collective action of communities in CBNRM development. Positive attitudes towards conservation and tourism are the first building blocks towards achieving conservation in nature-based tourism destinations. As a result, decision-makers should give priority to CBNRM and use it as a tool to achieve conservation and improved livelihoods in nature-based tourism destinations of developing countries. PMID:21482448

  12. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  13. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Setlhare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definitionand scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation andinefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators canhelp inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made duringa visit to family physicians (FPs in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice offamily medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different andsometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly andenmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effectiveinformation technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staffattended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to morecomplicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed toundergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients andhealthcare workers (HCW may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting shouldbe formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective informationtechnology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure isnecessary to achieve good health indicators.Keywords: task shifting, Family Medicine, Family Physician, Denmark, health expenditure, egalitarian

  14. Botswana: where young girls are "easy prey". Special report: women and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandevu, R

    1995-08-01

    The high rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among young women in Botswana reflects, in part, Setswanese cultural norms that permit older men to have sex with young girls or virgins. There is a belief that sex with a preadolescent girl will cleanse or rejuvenate an older man. Young girls, raised to respect and never question their elders, have little power to refuse these advances or insist on condom use. As a result of this practice, females in Botswana are becoming infected with HIV at a significantly younger age than men. Other factors contributing to female HIV infection include men's involvement with multiple sex partners and the large number of female-headed households created by abandonment of pregnant women. To provide for their children, many of these women engage in sex for money, and the rate of pay is higher when condoms are not required. To reduce women's vulnerability to HIV, efforts are being made to encourage parents to discuss sexuality with their children and to amend the marriage law to protect wives who do not want to have sex with husbands known to have engaged in high-risk extramarital behaviors. PMID:12289851

  15. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsima BM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Billy M Tsima,1 Vincent Setlhare,1 Oathokwa Nkomazana2 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An integrated symptom-based guideline was developed so as to translate the Botswana national guidelines to those applicable in primary care. The Botswana Primary Care Guideline (BPCG integrates the care of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases, by frontline primary health care workers.Methods: The Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, together with guideline developers from the Knowledge Translation Unit (University of Cape Town collaborated with the Ministry of Health to develop the guideline. Stakeholder groups were set up to review specific content of the guideline to ensure compliance with Botswana government policy and the essential drug list.Results: Participants included clinicians, academics, patient advocacy groups, and policymakers from different disciplines, both private and public. Drug-related issues were identified as necessary for implementing recommendations of the guideline. There was consensus by working groups for updating the essential drug list for primary care and expansion of prescribing rights of trained nurse prescribers in primary care within their scope of practice. An integrated guideline incorporating common symptoms of diseases seen in the Botswana primary care setting was developed.Conclusion: The development of the BPCG took a broad consultative approach with buy in from relevant stakeholders. It is anticipated that implementation of the BPCG will translate into better

  16. Switching from Post-paid to Pre-paid Models: Customer Perception and the Organisational Role in Managing the Change: A Case Study of Botswana Power Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Mburu P. T.; Sathyamoorthi C. R.

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the perceptions of the consumers after the switch over from post-paid to pre-paid electricity billing model by Botswana Power Corporation and at different parameters that measure the satisfaction of customers on the utility service provided by service providers. The study also focused on customer perception on how the Botswana Power Corporation managed the change with a view to see whether the overall satisfaction had increased or decreased. A non-probability type of ...

  17. Aspirations and realities in a North-South partnership for health promotion: lessons from a program to promote safe male circumcision in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: International donors support the partnership between the Government of Botswana and two international organisations: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership to implement Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision with the target of circumcising 80 % of HIV negative men in 5 years. Botswana Government had started integration of the program into its health system when international partners brought in the Models for Optimizing Volume an...

  18. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    OpenAIRE

    Tsima,; Setlhare, Vincent; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Billy M Tsima,1 Vincent Setlhare,1 Oathokwa Nkomazana2 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An in...

  19. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is associated with

  20. Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a pilot study

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    Lawler Kathy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana, using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS. We also compared performance on the IHDS with performance on tests of verbal learning/memory and processing speed, and investigated the association between performance on the IHDS and such variables as depression, age, level of education and CD4 count. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-positive individuals randomly selected from an outpatient HIV clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Patients provided a detailed clinical history and underwent neuropsychological testing; measures of depression, daily activities and subjective cognitive complaints were recorded. Results Despite the fact that 97.5% of subjects were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, 38% met criteria for dementia on the IHDS, and 24% were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. There was a significant association between neurocognitive impairment as measured by the IHDS and performance on the other two cognitive measures of verbal learning/memory and processing speed. Level of education significantly affected performance on all three cognitive measures, and age affected processing speed and performance on the IHDS. Depression and current CD4 count did not affect performance on any of the cognitive measures. Conclusions The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-positive individuals in Botswana is higher than expected, especially since almost all of the subjects in this study were prescribed HAART. This suggests the need to reconsider the timing of introduction of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries where HAART is generally not administered until the CD4 cell count has dropped to 200/mm3 or below. The contribution of other factors should also be considered, such as poor central nervous system penetration of some

  1. The role of nursing education in preventing medication errors in Botswana

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    Wananani B. Tshiamo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors take stock of the extent to which nursing curricula address the prevention of medication errors, highlighting strengths and pinpointing weaknesses yet to be addressed. The exercise involved review of curricula at various levels of nursing education as well as nursing regulatory documents. Findings from the review were corroborated with published work on the subject. Recommendations for strengthening basic nursing curricula at both diploma and undergraduate levels’ coverage of medications errors are proposed. Also recommended are measures to improve the system in the practice arena as well as research to establish the magnitude of medication errors and their related risk factors in Botswana. The exercise is envisaged to improve patients’ safety and reduce the risk of litigation for nurses.

  2. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M; Leslie, A J

    2007-09-01

    Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles. PMID:18237036

  3. A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gumbricht, T.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the endorheic Okavango River system in southern Africa a balance between human and environmental water demands has to be achieved. The runoff generated in the humid tropical highlands of Angola flows through arid Namibia and Botswana before forming a large inland delta and eventually being......, spectacular wildlife, and a first- class tourism infrastructure, depend on the combined effect of the highly seasonal runoff in the Okavango River and variable local climate. The annual fluctuations in the inflow are transformed into vast areas of seasonally inundated floodplains. Water abstraction and...... reservoir building in the upstream countries are expected to reduce and/ or redistribute the available flows for the Okavango Delta ecosystem. To study the impacts of upstream and local interventions, a large- scale ( 1 km(2) grid), coupled surface water/ groundwater model has been developed. It is composed...

  4. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  5. Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Malaria Transmission in Tubu Village, Northern Botswana

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    Elijah Chirebvu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated potential risk factors associated with malaria transmission in Tubu village, Okavango subdistrict, a malaria endemic area in northern Botswana. Data was derived from a census questionnaire survey, participatory rural appraisal workshop, field observations, and mosquito surveys. History of malaria episodes was associated with several factors: household income (P0.05 and number of nets possessed (P>0.05. Eave size was not associated with mosquito bites (P>0.05, frequency of mosquito bites (P>0.05, and time of mosquito bites (P>0.05. Possession of nets was very high (94.7%. Close proximity of a health facility and low vegetation cover were added advantages. Some of the identified risk factors are important for developing effective control and elimination strategies involving the community, with limited resources.

  6. Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE and Satellite Altimetry in the Okavango Delta (Botswana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    New technology can for the first time enable the accurate retrieval of the global and regional water budgets from space-borne and ground-based gravity surveys. Water is mankind’s most critical natural resource, but it is being heavily used throughout the globe. The aim of this paper is to outline...... the HYDROGRAV project dealing with improving large scale hydrological model with time variable gravity observations. Also preliminary HYDROGRAV investigationsa of terrestrial water storage variations in the Okavango delta in Botswana are presented. Data from 4 years of satellite altimetry, GRACE derived TWS...... and GLDAS hydrological model all show a clear annual variation corresponding to the well known seasonality of the delta. However, they also all show an increasing trend in the amount of water storage in the region over the last 4 years....

  7. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles.

  8. Investigation of processes leading to nitrate enrichment in soils in the Kalahari Region, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiede, M.; Duijnisveld, W. H. M.; Böttcher, J.

    In Southern Africa elevated nitrate concentrations are observed in mostly uninhabited semi-arid areas. In the Kalahari of Botswana groundwater locally exhibits concentrations up to 600 mg/l. It is assumed, that nitrate found in the groundwater originates mainly from nitrogen input and transformations in the soils. Our investigations in the Kalahari between Serowe and Orapa show that cattle raising is an important source for enhanced nitrate concentrations in the soils (Arenosols). But also in termite mounds very high nitrate stocks were found, and under natural vegetation (acacia trees and shrubs) nitrate concentrations were mostly unexpectedly high. This nitrate enrichment in the soils poses a serious threat to the groundwater quality. However, calculated soil water age distributions in the unsaturated zone clearly show that today’s nitrate pollution of the groundwater below the investigation area could originate from natural sources, but cannot be caused by the current land use for cattle raising.

  9. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  10. Pastoralists’ Perception and Ecological Knowledge on Savanna Ecosystem Dynamics in Semi-arid Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbra A. Harvie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated vegetation dynamics in relation to livestock grazing as perceived by pastoral farmers in different regions of Botswana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect farmers’ understanding of vegetation changes and causes within three different grazing lands. The pastoral farmers’ description of dominant vegetation differed significantly both at the local and district level, which suggests that rangelands consist of patches dominated by different grasses and woody vegetation. Most pastoralists indicated that grass composition has undergone changes, and unpalatable grasses such as Aristida congesta and Megaloprotachne albescens are increasing. The different factors perceived by pastoral farmers to cause changes in vegetation composition included rainfall, overgrazing, and fire. Bush encroachment is considered to be more common in communal grazing land than in ranches. According to pastoral farmers, the ranching system is less degrading to the environment and more sustainable for livestock production than is communal grazing.

  11. The leadership characteristics of the preceptor in selected clinical practice settings in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dube

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A non-experimental, explorative, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose was to explore and describe the views of preceptors and preceptees regarding the fulfilment of the role of the preceptor in selected clinical nursing practice settings in the Botswana context. The study included 72 preceptors and 200 nursing students/preceptees who voluntary agreed voluntarily to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that the preceptor lacked leadership characteristics in the accompaniment of the preceptee. These constraints included the lack of desirable characteristics such as intellectual, emotional, physical and other traits that are common to all good leaders. Recommendations were stated for improvements in selecting preceptors with certain leadership skills for the clinical practice settings. The limitations of this study were highlighted.

  12. The leadership characteristics of the preceptor in selected clinical practice settings in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, A; Jooste, K

    2006-08-01

    A non-experimental, explorative, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose was to explore and describe the views of preceptors and preceptees regarding the fulfilment of the role of the preceptor in selected clinical nursing practice settings in the Botswana context. The study included 72 preceptors and 200 nursing students/preceptees who voluntary agreed voluntarily to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that the preceptor lacked leadership characteristics in the accompaniment of the preceptee. These constraints included the lack of desirable characteristics such as intellectual, emotional, physical and other traits that are common to all good leaders. Recommendations were stated for improvements in selecting preceptors with certain leadership skills for the clinical practice settings. The limitations of this study were highlighted. PMID:17131606

  13. Cryptic indicators of provenance from the geochemistry of the Okavango Delta sediments, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman-Mapila, P.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Vink, B.; Ringrose, S.

    2005-01-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Okavango inland Delta of northwest Botswana have a modal composition of quartz arenites and result from a complex history, including transport by river and deposition in a nascent rift basin located in a desert environment with input of aeolian sands. The geochemical composition of sediments from the Okavango Delta was determined in order to constrain the role of weathering at the source and the composition of the source rocks. The chemical analyses and the interelement ratios show a broad compositional range usually encompassing the PAAS composition. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the A-CN-K diagram define an evolution trend which can be interpreted using a mixing model involving a strongly weathered component which corresponds to the sedimentary fraction transported by the Okavango River and a relatively immature component which corresponds to the aeolian sand component of the Okavango sediments. Field geological data supported by geochemical ratios involving elements with affinity for mafic-ultramafic and felsic rocks such as Th/Cr, Th/Sc, La/Sc, La/Co and Eu/Eu* support a source area including mafic-ultramafic and felsic rocks, with or without intermediate rocks. The relationships between certain elements (Cr-Ni, Na 2O-Al 2O 3, K 2O-Al 2O 3) refine the interpretation by pointing to the existence of at least three source rock end-members, including a felsic rock source and pyroxene-rich and olivine-rich mafic-ultramafic source rocks. Proterozoic granitoid-gabbro and related volcanic and ortho-metamorphic rock complexes exposed in NW Botswana and adjacent Angola and Namibia are the source rocks of the sediment component which was mixed with aeolian sand and interacted with a variable proportion of diagenetic carbonates to produce the Okavango sediments.

  14. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Russell

    Full Text Available Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-γ increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-α, D-dimer, and IFN-γ concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-α remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.16, p = 0.001. In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-α level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.

  15. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission in HIV audit in Xhosa clinic, Mahalapye, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mahalapye district health management team (DHMT conducts regular audits to evaluate the standard of services delivered to patients, one of which is the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT programme. Xhosa clinic is one of the facilities in Mahalapye which provides a PMTCT programme.Aim: This audit aimed to identify gaps between the current PMTCT clinical practice in Xhosa clinic and the Botswana PMTCT national guidelines.Setting: This audit took place in Xhosa clinic in the urban village of Mahalapye, in the Central District of Botswana.Methods: This was a retrospective audit using PMTCT Xhosa clinic records of pregnant mothers and HIV-exposed babies seen from January 2013 to June 2013.Results: One hundred and thirty-three pregnant women registered for antenatal care. Twenty-five (19% knew their HIV-positive status as they had been tested before their pregnancy or had tested HIV positive at their first antenatal clinic visit. More than two-thirds of the 115 pregnant women (69% were seen at a gestational age of between 14 and 28 weeks. About two-thirds of the pregnant women (67% took antiretroviral drugs. Of the 44 HIV-exposed infants, 39 (89% were HIV DNA PCR negative at 6 weeks. Thirty-two (73% children were given cotrimoxazole prophylaxis between 6 and 8 weeks.Conclusion: The PMTCT programme service delivery was still suboptimal and could potentially increase the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Daily monitoring mechanism to track those eligible could help to close the gap.

  16. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m3 of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr (87Sr/86Sr average 0.722087) and S (δ34S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible

  17. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, Frank D. [Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)], E-mail: frank.eckardt@uct.ac.za; Bryant, Robert G. [Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Winter Street, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); McCulloch, Graham [Department of Zoology, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Spiro, Baruch [Department of Mineralogy, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Wood, Warren W. [Department of Geological Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m{sup 3} of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr average 0.722087) and S ({delta}{sup 34}S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible.

  18. People living with AIDS/HIV in Botswana: a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuyderduin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in information and knowledge regarding people living with AIDS in Botswana, hampering health care planning and satisfactory health care delivery to these people, necessitated the needs assessment reported on in this paper. Not only did self-imposed alienation and societal levels of stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS force many people living with AIDS/HIV (PLWAH into silence and denial of their HIV+ve diagnosis, thereby creating knowledge and information deficits. These same factors also pose challenges for conducting a needs assessment among these persons. Consequently, a 73 item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 39 male and 77 female PLWAH in Botswana. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs served as a general theoretical point of departure for the needs analysis and the 73 items represented needs at all levels of this hierarchy. Analysis of the data indicates that 65% of the respondents lived in urban areas. The majority of individuals (42% were tested for HIV because they became ill, while 28% did so voluntarily. Other reasons for testing were: child becoming ill, partner becoming ill, being pregnant and having been raped. Only 7% indicated that their HIV status had been disclosed to other persons. With regards to love and belongingness 70% of the respondents indicated that they were not in an intimate relationship, nearly one third experienced multiple deaths within their families due to AIDS, 61% had access to a support group, and 48% had not informed their parents about their HIV+ve status. Stigmatisation weighed down self-esteem. Despite the deficiencies in the fulfilment of safety, belonging

  19. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  20. ODL and the Impact of Digital Divide on Information Access in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbade Oladokun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL has created room for the emergence of virtual education. Not only are students found everywhere and anywhere undertaking their studies and earning their degrees, but geographical boundaries between nations no longer appear to have much relevance. As the new education paradigm irretrievably alters the way teaching and learning is conducted, the application of modern educational ICTs has a major role to play.With students of transnational or cross-border education dispersed into various nooks and crannies of Botswana, many others enlist for the “home-baked” distance learning programmes from their diverse locations. Like the face-to-face conventional students, distance learners also have information needs which have to be met. But blocking the distance learners’ realization of their information needs is the digital divide, which further marginalizes the underclass of “info-poor.”The survey method was used, and a questionnaire administered to 519 students of four tertiary level distance teaching institutions that met the criteria set for the study yielded a 70.1% response rate. The results showed that while the Government of Botswana has made considerable effort to ensure country-wide access to ICT, which now constitutes an effective instrument for meeting information needs, a number of problems still exist. The factors impeding easy access are unearthed. The findings of an empirical study portraying some learners as information-rich and others as information-poor, and the consequence of distance learners studying on both sides of the digital divide, are discussed. Suggestions on bridging the digital divide are offered.

  1. Botlhoko, botlhoko! How people talk about their musculoskeletal complaints in rural Botswana: a focused ethnography

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    Maria Hondras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting interpretations about the structure and function of the body contribute to discordance in communication between healthcare professionals and lay people. Understanding musculoskeletal (MSK complaints presents additional complexities when discussed in more than one language or in cross-cultural settings. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, few healthcare professionals have specialist MSK training and not all practitioners speak the primary language of patients. Objective: Our goal was to understand how people in rural Botswana perceive and express MSK complaints. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months in the Botswana Central District included participant observations and interviews with 34 community members with MSK complaints. Audio-recorded interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter, transcribed verbatim, and contextually translated into English. Abductive qualitative analysis was used as the interpretive methodology. Results: Whereas initial responses about MSK troubles yielded the exclamation botlhoko, botlhoko! combined with animated non-verbal gestures and facial expressions indicating widespread body pains, in-depth interviews revealed the complexities of pain expression among respondents. MSK pains were described as ‘bursting, exploding, aching, numbness, hot, pricking, stabbing, swollen, and pain in the heart’. Language subtleties manifested during interviews, where ‘meat’ or ‘flesh’ implied soft tissue pains; waist pains were voiced yet portrayed as low back or sacroiliac pain; and ‘veins’ variously referred to structural and functional types of pain. Psychological and social stressors accompanied many accounts of MSK troubles. Conclusions: Respondents offered diverse MSK symptom descriptions consistent with biopsychosocial illness models, yet few communicated complaints using the biomedical language of healthcare providers. Although research interview and

  2. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

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    K.T. Moagabo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 ± 1.48 %. About 85.7 % (2 074/2 419 of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2 % (343/2 419 cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1 % were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997 the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 ± 1.85 % (1 645/2 620 positive whereas during the second half (1998-2006 it was estimated at 45.91 ± 2.38 % (774/1 686 positive and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (Δ % = 16.88, SE 95 diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P < 0.001. Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99 % (50.92 % bovine, 28.40 % caprine and 0.67 % ovine whereas canine (domestic dog and feline (domestic cat accounted for 16.01 and 0.87 %, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13 % with 1.35 and 1.78 %, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60 % of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988, its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana.

  3. BAQMAP Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 2 Report 27 January - 18 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.

    1997-12-31

    This report is concerned with Mission 2 of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. Mission 2 was undertaken as part of the annual meeting on 4 February 1997. Discussions and decision on the air quality program was performed after the annual meeting. Passive samplers for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} were installed in Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The samplers measured air pollution from the BCL smelter and traffic, respectively, during the first two weeks of February 1997. The samplers have been analysed and the results are given in this report, which also includes a status report. 13 tabs.

  4. Assessing intervention measures for anti-social behaviour : A case study of secondary school in Lobatse, Botswana. / Heather Modiane Sechele

    OpenAIRE

    Sechele, Heather Modiane

    2012-01-01

    Intervention for students' antisocial behaviour is a challenging issue for teachers in secondary schools. Even though Government has implemented intervention measures in secondary schools to assist teachers in interveni.ng in curbing antisocial behaviour by students, the problems of student misconduct still prevail. The purpose of this study was to investigate intervention measures employed to curb antisocial bebaviour by students in a secondary school in Lobatse Botswana. The researcher w...

  5. Teacher's perceptions regarding subject and career choices of male and female students in Botswana secondary schools / Mompati Moremi

    OpenAIRE

    Moremi, Mompati

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' perceptions of subjects and career choices of male and female students in relation to gender in six selected schools in Botswana. The study aims to raise awareness about a number of aspects that need to be considered in order to produce plans leading to the achievement of gender equality in education. Such perceptions needs to be investigated because students' choices of certain subjects, careers and academic performance are to some extent determi...

  6. Influence of soil, tree cover and large herbivores on field layer vegetation along a savanna landscape gradient in northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Masunga, G.S.; Hytteborn, H.; Pitlagano, M.L.; Marokane, W.; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The response of the field layer vegetation to co-varying resource availability (soil nutrients, light) and resource loss (herbivory pressure) was investigated along a landscape gradient highly influenced by elephants and smaller ungulates at the Chobe River front in Botswana. TWINSPAN classification was used to identify plant communities. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used to explore the vegetationeenvironment relationships. Four plan...

  7. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Leslie; C. J. Lovely; J.M. Pittman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed a...

  8. Effects of single-parenthood on school-going adolescents in Gaborone District of Botswana / Portia Gobona Morebodi.

    OpenAIRE

    Morebodi, Portia Gobona

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effects of single parenthood on school going adolescents on a group of male and female children schooling in Gaborone District of Botswana. The research questions focused on investigating the effects of. single parenthood on the social interactions of school-going adolescents, effects on their performance in class, the attitude of the community on such adolescents and whether single parenthood affected boys and girls differently. T...

  9. GPS-corrected and GIS-based remapping of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent area in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available GPS-equipment was used to map the interior roads, major pans and the location of all windmills and solar-equipped boreholes in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent areas of Botswana. The final map was generated with GIS-equipment, and supplies managers and planners with the first error-free map of the area. The major errors of previous maps are indicated.

  10. The performance of Botswana's traditional arable agriculture: growth rates and the impact of the accelerated rainfed arable programme (ARAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Seleka, Tebogo B.

    1999-01-01

    This study assesses the performance of Botswana's traditional arable agriculture for the 1968-90 period. Growth rate and arable sub-sector production models are specified and estimated to determine how the sub-sector performed over time, and to capture the impact of the Accelerated Rainfed Arable Programme (ARAP). Growth rate model results indicate that cultivated area increased by about 2.2% per year during the 1968-90 period. However, crop output remained unchanged and yields declined by ab...

  11. Bone Accumulations of Spotted Hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Erxleben, 1777) as Indicators of Diet and Human Conflict; Mashatu, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Brian F. Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    In a region where free ranging domestic species mix with wildlife, it is imperative to determine what, if any, predation may have occurred on domestic stock. As human settlements continuously encroach upon wild habitats, determining the types of predator-human conflicts that exist can be crucial to conserve numerous predator species. The partial diet of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) of the Mashatu Game Reserve, Botswana, was established via analyses of faunal remains associated with four ...

  12. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  13. Translating a National Laboratory Strategic Plan into action through SLMTA in a district hospital laboratory in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Keoratile Ntshambiwa; Winnie Ntabe-Jagwer; Chandapiwa Kefilwe; Fredrick Samuel; Sikhulile Moyo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Ministry of Health (MOH) of Botswana adopted Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA), a structured quality improvement programme, as a key tool for the implementation of quality management systems in its public health laboratories. Coupled with focused mentorship, this programme aimed to help MOH achieve the goals of the National Laboratory Strategic Plan to provide quality and timely clinical diagnosis.Objectives: This article describes the impact of ...

  14. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Shyngle K. Balogun; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more lik...

  15. The impact of health and education on labour force participation : the case of Botswana (1982-2007) / Tshegofatso Basuti

    OpenAIRE

    Basuti, Tshegofatso

    2012-01-01

    The current study assesses the impact of health and education on labour force participation in Botswana using time series data from 1982-2007. To achieve this, stationary test; Johansson Co integration test and multi-collinearity test were conducted before using a dynamic ordinary feast square estimation. There are three labour force participation estimates each ·with four different models. These include: male, female and total labour force participation rate. The .findings wer...

  16. Multilevel analysis of women's empowerment and HIV prevention: quantitative survey Results from a preliminary study in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Fiona E; Koopman, Cheryl

    2003-06-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between women's empowerment and HIV prevention on the national and individual level with a focus on Botswana. Among sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV prevalence was positively correlated with indirect indicators of women's empowerment relating to their education (female enrollment in secondary education and ratio of female to male secondary school enrollment), but not to their economic status (female share of paid employment in industry and services) or political status (women's share of seats in national parliament), while controlling for gross national income, percentage of births attended, and percentage of roads paved. Condom use at last sexual encounter was positively and significantly correlated with both indicators of women's educational empowerment, but was not significantly related to the other two indices. Empowerment at the individual level was explored through a preliminary quantitative survey of 71 sexually active women in Gaborone, Botswana, that was conducted in February 2001. Regression analyses showed that women's negotiating power and economic independence were the factors most strongly related to condom use, and did not show that education was a crucial factor. Economic independence was the factor most strongly related to negotiating power. These results suggest that in Botswana, HIV prevention efforts may need to improve women's negotiating skills and access to income-generating activities. PMID:14586204

  17. Patent and research exemption: Challenges for research capacity and utilization in universities, research institutions and industry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku O. Ama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the opinions of a stratified sample of 366 researchers drawnfrom universities, research institutions and industries in Botswana on the challengesof patent and research exemptions on research capacity and utilization. The studyfound out the level of patent awareness and intellectual property awareness in thecountry generally is low (67%, while 69% of the researchers did not understandwhat the patent system is. Although 36% of the researchers were aware that theycould conduct their researches or experiments on patented inventions withoutinfringing on the rights of patentee to their inventions by invoking researchexemptions, only 9 percent knew the procedure for invoking research exemption.Also, 77% were of the view that universities and research institutions should begranted research exemptions. The study further revealed that 8 percent of theresearchers had applied for patent while 0.5% of the registered patentees inBotswana were locals. The most pressing challenge highlighted by researchers forinability to apply for patent was unawareness of conventions/laws governing patentpractices. The study, therefore, recommends immediate knowledge-basedinterventions by Government of Botswana to create awareness among researchersand the entire population on Intellectual Property Rights within which the patentsystem falls. In addition, it is strongly recommended that legislation introducing anexperimental use exemption should be introduced to encourage research andinnovations.

  18. Association of respiratory viruses with outcomes of severe childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kelly

    Full Text Available The highest incidence of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI is in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether detection of respiratory viruses predicts ALRI outcomes in these settings.We conducted prospective cohort and case-control studies of children 1-23 months of age in Botswana. Cases met clinical criteria for pneumonia and were recruited within six hours of presentation to a referral hospital. Controls were children without pneumonia matched to cases by primary care clinic and date of enrollment. Nasopharyngeal specimens were tested for respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction. We compared detection rates of specific viruses in matched case-control pairs. We examined the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and other respiratory viruses on pneumonia outcomes.Between April 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 310 cases, of which 133 had matched controls. Median ages of cases and controls were 6.1 and 6.4 months, respectively. One or more viruses were detected from 75% of cases and 34% of controls. RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent among cases than controls, but only enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected from asymptomatic controls. Compared with non-RSV viruses, RSV was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure at 48 hours [risk ratio (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20, 2.84], more days of respiratory support [mean difference (MD: 1.26 days; 95% CI: 0.30, 2.22 days], and longer duration of hospitalization [MD: 1.35 days; 95% CI: 0.20, 2.50 days], but lower in-hospital mortality [RR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.80] in children with pneumonia.Respiratory viruses were detected from most children hospitalized with ALRI in Botswana, but only RSV and human metapneumovirus were more frequent than among children without ALRI. Detection of RSV from children with ALRI predicted a protracted illness course but lower mortality compared with non-RSV viruses.

  19. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts.

  20. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  1. Understanding constraints to adolescent condom procurement: the case of urban Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ahmed, G; Molatlhegi, M T

    2001-06-01

    Even when condoms are widely available and affordable, adolescents may be reluctant to obtain them. Hence, programme managers need to understand what determines youths' perceptions of access to condoms. This paper analyzes focus group and survey data on condom access conducted among male and female adolescents in urban Botswana. Although a majority of sexually experienced adolescents have purchased condoms from retail outlets, only about 50% have obtained condoms from health facilities, even though the latter distribute free condoms. This study shows that many adolescents perceive that access to condoms is more difficult from public sector outlets than for private sector outlets, because the public sector providers tend to question the adolescents' behaviour while the latter do not. To bypass this problem, males tend to obtain condoms from friends. However, females are reluctant to ask their friends for condoms because they fear that their friends may gossip about them. The results of this study indicate that adolescents' access to condoms can be improved by interventions that improve the quality of interaction between public sector providers and adolescents, destigmatize condom use, expand private sector condom distribution, and that use peer sales agents and educators. PMID:11397331

  2. Participation of Females in Physics Programs at the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabong, Kelebogile

    2005-10-01

    The number of females enrolling in medical and health-related fields is substantially higher than in engineering and technology. Females tend to express a preference for careers with a strong element of social services. The level of interest and achievement in science and technology between females and males is quite different. Much of the research argues that stereotyping influences the attitudes and beliefs of young children, and these attitudes and beliefs are reinforced at home and school to create a marked effect on participation of females and their subject choices in science and technology education. These attitudes affect the level of self-confidence and enjoyment that females develop about science, especially physics. Girls tend to view physics in a negative way, claiming that it is difficult, time consuming, and masculine. They may believe that they can only understand a concept if they can put it into a broader world view, whereas males are pleased if there is internal coherence within the concept learned, and appear to enjoy physics more than biology and chemistry, viewing it as valuable in itself. The University of Botswana is facing this low participation and lower performance of females in physics programs compared with males.

  3. Establishing and Delivering Quality Radiation Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: The Story of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Jason A; Heunis, Magda; Karumekayi, Talkmore; Makufa, Remigio; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Gierga, David P; Suneja, Gita; Grover, Surbhi; Kasese, Joseph; Mmalane, Mompati; Moffat, Howard; von Paleske, Alexander; Makhema, Joseph; Dryden-Peterson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    There is a global cancer crisis, and it is disproportionately affecting resource-constrained settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Radiotherapy is a critical and cost-effective component of a comprehensive cancer control plan that offers the potential for cure, control, and palliation of disease in greater than 50% of patients with cancer. Globally, LMICs do not have adequate access to quality radiation therapy and this gap is particularly pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are numerous challenges in implementing a radiation therapy program in a low-resource setting, providing more equitable global access to radiotherapy is a responsibility and investment worth prioritizing. We outline a systems approach and a series of key questions to direct strategy toward establishing quality radiation services in LMICs, and highlight the story of private-public investment in Botswana from the late 1990s to the present. After assessing the need and defining the value of radiation, we explore core investments required, barriers that need to be overcome, and assets that can be leveraged to establish a radiation program. Considerations addressed include infrastructure; machine choice; quality assurance and patient safety; acquisition, development, and retention of human capital; governmental engagement; public-private partnerships; international collaborations; and the need to critically evaluate the program to foster further growth and sustainability. PMID:26578607

  4. Counselling and Pentecostal modalities of social engineering of relationships in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rijk

    2013-01-01

    In African societies where HIV and AIDS are widespread, counselling is being used in an attempt to control people's sexual relationships and has become an important industry. Counselling is centrally placed in many AIDS-related policies in Botswana and is sponsored by both the government and religious organisations. Within the broad spectrum of Christianity, Pentecostal churches are very active. They emphasise the refashioning of relationships by mediating moral imperatives and by engaging with psychological knowledge on personal behaviour and on techniques of counselling in a changing context of sexuality. This paper explores the significance of religious counselling in terms of the disciplining effects concerning personal behaviour and the ways in which this form of communication is generating a wider interest in this society. This is particularly attractive to members of the educated classes who are engaging with Pentecostal counselling as a way of refashioning their domain of intimate relations. Yet, it does not only provide informed ideas on intimate relations--being often one of the proclaimed objectives of counselling - it also produces a communication about intimate matters that is intended to inform a critique of socio-cultural conventions. This is a counter-cultural dynamic of counselling, which has been little noticed in the academic study of counselling practices in Africa. PMID:24070165

  5. National guidelines not always followed when diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with HIV in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurayi A Tafuma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB is challenging, especially in patients with HIV. The Botswana National Tuberculosis Program (BNTP guidelines give guidance in diagnosing and treating SNPTB. Patients with chronic cough should be screened for TB by 3 sputum smear investigations. If negative, a chest x-ray (CXR should be performed. If negative for TB, antimicrobial treatment for other infections should be started. We investigated the clinicians' use of the guidelines in clinical practice. METHODS: Data regarding the medical history (coughing period, requested and conducted investigations concerning tuberculosis diagnosis (sputum smear or culture or CXR or alternative diagnoses (sputum microscopy or blood or sputum culture for diagnosis of other organisms, in SNPTB HIV-positive patients (outpatients and admitted patients from 2006-2009 in a district hospital in Botswana were extracted from all available hospital medical records. Additionally, a survey was done in all doctors diagnosing SNPTB in this hospital using a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding the application of the BNTP guidelines in practice. Descriptive analyses of collected data were performed to test the compliance to the guidelines. RESULTS: Data from medical records showed that in 47.0% (132/281 of patients, TB treatment was started without microbiological results from sputum smears. Other methods to rule out or confirm PTB were used in 2.1% (6/281; and 99.6% (280/281 of SNPTB patients had received a CXR. The survey in 7 clinicians found that all always used CXR, and all clinicians requested three sputum results only sometimes. Six out of 7 clinicians started antibiotics before starting TB treatment. Reasons clinicians gave for difficulties in following the guidelines included inability of patients to produce sputum; and laboratory delays in releasing sputum results. CONCLUSION: Between 2006 and 2009 a high proportion of SNPTB

  6. Ethnozoological survey of traditional medicinal uses of tortoises in Lentsweletau and Botlhapatlou villages in Kweneng district of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Rinah Setlalekgomo

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to document the traditional medicinal uses of tortoises at Ramankhung, Lekgalung and Dikateng fields near Lentsweletau village and at Mmaphoroka and Moleleme fields near Botlhapatlou village in Kweneng district of Botswana. A formal questionnaire was administered to 47 respondents (nearly 10 respondents per study site).  The respondents were 46.81% farmers, 36.17% cattle herders, 14.89% farm labourers and 2.13% unemployed.  The study showed that different parts of tort...

  7. Depression and HIV in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Gender-Specific Socioeconomic and Behavioral Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Reshma; Dandu, Madhavi; Packel, Laura; Rutherford, George; Leiter, Karen; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Korte, Fiona Percy-de; Iacopino, Vincent; Weiser, Sheri D

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18–49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest...

  8. Does Capital Punishment Amount to Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Punishment: A Reflection on Botswana and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nico P. Swartz

    2012-01-01

    In a recent debate over the radio in Botswana on the death penalty, the majority of callers seemed to be in favour of the death penalty. The purpose of this paper is to clarify that capital punishment is cruel, inhuman and degrading contrary to the norms set out in the Convention against Torture, the optional protocol to the United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on the abolition of the death penalty. The methodology of this paper is to invoke the South African sentimen...

  9. Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement concluded between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Botswana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 20 September 2005. It was signed on 21 July 2006 in Gaborone, Botswana, and on 24 August 2006 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 August 2006, upon signature by the representatives of Botswana and the Agency

  11. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) spp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, including P. (S.) serranochromis n. sp. parasitic in Serranochromis spp. (Cichlidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Van As, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 151-164. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Camallanidae * Botswana * Cichlidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  12. A Report of the Responses of Botswana Junior Secondary School Teachers on the Three Subscales of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the findings of the study on teacher efficacy and classroom management. To collect data a survey was administered to 1006 Botswana participants. Out of 1006 participants only 6 did not complete the survey. Pearson-product moment correlation was computed to analyze the data using Statistical Package of Social…

  13. Implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana: An Investigation of Senior Management Team's Expected Benefits of the PMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulawa, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Different forms of the performance management system have been implemented in many countries for some years. As in other countries, in 1999 the government of Botswana took a decision to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. The government explained the purpose for which this reform was…

  14. Teachers' Understandings of Curriculum Adaptations for Learners with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Botswana: Issues and Challenges of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otukile-Mongwaketse, Mpho; Mangope, Boitumelo; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives from research carried out in a number of Botswana primary schools on teachers' understanding of curriculum adaptations for learners who experience learning difficulties (LD) as part of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' understanding play a crucial role in how they make curriculum accessible for learners with LD during…

  15. Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Molebatsi Robert M; Wilson Adrian O; Clausen Thomas; Holmboe-Ottesen Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Background Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments. The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. Methods A national population based prospective survey was und...

  16. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings

  17. Breastfeeding in Botswana: practices, attitudes, patterns, and the socio-cultural factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Salah E O; Bandeke, T; Nnyepi, M

    2002-08-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in four randomly selected districts of Botswana. Two study sites were chosen in each district. Four hundred households with children under 3 years old were enrolled into the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers of eligible children in 50 households in each of the eight sites. About half the families had monthly incomes below 400 Pula (1 US$ = 4.6 Pula). The majority of families had only one child under 3 years of age. A total of 76.4 per cent of the mothers were single and a high proportion of them had primary or secondary education. Over half, 59.3 per cent, of the mothers had a high level of information about breastfeeding mainly obtained before conception; 94.4 per cent of the mothers believed that breastfeeding was better than bottlefeeding. Ninety-five per cent of the mothers had breastfed their children, and they started breastfeeding immediately or a few hours after delivery. More than 85 per cent of the mothers were planning to continue breastfeeding for 18 months or more. The majority obtained advice about breastfeeding from health workers. The main reason for stopping breastfeeding was that the mother was at work or school. Although 58.2 per cent of mothers had little or no support for breastfeeding from the community it had a positive effect on their decision to breastfeed. The majority of mothers indicated their confidence about breastfeeding when they were pregnant. Over three-quarters (79.6 per cent) of the mothers delivered in government hospitals, and nearly all were roomed with their babies after delivery. PMID:12200978

  18. Comparative profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Baliyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to calculate and compare the profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana. Half of the planted onions were harvested and sold as green and half were harvested and sold as dry onions. The cost of production of green onions was 32.78% higher than the cost of production of dry onions. The irrigation and marketing expenses contributed the highest difference in the cost of production of green and dry onions. The major cost item contributing to the cost of green onions production was marketing cost (32.86% followed by irrigation cost (23.77% and harvesting cost (18.53% whereas the highest cost of production for dry onions was contributed by irrigation (38.58% followed by marketing (19.45% and planting (11.96%. The marketing cost for green onions was almost double (35.6% as compare to the dry onions (18.2%. The total return from green onions was 50.90% higher than the returns from dry onions. Gross margin of onions harvested as green was 63% higher than the gross margin from dry onions, which indicated that the production of green onions is more profitable as compare to production of dry onions. The farmers preferred onion harvested as green because it generates regular and higher returns than onions harvested as mature. Government should support farmers through some policies such as Minimum Support Price (MSP for dry onions, distribution of Mini Ferti–Seed Kit (Seeds of improved varieties and fertilizer package, construction of storages and formation of cooperatives.

  19. University of Botswana Undergraduates Uses of the Internet: Implications on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Tella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognized potential of technology to improve education has led to several initiatives to foster effective use and integration in the curriculum. The Internet as a new invented technology holds the greatest promise humanity has known for learning and universal access to quality education. It allows students to broaden their academic experience, access important information and communicate to others within academic community. In the light of these therefore, this study examined undergraduate’s uses of the Internet and its implications on their academic performance at the University of Botswana, Gaborone. Three hundred and six undergraduate students from thirteen systematically selected departments formed the study sample. A modified Internet Use scale was used to gather data for the study. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and Friedman test. The results indicate that: majority of the respondents (66% access the Internet 1-5 hours per week, 33.3% of respondents access the Internet 6-20 hours per week and 0.7% of respondents access the Internet between 21-25 hours per week. Moreover, most respondents use the Internet for the purpose of obtaining course related information. The results also reveal that Internet contributes significantly to academic performance of the respondents. To enhance and optimise the use of the Internet so that learning can take place at any time and anywhere, providing more access to computers and the Internet on campus constitutes the major recommendations. Future areas of research could include determining variations in Internet use by students from different disciplines, determining the nature and relationships between Internet use and academic performance.

  20. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Torres Solís

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan una serie de consideraciones sobre la forma en que una importante compañía africana hace frente a su responsabilidad social, en lo que podría ser una innovación en la industria minera dedicada a la explotación del diamante. De esta manera se realiza un caso de estudio referido a la compañía Debswana que opera en Botswana, uno de los países africanos más destacados en la producción diamantífera mundial. Se discuten y critican algunas acciones implementadas por esa compañía en materia de responsabilidad social y se concluye con algunos señalamientos y opiniones al respecto. Podemos señalar que los resultados del estudio de este caso muestran como altamente positivas las interacciones de esta compañía minera con la sociedad en la que se desenvuelve sin que deje de puntualizarse la existencia de algunos inconvenientes serios que deben ser superados en conjunción con las políticas públicas del gobierno de ese país. Es importante señalar que lo que se intenta hacer en este trabajo es mostrar algunos hechos que consideramos importantes en la responsabilidad social de una organización en particular, buscando construir un caso de estudio que pudiera ser relevante para las disciplinas administrativas en cuya literatura han sido escasamente tratados.

  1. ‘We are the forgotten ones’: Occupational stress among university secretaries in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse E. Plattner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Secretaries play an essential role in any work organisation, but their contributions and support in the daily management activities are not always recognised.Research purpose: There is little research on occupational stress among secretaries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate work-related stressors in the secretarial profession and their association with psychosomatic complaints.Motivations for study: Considering the lack of research on secretaries, it was the objective of this study to investigate occupational stressors in the secretarial profession and their association with psycho-physiological wellbeing.Research design, approach and method: Sixty-four secretaries at the University of Botswana participated in the study (response rate: 43.8%. Data were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed using Spearman’s rho.Main findings: Seventeen potential stressors were identified, referring to lack of job clarity, performing work outside one’s job description, reduced competencies, supervisors who perform secretarial work, sharing resources such as an office or a telephone, lack of recognition and limited opportunities for promotion. Most stressors correlated significantly with one or more psychosomatic complaints.Practical/managerial implications: Additional research would be necessary to compare various work contexts and organisation-specific work environments and to investigate their relevance to occupational stress and health among secretaries.Contribution/value-add: The results of the study could be of use for human resource managers, as well as for supervisors of secretaries, in order to minimise potential stressors that could negatively affect the health of secretaries.

  2. Detailed geohydrology with environmental isotopes: A case study at Serowe, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Karoo sedimentary system, which underlies the generally flat Kalahari thirstland, has an unusual topographic feature in the area west of Serowe, Botswana, characterized by a low scarp. The hydrogeology is complicated by intensive faulting, downthrown blocks and intrusions. A groundwater mound has steep rest level gradients towards the village in the east and a more gradual decline to the west. Numerical modelling ascribes the mound to a local microclimate, which would generate enhanced recharge just west of the scarp. Mound stability and chloride mass balance considerations produce recharge estimates which tend towards zero, with decreasing rest level gradients and increasing salinity, in a westerly direction. Depth profiles of isotopic values show occasional measurable first strike tritium, and increasing 14C age with depth, reaching limiting ages for some confined sections. For the first time, geohydrological and environmental isotope methods have independently demonstrated significant recharge through substantial thicknesses of sand overburden. Chloride balance calculations of recharge are shown to be questionable as they are influenced by the mobility and provenance of the groundwater. Radiocarbon values failed to demonstrate locally enhanced infiltration suggested by the microclimate theory. The mound is shown to be due to topological and hydrogeological, rather than meteorological, factors. Very uniform stable isotope values, similar to other areas of the Kalahari, demonstrate the averaging of recharge through the Kalahari Beds cover of 10-30 m thickness. Calculations based on aquifer porosity, borehole depths and radiocarbon model ages give mean rain recharge rates of some 2-4 mm/a. This indicates that recharge estimates based on mound stability probably employ an overestimate of regional transmissivity. Environmental isotope data therefore proved to be an indispensable component in assessing this geohydrological system and the assumptions used in its

  3. Involving parents from the start: formative evaluation for a large randomised controlled trial with Botswana Junior Secondary School students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Jessica; Miller, Kim S; Chirwa-Motswere, Catherine; Winskell, Kate; Stallcup, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    While HIV prevention research conducted among adolescent populations may encounter parental resistance, the active engagement of parents from inception to trial completion may alleviate opposition. In preparation for implementing a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of a behavioural intervention targeting adolescent sexual risk behaviours, a formative evaluation was undertaken to assess parental reactions to the proposed trial. Six focus groups were conducted with parents of adolescents (aged 13-17) from rural, peri-urban and urban junior secondary schools in Botswana. Focus groups explored comprehension and acceptability among parents of the forthcoming trial including HSV-2 testing, the return of results to the adolescent (not the parent), trial information materials and the parental consent process. Parents welcomed the study and understood and accepted its moral and ethical considerations. Their reactions regarding return of HSV-2 results only to adolescents (not the parent) were mixed. Parents understood the consent process and most agreed to consent, while indicating their desire to remain informed and involved throughout the RCT. The focus group discussions (FGDs) provided valuable information and insights that helped strengthen the study. As a result of parents' feedback, counselling procedures were strengthened and direct linkages to local services and care were made. Informational materials were revised to increase clarity, and materials and procedures were developed to encourage and support parental involvement and parent-child dialogue. Ultimately, parental feedback led to a decision by the Government of Botswana to allow parents to access their child's HSV-2 test results. PMID:27002354

  4. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grignon JS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR

  5. Tswanarising global gayness: the 'unAfrican' argument, Western gay media imagery, local responses and gay culture in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies. PMID:23171131

  6. Constitutive traits and selective indices of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) landraces for drought tolerance under Botswana conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, S. K.; Tabona, T. T.

    Constitutive traits of 12 landraces of Bamabra groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) were studied during the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 at the Botswana College of Agriculture, for traits which relate to the crop’s adaptation to drought. The objective was to estimate the degree of phenotypic and genotypic variation of traits whose selection would lead to earliness in maturity and drought tolerance through drought escape. The landraces showed significant diversity. Low environmental variability was recorded for days to maturity, root:shoot ratio, canopy spread, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and shelling percentage. Genotypic correlation coefficients and path coefficient of number of pods per plant and seed size on yield were significantly high. The results of this experiment indicate that, canopy spread, root:shoot ratio, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod are among parameters that could be used for indirect selection for drought tolerance in Bambara groundnut in Botswana and other areas where drought is a common occurrence.

  7. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  8. Temperature-emissivity separation with ASTER and LANDSAT 7 imagery validation on the fringe of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieske, Ambro S.; Wubett, Michael T.; Timmermans, Wim J.; Parodi, Gabriel N.; Wolski, Piotr; Arneth, Almut

    2004-02-01

    Land surface temperatures are important in global change studies, in estimating radiation budget, heat balance studies and as control for climate models. A new algorithm for estimating land surface temperature and emissivity spectra for multi spectral thermal infrared ranging from 8 to 12mm images has been developed recently (Schmugge et al., 2002) for use with data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the TERRA platform. Similar methods are also used with the MODIS instrument. In this study, the method developed by Ogawa et al. (2002) was adopted to estimate the broadband emissivity from the narrow band emissivities of the five TIR channels of ASTER instrument in an area on the southern fringe of the Okavango Delta (Botswana). MODTRAN 4 was used to determine the necessary atmospheric corrections while software was developed to facilitate MODTRAN pre- and post-processing. The results were compared with field data, with a LANDSAT 7 image of the same day, and finally also with reported ASTER surface temperature and emissivities for the same image (high level ASTER product). Results indicate that the surface temperature depends rather sensitively on atmospheric transmissivity. No relation was found between broad-band emissivity and NDVI, contrary, for example, to earlier findings in Botswana by Owe and Van de Griend (1993). Using the TES method it becomes possible to obtain more reliable solutions to the energy balance and evapotranspiration problem, especially in semi-arid areas.

  9. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  10. Economic valuation of selected direct and indirect use values of the Makgadikgadi wetland system, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhogile, Tshepo; Arntzen, Jaap; Mabiza, Collin; Mano, Reneth

    Economic valuation of wetlands aims to investigate public preferences for changes in the state of the wetland and the natural resources it constitutes in monetary terms. It provides a means of quantifying the direct and indirect benefits that people derive from wetlands. In addition, it informs management planning and practice about resource options, optimal allocation and also provides information for conservation of the resource. The Makgadikgadi wetland is a unique system that mostly consists of dry pans during most of the year. This study aimed at estimating the value of groundwater recharge and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) activities within the Makgadikgadi wetland and how these goods and services contribute to the local and national economy. The study used the Total Economic Valuation approach, which considers both the direct and indirect use values of the resource. In essence, the study concentrated on one direct use value (use of resources through CBNRM) and one indirect use value (groundwater recharge). With regard to CBNRM, three community-based organisations (CBOs) were selected for the study and static and dynamic cost-benefit models for these CBOs were developed. The groundwater recharge value was largely determined through desktop review and interviews with stakeholders. The results indicate a small positive contribution of CBOs towards the economy of Botswana and a high potential for communities to derive substantial benefits from the projects because currently benefits realised by communities are limited. CBOs involved in joint venture partnerships with tourism and hunting enterprises benefit more from utilising the wetland’s resources. Groundwater recharge often occurs in areas away from the physical location of the wetland and may not be easily attributable to the wetland. However, the study assessed the value taking into consideration the various sectors which rely on the groundwater resource. The groundwater recharge

  11. Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or "opt-out" HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81% reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%, HIV-related stigma (60%, and violence toward women (55%, and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%. At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9, higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7, more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7, perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5, and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1. Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9 or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76. While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%, lack of perceived HIV risk (43%, and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%. CONCLUSIONS: Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce

  12. Knowledge about breast cancer and reasons for late presentation by cancer patients seen at Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana

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    Deogratias Mbuka-Ongona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Botswana, breast cancer, the second most common malignancy amongst women, is often diagnosed late, with 90% of patients presenting at advanced stages at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH Gaborone, the only referral hospital with an operational oncology department. The reasons for this late presentation have not been studied. Determination of these reasons is critical for the formulation of strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer in Botswana. The aim of this study was to explore existing knowledge about breast cancer and the reasons for late presentation amongst patients attending the oncology unit of Princess Marina Hospital.Method: A descriptive qualitative study using free attitude interview was performed.Twelve breast cancer sufferers were purposefully selected and eleven interviews conducted. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Thematic analysis of data was performed.Results: This study found that breast cancer sufferers had had poor knowledge of the disease prior to the diagnosis. Their knowledge improved markedly during their attendance to the oncology clinic. Screening methods such as breast self-examination (BSE were not used frequently. The majority of participants had delayed going to the hospital because of a lack of knowledge, fear of the diagnosis and fear of death, misinterpretation of the signs, the influence of lay beliefs and advice from the community. In some cases, however, advice from family and friends resulted in a timely medical consultation. The poor clinical practices of some healthworkers and the inadequate involvement by decision makers regarding the issue of cancer awareness discouraged patients from seeking and adhering to appropriate therapy.Conclusions: Awareness and knowledge of breast cancer was found to be poor amongst sufferers prior to their diagnosis, but their awareness and knowledge improved after the diagnosis. There was limited use of

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  14. Eustrongylides sp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) from the stomach of a Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Bain, O; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    During a study conducted between 2003 and 2005 on the diet of Nile crocodiles in Botswana, two young adult nematodes, one male and one female, belonging to the genus Eustrongylides Jägerskiöld, 1909 were recovered from the stomach contents of one of these animals. The caudal bursa of the male is present and the ejaculatory duct could be identified, but the spicule could not be seen. The vulva of the female has opened and the anus is situated on a terminal protruberance. Measurements and drawings of these specimens are provided, together with some data on the occurrence and life-cycles of members of the genus Eustrongylides in crocodilians world-wide and in African hosts in particular. Piscivorous birds are the usual final hosts of these nematodes. It is probable that the specimens described herein had developed in a paratenic fish host, and that the latter had been eaten by the crocodile. PMID:17283733

  15. Bone Accumulations of Spotted Hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Erxleben, 1777 as Indicators of Diet and Human Conflict; Mashatu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Kuhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region where free ranging domestic species mix with wildlife, it is imperative to determine what, if any, predation may have occurred on domestic stock. As human settlements continuously encroach upon wild habitats, determining the types of predator-human conflicts that exist can be crucial to conserve numerous predator species. The partial diet of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta of the Mashatu Game Reserve, Botswana, was established via analyses of faunal remains associated with four dens to determine predation/scavenging on wild or domestic species. Domestic species composed less than 3% of identified faunal remains. We acknowledge that this methodology is biased against small mammals, but, when combined with sociological studies, this methodology will aid in determining alleged predation on domestic stock by spotted hyaenas. Results indicated that the spotted hyaenas in question feed primarily on wild species.

  16. Crossing the Chasm – Introducing Flexible Learning into the Botswana Technical Education Programme: From Policy to Action

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    Alison Mead Richardson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a longitudinal, ethnomethodological case study of the development towards flexible delivery of the Botswana Technical Education Programme (BTEP, offered by Francistown College of Technical & Vocational Education (FCTVE. Data collection methods included documentary analysis, naturalistic participant observation, and semi-structured interviews. The author identifies and analyses the technical, staffing, and cultural barriers to change when introducing technology-enhanced, flexible delivery methods. The study recommends that strategies to advance flexible learning should focus on the following goals: establish flexible policy and administration systems, change how staff utilization is calculated when flexible learning methodologies are used, embed flexible delivery in individual performance development and department/college strategic plans, ensure managerial leadership, hire and support permanent specialists, identify champions and share success stories, and address issues of inflexible organisational culture. This study may be of value in developing countries where mass-based models are sought to expand access to vocational education and training.

  17. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND COMPLEXITIES OF BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: The case of the University of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina K. MASALELA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended/hybrid learning is dominating news in higher education as a training and educational delivery method of choice. It is seen as a link between instructors, learners and classrooms located in different places to enhance learning. Based on the interviews with 15 faculty members and one administrator that had direct experience with this form of delivery at the University of Botswana (UB the findings suggested two major themes that dominated faculty members ’accounts: potential benefits and challenges of blended learning. The study was guided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory. The potential benefits of blended learning included improved pedagogy; engagement in learning; and added flexibility in the teaching and learning to mention a few. Faculty members perceived complexities such as lack of students’ readiness to use the course management system, slow network and breakdowns; lack of computers for students and lack of time. The article concludes by suggesting future directions for blended learning (BL at the UB.

  18. Value Chain Analysis of Botswana Poultry Industry: The Case of Gaborone, Kgatleng, Kweneng and South East Districts

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    Charity Masole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Botswana has experienced tremendous growth over time and remains the most celebrated example of import substitution, which has resulted in the achievement of national food self-sufficiency. This study evaluated and characterized the structure of poultry value chain in Botswana. Specifically, it identified the actors, linkages, challenges faced by the players; and also assessed the relative importance of specific flows of poultry products. A structured questionnaire was administered to 40 poultry farmers, 10 input dealers, 10 retail stores and 5 Ministry of Agriculture extension staff using a purposive sampling technique. The results showed market access for small-scale farmers was undermined by the increasing complexity of value chain and increased vertical coordination of resources. Therefore, the reality of economies of scale and the need to establish strong marketing links with existing supermarkets by smallholder farmers for a more competitive poultry industry is inevitable. The poultry market structure is dominated by a few large-scale farmers. On a Likert scale of 1 to 4, these farmers scored an average of 3.62 in comparison to 2.60 scored by small-scale farmers, when their working relationship levels with other players were explored. These results implied that large-scale farmers have stronger linkages. The study also found out that poultry industry still faces some challenges that impede its growth and one such challenge is high feed prices. Therefore, policies aimed at supporting the industry players must be developed with a view to ensuring sustainable development of the subsector and enhancing the benefit derived by the player.

  19. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

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    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  20. Translating a National Laboratory Strategic Plan into action through SLMTA in a district hospital laboratory in Botswana

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    Keoratile Ntshambiwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ministry of Health (MOH of Botswana adopted Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA, a structured quality improvement programme, as a key tool for the implementation of quality management systems in its public health laboratories. Coupled with focused mentorship, this programme aimed to help MOH achieve the goals of the National Laboratory Strategic Plan to provide quality and timely clinical diagnosis.Objectives: This article describes the impact of implementing SLMTA in Sekgoma Memorial Hospital Laboratory (SMHL in Serowe, Botswana.Methods: SLMTA implementation in SMHL included trainings, improvement projects, site visits and focused mentorship. To measure progress, audits using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist were conducted at baseline and exit of the programme, with scores corresponding to a zero- to five-star scale.Turnaround times and customer satisfaction were tracked.Results: The laboratory scored 53% (zero stars at the baseline audit and 80% (three stars at exit. Nearly three years later, the laboratory scored 85% (four stars in an official audit conducted by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Turnaround times became shorter after SLMTA implementation, with reductions ranging 19% to 52%; overall patient satisfaction increased from 56% to 73%; and clinician satisfaction increased from 41% to 72%. Improvements in inventory management led to decreases in discarded reagents, reducinglosses from US $18 000 in 2011 to $40 in 2013.Conclusion: The SLMTA programme contributed to enhanced performance of the laboratory,which in turn yielded potential positive impacts for patient care at the hospital.

  1. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

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    Reshma Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32], higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86], and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81] were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74], living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65], having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74], anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed (2.04 [1.27-3.29], and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41] were independently associated with depression. DISCUSSION: Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

  2. The perfidious experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic data sources

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    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. The article recommends: (1 a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2 making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3 Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4 diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5 and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government.

  3. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayondi, Gloria K.; Wirth, Kathleen; Morroni, Chelsea; Moyo, Sikhulile; Ajibola, Gbolahan; Diseko, Modiegi; Sakoi, Maureen; Magetse, Jane Dipuo; Moabi, Kebaiphe; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Kammerer, Betsy; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. Methods: We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in southern Botswana. Participants were interviewed about their knowledge of their HIV status prior to pregnancy, intendedn...

  4. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayondi, Gloria K.; Wirth, Kathleen; Morroni, Chelsea; Moyo, Sikhulile; Ajibola, Gbolahan; Diseko, Modiegi; Sakoi, Maureen; Magetse, Jane Dipuo; Moabi, Kebaiphe; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Kammerer, Betsy; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. Methods We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in southern Botswana. Participants were interviewed about their knowledge of their HIV status prior to pregnancy, intendednes...

  5. A study of pupils with moderate learning difficulties integrated in mainstream Scottish primary schools and some implications for teachers and curriculum support in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Gower, Peggy Masego

    1993-01-01

    This small scale study investigates the success or otherwise of educating children with moderate learning difficulties in mainstream schools in Scotland. The purpose of the study was that the investigator would gain an insight into what factors contribute to effective functional integration. From these factors the investigator would select those which she believes could be useful in Botswana. The investigator employed an "Action Research" approach model and therefore used several techniques t...

  6. Potential Benefits And Complexities Of 
Blended Learning In Higher Education:
The Case Of The University Of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    MASALELA, Regina K.

    2009-01-01

    Blended/hybrid learning is dominating news in higher education as a training and educational delivery method of choice. It is seen as a link between instructors, learners and classrooms located in different places to enhance learning. Based on the interviews with 15 faculty members and one administrator that had direct experience with this form of delivery at the University of Botswana (UB) the findings suggested two major themes that dominated faculty members ’accounts: potential benefits an...

  7. The Effect of Induction experiences on the teaching performance of beggining Secondary School Teachers : The case of Boteti district in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Pule, G D

    2013-01-01

    The study examined how the induction experiences of beginner secondary school teachers impact on their teaching performance. A total of 15 participants were purposively selected from the four schools. They were four school heads, three senior teachers' staff development and eight teachers who were last to be employed in the four secondary schools in the Boteti District far north of Botswana. The school heads were selected as they are overseers of the schools. The senior teacher...

  8. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Nomsa H. Malete; Indiran Govender; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradhere...

  9. The influence of sex education on sexual behaviour of junior secondary school learners in Maokane-Jwaneng school in Botswana / L.G. Tumedi

    OpenAIRE

    Tumedi, L G

    2011-01-01

    Education is an ongoing process and it is never 'complete' in anyone's life. Sex education is relevant in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) in Botswana. The study was under taken to investigate the influence of sex education on the sexual behaviour of JSS learners. Adolescents today are faced with challenges and they need support to face these challenges. The study was guided by the following research objectives: What constitutes the nature and characteristics of sex education? Wh...

  10. The Perfidious Experiences of Men as Palliative Caregivers of People Living with HIV/AIDS and other Terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender ...

  11. How can we assess the burden of muscle, bone and joint conditions in rural Botswana: context and methods for the MuBoJo focused ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Haldeman, Scott; Johannessen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal diseases are the most common causes of long-term pain and disability worldwide and a growing international public health concern. However, the everyday burden and impact of musculoskeletal conditions are not well understood, especially among people living in low- and middle-income countries in Africa. Since 2011, World Spine Care, a nongovernmental organisation, has collaborated with the Botswana Ministry of Health to open spine care centres and to conduct research....

  12. Stigma and discrimination : social encounters, identity and space; a concept derived from HIV and AIDS related research in the high prevalence country Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Geiselhart, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    How do social encounters conjure up stigma and discrimination? How do social identities emerge and how do people reject or integrate each other in local settings and social space? How do individuals affected build their self-identities and cope with the socially divisive effects of their stigma? The book provides an unconventional view on the subject matter. It is based on empirical fieldwork on the social effects of HIV and AIDS in Botswana. A broad review of geographical, sociological, ...

  13. Focus on gender and academic achievement. When girls learn more than boys: the influence of time in school and pedagogy in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B; Hua, H; Snyder Cw

    1994-08-01

    Girls often outperform boys in language and reading achievement. The recent study of reading skills by the International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement found female students at the junior-secondary level to have comparatively higher proficiencies in 28 of 31 countries. The authors explore in the context of Botswana's junior-secondary schools how school and family factors influence young females' widespread advantage in acquiring literacy and reading skills. Research on female school attainment is reviewed; the Botswana Teacher, Classroom, and Achievement Study described; and empirical findings presented on how time in school, teacher characteristics, and their pedagogical practices influence female and male achievement. The study assessed how much English and Math was learned over one academic year among 4948 form 1 and form 2 students from 31 junior-secondary schools. 214 teachers were observed during at least two class periods for one week. It is noted in closing that time in school can be a very influential factor, Botswana's junior-secondary schools seem to be reducing differences in educational attainment across different local communities, and specific school and classroom features which are raising achievement remain a mystery. Study findings have implications for how learning gains for girls may be raised. PMID:12318867

  14. The Okavango Dike Swarm (ODS) of Northern Botswana: Was it associated with a failed Rift System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePera, Alan; Atekwana, Estella; Abdelsalam, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Dikes and dike swarms often play a significant role in the initiation and extension of rift zones. The giant ODS in northern Botswana, Africa represents a Jurassic aged (~180Ma) thermo-tectonic event which developed during the initial lithospheric weakening phase of Gondwana. Detailed investigations of the mafic dike swarm over the last four decades have provided insights into its age, shape, orientation, and chemistry but have thus far been limited in addressing the crustal structure below the swarm. Historically, the ODS has been interpreted as a failed rift arm based on its association with the Bouvet Hotspot and geometric relationship with two other prominent dike swarms. More recent studies suggest instead that the ODS was emplaced along a preexisting Precambrian basement fabric. Accordingly, the origin of the swarm still remains a matter of debate. The objectives of this study were: (1) determine the role of crustal heterogeneities on the emplacement of the dikes, (2) determine variations in crustal thickness below the ODS and geographically related Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), a zone of incipient rifting and (3) determine along-strike variations in Curie Point Depth (CPD) below the swarm. We used high resolution aeromagnetic data and applied mathematical filters to enhance structures associated with the swarm's oblique geometry. Crustal thicknesses were estimated using the radial average power spectrum method, applied to 1.2km spatial resolution gravity data. 3D inversions were used to map the magnetic basement and determine the depth to the base of the swarm. Our results showed: (1) There were no apparent basement structures with the same 110° orientation as the ODS. (2) Crustal thickness below the swarm ranges from 39 to 45km with an average of 42± 3km, comparable with thicknesses derived from the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE). In contrast, crustal thickness below the ORZ is 9 to 16km thinner than the surrounding blocks. (3) The magnetic

  15. Community views about routine HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment in Botswana: signs of progress from a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokoena Thamie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botswana government began providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2002 and in 2004 introduced routine HIV testing (RHT in government health facilities, aiming to increase HIV testing and uptake of ART. There have been concerns that the RHT programme might be coercive, lead to increased partner violence, and drive people away from government health services. Methods We conducted a household survey of 1536 people in a stratified random sample of communities across Botswana, asking about use and experience of government health services, views about RHT, views about ART, and testing for HIV in the last 12 months. Focus groups further discussed issues about ART. Results Some 81% of respondents had visited a government clinic within the last 24 months. Of these 92% were satisfied with the service, 96% felt they were treated with respect and 90% were comfortable about confidentiality. Almost all respondents said they would choose a government clinic for treatment of AIDS. Nearly one half (47% thought they were at risk of HIV. Those who had experienced partner violence within the last 12 months were more likely to think themselves at risk. One half of those who had visited a government facility in the last 24 months were offered HIV tests, and nearly half were tested. A few (8% of those who were not asked thought they were tested. Most people (79% had heard of RHT and 94% were in favour of it. Over one half (55% of the entire sample had been tested for HIV within the last 12 months, one half of these through RHT. Women were more likely to have been tested. Nearly everyone (94% had heard of ART and thought it could help AIDS. Focus groups identified problems of access to ART due to distance from treatment centres and long queues in the centres. Conclusion Public awareness and approval of RHT was very high. The high rate of RHT has contributed to the overall high rate of HIV testing. The government's programme to increase HIV

  16. Developing a spatial-statistical model and map of historical malaria prevalence in Botswana using a staged variable selection procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several malaria risk maps have been developed in recent years, many from the prevalence of infection data collated by the MARA (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa project, and using various environmental data sets as predictors. Variable selection is a major obstacle due to analytical problems caused by over-fitting, confounding and non-independence in the data. Testing and comparing every combination of explanatory variables in a Bayesian spatial framework remains unfeasible for most researchers. The aim of this study was to develop a malaria risk map using a systematic and practicable variable selection process for spatial analysis and mapping of historical malaria risk in Botswana. Results Of 50 potential explanatory variables from eight environmental data themes, 42 were significantly associated with malaria prevalence in univariate logistic regression and were ranked by the Akaike Information Criterion. Those correlated with higher-ranking relatives of the same environmental theme, were temporarily excluded. The remaining 14 candidates were ranked by selection frequency after running automated step-wise selection procedures on 1000 bootstrap samples drawn from the data. A non-spatial multiple-variable model was developed through step-wise inclusion in order of selection frequency. Previously excluded variables were then re-evaluated for inclusion, using further step-wise bootstrap procedures, resulting in the exclusion of another variable. Finally a Bayesian geo-statistical model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was fitted to the data, resulting in a final model of three predictor variables, namely summer rainfall, mean annual temperature and altitude. Each was independently and significantly associated with malaria prevalence after allowing for spatial correlation. This model was used to predict malaria prevalence at unobserved locations, producing a smooth risk map for the whole country. Conclusion We have

  17. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  18. POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ANALYSIS OF PSEUDOLACHNOSTYLIS MAPROUNEIFOLIA PAX VAR DIKINDTII USED AS LIVESTOCK FEED BY FARMERS FROM EASTERN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlhanka D.M.T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, fresh fruits (FF,sun dried fruits (SDF, fresh leaves (FL and sun dried leaves (SDL of Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia var dikindtii were analyzed for total phenolic, total flavonoid content, presence of reducing sugars, proteins and lipids as well as free radical scavenging power. P.maprouneifolia is used as a dry season supplementary feed by livestock farmers in Eastern Botswana. The fruits and leaves of the studied plant tested positive for presence of reducing sugars and proteins. Lipids were detected only in fresh fruit samples. The order of total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalents/L was SDF(1240.3±200.5>FL(1097.9±154.6>SDL(952.7±86.8>FF(838.6±5.7. The order of the flavonoid content (mg Quercetin equivalent/L was FL(384.9±5.2>SDL(256.7±3.9>SDF(159.9±8.3>FF(139.1±2.6. Sun drying caused an increase in phenolic and flavonoid content in fruits, whilst in leaves the content of both phenols and flavonoids decreased. These changes in polyphenolic contents had no effect on the free radical scavenging potency of the extracts. At all tested concentrations, there was no significant difference between the radical scavenging powers of the fruits. Up to 100µg/ml, the scavenging power of the fruits was (85.6% higher than that of leaves. Above 100µg/ml, the scavenging power of leaves was (87% higher than that of the fruits. The current work is the first of its kind, providing new reference data regarding the polyphenolic and antioxidant analysis of this plant. In the light of the obtained result, the present study supports the use of the fruits and leaves of this plant as dry season supplementary feed to livestock. However, further investigations involving nutritional analysis and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the potential of P.maprouneifolia as a candidate for improving livestock health and production in Botswana.

  19. Problems experienced with the teaching of Arabic to learners in Muslim private schools in South Africa and Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mall

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a number of problems that are unique to the teaching of Arabic in private schools in South Africa and Botswana. Specific attention is given to aspects of teaching that mean that learners are unable to reach a level of communicative competence in Arabic or to understand the Koran (despite the fact that this is an important goal in teaching Arabic. An investigation conducted with the aid of questionnaires revealed that Arabic teachers do not have confidence in their own language proficiency or their ability to speak Arabiefluently. It seems that teaching is largely based on the Grammar-Translation method: learning of new vocabulary and grammar rules. It also appears that most teachers believe that learners study Arabic for religious purposes (to be able to read the Koran so they are not so much interested in developing communicative skills as in extending their vocabulary and knowledge of grammar so they will be able to understand the formal language of the Koran.In hierdie artikel word 'n aantal probleme wat eie is aan die onderrig van Arabies in Moslem privaatskole in Suid-Afrika en Botswana bespreek. Daar word spesifiek aandag gegee aan onderrigaspekte wat instrumentee! is tot die leerders se onvermoe om 'n mate van kommunikatiewe bevoegdheid in Arabies te bereik en om die Koran met begrip te lees (ten spyte daarvan dat dU 'n belangrike doelstelling met die onderrig van Arabies is. Vit 'n ondersoek wat met behulp van vraelyste gedoen is, blyk dit dat die meerderheid Arabiese onderwysers nie vertroue het in hul eie taalvaardigheid en hul vermoe om vlot in Arabies te kommunikeer nie. Daar word ook aangedui dat onderrig hooftaaklik gebaseer is op die grammatika-vertaalmetode, die aanleer van nuwe woordeskat en die leer van grammatikareels. Dit blyk ook dat die meerderheid onderwysers van mening is dat leerders Arabies bestudeer vir religieuse doeleindes (om die Koran te kan lees en daarom nie soseer ingestel is op die

  20. Single-arm evaluation of the AccuCirc device for early infant male circumcision in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Rebeca M; Wirth, Kathleen E; Ndubuka, Nnamdi O; Abdullahi, Rasak; Nkgau, Maggie; Lesetedi, Chiapo; Powis, Kathleen M; Mmalane, Mompati; Makhema, Joseph; Shapiro, Roger; Lockman, Shahin

    2014-05-01

    : Existing devices for early infant male circumcision (EIMC) have inherent limitations. We evaluated the newly developed AccuCirc device by circumcising 151 clinically well, full-term male infants with birth weight ≥2.5 kg within the first 10 days of life from a convenience sample in 2 hospitals in Botswana. No major adverse events were observed. There was 1 local infection, 5 cases of minor bleeding, and 1 case of moderate bleeding. In 3 cases, the device made only partial incisions that were completed immediately by the provider without complications. Parental satisfaction was high: >96% of mothers stated that they would circumcise a future son. The pre-assembled, sterile AccuCirc kit has the potential to overcome obstacles related to supply chain management and on-site instrument disinfection that can pose challenges in resource-limited settings. In our study, the AccuCirc was safe and it should be considered for programmatic EIMC in resource-limited settings. PMID:24594500

  1. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, A J; Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0 cm to 463.0 cm total length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3% of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6% of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection. PMID:22332299

  2. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  3. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  4. Ramifications of ostracism as a consequence of revelation of HIV positive status: its effect o individuals and families in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeni, Tabitha T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using primary data and a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods the study looks into ramifications of ostracism as a factor influencing people’s behavior towards the spread of HIV/AIDS, which have devastating effects on the structure and composition of the family in Botswana. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would abandon an HIV positive partner (58.4% occurs among young people aged 15 to 19 years; and that the propensity to abandon an HIV positive partner diminishes with advancement in age. In-depth inquiries on why HIV positive partners would be abandoned produced responses that revolved around fear of exposure, vulnerability and association with an HIV positive individual. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would not reveal their HIV positive status occurs among those who have lost a relative or a friend to AIDS. Fear of being isolated, rejected, stigmatized and unwanted featured among the top reasons why respondents would not reveal their HIV positive status. Society’s reaction towards HIV positive individuals and families with HIV/AIDS patients appeared strong enough to drive individuals to hide their positive status and to go ahead and take the risk of onward transmission of the virus.

  5. Nano-inclusion suite and high resolution micro-computed-tomography of polycrystalline diamond (framesite) from Orapa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wirth, R.; Enzmann, F.; Kronz, A.; Schreiber, A.

    2011-08-01

    A single polycrystalline diamond aggregate from the Orapa kimberlite (Botswana) contains a syngenetic micro- and nano-inclusion suite of magnetite, pyrrhotite, omphacite, garnet, rutile and C-O-H fluid in order of abundance. This suite of inclusions is distinctly different from those in fibrous diamonds, although the presence of sub-micrometer fluid inclusions provides evidence for a similarly important role of fluids in the genesis of polycrystalline diamond. It is the first study of polycrystalline diamond by High resolution μ-CT (Computed Tomography) reaching a resolution of 1.3 μm using polychromatic X-rays. Combined with Focused Ion Beam assisted Transmission Electron Microscopy the method reveals epigenetic replacement coatings of hematite and late stage sheet silicates around the magnetites showing that magnetites are often (but not always) interstitial to the diamond and, thus, were open to late stage overprinting. It is proposed that the polycrystalline diamond formed by a redox reaction between a small-scale carbonatitic melt and a sulfide-bearing eclogite. The water released from the melt during diamond precipitation fluxed local melting of the surrounding eclogite, and oxidation of sulfide phases to magnetite, which mingled with the carbonatitic melt and (re-)precipitated locally.

  6. Seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (Equus asinus in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period March to September 2000, a study was conducted in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. Monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. The only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. The most prevalent tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (98.4 %, followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma species. The only haemoparasite seen on microscopy was Babesia equi at low parasitaemia in 26.8% of the donkeys. However, no clinical babesiosis was evident. Coprological examination showed the presence of strongyle eggs in moderate numbers. Very low numbers of coccidia oocysts were found in the faecal samples. High tick numbers and worm egg counts coincided with the warm, wet months in contrast to the low numbers recovered during the cold, dry months. An interview conducted by the authors indicated that donkeys were nutritionally marginalised by owners. Supplementary feeding was therefore recommended, especially during the winter months when grazing is poor.

  7. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  8. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89% agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%, with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n=143 on the same day. Thirty participants (15% tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80% were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  9. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  10. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis

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    Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  11. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis.

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    Chirebvu, Elijah; Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  12. The effectiveness of the South African Triage Toll use in Mahalapye District Hospital – Emergency Department, Botswana

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    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mbuka, Deogratias O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to determine the proportion of each priority level of patients, time of performance in each priority level, and the reliability of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) tool at the Mahalapye District Hospital - Emergency Department (MDH-ED), a setting where the majority of the nurses were not formally trained on the use of the SATS. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using case records in MDH-ED from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. A panel of experts from the Mahalapye site of the Family Medicine Department, University of Botswana, reviewed and scored each selected case record that was compared with the scores previously attributed to the nurse triage. Results From the 315 case records, both the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage assigned the majority of cases in the routine category (green), 146 (46%) and 125 (40%), respectively, or in the urgent category (yellow), they assigned 140 (44%) and 111 (35%) cases, respectively. Overall, there was an adequate agreement between the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage (k = 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5), although the level of agreement was satisfactory. Conclusion Findings of the study reported that the profile of the priority-level categories in MDH-ED was made in the majority of routine and urgent patients, only the routine and the emergency patients were seen within the targeted time and they had a satisfactory level of reliability (between 0.4 and 0.6). PMID:27543284

  13. Examining student understanding of the science of a societal issue in Botswana: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human skin

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    Suping, Shanah Mompoloki

    Science has had such an impact on our way of life that it has been at the centre of discussion for all issues of health, education, development, and the safe stewardship of the Earth's resources. Science has advanced so quickly in the last 50 years that the amount of knowledge generated by scientists is overwhelming. Science teachers who have persistently introduced children to science from a very young age, have been charged with a daunting task of presenting science knowledge to students in ways that not only make it easy to understand, but also make it relevant to them. The methods of how best they should go about this task have been debated from time immemorial. Due to the many concerns and demands placed on science teachers and science education programs in general, there have been a number of efforts to reform and redefine the science curriculum. Science education reform efforts in the US and elsewhere have examined all possible nucleotides in the building up of the reform DNA molecule. Many studies have measured people's level of understanding on given issues that affect their communities, but little attention has been given to conceptions and level of scientific literacy among students in developing countries. This study assessed Botswana school children's knowledge about ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its effects on human health using a scientific literacy lens. Results show that students do not know as much as one would expect them to know, from public school through the first year in college. Exploratory factor analysis identified four indicators of knowledge about UVR. These are: (a) diseases related to UVR, (b) items that can be used for protections against UVR, (c) misconceptions held about UVR, and (d) general issues surrounding UVR. MANOVA analysis showed that whereas there are no differences in general based on school location, certain groups of students performed differently depending on the school type, type of science pursued at school and or

  14. Determining the Total Volume of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Magmatic Event: Correlation of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana

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    Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Pitcavage, E.; Bybee, G. M.; Feineman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa, erupted 2.05 billion years ago, is the world's largest layered intrusion in the range of 710-1060 x 103 km3 conservatively. However, the total volume of the magmatic event that produced the BIC remains poorly known. Several other intrusions occurred approximately contemporaneously with the BIC, but a clear relationship between these multiple intrusions is yet to be determined. The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous complex of similar age 2.044 Ga ­± 24 Ma located in Botswana, 200km west of the far western limb of the BIC, with a total volume of 1300 km2. Using trace element analysis, this study makes an attempt to find a correlation between the magma that emplaced the Molopo Farms Complex with the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The MFC is related to the BIC and is located under approximately 200m of Kalahari sands, which prevents any direct sampling or observation. Unlike the BIC, the MFC is poorly studied creating a lack of information for the complex. Drill core samples from the MFC were analyzed to determine the trace element composition using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using previously reported values for the BIC; a comparison can be made on both complexes to find possible correlations. The comparison of trace element schematics in the MFC and the BIC suggest that both complexes are derived from the same parental magma, often referred to as the "B1" magma. These comparisons allow for an assumption that the initial parental magma of the BIC may have also emplaced the MFC.

  15. Integration of sources in academic writing: A corpus-based study of citation practices in essay writing in two departments at the University of Botswana

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    Boitumelo T. Ramoroka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to cite sources appropriately is an important feature of academic writing. Academic writers are expected to integrate ideas of others into their texts and take a stance towards the reported material as they develop their arguments. Despite this importance, research has shown that citation presents considerable difficulties for students, particularly non-native English speakers. Such difficulties include using citations effectively in writing and understanding them in reading, expressing one’s voice and signalling citations in writing so that there is a clear distinction between one’s ideas and those derived from source materials. This study investigates the types of reporting verbs used by students to refer to the work of others and the extent to which they evaluate the work of others in their writing. It draws from a corpus of approximately 80 000 words from essays written by students in two departments at the University of Botswana (Botswana. The findings show that students used more informing verbs, associated with the neutral passing of information from the source to the reader, without interpreting the information cited, compared with argumentative verbs (which signify an evaluative role. The results of the study underscore the importance of teaching reporting verbs in the English for academic purposes classroom and making students aware of their evaluative potential.

  16. Heavy metal distribution in soils near Palapye, Botswana: An evaluation of the environmental impact of coal mining and combustion on soils in a semi-arid region

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    Zhai, M.; Totolo, O.; Modisi, M.P.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kelesitse, S.M.; Menyatso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Morupule Colliery near Palapye in eastern Botswana is the only coalmine in production in Botswana at present. Its coal is mainly used in the nearby coal-fired Morupule Power Station, which generates approximately 1,000 GWh of electricity per annum. After more than 30 years mining and more than 20 years of combustion, the sedimentation of outlet fly ash from the Morupule Power Station has increased concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn and As by 13, 2.5, 16 and 5 ppm, respectively, in the fine portion (<53 ??m) of surface soils for approximately 9 km downwind. Elements that have higher concentrations in coal have stronger small-particle association during coal combustion and are less mobile in surface soils, thus showing stronger contaminations in surface soils around the coal-fired plant. Although the degree of contamination of Cr, Ni, Zn and As from coal combustion in the Palapye area at present is low, it is necessary to monitor concentrations of these elements in surface soils routinely in the future. This study also reveals moderate Pb and Zn contaminations in the Palapye area. The former is due to the use of leaded petroleum in motor vehicle traffic and the latter is mainly due to the use of galvanized iron sheets in construction. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  18. Repeated assessments of informed consent comprehension among HIV-infected participants of a three-year clinical trial in Botswana.

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    Lelia H Chaisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Informed consent (IC has been an international standard for decades for the ethical conduct of clinical trials. Yet frequently study participants have incomplete understanding of key issues, a problem exacerbated by language barriers or lack of familiarity with research concepts. Few investigators measure participant comprehension of IC, while even fewer conduct interim assessments once a trial is underway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed comprehension of IC using a 20-question true/false quiz administered in 6-month intervals in the context of a placebo-controlled, randomized trial for the prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Botswana (2004-2009. Quizzes were offered in both Setswana and English. To enroll in the TB trial, participants were required to have ≥ 16/20 correct responses. We examined concepts understood and the degree to which understanding changed over three-years. We analyzed 5,555 quizzes from 1,835 participants. The participants' highest education levels were: 28% primary, 59% secondary, 9% tertiary and 7% no formal education. Eighty percent of participants passed the enrollment quiz (Quiz1 on their first attempt and the remainder passed on their second attempt. Those having higher than primary education and those who took the quiz in English were more likely to receive a passing score on their first attempt (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 3.1 (2.4-4.0 and 1.5 (1.2, 1.9, respectively. The trial's purpose or procedures were understood by 90-100% of participants, while 44-77% understood randomization, placebos, or risks. Participants who failed Quiz1 on their initial attempt were more likely to fail quizzes later in the trial. Pass rates improved with quiz re-administration in subsequent years. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a comprehension quiz at enrollment and during follow-up was feasible in a large, international collaboration and efficiently determined IC comprehension

  19. Ethno-meteorology and scientific weather forecasting: Small farmers and scientists’ perspectives on climate variability in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

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    Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in abrupt weather changes continue to pose a challenge to agricultural production most especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper specifically addresses the questions on how local farmers read and predict the weather; and how they can collaborate with weather scientists in devising adaptation strategies for climate variability (CV in the Okavango Delta of Botswana. Recent trends in agriculture-related weather variables available from country’s climate services, as well as in freely available satellite rainfall products were analysed. The utility of a seasonal hydrological forecasting system for the study area in the context of supporting farmer’s information needs were assessed. Through a multi-stage sampling procedure, a total of 592 households heads in 8 rural communities in the Okavango Delta were selected and interviewed using open and close-ended interview schedules. Also, 19 scientists were purposively selected and interviewed using questionnaires. Key informant interviews, focus group and knowledge validation workshops were used to generate qualitative information from both farmers and scientists. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in summarising the data. Analysis of satellite rainfall products indicated that there was a consistent increase in total annual rainfall throughout the region in the last 10 years, accompanied by an increase in number of rain days, and reduction of duration of dry spells. However, there is a progressive increase in the region’s temperatures leading to increase in potential evaporation. Findings from social surveys show that farmers’ age, education level, number of years engaged in farming, sources of weather information, knowledge of weather forecasting and decision on farming practices either had a significant relationship or correlation with their perceptions about the nature of both local [ethno-meteorological] and scientific weather knowledge. Nonetheless, there was a

  20. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community

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    Vlad Novitsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods: We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV. Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results: A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0% were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men. HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%, was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0% was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001. The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions: The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities

  1. Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

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    Ndiaye M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maimouna Ndiaye,1,2 Peter Nyasulu,1 Hoang Nguyen,6,7 Elizabeth D Lowenthal,8,9 Robert Gross,10 Edward J Mills,3 Jean B Nachega4–6 1School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Central Medical Stores, Ministry of Health, Gaborone, Botswana; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 4Department of Medicine and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research Program, Pittsburgh University Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Departments of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Tay Ho Clinics, Department of Medicine, Hanoi Health Services, Hanoi, Vietnam; 8Departments of Pediatrics and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Departments of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient's clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (>95% and virologic suppression

  2. Prognostic Value of HIV-1 RNA on CD4 Trajectories and Disease Progression Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Adults in Botswana: A Joint Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Novitsky, Vladimir; Wang, Rui; Bussmann, Hermann; Moyo, Sikhulile; Musonda, Rosemary M; Moeti, Themba; Makhema, Joseph M; Essex, Max; Marlink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Although HIV-1 RNA levels are measured at the time of initial diagnosis, the results are not used for the clinical follow-up of the patients. This study evaluates the prognostic value of the baseline HIV-1 RNA levels (above or below 10,000 copies/ml) on rate of disease progression, among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in Botswana. A prospective cohort of 436 HIV-infected ART-naive adults with baseline CD4 > 400 cells/mm(3) were followed quarterly for 5 years in an urban clinic in Botswana. Baseline HIV-1 RNA levels and longitudinal CD4(+) T-cell count data were analyzed, using mixed-effects regression jointly modeled with the times to a composite endpoint defined by AIDS-defining clinical conditions or death. During 1,547 person-years (PYs) follow-up time, 106 individuals became eligible for ART initiation (incidence rate: 0.07 PYs) and 6 participants died of AIDS-related illness. There were 203 (47%) individuals with baseline HIV-1 RNA 10,000 copies/ml. The slope of the predicted CD4 trajectory for individuals with baseline HIV-1 RNA >10,000 copies/ml is 30% steeper than that for those with baseline RNA 10,000 copies/ml was 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.0) times higher than that for those with baseline HIV-1 RNA 10,000 copies/ml is much faster than that in those with RNA <10,000. The elevated HIV-1 RNA can be used as a marker to identify individuals at risk of faster disease progression. PMID:26830351

  3. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

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    Adewale B. Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradherence to dietary requirements, exercise recommendations, the support they had in adhering to the recommendations, and their understanding of the role of dietary and exercise requirements in the management of their condition.Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample comprised of 105 participants. Data on participants’ baseline characteristics and adherence to dietary and exercise habits were analysed using the SPSS 14.0 version.Results: The sample of 104 participants comprised of 61 (58.7% women. The rates of nonadherence to diet and exercise were 37% and 52% respectively. The main reasons for nonadherence to diet were: poor self-discipline (63.4%; lack of information (33.3% and thetendency to eat out (31.7%. The main reasons for non-adherence to exercise were: lack of information (65.7%; the perception that exercise exacerbated their illness (57.6% and lack of an exercise partner (24.0%.Conclusion: There was a relatively high rate of non-adherence to both diet and exercise recommendations by patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus at Extension II Clinic,Botswana, with non-adherence to exercise recommendations more common.

  4. Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana

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    Molebatsi Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments. The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. Methods A national population based prospective survey was undertaken in Botswana; twelve rural areas and three urban centers were included. 372 community-dwelling persons aged sixty years and over, were included; 265 were followed-up. Sixteen subjects were deceased at follow-up. Subjects were interviewed and clinically assessed at home. Measures of cognitive function, depression and physical function and sociodemographic information were collected. Subjects were followed-up at average 6.8 months after baseline. Results Overall mortality rate was 10.9 per 100 person years. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR for death during follow-up were; 4.2 (CI 1.4–12.5 and 3.6 (CI 1.0–12.7 for those with diminished physical- and cognitive function, respectively. Indicators of limited social support; household with only 1 or 2 persons and eating alone, yielded age adjusted ORs of 4.3 (CI 1.5–12.5 and 6.7 (CI 2.2–20, respectively, for death during follow-up. Conclusion Older community dwelling persons with diminished cognitive- or physical function, solitary daily meals and living in a small household have a significantly increased risk of rapid deterioration and death. Health policy should include measures to strengthen informal support and expand formal service provisions to older persons with poor function and limited social networks in order to prevent premature deaths.

  5. Gender inequity norms are associated with increased male-perpetrated rape and sexual risks for HIV infection in Botswana and Swaziland.

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    Kate Shannon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical research on the underlying gender inequity norms shaping gender-based violence, power, and HIV risks in sub-Saharan Africa, or how risk pathways may differ for men and women. This study is among the first to directly evaluate the adherence to gender inequity norms and epidemiological relationships with violence and sexual risks for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were derived from population-based cross-sectional samples recruited through two-stage probability sampling from the 5 highest HIV prevalence districts in Botswana and all districts in Swaziland (2004-5. Based on evidence of established risk factors for HIV infection, we aimed 1 to estimate the mean adherence to gender inequity norms for both men and women; and 2 to model the independent effects of higher adherence to gender inequity norms on a male sexual dominance (male-controlled sexual decision making and rape (forced sex; b sexual risk practices (multiple/concurrent sex partners, transactional sex, unprotected sex with non-primary partner, intergenerational sex. FINDINGS: A total of 2049 individuals were included, n = 1255 from Botswana and n = 796 from Swaziland. In separate multivariate logistic regression analyses, higher gender inequity norms scores remained independently associated with increased male-controlled sexual decision making power (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.09-2.35; AORwomen = 2.05, 95%CI:1.32-2.49, perpetration of rape (AORmen = 2.19 95%CI:1.22-3.51, unprotected sex with a non-primary partner (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.14-2.31, intergenerational sex (AORwomen = 1.36, 95%CI:1.08-1.79, and multiple/concurrent sex partners (AORmen = 1.42, 95%CI:1.10-1.93. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the critical evidence-based need for gender-transformative HIV prevention efforts including legislation of women's rights in two of the most HIV affected countries in the world.

  6. HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

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    Stefan Baral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the generalized epidemics of HIV in southern Sub-Saharan Africa, men who have sex with men have been largely excluded from HIV surveillance and research. Epidemiologic data for MSM in southern Africa are among the sparsest globally, and HIV risk among these men has yet to be characterized in the majority of countries. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured survey instrument and HIV screening with the OraQuick(c rapid test kit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241; 20.0% (42/210 among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84 among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8. In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0, and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9 were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527 reporting at least one abuse. CONCLUSIONS: MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana. Concurrency of sexual partnerships with partners of both genders may play important roles in HIV spread in these populations. Further epidemiologic and evaluative research is needed to assess the contribution of MSM to southern Africa's HIV epidemics and how best to mitigate this. These countries should initiate and adequately fund evidence-based and targeted HIV

  7. mHealth to revolutionize information retrieval in low and middle income countries: introduction and proposed solutions using Botswana as reference point.

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    Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Luberti, Anthony A; Kovarik, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) practice is invaluable in health care, where the growth of medical knowledge has long surpassed human memory capabilities, and health care workers often have unmet information needs. While the information and communications technology (ICT) revolution is improving, IR in the Western world, the global digital divide has never been wider. Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) have the least advanced ICT infrastructure and service provision, and are also burdened with the majority of the world's health issues and severe shortages of health care workers. Initiatives utilizing mobile technology in healthcare and public health (mHealth) have shown potential at addressing these inequalities and challenges. Using Botswana as a reference point, this paper aims to broadly describe the healthcare and ICT challenges facing LMICs, the promise of mHealth as a field in health informatics, and then propose health informatics solutions that specifically address IR content and needs. One solution proposes utilizing Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) for accessing treatment guidelines, and the other solution outlines applications of smart devices for IR. PMID:23920687

  8. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  9. Communicating integrated water resources management: From global discourse to local practice - Chronicling an experience from the Boteti River sub-Basin, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Motsholapheko, Moseki

    The Boteti River is an ephemeral outflow of the Okavango River. It lies in the north-western part of Botswana where about 25,000 people reside across a number of widely scattered villages and informal settlements. The river, with its seasonal streams and pans, is vital to the livelihoods of these people, their livestock, and the wildlife that share this physical space. A combination of factors has led to widespread degradation of the physical resource base - both in the river bed itself and in the wider environment. As part of its outreach role, the Harry Oppeheimer Okavango Research Centre has undertaken a multi-year project along the Boteti River to assist people there with the rehabilitation of their resource base. The globally influential concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM) provides the analytical framework, in particular its emphasis on dialogue and stakeholder participation. The project has three primary aspects: facilitation of a dialogue platform; action-research; outreach and information dissemination. After two years of implementation, the project has collected a good deal of data and established a River Basin Forum with a common vision. However, the project continues to face difficulties in implementation: participation is limited; myths regarding resource degradation are difficult to dispel; meaningful communication among differently empowered actors is hard to achieve; and there are numerous human, financial and technological limitations. The primary researchers continue to alter their methods in the hope of achieving a functioning River Basin Committee (RBC), but observe that the globalized ideals of IWRM are, in this particular case at least, of limited use when attempting to alter localized management practices in basins with deeply embedded social and cultural practices.

  10. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  11. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  12. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the mechanisms controlling ecological and hydrogical activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams either separately or simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurement, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The closest agreement is found for each observed data stream when only the same data stream is assimilated. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 16.1% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 9.2% for assimilating LHF only, and 7.8% for assimilating FAPAR only. Furthermore, the set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction is found for a parameter describing maximum plant-available soil moisture for all three cases. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  13. The Karoo triple junction questioned : Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar Jurassic and Proterozoïc ages and geochemistry of the Okavango dyke swarm (Botswana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, F.; Féraud, G.; Bertrand, H.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Tshoso, G.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Jurassic Karoo-Ferrar magmatism represents one of the most important Phanerozoic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. Karoo CFB is dominated by tholeiitic traps and apparently radiating giant dyke swarms covering altogether ca 3x106 km2. This study focuses on the giant N110° oriented Okavango dyke swarm (ODS) stretching over a distance of 1500 km through Botswana. This dyke swarm represents the main arm of the so-called Karoo triple junction which is generally considered as a key marker linking the Karoo magmatism to a starting mantle plume impact (Campbell and Griffiths, 1990). ODS dolerites yield twelve reliable plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar plateau (and mini-plateau) ages ranging from 178.3 +-1.1 (2 sigma) to 179.3 +-1.2 Ma (Le Gall et al, 2002 and unpublished data). The distribution of the ages along a narrow gaussian curve suggests a short period of magmatic activity centered around 178.9 Ma. In addition, small clusters of plagioclase separated from twenty-five other dykes and measured by total fusion, gave either Karoo or Proterozoïc ages. The Proterozoïc rocks range from 758.2 +-6.6 Ma and 1223.8 +-10.0 Ma (integrated ages) and, although petrographically indistinguishable in some cases, they display clear geochemical differences (e.g. TiO22%, Ti/Y>400). Geochemical data combined with available Ar/Ar dates allowed us to identify the two groups within a total set of seventy-eight dykes investigated: about 15 % of the bulk ODS dykes were emplaced during the Proterozoïc and, thus, the Jurassic Karoo dykes were emplaced along reactivated Proterozoïc structures. The validity of the Karoo triple junction-plume model, should therefore be revisited. Although available data on Proterozoïc dykes along the ODS are not precise enough to assess their exact emplacement age, they indicate that most of the Proterozoïc dykes were emplaced between 900 and 1100 Ma. This age range is the same as dating commonly reported for the Umkondo igneous province (UIP, about

  14. No thermal anomalies in the mantle transition zone beneath an incipient continental rift: evidence from the first receiver function study across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Moidaki, M.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms leading to the initiation and early-stage development of continental rifts remain enigmatic, in spite of numerous studies. Among the various rifting models, which were developed mostly based on studies of mature rifts, far-field stresses originating from plate interactions (passive rifting) and nearby active mantle upwelling (active rifting) are commonly used to explain rift dynamics. Situated atop of the hypothesized African Superplume, the incipient Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) of northern Botswana is ideal to investigate the role of mantle plumes in rift initiation and development, as well as the interaction between the upper and lower mantle. The ORZ developed within the Neoproterozoic Damara belt between the Congo Craton to the northwest and the Kalahari Craton to the southeast. Mantle structure and thermal status beneath the ORZ are poorly known, mostly due to a complete paucity of broad-band seismic stations in the area. As a component of an interdisciplinary project funded by the United States National Science Foundation, a broad-band seismic array was deployed over a 2-yr period between mid-2012 and mid-2014 along a profile 756 km in length. Using P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by the stations, the 410 and 660 km discontinuities bordering the mantle transition zone (MTZ) are imaged for the first time. When a standard Earth model is used for the stacking of RFs, the apparent depths of both discontinuities beneath the Kalahari Craton are about 15 km shallower than those beneath the Congo Craton. Using teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals obtained by this study and lithospheric thickness estimated by previous studies, we conclude that the apparent shallowing is the result of a 100-150 km difference in the thickness of the lithosphere between the two cratons. Relative to the adjacent tectonically stable areas, no significant anomalies in the depth of the MTZ discontinuities or in teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals are

  15. Quantitative mapping of elemental distribution in leaves of the metallophytes Helichrysum candolleanum, Blepharis aspera, and Blepharis diversispina from Selkirk Cu-Ni mine, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosaletse-Mswela, Pulane; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Cloete, Karen J.; Barnabas, Alban D.; Torto, Nelson; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2015-11-01

    Multi-element profiling is essential in understanding the metal-tolerant behavior of metallophytes. Although previous reports using multi-elemental analyses show that the metallophytes Blepharis aspera, Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) and Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) take up metals, no information exists on elemental spatial distribution and concentrations in specific tissues of these plants. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of copper, nickel and other elements in leaf tissues of these plants using micro-PIXE. Whole plants were collected with soil in pots from an operational copper and nickel mine (i.e., a copper and nickel mineralized area), Selkirk, about 40 km north-east of Francistown, Botswana. On the same day the samples were transported by air to iThemba LABS in South Africa. Leaf specimens were cryofixed in liquid propane cooled by LN2. Parallel samples were embedded in resin for anatomical studies to facilitate interpretation of elemental maps. The distribution and concentration of copper, nickel, and other elements in leaf tissues were determined using micro-PIXE and proton backscattering spectrometry. Data evaluation was performed using GeoPIXE II software. Micro-PIXE showed that H. candolleanum had the highest whole leaf content of copper (70 ± 3 μg g-1 DW) and nickel (168 ± 5 μg g-1 DW), followed by B. aspera (Cu: 25 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni: 166 ± 4 μg g-1 DW) and B. diversispina (Cu: 3 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni, below detection limit). For specific leaf tissues, the highest levels of copper were found in the vascular bundle for H. candolleanum (167 ± 7 μg g-1 DW) and the lower epidermis for B. aspera (70 ± 9 μg g-1 DW). The highest levels of nickel were present in the vascular bundle of B. aspera (479 ± 10 μg g-1 DW) and H. candolleanum (90 ± 5 μg g-1 DW). Elemental maps showed a similar distribution pattern for copper and nickel in B. aspera and B diversispina, with these

  16. Investigating metasomatic effects on the 187Os isotopic signature: A case study on micrometric base metal sulphides in metasomatised peridotite from the Letlhakane kimberlite (Botswana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A. N.; Luguet, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Pearson, D. G.

    2015-09-01

    The peridotite xenoliths of the Letlhakane kimberlite (Botswana), which intrude the Proterozoic Magondi Belt on the western margin of the Zimbabwe craton, represent highly depleted melting residues. These residues suffered subsequent variable metasomatic overprinting, evidenced by cryptic trace element enrichments in the spinel peridotites to modal addition of phlogopite, clinopyroxene and spinel within the garnet peridotites. In order to assess the robustness of the Re-Os chronometer in such highly metasomatised peridotites, detailed investigations of base metal sulphide (BMS) petrography and single-BMS grain 187Os/188Os analyses have been undertaken in three representative peridotites. The BMS occur as habits (e.g. isolated inclusions, pseudo-inclusions, intergranular melt-like pools), contrary to what is commonly assumed. In such highly depleted peridotites that must have been sulphide-free after the partial melting event, the Eoarchean age is likely inherited from residual PGM (platinum group minerals; i.e. laurite and Os-alloys) that formed in response to the exhaustion of the primary BMS and were later redissolved within the metasomatic BMS. In contrast, the younger single grain TRD ages represents an increasing dilution of the residual PGM signals within the metasomatic BMS, with the single grain 187Os/188Os signatures becoming increasingly dominated by Os derived from metasomatic BMS. Taken as a whole, the single BMS grain Eoarchean age suggests a lithospheric stabilisation age in Letlhakane similar to the oldest crustal samples of the Zimbabwe craton, which thus supports the Letlhakane mantle root to be a westerly extension of the Zimbabwe cratonic mantle. The TRD ages at the single BMS grain scale show a much larger range than their respective whole-rock TRD age, most notably from BMS in the two metasomatic end members: the cryptically-metasomatised peridotite and the most modally overprinted peridotite containing BMS 1 to 2.5 Ga older than their whole

  17. Human schistosomiasis in Ngamiland, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Magnussen, Pascal; Wouters, J S; Berczy, J J; Friis, Henrik; Ali, M I

    1985-01-01

    To reassess the schistosomiasis problem in Ngamiland and especially in Maun area 552 primary school children and 213 adult labourers were examined with urinalysis and rectal snip. Of the pupils 80.3% were found positive for S. mansoni and 1.4% for S. haematobium; of the labourers 35.7% were...

  18. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  19. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    John Cassius Moreki; Modisa Mmoni Sentle,; Neo Bagwasi; Dan Seabo

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorde...

  20. Managing Food Security Action Programs in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Asefa, Sisay

    1989-01-01

    In its 1986 study of poverty and hunger, the World Bank defined food security as “assess by all people at all times to enough food for active and healthy life.” Based on this definition, about a quarter of Africa’s population or more than 100 million people are food insecure, i.e., do not consume enough food to allow for an active and healthy working life. In seven countries, Ethiopia, Zaire, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia, and Somalia, about 40% of the population are food insecure, constituting ...

  1. Performativity in School Management and Leadership in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiri, Nkobi Owen

    2011-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that the uncritical adoption of Western models of education management and leadership policies results in poor performance in schools in disadvantaged communities in developing countries. The argument shows that this has led to the institutionalization of generic education policies that are not contingent to the…

  2. CONTEXTUALIZING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE CASE OF BOTSWANA'S YOUNG FARMERS FUND

    OpenAIRE

    MIKE WILLIAMS; Hovorka, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is well established as a development strategy to facilitate youth empowerment in Africa. Existing scholarship on youth entrepreneurship, while informative, remains limited given its focus on either normative institutional structures or individual decision-making behaviors. Recent research offers a contextualist approach, featuring the dynamic relationship between individual behavior and structural context. Engaging and building upon a contextualist approach, this paper offers...

  3. The Labor Content of Exports in South Africa and Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Massimiliano; Hollweg, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The LACEX dataset has been recently assembled to compute the (direct and indirect) value of the compensation of employees linked to exports for each sector/country/year. The data has been computed on the basis of a panel of global input-output data spanning intermittent years from 1995 to 2007 from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP). This represents a form of social accounting data -...

  4. Englishising African Cultures: Revisiting Acculturated Forms of English in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2014-01-01

    Many "African English" researchers (see Kachru, B. B. (1983). "The Indianization of English." "The English language in India." Singapore: Singapore University Press.) have argued that when English is used in non-native environments, many aspects of its lexicon, grammar and pronunciation are modified and…

  5. Phylodynamic analysis of HIV sub-epidemics in Mochudi, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky

    2015-12-01

    Real-time HIV genotyping and breaking down local HIV epidemics into phylogenetically distinct sub-epidemics may help to reveal the structure and dynamics of HIV transmission networks in communities, and aid in the design of targeted interventions for members of the acute sub-epidemics that likely fuel local HIV/AIDS epidemics.

  6. Keeping the house : coping strategies of child-headed households in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis started with the reading of international orphan care strategies presented by two of the world’s biggest stakeholders and policy makers namely UNICEF and the World Bank. As I red along the thinking behind their policies and the aim to achieve became something that I could not stop thinking about. The means to help Africa’s orphans was to strengthen family ties to make them take care of additional members and the aim by doing this is to prevent children from living alone. But the n...

  7. Multicultural competence in student affairs: The case of the University of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Thenjiwe Emily Major; Boitumelo Mangope

    2014-01-01

    Universities and colleges of education all over the world are experiencing studentpopulations who bring diverse values and experiences into the learning environment.Student affairs professionals are faced with the challenge of accommodating each student’sunique needs. This paper intends to address the essentiality of multicultural competencein student affairs administration in higher education. It discusses the meaning ofmulticulturalism; the role of the student affairs in the development of ...

  8. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Karen Leiter; Michele Heisler; Willi McFarland; Fiona Percy-de Korte; DeMonner, Sonya M.; Sheila Tlou; Nthabiseng Phaladze; Vincent Iacopino; Bangsberg, David R

    2006-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is most commonly spread through unprotected sex with an infected partner. HIV enters the body through the lining of the sex organs, rectum, or mouth, and destroys immune system cells, leaving the infected person susceptible to other viruses and bacteria. Although HIV education and prevention campaigns emphasize the importance of safe sex in reducing HIV transmission, people...

  9. An integrated model for skilled labour retention for the Botswana Police Service / Vincent Stompi Mothupi

    OpenAIRE

    Mothupi, Vincent Stompi

    2014-01-01

    Skilled labour retention continues to receive attention from researchers as a critical challenge faced by organisations globally. The loss of skilled labour in an organisation contributes to the high labour replacement costs, which may result in an organisation‟s failure to achieve its mandate since it is deprived of its high performance, experienced and knowledgeable labour. Organisations must, therefore, be able to diagnose the factors that contribute to the loss of skilled l...

  10. Sexual harassment in the workplace : lessons for Botswana from a South African legal perspective / Tshepo Mogapaesi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogapaesi, Tshepo

    2014-01-01

    Equality of opportunity and treatment in the workplace forms one of the critical components of an individual's ability to obtain and remain in employment and occupation. In a world where qualifications, experience and individual merit can be easily by-passed owing to diverse workplace discriminations, the ability of employees to enjoy their right to work cannot be fully achieved if the workplace is marred with inequalities. Sexual harassment has been characterised as one of the workplace haza...

  11. Botlhoko, botlhoko! How people talk about their musculoskeletal complaints in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    . Abductive qualitative analysis was used as the interpretive methodology. RESULTS: Whereas initial responses about MSK troubles yielded the exclamation botlhoko, botlhoko! combined with animated non-verbal gestures and facial expressions indicating widespread body pains, in-depth interviews revealed...

  12. ANALYSING VOLATILITY IN EQUITY INDICES – A MARKOV APPROACH FOR BOTSWANA DOMESTIC COMPANY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Madhava Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TIn financial economics, forecasting volatility in stock indices and currency returns has received considerable attention in the last two decades. Many traditional econometric methods forecast asset returns by a point prediction of volatility. The central contribution of this paper is to suggest an alternative approach for modelling and related analysis of asset returns. In this approach, the volatility in stock returns is defined in terms of categories depending on the mean of stock returns and its standard error. This classification naturally allows the study of volatility in terms of a Markov model. The approach suggested here will be of interest to academics, stock market investors, and analysts.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Op die terrein van die finansiële ekonomie het die vooruitskatting van volatiliteit in die aandeelindekse en wisselkoerse baie aandag getrek oor die afgelope twee dekades. Verskeie tradisionele ekonometriese vooruitskattingsmodelle baseer die vooruitskatting van opbrengste op ‘n puntvooruitskatting van die wisselvalligheid. Die bydrae van hierdie artikel is om ‘n alternatiewe metode voor te stel vir die modellering. Volgens die model word die volatiliteit van opbrengste gekategoriseer op grond van die gemiddelde opbrengste en die standaardfout. Dit skep geleetheid vir die toepassing van ‘n Markov-model. Die model sal akademici, beleggers en analiste interesseer.

  13. Neotectonic formation of drainage patterns and their palaeohydrological implications for the Okwa River catchment, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Schmidt, Mareike; Shemang, Elisha; Zhang, Shuping; Frank, Riedel

    2014-05-01

    Large inter- and intramontane endorheic basins provide long term archives of environmental change, often integrating regional to continental climate driven process dynamics of huge drainage systems. On one hand the large-scale integration can be regarded as an advantage by averaging small-scale variations of either local hydrological peculiarities or random triggered drainage behaviour (e.g. internal thresholds, tectonics, etc.) and thus just recording atmospheric circulation pattern up to hemispherical scales with millennial resolution. Otherwise, with increasing basin size the process dynamic and their response system along one or more sediment cascades often become a complexity resulting in crucial problems of sedimentological archive interpretations by e.g. signal interference, equifinality or even multiple reworking. Therefore, studies of geomorphological or hydrological response processes and ecological adaption can only be undertaken on sub-catchment scale considering process dynamics along pathways. For southern-hemispheric palaeoclimate reconstruction of land-ocean linkages, Makgadikgadi Basin - as the largest (c. 37,000 km2) and deepest depression in the middle Kalahari - provides a fluvio-lacustrine archive in high-continental position since at least 300 kyr BP. Recent studies suggest a mega-lake high-stand within the basin for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) For the hydrological persistence of the lake for about 6 kyrs, the since Heinrich Event 1 (17-16 ka) inactive Okwa River seems to play a key role indicating a northward-shift of the winter rainfall zone. However, beside some dating of exposed shell bearing sediments at the river mouth, a thorough investigation of the c. 129,000 km2 drainage system is missing. Our presentation aims to point out the linkages between neotectonic activity and sediment transport. The combination of adaptive DEM-filter and multispectral remote sensing data reveals obvious traps (of neotectonic origin) of small temporary sinks filled partly with still-water sediments along the W-E-striking main course of Okwa. First two radiocarbon-dating of fossil shells within a c. 1.50m outcrop in a small basin of the upper reaches suggest an age of about 20-22 kyr cal. BP of the basin fill. To some extent, the related faults can clearly be traced by perpendicular river courses or vegetation changes related to wetness changes of the soils. In contrast, the influence of tectonics affecting the river courses become increasingly fuzzy until the immediate final gorge of the river mouth. A DGPS-profile exhibits an asymmetric cross-profile with two terraces at the southern slope and an additional terrace at the opposite slope. The asymmetric terrace-setting can apparently be attributed to the twin-featured Gidikwe-fault to the north and its single featured continuation to the south. Thus, the terraces within the gorge can obviously be related to intersecting faults. The eastward propagating delta consists of four generation of sub-fans. Morpho-stratigraphic analyses show that two of them can be directly attributed to young faulting dynamics with short-distance sediment transportation. However, the oldest fan is obviously developed by fluvial sedimentation during the last high-stand and conserved by a fast decreasing erosion base.

  14. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Van As, L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, JUL 22 2015 (2015), s. 039. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : helminth parasites, * taxonomy * new species, * Cucullanus * Cithariniella * Synodontisia * Galeiceps * freshwater fish * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  15. Occupational care giving conditions and human rights: A study of elderly caregivers in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article′s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers′ human rights: (1 Aging; (2 Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3 Risk of contagion; (4 Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1 Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2 Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3 Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4 Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers′ occupational hazards and risks.

  16. A Syntagm of Networked Educational Management: Case Study--University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip

    2004-01-01

    Networked educational management has emerged as an effective, distributed management approach for managing educational technologies and e-learning in educational institutions. This management model has been developed during the writer's doctorate research and implementation of e-learning (also referred to as networked education) at Massey…

  17. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Botswana: The Role of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangope, Boitumelo; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The continuing professional development of teachers is crucial for implementation of inclusive education and improving the quality of educational service delivery of all learners. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore teachers' beliefs about professional development for inclusive education in two primary and two secondary schools in…

  18. Adolescent Obesity Prevention in Botswana: Beliefs and Recommendations of School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibu, Sheila; Holsten, Joanna E.; Stettler, Nicolas; Maruapula, Segametsi D.; Jackson, Jose C.; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokone, George; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Compher, Charlene W.

    2012-01-01

    The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in…

  19. Grandmother and household viability in Botswana: family planning, child care and survival in changing tswana society.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingstad B

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles and influence of grandmothers with respect to nutrition, breastfeeding, quality of child care and family planning usage; the maternal grandmother is much more involved with grandchildren than the paternal grandmother. Accordingly this category may be a target for programmes and activities to promote child welfare and family planning.

  20. Relationship between mining revenue, government consumption, exchange rate and economic growth in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegomoditswe Koitsiwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es investigar en forma empírica las relaciones dinámicas entre ingreso minero, consumo del gobierno, tipo de cambio y crecimiento económico en Bostwana. Se analizó información trimestral de 1994 a 2012 usando un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR no restringidos que consiste en la función de respuesta al impul - so y descomposición de varianzas. Adicionalmente, se empleó la causalidad Granger del VAR para examinar la dirección de la causalidad entre variables. La función de respuesta al impulso mostró la respuesta positiva y negativa a impactos mineros mientras que la descomposición de varianzas indica que el ingreso minero define la variabilidad en creci - miento económico y consumo del gobierno. Los resultados empíricos también sugieren que el ingreso minero y la tipo de cambio causan en el sentido de Granger, el crecimiento económico mientras que el consumo del gobierno es causado por el ingreso minero y el crecimiento económico. Estas observaciones revelan lo vulnerable que es la economía de Bostwana a los impactos de choques externos. Concluimos que, aunque el sector minero tiene un papel importante en la economía de Bostwana, es necesario que el gobierno adopte reformas estructurales adicionales que fomenten el desarrollo del sector no minero para diversificar la exportación. Derechos Reservados©2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  1. Bipolar Factor and Systems Analysis skills of Student Computing Professionals at University of Botswana, Gaborone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U. Okike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperamental suitability (personality traits could be a factor to consider in career placement and professional development. It could also be an indicator of professional success or failure in any profession such as Systems Analysis and Design (SAD. However, there is not sufficient empirical evidence in support of the personality traits to which systems analysts and designers may be categorized. The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the main personality traits to which systems analysts and designers may belong, then propose a new approach to composing a personality matrix based on sound computational model. The study employed a quantitative research approach to measure the personality traits of 60 student systems analysts and designers using a human metric tool such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and some pre designed additional questionnaires. A mathematical model of the form a_(ij=ß_0+ß_1 x_(1j+ ß_2 x_(2j+ ß_3 x_(3j+ ß_4 x_(4j+ …ß_n x_nj was employed in order to measure achievement in systems analysis and design examination. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS was used to analyse the data. Using linear regression, the model was not significant, implying that achievement in SAD examination does not depend only on personality traits, motivation variables and study habit variables which were the independent variables. However, the R squared value indicated that these variables account for 52% variation in the dependent variable SAD score (achievement. The best achievers in the personality traits are ENFJ, ENTJ, ISFJ and INFJ all scoring 70% each. Therefore, the best achievers possess the personality traits of extroversion (E, iNtuition (N, Feeling (F, Judging (J, Thinking (T, Introversion (I, Sensing (S. Overall, the highest passes are students of the traits INFJ (11, INTJ (11 passes, ENTJ (10 passes, ENFJ (10 passes, ESFP (3passes, ISFJ (3passes, ISTJ (3 passes, ESFP (2 passes, ENFP (1, ISTP (1, and ISFP (1.

  2. The diabetic foot risks profile in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed: (1 to evaluate the proportion of each diabetic foot (DF risk category, according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF consensus, in patients attending the diabetic clinic in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital (SPGH and (2 to examine some of the factors that may be associated with the progression to higher risk categories such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile.Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional chart review of patients who had attended the diabetic clinic in SPGH from January 2013 to December 2013 was performed. Patients were included if they had undergone a foot examination. Patients with amputation due to accident were excluded. The DF risk category was assessed by determining the proportion of patients in each of four risk categories, as described by the IWGDF consensus.Results: The study encompassed 144 records from patients reviewed for foot examination from January to December 2013. Patients’ ages were between 16 and 85 years, 46 (40% were male and 98 (60% were female. The majority (122, [85%] of patients were in DF risk category 0, whilst a limited number of patients were classified in risk category 1 (10, [6.9%], risk category 2 (7, [4.9%] and risk category 3 (5, [3.5%]. Most of the patients had the type 2 diabetes mellitus (139, [97%; 95% CI 92% − 99%]. Patients’ ages were associated with the progressively higher DF risk categories. The adjusted odd ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 1.03−1.14; p = 0.004.Conclusion: The present study revealed that about 15% of patients attending the SPGH diabetic clinic were categorised in higher risk groups for diabetic foot; patients’ ages were linked to the higher DF risk categories.

  3. Freedom of Information and records management: a learning curve for Botswana.

    OpenAIRE

    Sebina, P. M. I. M.

    2006-01-01

    Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation is mostly adopted on the presumption that good records management exists. However, it is pertinent that the functionality of records management in the creation, management and making records available for access internally within government and externally to citizens be established as the legislation is being planned for. Through the planning process, the capacities of records management in providing access to information will be known. This study empl...

  4. Facebook and Classroom Group Work: A Trial Study Involving University of Botswana Advanced Oral Presentation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magogwe, Joel M.; Ntereke, Beauty; Phetlhe, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, the use of information technology in the classroom is advancing rapidly, especially in higher education. The Internet, through social networking, has made it possible for students to learn and teachers to teach outside the classroom walls. Facebook in particular has made it possible for students to interact and communicate…

  5. Ethics Education Adherence by Teacher Trainees during Teaching Practice: A Botswana Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moswela, Bernard; Gobagoba, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to find out the extent to which teacher trainees understand and observe professional ethics. It also sought the contribution of the Faculty of Education and secondary schools make in promoting teacher ethics among trainees on teaching practice. Data were gathered from randomly chosen 90…

  6. Costs and Consequences of Additional Chest X-Ray in a Tuberculosis Prevention Program in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samandari, Taraz; Bishai, David; Luteijn, Michiel; Mosimaneotsile, Barudi; Motsamai, Oaitse; Postma, Maarten; Hubben, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Isoniazid preventive therapy is effective in reducing the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLWH); however, screening must exclude TB disease before initiating therapy. Symptom screening alone may be insufficient to exclude TB disease in PLWH because some PLWH with TB

  7. A sustainable internal marketing strategy for the National Parks in Botswana / Elmarie de Bruin

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruin, Elmarie

    2007-01-01

    Internal marketing is the key to the success of external marketing and therefore to the success and profitability of the organisation, especially the service organisation. Most organisations emphasise only external marketing, forgetting that a moment of truth contact with the internal market (employees) can destroy the most expensive and creative external marketing campaign. If expectations raised in external marketing are not met when the customer interacts with the employee, everything is l...

  8. A Study to Assess the Accounting Undergraduate Internship Programme: A University of Botswana Students? Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Christian John MBEKOMIZE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine accounting interns? satisfaction levels with some internship organisational issues and to establish from students? perspective, the benefits of industrial learning. The survey method was used to solicit interns? views and a purposive sampling technique was employed to select the students to respond to the questionnaire. The results of this study suggest that respondents were extremely satisfied with internship organisational issues pertaining to host o...

  9. Botswana : Indigenous Institutions, Civil Society and Government in Peace Building in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Hwedie, Bertha Z.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of peace building in Southern Africa is how to blend traditional practices and modern liberal methods of peace building into sustainable peace. This requires the involvement and collaboration of indigenous institutions, civil society, government and the international community. The call for a prominent role for traditional institutions and civil society in peace building does not ignore the problems associated with traditional cultures, norms and institutions; and reflects the n...

  10. Building an Understanding of Democratization in a Developing Nation: A Success Story in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Lee P., Jr.

    This document is an exercise for teachers who are seeking to increase student understanding of the rise and expansion of democracy in new or emerging nations. The exercise complements the National Education Goals for Student Achievement and Citizenship. By design, the exercise challenges students to plan and to conduct (based on the timeless…

  11. Preoperative fasting times in elective surgical patients at a referral Hospital in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worknehe Agegnehu; Rukewe, Ambrose; Bekele, Negussie Alula; Stoffel, Moeng; Dichabeng, Mompelegi Nicoh; Shifa, Jemal Zeberga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adults and children are required to fast before anaesthesia to reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. However, prolonged periods of fasting are unnecessary and may cause complications. This study was conducted to evaluate preoperative fasting period in our centre and compare it with the ASA recommendations and factors that influence fasting periods. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of preoperative fasting times among elective surgical patients. A total numbers of 260 patients were interviewed as they arrived at the reception area of operating theatre using questionnaire. Results Majority of patients (98.1%) were instructed to fast from midnight. Fifteen patients (5.8%) reported that they were told the importance of preoperative fasting. The mean fasting period were 15.9±2.5 h (range 12.0-25.3 h) for solids and 15.3±2.3 h (range 12.0-22.0 h) for liquids. The mean duration of fasting was significantly longer for patients operated after midday compared to those operated before midday, p<0.001. Conclusion The mean fasting periods were 7.65 times longer for clear liquid and 2.5 times for solids than the ASA guidelines. It is imperative that the Hospital should establish Preoperative fasting policies and teach the staff who should ensure compliance with guidelines.

  12. Teaching and Learning Theology and Religion at the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togarasei, Lovemore

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  13. Investigating the level of awareness of building assessment tools in the construction industry of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ntshwene, Keneilwe; Essah, Emmanuel; Dixon, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Environmental building assessment tools have been developed to measure how well or poorly a building is performing, or likely to perform, against a declared set of criteria, or environmental considerations, in order to achieve sustainability principles. Knowledge of environmental building assessment tools is therefore important for successful design and construction of environmentally friendly buildings for countries. The purpose of the research is to investigate the knowledge and level of aw...

  14. Magma flow pictured by magnetic fabric on the Okavongo giant dikes swarm (Botswana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshoso, G.; Aubourg, C.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Kampuzu, H.

    2003-04-01

    The Okavango dyke swarm is 2000 km long and 100 km large. It is one of the feeders of the Karoo (178 Ma) basaltic igneous province in southern Africa. It is the NW branch of three dykes swarm intersecting in Mozambique. This system is generally related to the Nuanetsi plume, precluding the fragmentation of Eastern Gondwana. In this hypothesis, radial flow from this plume can be expected in the dyke swarm. We aim to elucidate the magma flow direction along two sections (Shashe and Thune) within the Okavango dyke swarm. While Karoo dykes are outcropping within the cratonic basement in the Shashe section, Karoo dykes from Thune river pierced Karoo sediments. We adopted sampling scheme in order to document imbrication of magnetic foliation and magnetic lineations. Consequently, we sampled both margins of (0.5 m to (50m, fresh to weathered, basaltic dykes. The overall quality of magnetic fabric data is rather poor and only 30% of dikes provide reliable magma flow direction. We observe that quality diminishes from center of the dyke to the margins, suggesting effect of alteration along margins. We present key examples where additional tests (anisotropy of anhysteretic magnetization, optical determination of plagioclases, demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization) provide interesting constraints to the understanding of magnetic fabric. In particular, we show that demagnetizing NRM permits to identify imbrication geometric on one dyke. By contrast, all tests performed on one dike characterized by abnormal horizontal magnetic foliation indicate that this foliation is not an artifact. When interpreting magnetic fabric as a whole, we observe that horizontal flow is dominant, ruling out vertical feeding. If NW sense of flow seems to be better expressed, SE flow is also recognized thus arguing against a general flow to the NW.

  15. ‘We are the forgotten ones’: Occupational stress among university secretaries in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ilse E. Plattner; Diana S. Mberengwa

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Secretaries play an essential role in any work organisation, but their contributions and support in the daily management activities are not always recognised.Research purpose: There is little research on occupational stress among secretaries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate work-related stressors in the secretarial profession and their association with psychosomatic complaints.Motivations for study: Considering the lack of research on secretaries, it was the objective ...

  16. When Knowledge is not Enough: HIV/AIDS Information and Risky Behavior in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still fueled by ignorance in many parts of the world. Filling in knowledge gaps, particularly between men and women, is considered key to preventing future infections and to reducing female vulnerabilities to the disease. However, such knowledge is arguably only a necessary condition for targeting these objectives. In this paper, we describe the extent to which HIV/AIDS knowledge is correlated with less risky sexual behavior. We ask: even when there are ...

  17. Developing Staff for the Implementation of Problem-Based Learning: Experiences from Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Educational transformation in higher education places new demands on academics, especially in terms of shifting from traditional methods of teaching and learning to the application of innovative methods. Whereas outcomes-based education leans towards a philosophy, problem-based learning (PBL) offers a structured methodology in which teaching and…

  18. Cash, crops and cattle. A study of rural livelihoods in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Wikan, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Lack of economic development has lead to a growing scepticism to grand economic development theories and strategies. The focus has shifted towards a more open-ended perspective where the local context and poverty alleviation are in focus. As a result, the new key concepts in the discourse are livelihoods and urban-rural linkages. The academic interest is focused on the question: how are African households surviving given their increasing difficult economic circumstances? In ...

  19. Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

    Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included livelihood diversification, long-term mobility and training in non-agricultural skills. The study concludes that household capacity to adapt to extreme flooding in the study villages largely depends on access to natural capital. This is threatened by population growth, land use changes, policy shifts, upstream developments, global economic changes and flood variations due to climate variability and change.

  20. The Fiscal Dimension of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lule, Elizabeth; Haacker, Markus

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS imposes enormous economic, social, health, and human costs and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The challenge is particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa, home to two-thirds (22.5 million) of the people living with HIV/AIDS globally, and where HIV/AIDS has become the leading cause of premature death. But now, after decades of misery and frustration with the disea...

  1. Information Communication Technology Adoption in Higher Education Sector of Botswana: a Case of Botho University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Matsoga Lekopanye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunities, benefits and achievements are emerging factors for institutions, lecturers, and learners from the increasing availability of Information Communication Technologies (ICT. These factors are relevant especially for new and growing higher educational institutions (HEI whose survival depends on, among other factors, the use of ICT to develop new organizational models to enhance their internal and external communication relationship and produce quality graduates. Given the relevance of the topic, the researchers studied positive impact of the adoption of ICT by higher educational institutions in an attempt to justify the use of ICT. In this paper, adoption refers to institutions migrating from traditional modes of paper based school management and student engagement to a computerized environment. This shift is hoped to enhance academic development and flexibility, increase level of student engagement, enhance cost-effectiveness, and create a sustainable environment through interactive learning resources. Although the study was conducted at a single institution (i.e. Botho University, it restricts its focus exclusively to the educational motivations for institutions to adopt ICT. In order to ascertain the current state of knowledge, an extensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the collected data and literature have been undertaken. The authors conclude the paper by identifying and examining potential benefits and achievements of institutions in adopting ICT.

  2. An Advocacy Project for Multicultural Education: The Case of the Shiyeyi Language in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati-Saleshando, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural education respects cultural differences and affirms pluralism which students, their communities and teachers bring to the learning process. It is founded on the belief that a school curriculum which promotes the ideals of freedom, justice, equality, equity and human dignity is most likely to result in high academic achievement and…

  3. A Future beyond HIV/AIDS? Health as a Political Commodity in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bochow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Referencing scholarly debates on humanitarianism and specifically HIV interventions, this article analyses the commodification of health in Botswana’s political arena throughout the HIV pandemic and beyond, contributing to a re-evaluation of the distribution of public wealth and international support in welfare states in Africa. The starting point of the analysis is a project to build a private hospital – a move to create a centre of excellence exclusive of international HIV/AIDS donations – and the staging of political responsibilities around it. Public investment into private health is an attempt to reform infrastructures built with HIV/AIDS money and to develop a market of high-paying jobs within the country. This process transforms the inalienable and indivisible condition of health and survival into a political commodity.

  4. Nature of worldview presuppositions among science teachers in botswana, indonesia, japan, nigeria, and the philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Meshach B.; Jegede, Olugbenro J.; Ogawa, Masakata; Yandila, Cephas D.; Oladele, Femi K.

    The focus of this study was to identify the nature of worldview presuppositions held by a group of science teachers from five non-western cultures. The results show that the subjects, irrespective of their cultural backgrounds, hold identical worldview presuppositions. It is not clear at this exploratory stage to what extent the subjects' alternative viewpoints influenced their scientific outlook or their science teaching. However, an analysis of the subjects' viewpoints suggests either poor conceptualizations of the nature of science or a form of collateral thinking, whereby an individual accepts or uses both mechanistic and anthropomorphic explanations depending on the context in question and without exhibiting any sign of cognitive dissonance. The implications of such a scenario for the teaching-learning process are highlighted.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 September 1994;

  5. To assess the value of satellite photographs in resource evaluation on a national scale. [Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, J. V. (Principal Investigator); Hutton, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The limit of resolution on ERTS imagery is normally acknowledged to be about 60 miles although very long features such as roads and railways which are often less than 10 miles long are easily detectable. An example is the north-south road and railway from Lobatse to Francistown. Vegetation growth from winter to summer is readily monitored on false color imagery. The limits of government ranches and special farming areas can be quite accurately ascertained from ERTS imagery. Another aspect to which ERTS imagery lends itself is the location and demarcation of bush fires, many of which were seen on the first imagery which was acquired at the end of the cold, dry season. As a whole, MSS 7 offers maximum reflectance contrast among black and white imagery and is the wavelength used most for interpretation.

  6. Breaking the Culture of Silence: Teaching Writing and Oral Presentation Skills to Botswana University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Dele; Trennepohl, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative learning (CL) methods were evaluated by a group of 101 university students in a first-year ESL course on Communication and Study Skills. The principal objective of the new approach was to encourage students to work together, to express their ideas more freely and to learn from each other. Student opinions on a course project…

  7. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  8. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  9. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Integration of information from the following sources has been used to produce a much better constrained and more complete four-unit geological/hydrological model of the Okavango Delta than previously available: (i) a 3D resistivity model determined from helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM......) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta...... electrical resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands...

  10. Educational Research Within Postcolonial Africa: A Critique of HIV/AIDS Research in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the postcolonial lens to highlight that mainstream research in postcolonial societies still ignores, marginalizes and suppresses other knowledge systems and ways of knowing. The marginalization of local knowledge systems, it is argued, was established in the colonial times that relegated all things indigenous or from the colonized…

  11. Tick-borne haemoparasites in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from two wildlife areas in Northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Eygelaar, Dewald; Jori, Ferran; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Sibeko, Kgomotso P.; Collins, Nicola E.; Vorster, Ilse; Troskie, Milana; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2015-01-01

    Background The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a host for many pathogens known to cause economically important diseases and is often considered an important reservoir for livestock diseases. Theileriosis, heartwater, babesiosis and anaplasmosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in extensive economic losses to livestock farmers in endemic areas. Information on the distribution of tick-borne diseases and ticks is scarce in N...

  12. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  13. Techniques used in the study of African wildcat, Felis silvestris cafra, in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (South Africa/Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Herbst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The techniques used for the capture, marking and habituation of African wildcats (Felis silvestris cafra in the Kalahari are described and evaluated in this paper. African wildcats were captured, with either baited cage traps or chemical immobilisation through darting. Darting proved to be a more efficient and less stressful way of capturing cats. Very high frequency (VHF radio collars fitted with activity monitors were especially effective in the open habitat of the Kalahari for locating and maintaining contact with cats; they also aided in determining if the cats were active or resting in dense vegetation. The habituation of individual cats to a 4×4 vehicle proved to be time consuming, but it provided a unique opportunity to investigate the feeding ecology and spatial organisation of cats through direct visual observations.Conservation implications: In describing and comparing the various methods of capture, handling and release of the African wildcats that we followed during our study in the southern Kalahari, we recommend the most efficient, least stressful method for researchers to follow – both in relation to time and energy, as well as in terms of the impact on the animals being studied.

  14. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Botswana: Educating Children as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensson, Gabriella; Brundrett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS can no longer be regarded solely as a public health issue as its impact extends well into all spheres of life, sectors of society and levels of the education system. This paper argues that not only is it paramount to draw on children's understanding of the impact of AIDS on their lives, but it is equally important to draw on their…

  15. Modelling natural attenuation of heavy-metal groundwater contamination in the Selebi-Phikwe mining area, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Kgomanyane, J.

    2008-04-01

    Seepage from a tailings dam is the major source of groundwater pollution in the Selebi-Phikwe area, where mining of sulphidic nickel-copper-cobalt ore started in 1973 and will continue until 2014. The seepage water has a pH in the range of 1.7-2.8 and is strongly enriched in SO4 2- (5,680 g/L) and heavy metals (6,230 μg/L Ni, 1,860 μg/L Cu and 410 μg/L Co). The fracture aquifer affected by pollution from the dam exhibits a remarkable capacity of heavy-metal sorption. Most of the Ni, Cu and Co is scavenged at less than 500 m distance downgradient from the polluting source, whereas SO4 2- is not immobilized significantly. The heavy-metal sorption process is assumed to be due to surface complexation, which is supported by a relatively high groundwater pH (in the range of 6.2-7.8 at >200 m distance from the tailings dam). The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the sorption process can be incorporated into a realistic three-dimensional reactive-transport groundwater model that is implicitly charge-balanced. The simulations are performed with the PHAST1.2 program, which is based on the HST3D flow and transport code and the hydrochemical PHREEQC2.12 code.

  16. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

  17. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  18. Botswana: 2010 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report and Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The economy entered the crisis from a position of considerable strength because of past prudent macroeconomic management. Macroeconomic policies are being appropriately redirected away from short-term demand management toward medium-term considerations. Fiscal policy was strongly countercyclical during the past two years as the government ramped up spending despite a drop in revenues. The framework for managing the government’s assets and liabilities needs strengthening to cope with a more ...

  19. The career planning needs of senior public secondary school learners in Gaborone, Botswana / Nnananyana K.E. Mekgwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mekgwe, Nnananyana Khutsafalo Erminah

    2010-01-01

    Career choice is one of the most daunting decisions one has to make, since it has implications that affect a variety of aspects in one’s life. For adolescents, career decision–making is even more challenging because it is done at a time when adolescents are going through a period of identity formation, and when their core personalities have not yet been fully formed. It is therefore essential to provide systematic career guidance programmes that will assist adolescents in their career develop...

  20. The relationship between leadership and performance management : a case of Kgatleng land board (Botswana) / B.P Diane

    OpenAIRE

    Diane, B P

    2012-01-01

    The Land Board has been. experiencing delays in allocation of land to the applicants. Some applicants have been waiting for land allocation for over 12 years. Other challenges faced by the Land Board include poor records management that has led to double allocation. After identification of these challenges faced by the Land Board, the researcher was convinced that the challenges faced by the Land Board could be addressed through performance management. The current study therefo...

  1. Quantifying the hydroregime of a temporary pool habitat: A modelling approach for ephemeral rock pools in SE Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsmans, Ann; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Pyke, Chris; Riddoch, Bruce J; Brendonck, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes in temporary rock pools operate within constraints imposed by their hydrologic regimes. These shallow pools flood when seasonal rains accumulate on impermeable substrates. Despite the ecological importance of hydrologic conditions for these ecosystems, we typically lack tools and empirical data required to understand the implications of hydrologic variability and climate change for biotic populations and communities in these habitats. In this study, we de...

  2. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were…

  3. An investigation of permanent and transient changes in flood distribution and outflows in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Piotr; Murray-Hudson, Mike

    The annual flood cycle in the Okavango Delta is the basis of subsistence of the local population, providing water, arable land and wetland resources. Additionally, it forms the basis of a large tourism industry. Flooding in the Okavango Delta is, however, very variable both at short and long term time scales. Past research suggested the influence of factors such as tectonic activity, sedimentation, vegetation change or human influence on the spatial distribution of floodwaters. Change in the flooding regime at any given site is thus often perceived as an effect of permanent change in the system, and this perception results in unnecessary demands for engineering interventions in the system. However, it is possible that some of the perceived changes in flood regime are apparent transient effects of non-linearity of the system and variation in hydrological inputs. Hydrometric data and satellite-derived flood maps are analysed here using statistical methods (covariance analysis and double mass analysis) to distinguish between temporal and permanent changes in various parts of the Okavango Delta. The analyses reveal that system non-linearity causes the hydrological responses of the Okavango Delta to be non-proportional to the inputs. Periods of one to several consecutive years are present when flood extents and outflows are either considerably higher or lower (flow or flood regimes) than what would be expected considering the magnitude of inflow. Such effects are visible throughout the entire system, or only in some distributaries, and do not, as previously thought, represent permanent change in flood distribution. However, flood regime change that appears to result from a physical change in the system has been detected. This change has a nature of shift in flood distribution between the Thaoge and the Xudum, with the latter receiving more water after 1997 at the expense of the former and causing 2004 re-flooding of Lake Ngami.

  4. An investigation into the causes and effects of student disciplinary problems in community Junior Secondary schools of Botswana / Obonetse Masalila

    OpenAIRE

    Masalila, Obonetse

    2006-01-01

    The researcher intended to establish the types of student disciplinary problems in Gaborone Community Junior Secondary Schools as well as ways of combating these problems. The opening chapter states the problem, purpose of study and also provides background to the problem. Data was collected from teachers and the students using questionnaires. All in all sixty (60) subjects were used to collect data. The other chapter that has substantially enriched the project is chapter tw...

  5. The effects of peer harrassment in a school curriculum : a case study of Botswana Junior Secondary schools / Merapelo Kate Mosenki

    OpenAIRE

    Mosenki, Merapelo Kate

    2006-01-01

    The opening chapter states the problem, purpose of study and also provides background to the problem as well as preliminary literature of the study. The other chapter that has substantially enriched the project is chapter two, which provided all the literature, related to the research. The third chapter explains the methodology used in this research study. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires from learners in Gaborone Junior Secondary Schools. All in all, a s...

  6. Exploring states of panacea and perfidy of family and community volunteerism in palliative care giving in Kanye CHBC program, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations: The study recommends: (1 Socializing boys early enough in life into care giving; (2 Offering incentives to the caregivers; (3 Use of public forums to persuade men to accept helping women in carrying out care giving duties; (4 And enlisting support of all leaders to advocate for men′s involvement in care giving.

  7. Assessment of Computer Technology Availability, Accessibility and Usage by Agricultural Education Student Teachers in Secondary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulela, K.; Rammolai, M.; Mpatane, W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the availability, accessibility and usability of computer as a form of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by student teachers in secondary schools. 44 out of 51 student teachers of Agriculture responded to the questionnaire. Means and percentages were used to analyze the data to establish the availability,…

  8. Spatiotemporal Variation and the Role of Wildlife in Seasonal Water Quality Declines in the Chobe River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Tyler; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable management of dryland river systems is often complicated by extreme variability of precipitation in time and space, especially across large catchment areas. Understanding regional water quality changes in southern African dryland rivers and wetland systems is especially important because of their high subsistence value and provision of ecosystem services essential to both public and animal health. We quantified seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) in the Chobe River using spatiotemporal and geostatistical modeling of water quality time series data collected along a transect spanning a mosaic of protected, urban, and developing urban land use. We found significant relationships in the dry season between E. coli concentrations and protected land use (p = 0.0009), floodplain habitat (p = 0.016), and fecal counts from elephant (p = 0.017) and other wildlife (p = 0.001). Dry season fecal loading by both elephant (p = 0.029) and other wildlife (p = 0.006) was also an important predictor of early wet season E. coli concentrations. Locations of high E. coli concentrations likewise showed close spatial agreement with estimates of wildlife biomass derived from aerial survey data. In contrast to the dry season, wet season bacterial water quality patterns were associated only with TSS (psediment runoff significantly influence E. coli loads. Our data suggest that wildlife populations, and elephants in particular, can significantly modify river water quality patterns. Loss of habitat and limitation of wildlife access to perennial rivers and floodplains in water-restricted regions may increase the impact of species on surface water resources. Our findings have important implications to land use planning in southern Africa's dryland river ecosystems. PMID:26460613

  9. Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy and Achieving Education for All Goals in Botswana Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokibelo, Eureka

    2016-01-01

    Nations are tasked with expanding education, increasing its accessibility and quality to develop skilled labour forces needed to compete in the global world. Every nation is under pressure to strive to give their learners an opportunity to explore their potential to achieve the national and global educational goals. In learning, language and…

  10. Conceptualizing and Designing a Qualitative Study:Insights From a Doctoral Study on Youth Livelihoods in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Molefe

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research used to be viewed as a confused and unthinkable research approach. This research approach is increasingly gaining recognition in many disciplines including those focused on the development notions of gender and empowerment in developing countries. This paper details how the author has conceptualized, designed and conducted a qualitative case study for the award of a doctoral degree in international development. The study sought to inform development interventions in Botsw...

  11. Conservation Fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa in the Presence of Land Restitution

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the conservation fee to charge South African residents to maximise park revenue. We conducted contingent behaviour experiments at KTP and three other national parks, which we assume are either substitutes or complements for visitors to KTP. Our random effects Tobit model shows that there is a wide variation in the own-price elasticities of demand between the parks, but they are gen...

  12. Conservation Fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa in the Presence of Land Restitution

    OpenAIRE

    Johane Dikgang and Edwin Muchapondwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the conservation fee to charge South African residents to maximise park revenue. We conducted contingent behavior experiments at KTP and three other national parks, which we assume are either substitutes or complements for visitors to KTP. Our random effects Tobit model shows that there is a wide variation in the own-price elasticities of demand between the parks but they are gener...

  13. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  14. The role of the community mental health nurse in Botswana: The needs and problems of carers of schizophrenic clients in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kgosidintsi

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the role of the psychiatric/community mental health nurse in the context of primary health care in which mental health is an integral part of the general health care system and in a specific socio-economic background. Nine (9 community mental health nurses who graduated from a local training program for community mental health nurses at post basic level, twenty five (25 carers responsible for daily care and welfare of schizophrenic clients from rural, semi-rural, urban and semi-urban areas country wide participated in the study. The study was exploratory and both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using semi structured interviews, unstructured observation and documentary search methods were used. Data analysis for both qualitative and quantitative data was done through simple frequency counts.

  15. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsauer, S; Bay, G.; Meli, M; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  16. Should healthcare in rural Botswana focus on integration and group activities to ease the burdens associated with muscle, bone and joint disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Johannessen, Helle; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    independence and social identity to fulfil traditional duties. Activities limited by pain and disability included: caring for family members who suffer debilitating conditions; walking; sweeping; hand-washing clothes; fetching water; farming; harvesting grasses; and, (re-)constructing homesteads with mud and......: Villagers expressed gratitude for dialogue about MuBoJo conditions to improve daily lives. Interviews revealed social suffering related to drought, poverty and outmigration or other shifts within family structures. The temporal sequence of lives disrupted by MuBoJo troubles was less important than loss of...... thatch. Villagers conveyed interest for group activities to improve MuBoJo health. Word of mouth fueled villager concerns about treatment adverse effects, but most were interested in what “the westerners offer at the caravan.” Providers encouraged integration of MuBoJo care with health and lay personnel...

  17. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent. PMID:27306229

  18. The Impact of Drought on Household Food Security in the Limpopo Basin of Semi Arid Southern Africa: The Case of Kgatleng District in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, Benjamin K.

    2008-01-01

    The Limpopo Basin is important to Botswana’s agriculture in terms of its land area of 80118 square kilometers. Climatic conditions in the Basin have ranged from droughts to floods in some years. The semi-arid nature of the Basin with the resultant low crop yields under rain-fed conditions has meant that communities in the area have adapted various strategies with regard to their access to food. These coping strategies are likely to undergo severe strains during periods of extreme weather patt...

  19. The release of a captive-raised female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Kate Evans; Moore, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Managing captive elephants poses a significant challenge because of their complex social behaviour. While wild female elephants live in close-knit family groups of related individuals, captive herds often consist of unrelated animals. Some of the elephants in captive groups may be excluded by their companions and experience increased aggression, so that their welfare is compromised. There is no easy solution to this problem and novel approaches are required since slaughter of c...

  20. Tourism for development: Environmental sustainability, poverty reduction and empowering communities; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 6, Gaborone, Botswana, 1-3 July, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellmer, K.; Duim, van der R.; Saarinen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promoti

  1. Tourism, tourists and sustainable development in Africa; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 7, Gaborone, Botswana, July 1-3, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saarinen, J.; Duim, van der R.; Zellmer, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promoti

  2. Integration of sources in academic writing: A corpus-based study of citation practices in essay writing in two departments at the University of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Boitumelo T. Ramoroka

    2014-01-01

    The ability to cite sources appropriately is an important feature of academic writing. Academic writers are expected to integrate ideas of others into their texts and take a stance towards the reported material as they develop their arguments. Despite this importance, research has shown that citation presents considerable difficulties for students, particularly non-native English speakers. Such difficulties include using citations effectively in writing and understanding them in reading, expr...

  3. Dose assessment of natural radioactivity in fly ash and environmental materials from Morupule a coal-fired power station in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been undertaken to estimate the occupational and public radiation doses due to natural radioactivity at Morupule, a Coal-Fired Power Station and its environs. The radiation doses were reconstructed to include 60 year period from 1985 to 2045. Direct gamma ray spectroscopy was used to determine the natural radionuclides Th-232, U-238, and K-40 both qualitatively and quantitatively for fly ash, coal, soil and water (from the fly ash ponds) samples. The average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 in fly ash samples were 64.54 Bq/kg, 49.37 Bq/kg and 40.08 Bq/kg respectively. In the case of coal, the corresponding average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 27.43 Bq/kg, 18.10 Bq/kg and 17.38 Bq/kg respectively. For soil samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 10.11 Bq/kg, 6.76 Bq/kg and 118.03 Bq/kg respectively. In water samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 0.79 Bq/l, 0.32 Bq/l and 1.01 Bq/l respectively. These average activity concentrations were generally comparable to the average world activity concentrations in the case of coal samples, but were generally lower than the average world activity concentrations in the case of fly ash, soil and water samples. The average annual effective doses for the study area were estimated as 0.320 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.069 mSv and 0.003 mSv for fly ash, coal, soil and water samples respectively. Dose reconstruction modelling estimated the average fly ash annual effective doses for the years 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, 2025, 2035 and 2045 to be 0.182 mSv, 0.459 mSv, 0.756 mSv, 0.320 mSv, 0.183 mSv, 0.137 mSv and 0.124 mSv respectively. The reconstructed average coal annual effective doses for similar years were 0.070 mSv, 0.182 mSv, 0.303 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.070 mSv, 0.060 mSv and 0.046 mSv respectively. The dose reconstruction modelling also estimated the average soil annual effective doses for the same years as above to be 0.048 mSv, 0.091 mSv, 0.136 mSv, 0.070 mSv, 0.048 mSv, 0.041 mSv and 0.039 mSv respectively. Likewise, the reconstructed average annual effective doses for water were 0.0016 mSv, 0.0049 mSv, 0.0083 mSv, 0.0033 mSv, 0.0016 mSv, 0.0011 mSv and 0.0010 mSv respectively. All estimated and reconstructed average annual effective doses are within the recommended public and occupational dose limits of 1 mSv and 20 mSv respectively. The radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external and internal hazard indices for all samples are within recommended international values for their safe use as building materials. Results from this study reveal that there is no significant radiological impact to both the workers and the public within Morupule, a Coal-Fired Power Station and its environs. (au)

  4. Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens (Burch)DC ex. Meisn from Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Motlhanka D.M.T

    2012-01-01

    Comparative phytochemical analysis [TLC method] and antioxidant activity of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens were done. Total phenolic content [Folin-Ciocalteu method] and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay] of both chloroform and methanol extracts were determined. Analysis of ex situ cultivated plant material showed presence of phytochemicals comparable with those found in the wild plants. The total phenolic content...

  5. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  6. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  7. Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

  8. Investigating the impact of world heritage site tourism on the intangible heritage of a community: Tsodilo Hills World Heritage site, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Keitumetse; Olivia Nthoi

    2009-01-01

    In places that are not World Heritage sites, communities produce material culture continuously as a form of interaction between themselves and their environments. In the Okavango Delta region, crafts are a good example of such material culture. Today, the concept of ‘World Heritage’ is led by socio-economic needs – through tourism - rather than socio-cultural interactions. In this process, the indigenous systems of knowledge that create intangible heritage are modified, usually in a negative ...

  9. Investigating the impact of world heritage site tourism on the intangible heritage of a community: Tsodilo Hills World Heritage site, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Keitumetse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In places that are not World Heritage sites, communities produce material culture continuously as a form of interaction between themselves and their environments. In the Okavango Delta region, crafts are a good example of such material culture. Today, the concept of ‘World Heritage’ is led by socio-economic needs – through tourism - rather than socio-cultural interactions. In this process, the indigenous systems of knowledge that create intangible heritage are modified, usually in a negative way, and this affects the social networks that sustain the practices of craft production. The results of research projects conducted in June-August 2003 and June-July 2007 are used to illuminate this discussion. The paper concludes that while in the developing world, giving a site World Heritage status is likely to encourage tourism, the impact on the resident community’s intangible heritage must be considered and safeguarded.

  10. The problems of pricing and selling socio-economic grey literature in Africa : the case of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR), University of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwafo-Akoto, Kate (NIR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    In Africa, socio-economic grey literature (GL) constitutes a substantialproportion of literature produced especially in the universities through their research activities. The paper analyses some of the key problems encountered in pricing and selling GL produced by universities in Africa such as their specialised subject content which fail to appeal to the general public. Discusses the role being played by the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation in building the resear...

  11. Flooding dynamics in a large low-gradient alluvial fan, the Okavango Delta, Botswana, from analysis and interpretation of a 30-year hydrometric record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wolski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okavango Delta is a flood-pulsed wetland, which supports a large tourism industry and the subsistence of the local population through the provision of ecosystem services. In order to obtain insight into the influence of various environmental factors on flood propagation and distribution in this system, an analysis was undertaken of a 30-year record of hydrometric data (discharges and water levels from one of the Delta distributaries. The analysis revealed that water levels and discharges at any given channel site in this distributary are influenced by a complex interplay of flood wave and local rainfall inputs, modified by channel-floodplain interactions, in-channel sedimentation and technical interventions, both at the given site and upstream. Additionally, cyclical variation of channel vegetation due to intermittent nutrient loading, possibly sustained by nutrient recycling, may play a role. It is shown that short and long-term flood dynamics are mainly due to variation in floodplain flows. As a consequence, discharge data collected within the main channels of distributaries do not adequately represent flooding dynamics in the system. The paper contributes to the understanding of seasonal and long-term flood pulsing and their variation in low gradient systems of channels and floodplains.

  12. A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?

    OpenAIRE

    P.T. Mburu; S.K. Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

  13. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi..., Lesotho, Liberia, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria,...

  14. Spatio-temporal ephemeral streamflow as influenced by climate variability in Botswana%气候变率影响下博茨瓦纳河流流量的时空变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnyaladzi BATISANI

    2011-01-01

    The fourth assessment report of the IPCC highlights that the global average surface temperature is projected to increase by 1.8 to 4.0℃ by the year 2100 compared to current climate. Given that climate is the most important driver of the hydrological cycle, the rise in temperature could cause changes in occurrence patterns of extreme hydrologic events like streamflow droughts. An increase in frequency and severity of these events could pose serious challenges for sustainable management of water resources particular in arid regions.However, the understanding of water resources dynamics and the possible impacts of climate change on these dynamics is hindered by uncertainties in climate change models and complex hydrological responses of streams and catchments to climatic changes. Therefore observational evidence of streamflow dynamics at the local scale could play a crucial role in addressing these uncertainties and achieving a fuller reconciliation between model-based scenarios and ground truth. This paper determines spatial and temporal changes in streamflow volumes and their association with climatic factors based on the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and ANOVA to determine possible changes in streamflow over the years and their relation to climatic factors. Streamflow is generally stochastic highlighting the importance of factoring in temporal flow variability in water resources planning. There is no clear evidence that changes in climatic variables are related to streamflow behaviour.

  15. 外国直接投资对博茨瓦纳经济发展的正效应%The Positive Efficiency of Foreign Direct Investment to Botswana's Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风

    2007-01-01

    长期以来,外国直接投资与经济发展的关系不仅是国内外经济学家关注的问题,更是世界各国,特别是发展中国家政府亟待解决的问题。世界上经济发展最落后、普遍受资金短缺困扰的非洲国家,对利用外国直接投资发展经济尤为关注。然而,由于投资环境欠佳和政策不到位等因素,大多数非洲国家未能很好地利用外资来发展本国经济。当然,其中也有特例,南部非洲小国博茨瓦纳正是这样一个国家。该国在利用外资拉动经济增长与发展方面,取得了显著的成效,值得其他非洲国家借鉴。

  16. Flooding Patterns of the Okavango Wetland in Botswana between 1972 and 2000%博茨瓦纳欧科范果湿地1972~2000年泛滥方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny M. McCarthy; Thomas Gumbricht; Terence McCarthy; Philip Frost; Konrad Wessels; Frank Seidel

    2003-01-01

    @@ 欧科范果三角洲地区泛滥范围年年在变化.这种变化与安哥拉高地集水区的区域性降水及当地降雨量有关.我们采用了1972~2000年的3000多幅卫星图像来描绘湿地的格局,其中从1985~2000年的图像几乎是NOAAAVHRR每日连续传送的,1972年以来的其它图像是从Landsat传感器上传下来的,其连续性次之.对AVHRR图像每10天为一期,用无监督分类方法分成陆地和水体.对LandsatTM和ERS2-ATSR数据进行分析的结果,与测算的淹没区域89%相吻合.结果显示欧科范果湿地近期30年期间的变化约在2450~11400km2之间.

  17. Find an ACFAS Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina ...

  18. Find an Eye M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Islands Albania Algeria All Countries American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua And Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... and Saba Bosnia And Herzegowina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina ...

  19. GI Locator Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEKELIA ÅLAND ISLANDS ALBANIA ALGERIA AMERICAN SAMOA ANDORRA ANGOLA ANGUILLA ANTIGUA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA ARMENIA ARUBA ... BENIN BERMUDA BHUTAN BOLIVIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BRAZIL BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS BRUNEI ...

  20. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr British Virgin Islands Brunei- ...

  1. PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE IMPACTS OF A SOUTHERN AFRICAN CUSTOMS UNION-EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ON BOTSWANA’S IMPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyani Thomy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botswana along with its Southern African Customs Union (SACU states is negotiating a European Union (SACU-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA. The negotiations are contentious both within SACU and against the EU and not surprisingly, the initial 2007 deadline not met. This study investigates the effects of such an agreement on Botswana’s import of food, beverages and tobacco using the Vinerian partial equilibrium method. The authors attempt to quantify the impacts of a reciprocal duty and quota free EPA on Botswana’s imports of food, beverages and tobacco under SACU-EU EPA’s. The partial equilibrium analysis suggests that a net welfare benefit for the Botswana consumers is possible. Although there are some trade diversion and tariff revenue losses these do not appear to be large enough to negate the effects of the welfare enhancing trade creation.

  2. Monetary Policy, Governance and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chibba

    2007-01-01

    Botswana is at a crossroads, as economic growth has slowed significantly in recent years while social problems remain largely unresolved. Exacerbating this situation is a monetary policy in crisis as over a decade of generally high interest rates have failed to address inflationary pressures. Thus, the Botswana experience challenges generally accepted wisdom on the relationship between interest rates and inflation. The main lessons learned highlight the need for (i) enhancing the knowledge an...

  3. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  4. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia..., Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific...

  5. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  6. The Impact and Implementation of National Qualifications Frameworks: A Comparison of 16 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides some of the key findings of a comparative study commissioned by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which attempted to understand more about the impact and implementation of national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). Sixteen case studies were produced, on qualifications frameworks in Australia; Bangladesh; Botswana;…

  7. Higher Education and Employment: An International Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    The relationship between higher education and employment (particulary underemployment and unemployment) is discussed in terms of a synthesis of 21 case studies of developing and developed nations. The countries discussed are: Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Pakistan, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen,…

  8. Hearing Ancestral Voices through Creative Art--A Tool for Environmental Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi; Khudu-Petersen, Kelone

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this paper draws on a study in the Kgalagari region of Botswana where participant observation workshops were conducted to illustrate the impact of using the Arts in Education approach (AiE). This approach was used through traditional storytelling in lessons on environmental issues in a rural primary school in the…

  9. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  10. 15 CFR 2013.1 - Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designations. 2013.1 Section 2013.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... Bahrain Barbados Belize Botswana Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador...

  11. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  12. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  13. Using Video as Pedagogy for Globally Connected Learning about the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Diana; Kabwira, Davie; Mmatli, Tlamelo; Rankopo, Morena; Long, Dennis D.

    2012-01-01

    How might U.S. social work students' perceptions of HIV/AIDS differ from those of social work students in sub-Saharan Africa? Furthermore, what can students learn from hearing how students from other countries view them? Social work students in the United States, Botswana, and Malawi were video-recorded; they then viewed the videos of students at…

  14. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  15. A Study on the General Educational Requirements for Access to Vocational Education. Progress Report. Surveys and Studies in Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Le Thanh

    Based on responses received from Argentina, Botswana, Egypt, and the Republic of Korea, this progress report consists of analyses of the case studies and a comparative survey. Part l analyzes the reports of each of the four countries individually. Argentina's report is discussed in terms of its four chapters: General Background, Method of…

  16. Is Investment in Africa Too Low or Too High? Macro and Micro Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shantayanan; Easterley, William R.; Pack, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between weak growth performance and low investment rates in Africa. The cross-country evidence suggests no direct relationship. The positive and significant coefficient on private investment appears to be driven by Botswana's presence in the sample. Allowing for the endogeneity of private investment, controlling for policy, and positing a nonlinear ...

  17. After the International Ethics Conference, What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana from 6-10 December 2009 brought together over 250 delegates, speakers, and other participants from a wide range of disciplines. The theme of the conference, "Retrieving the Human Face of Science: Understanding Ethics and Integrity in Healthcare, Medicine and Research," was…

  18. Environmental Processes and Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Associated with Soil Erosion in Desert Fringe Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of analysis of spectral variation of sand dunes in El Ghorabi, Bahariya, Egypt; Tombouctou/Azaouad, Mali; and Tsodilo Hills, western Botswana are presented. Seasonal variations in dune extent and location of dune crests and their relationship to such factors as wind and weather variations are emphasized.

  19. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into reci

  20. The Impact of International Teacher Migration on Schooling in Developing Countries--The Case of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Simon; Sives, Amanda; Morgan, W. John

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the migration of teachers has been a phenomenon for hundreds of years, the advent of "globalisation" has seen such migration return to prominence. This article focuses on the experiences of two developing countries in Southern Africa which have been on different ends of the process: South Africa as a net sender of teachers and Botswana as a…

  1. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  2. Kenya Airways Increase Flight Frequency to Inner African Continent For Chinese Passengers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways recently announced Chinese passengers would have a much easier transfer to the Gaborone of Botswana from Nairobi in Kenya.From June 30 Kenya Airways will increase its flight frequency to Gaborone to four flights every week.And from September 1,the number will reach five.Flights to Abidjan of Ivory Coast were also resumed again on May 2.

  3. The Planning and Development of Educational Programmes for Personnel in Oral Health. WHO Offset Publication No. 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, H.; Hobdell, M. H.

    This report addresses issues relating to the planning and development of educational programs for oral health personnel in World Health Organization (WHO) communities. Opinions and ideas were obtained from professionals in Sweden, Denmark, Canada, Botswana, Australia, Yemen, United Republic of Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Czechoslovakia.…

  4. Molecular epidemiology of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.;

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 60 field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (M,. mycoides), comprising 56 isolates from cattle in Tanzania, one from Kenya, two from Botswana and one from Portugal, as well as the type (PG1(T)) and vaccine (T-1-SR49) strains, was ivestigated...

  5. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine). PMID:26199278

  6. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  7. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    OpenAIRE

    Dan SEABO; Esu WAUGH; Chistopher TSOPITO; Funnie COOPER

    2015-01-01

    Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The result...

  8. The SASSCAL contribution to climate observation, climate data management and data rescue in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, F.; J. Helmschrot; A. Mhanda; Butale, M.; de Clercq, W.; Kanyanga, J. K.; F. O. S. Neto; S. Kruger; M. Castro Matsheka; Muche, G.; Hillmann, T; Josenhans, K.; R. Posada; J. Riede; Seely, M.

    2015-01-01

    A major task of the newly established "Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management" (SASSCAL; www.sasscal.org) and its partners is to provide science-based environmental information and knowledge which includes the provision of consistent and reliable climate data for Southern Africa. Hence, SASSCAL, in close cooperation with the national weather authorities of Angola, Botswana, Germany and Zambia as well as partner institutions in...

  9. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study m...

  10. The participation of children with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of care midwives provide to clients during the postpartum period. Design: A cross sectional descriptive qualitative and quantitative survey among 65 practising registered nurse midwives. They were interviewed and observed in health institutions while examining the mother and baby prior to discharge. A convenient non-probability sampling was used to identify and select respondents from 14 primary health care facilities in northern Botswana, who were actively...

  11. Transformation: the trickster jackal in motion

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The photograph was taken at Mabuasahube Pan in southern Botswana. It depicts a Black-Backed Jackal looking for left-over food at dusk. While tricksters are invariably known to have many guises, the Jackal features prominently in the myth and folklore of the Khoisan, southern Africa's hunter-gatherer people, as a common instantiation of this conceptual figure. Like tricksters everywhere in the world, the Khoisan trickster is both "selfish and altruistic, destructive and creative, weak and powe...

  12. Assessment of future agricultural conditions in southwestern Africa using fuzzy logic and high-resolution climate model scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Weinzierl, Thomas; Heider, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a major impact on the arid savanna regions of southwestern Africa, such as the Okavango Basin. Precipitation is a major constraint for agriculture in countries like Namibia and Botswana and assessments of future crop growth conditions are in high demand. This GIS-based approach uses reanalysis data and climate model output for two scenarios and compares them to the precipitation requirements of the five most important crops grown in the region: maize, pearl ...

  13. Financial deepening and economic growth: A System GMM Panel Analysis with application to 7 SSA countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, R. Santos

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been a key study in economics field for a long time. This paper examines the link between financial development and economic growth in 7 Sub-Saharan African countries - Nigeria, South Africa, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Botswana and Kenya, over the period of 1981-2013. The study applied both static and dynamic panel data approach, to investigate the relation between financial development and economic growth. The results...

  14. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, van, W.M.J.; Maloka, E.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This is compared with developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, where the introduction of multip...

  15. Becoming a Qualitative Researcher:A Narrative Account of Conducting My First Qualitative Study Involving In-depth Life History Interviews

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    Joseph, Molefe

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wide range of literature on research methodology, first time researchers encounter practical and methodological challenges. This paper provides insights to first time researchers interested in qualitative research. The paper discusses how as a first time qualitative researcher I managed to work within a challenging context to explore livelihoods situation of low-income young women in urban Botswana. Data collection was based on a combination of methods involving in-depth life histor...

  16. Assessing Performance of Botswana’s Public Hospital System: The Use of the World Health Organization Health System Performance Assessment Framework

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    Onalenna Seitio-Kgokgwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF. We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. Methods This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40 and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14, and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. Results The organizational structure of the Botswana’s public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. Conclusion While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved

  17. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Bennitt; Mpaphi Casper Bonyongo; Stephen Harris

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system dou...

  18. Botswana’s revealed comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Makochekanwa, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of Botswana’s competitiveness in world trade has been presented based on indices of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) calculated for the period 1999 and 2004. Results show that Botswana has RCA in diamonds, copper matte, and meat of bovine animals, among other products. Changes in values of RCA over time reinforce the dynamic nature of comparative advantage. The study established that the country gained comparative specialization in the following products: sugar products; copper o...

  19. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV: It is time

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    Smith Stephen M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV-1 plague continues unabatedly across sub-Saharan Africa. In Botswana and Swaziland, nearly 40% of the entire adult population is already infected. No current program is capable of slowing the advancing tide. An effective vaccine and widespread treatment are years, if not, decades away. In this most urgent situation, I propose that pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis be studied as a means to reduce the spread of HIV-1 among at-risk individuals.

  20. Notes on Southern African Tuberales

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    W. F. O. Marasas

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Tuberales have been found in Southern Africa.  Terfezia pfeilii Henn. occurs in the Kalahari Desert and adjacent areas of the Cape Province, Botswana and South-West Africa. The other two,  Terfezia austroafricana sp. nov. and  Choiromyces echinulatus sp. nov., are known only from the Cape.  C. echinulatus is the first representative of that genus to be collected in Africa or the Southern Hemisphere.