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Sample records for botrytis cinerea requires

  1. The MADS-Box transcription factor Bcmads1 is required for growth, sclerotia production and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanquan; Li, Hua; Qin, Guozheng; He, Chang; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are highly conserved in eukaryotic species and involved in a variety of biological processes. Little is known, however, regarding the function of MADS-box genes in Botrytis cinerea, a fungal pathogen with a wide host range. Here, the functional role of the B. cinerea MADS-box gene, Bcmads1, was characterized in relation to the development, pathogenicity and production of sclerotia. The latter are formed upon incubation in darkness and serve as survival structures during winter and as the female parent in sexual reproduction. Bcmads1 is indispensable for sclerotia production. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that Bcmads1 modulated sclerotia formation by regulating the expression of light-responsive genes. Bcmads1 is required for the full virulence potential of B. cinerea on apple fruit. A comparative proteomic analysis identified 63 proteins, representing 55 individual genes that are potential targets of Bcmads1. Among them, Bcsec14 and Bcsec31 are associated with vesicle transport. Deletion of Bcsec14 and Bcsec31 resulted in a reduction in the virulence and protein secretion of B. cinerea. These results suggest that Bcmads1 may influence sclerotia formation by modulating light responsive gene expression and regulate pathogenicity by its effect on the protein secretion process. PMID:27658442

  2. The Botrytis cinerea aspartic proteinase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Espino, J.J.; Dekkers, E.; Sluyter, Van S.; Brito, N.; Kay, J.; González, C.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The ascomycete plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity. Functional analysis was carried out on five aspartic proteinase genes (Bcap1-5) reported previously. Single and double mutants lacking these five genes showed neither a reduced secreted proteolytic activity, n

  3. Three new metabolites from Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Tan, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Three new metabolites, gamma-abscisolactone (1), botrytisic acids A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Botrytis cinerea TB-3-H8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, UV, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was isolated from natural resource for the first time. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (CCDC-265897).

  4. Three new metabolites from Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Tan, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Three new metabolites, gamma-abscisolactone (1), botrytisic acids A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Botrytis cinerea TB-3-H8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, UV, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was isolated from natural resource for the first time. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (CCDC-265897). PMID:19003608

  5. Biotransformation of bioactive isocaryolanes by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Jociani; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; Durán-Patrón, Rosa; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Collado, Isidro G

    2011-08-26

    The metabolism of the fungistatic agent (8R,9R)-8-methoxyisocaryolan-9-ol (4) by the fungus Botrytis cinerea has been investigated. Biotransformation of compound 4 yielded compounds 5 and 6-9. No dihydrobotrydial is observed after 4 days of incubation of compound 4. Separate biotransformation of (8R,9R)-isocaryolane-8,9-diol (5) yielded compounds 7-11. The evaluation of the fungistatic activity against B. cinerea of compounds 4, 5, and 6 is reported. (4R,8R,9R)-8-Methoxyisocaryolane-9,15-diol (6), a major metabolite of (8R,9R)-8-methoxyisocaryolan-9-ol (4), shows a much reduced biological activity when compared with the parent compound. Isocaryolane derivatives 6-11 are described for the first time.

  6. A gapless genome sequence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, Van Jan A.L.; Stassen, Joost H.M.; Mosbach, Andreas; Lee, Van Der Theo A.J.; Faino, Luigi; Farmer, Andrew D.; Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G.; Zhou, Shiguo; Seidl, Michael F.; Cottam, Eleanor; Edel, Dominique; Hahn, Matthias; Schwartz, David C.; Dietrich, Robert A.; Widdison, Stephanie; Scalliet, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier incomplete and fragmented versions of a genome sequence for the grey mould Botrytis cinerea, a gapless, near-finished genome sequence for B. cinerea strain B05.10 is reported. The assembly comprised 18 chromosomes and was confirmed by an optical map and a genetic map based on ap

  7. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  8. ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinereais the causal agent of grey mould disease on a wide variety of crop plants. It is relatively insensitive to natural and synthetic fungitoxic compounds. This thesis describes how ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters contribute to protection by actively secre

  9. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues, Rbohs are the enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of each of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. The SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and attenuated expression of defense genes after infection of B. cinerea than the nonsilenced plants. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI and drought tolerance in tomato.

  10. Fungicide resistance profiles for 13 Botrytis cinerea isolated from strawberry in southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Fungicidal sprays have been widely used for disease control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. In recent years strawberry growers in southeastern Louisiana reported a failure of their fungicide spray programs to control Botrytis fruit rot. Botrytis cinerea has become resistant ...

  11. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse gro...

  12. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  13. Biotransformation of (-)-a-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Tahara, Satoshi; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman; Ahmed, Zafar; Hüsnü, Can Başer K; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-alpha-Pinene (1), a major constituent of many aromatic plants was biotransformed by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford three new metabolites, characterized as 3beta-hydroxy-(-)-beta-pinene (10%) (3), 9-hydroxy-(-)-a-pinene (12%) (4), 4beta-hydroxy-(-)-alpha-pinene-6-one (16%) (5) by physical and spectroscopic methods. A known metabolite verbenone (2) was also obtained.

  14. Botrytis cinerea Control and the Problem of Fungicide Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Brankica Tanović; Goran Delibašić; Mila Grahovac; Milica Mihajlović; Jovana Hrustić; Petar Vukša

    2011-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, greatly affects fruit, grapevine, vegetable and ornamental crops production. It is a common causal agent of diseases in plants grown in protected areas, as well as fruit decay during storage and transport. The fungus invades almost all parts of the plant in all developmental stages, and the symptoms are usually described as grey mould, grey mildew, brown rot and seedling blight. The paper reviews the current...

  15. Autofluorescence of grape berries following Botrytis cinerea infection

    OpenAIRE

    Belanger, M.C.; Roger, J.M.; Cartolaro, P.; Fermaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gray mold is caused by Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of an ascomycete fungus) infecting over 200 plant species worldwide and causing tremendous harvest losses in vineyards. Even though all grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinfera L.) are susceptible to the disease, defense mechanisms are induced to counteract or slow down infection and colonization by the pathogen. One of the key inducible defense molecule is resveratrol, a blue fluorescent stilbenic compound. Considering early fungal detection as a c...

  16. BcMtg2 is required for multiple stress tolerance, vegetative development and virulence in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jin; Lv, Chiyuan; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mtg2 gene encodes the Obg protein, which has an important function in assembling ribosomal subunits. However, little is known about the role of the Obg GTPase in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified an Mtg2 ortholog, BcMtg2, in B. cinerea. The BcMtg2 deletion mutant showed a defect in spore production, conidial germination and sclerotial formation. Additionally, the mutant increased sensitivity to various environmental stresses. The BcMtg2 mutant exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. BcMtg2 mutant showed increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to Congo red (cell wall stress agent). In the yeast complement assay, growth defects of yeast BY4741ΔMTG2 mutant were partly restored by genetic complementation of BcMtg2 under these environmental stresses. Additionally, compared with the parental strain and complement strain, the BcMtg2 deletion mutant displayed a minor glycerol response to osmosis stress. These defective phenotypes were recovered in the complement strain ΔBcMtg2C, which was created by adding the wild-type BcMtg2 gene to the ΔBcMtg2 mutant. The results of this study indicate that BcMtg2 has a necessary role in asexual development, environmental stress response and pathogenicity in B. cinerea. PMID:27346661

  17. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  18. Changes in Botrytis cinerea Conidia Caused by Berberis vulgaris Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing plant extracts for controlling fungal diseases is a main biocontrol method. More interesting is to see what happens to the fungus treated with the plant extract. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Berberis vulgaris extract on Botrytis cinerea and to examine the ultrastructural changes in B. cinerea conidia caused by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, using SEM and TEM. The antifungal activity of B. vulgaris bark extract was investigated using agar dilution method, and compared to that of berberine. Fluconazole was used as the positive antimycotic control. It was found that (1 B. vulgaris bark extract had significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, and its effect was stronger than that of pure berberine. It was also noted that (2B. vulgaris MIC caused severe structural changes of the conidia, comparable with berberine MIC effect; therefore (3 B. vulgaris bark extract might be recommended to be tested as a biocontrol agent against B. cinerea.

  19. The F-actin capping protein is required for hyphal growth and full virulence but is dispensable for septum formation in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Garrido, Carlos; Cantoral, Jesús M; Schumacher, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous (F-) actin is an integral part of the cytoskeleton allowing for cell growth, intracellular motility, and cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells. Its assembly from G-actin monomers and its disassembly are tightly regulated processes involving a number of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) such as F-actin nucleators and cross-linking proteins. F-actin capping protein (CP) is an alpha/beta heterodimer known from yeast and higher eukaryotes to bind to the fast growing ends of the actin filaments stabilizing them. In this study, we identified the orthologs of the two CP subunits, named BcCPA1 and BcCPB1, in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and showed that the two proteins physically interact in a yeast two-hybrid approach. GFP-BcCPA1 fusion proteins were functional and localized to the assumed sites of F-actin accumulation, i.e. to the hyphal tips and the sites of actin ring formation. Deletion of bccpa1 had a profound effect on hyphal growth, morphogenesis, and virulence indicating the importance of F-actin capping for an intact actin cytoskeleton. As polarized growth - unlike septum formation - is impaired in the mutants, it can be concluded that the organization and/or localization of actin patches and cables are disturbed rather than the functionality of the actin rings. PMID:27647239

  20. Effects of fludioxonil on Botrytis cinerea and on grapevine defence response

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anne Noelle; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Walker, Anne Sophie; Leroux, Pierre; Baillieul, Fabienne; Panon, Marie-Laure; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Botrytis bunch rot of grapes is mainly controlled by applying fungicides at three crop stages: the end of flowering (BBCH 68), bunch closure (BBCH 77) and the beginning of veraison (BBCH 81). The phenylpyrroles derivative fludioxonil is among the most effective fungicides registered to control Botrytis cinerea. Its effectiveness was investigated in relation to spray timing, fungicide resistance and defence responses of grapevine. Frequencies of B. cinerea strains which were resistant to fungi...

  1. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Ronseaux; Essaid Ait Barka; Christophe Clément

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16) in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditio...

  2. Towards consumer-friendly cisgenic strawberries which are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of genetically modified (GM) strawberries which are less susceptible to fruit rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. To achieve Botrytis resistance, a polygalacuronase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene has been isolation from strawberry and was characterised. I

  3. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álefe Vitorino Borges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness of gelatin regarding inoculum adhesion. Infection with an isolate from tomato plants that was previously inoculated into petioles and then re-isolated was successful. An isolate from strawberry plants was also aggressive, although less than that from tomato plants. Tomato plants close to flowering, at 65 days after sowing, and younger, middle and apical stem portions were more susceptible. There was positive correlation between lesion length and sporulation and between lesion length and broken stems. Lesion length and the percentage of sporulation sites were reduced by using a moist chamber and were not affected by adding gelatin to the inoculum suspension. This methodology has been adopted in studies of B. cinerea in tomato plants showing reproducible results. The obtained results may assist researchers who study the gray mold.

  4. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  5. The effect of harpin on shelf life of peppers inoculated with Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    TEZCAN, Himmet; Akbudak, Nuray; Akbudak, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    The preservation methods as an alternative to chemical control to prevent postharvest quality losses of peppers were examined. The efficacy of harpin treatments on peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cvs. ‘Demre’, ‘Yalova Charleston’ and ‘Sari Sivri’) was tested in the same conditions in two different years. Peppers grown in greenhouse were applied with four treatments consisting of harpin, Botrytis cinerea, harpin+B. cinerea and control. The harpin in B. cinerea treatments reduced the percentage of ...

  6. Fungicide resistance profiles in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry fields in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-ortuño, Dolores; Cerezo, Rocio; Chamorro, Manuel; Torés, Juan Antonio; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers., is one of the most economically important pre- and post-harvest pathogen of strawberry. The main strategy to control the disease involves the application of different classes of fungicides despite that B. cinerea is considered a high-risk pathogen for resistance development. We collected a total of 367 B. cinerea isolates from 14 strawberry fields in Huelva (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 and determined in vitro fungicide sensitivity to all classes of fungicides currently...

  7. Constitutive expression of MKS1 confers susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection independent of PAD3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Signal transduction through MAPK cascades is essential for eukaryotic cell response to various extracellular stimuli, such as the induction of innate immune responses. Arabidopsis thaliana relies in particular on three of its 20 MAPKs, MPK3,-4,-6, for a proper immune response. Recently we showed that one MPK4-substrate, MKS1, is required for basal resistance against the virulent Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Overexpression of MKS1 (35S-MKS1) led to increased resistance to the same pathogens but also to an increased susceptibility towards the fungi Botrytis cinerea. MKS1 interacts with the transcription factor WRKY33, which in turn controls the regulation of PAD3 and CYP71A13, two genes, required for proper resistance to B. cinerea. Therefore, we tested if the increased susceptibility towards B. cinerea from 35S-MKS1 was due to deregulation of WRKY33 targets. PAD3 and CYP71A13 expression is similar in 35S-MKS1 and WT after B. cinerea treatment suggesting another mechanism controls 35S-MKS1 susceptibility.

  8. Postharvest Control of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena in Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-08-01

    To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy compared with the nontreated control; 0.2 kGy caused 90.5 and 73.9% inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Treatment in vitro with the ecofriendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater effect compared with the nontreated control. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments. Interestingly, when irradiation was combined with fumigation, the percentage of disease inhibition increased more at lower (<0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that the combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  9. Botrytis cinerea Control and the Problem of Fungicide Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, greatly affects fruit, grapevine, vegetable and ornamental crops production. It is a common causal agent of diseases in plants grown in protected areas, as well as fruit decay during storage and transport. The fungusinvades almost all parts of the plant in all developmental stages, and the symptoms are usually described as grey mould, grey mildew, brown rot and seedling blight. The paper reviews the current knowledge on control possibilities of this necrotrophic pathogen. Theattention is particularly paid to the mode of action of novel fungicides and to the problem of resistance. It is pointed out that by limiting the number of treatments in the growing season, avoiding the use of only one fungicide with a high risk for resistance development,appropriate application rate and timing, using mixtures of pesticides with different modes of action, as well as by alternative use of pesticides from different resistance groups, a longterm preservation of pesticide efficacy is provided.

  10. The Herbicidal Activity of Mutant Isolates from Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-lin; ZHANG Li-hui; LIU Ying-chao; MA Juan; LI Chuan; DONG Jin-gao

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen mutant isolates were obtained by ultraviolet mutation from parent isolate Botrytis cinerea BC-4. Among them three mutant isolates, BC4-1, BC4-2, and BC4-15, showed strong herbicidal activity. BC4-1 showed maximum herbicidal activity for inhibition of germination and growth of Digitaria sanguinalis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. The results also showed that herbicidal activity was influenced by differing pH of PD media, with pH value of 4.0 being the optimum.The crude toxin was extracted using chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate, respectively, and the ethyl acetate extracts showed the strongest inhibitory activity on the germination and growth of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L.Using HPLC, one fraction with an absorption peak at 271 nm was separated from the crude toxin. This fraction could strongly inhibit the growth of D. sanguinalis L. at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 and could completely inhibit the seed germination of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L. at a concentration of 50 mg L-1.

  11. Botrytis cinerea protein O-mannosyltransferases play critical roles in morphogenesis, growth, and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario González

    Full Text Available Protein O-glycosylation is crucial in determining the structure and function of numerous secreted and membrane-bound proteins. In fungi, this process begins with the addition of a mannose residue by protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs in the lumen side of the ER membrane. We have generated mutants of the three Botrytis cinerea pmt genes to study their role in the virulence of this wide-range plant pathogen. B. cinerea PMTs, especially PMT2, are critical for the stability of the cell wall and are necessary for sporulation and for the generation of the extracellular matrix. PMTs are also individually required for full virulence in a variety of hosts, with a special role in the penetration of intact plant leaves. The most significant case is that of grapevine leaves, whose penetration requires the three functional PMTs. Furthermore, PMT2 also contributes significantly to fungal adherence on grapevine and tobacco leaves. Analysis of extracellular and membrane proteins showed significant changes in the pattern of protein secretion and glycosylation by the pmt mutants, and allowed the identification of new protein substrates putatively glycosylated by specific PMTs. Since plants do no possess these enzymes, PMTs constitute a promising target in the development of novel control strategies against B. cinerea.

  12. Sodium hypochlorite: A promising agent for reducing Botrytis cinerea infection on rose flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnish, A.J.; Morris, K.L.; Theije, de A.; Mensink, M.G.J.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Reid, M.S.; Jiang, C.Z.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal pathogen that greatly reduces the postharvest quality of rose flowers. A postharvest dip in 200 µL L-1 sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 10 s at 20 °C provided the greatest control of B. cinerea on ‘Akito’ and ‘Gold Strike’ flowers. NaOCl derived from Clorox® Ultra househo

  13. Effect of calcium on cell-wall degrading enzymes of Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanuma, Izumi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Effective anti-Botrytis strategies leading to reduce pesticides on strawberries are examined to provide the protection that is harmless to humans, higher animals and plants. Calcium treatments significantly inhibited the spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The intracellular polygalacturonase and CMCase showed low activities in B. cinerea cultivated by medium containing calcium. On the other hand, calcium-stimulated β-glucosidases production occurred. Our findings suggest that the calcium treatments keep CMCase activity low and cause low activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes of B. cinerea in the late stage of growth. PMID:26998660

  14. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin anta

  15. The genome of Botrytis cinerea, a ubiquitous broad host range necrotroph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, M.; Viaud, M.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic ascomycete, causing serious pre- and postharvest crop losses worldwide on a wide variety of plant species. Considerable research in recent years has unraveled a variety of molecular tools that enables the fungus to invade host tissue, including the secretion of tox

  16. An aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Dekkers, E.; Kay, J.; Phylip, L.H.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea, an important fungal plant pathogen, secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity in axenic cultures. No cysteine, serine or metalloproteinase activity could be detected. Proteinase activity was higher in culture medium containing BSA or wheat germ extract, as compared to minimal medi

  17. Botrytis cinerea endopolygalacturonase genes are differentially expressed in various plant tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Oude Breuil, W.; Wubben, J.P.; Visser, J.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of blight, rot, and gray mold on many plant species, secretes various endopolygalacturonases during all stages of infection. The expression pattern of the encoding genes (Bcpg 1-6) was studied on four hosts: tomato, broad bean, apple, and courgette (also known as z

  18. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on conidial germination activity and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conidia of Botrytis cinerea were irradiated by electron beam at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. The influence of electron beam on the activities of conidial germination and pathogenicity at the temperatures of 5 ℃ and 25 ℃ were tested, respectively. The results showed that the electron beam could inhibit germination of conidia and the length of germ tube of Botrytis cinerea, and delay the germination time. It could also decrease the pathogenicity obviously and higher irradiation dose showed stronger effects. Compared with control, the complete germination time of conidia extended to 5 and 9 d at the cultivate temperatures of 25 ℃ and 5 ℃, after 2 kGy of irradiation, and the germination rate was reduced 46.57% and 33.68%, respectively. The inhibition rates of germ tube were 25.12% and 74.29% when cultured 24 h. The pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea to strawberry was reduced significantly. After 2.0 kGy irradiation and cultivate at 25 ℃ for 2 d, the disease index was 4.17 and it decreased to 15.28 after cultivation of 5 ℃ for 15 d. Electron beam treatment could inhibit the spore germination and germ tube elongation of Botrytis cinerea significantly, delayed the germination time, and reduced its pathogenicity, the higher the dose, the effect was more obvious. (authors)

  20. Practical resistance to fenhexamid Botrytis cinerea isolates from grapevines in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenhexamid is a fungicide used to control Botrytis cinerea on grapes worldwide. Resistance appears to be of a quantitative rather than qualitative nature, with minimum EC50 values that define a resistant phenotype proposed as exceeding 0.1 mg/L by some workers and 0.4 mg/L by others. However, little...

  1. Antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 on Botrytis cinerea mycelium in culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hua; Yang, Chia-Ann; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 grown in the presence of deactivated Botrytis cinerea in culture include a putative l-amino acid oxidase and have suggested the involvement of this enzyme in the antagonistic mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that the mycoparasitic process of Trichoderma spp. against B. cinerea involves two steps; that is, an initial hyphal coiling stage and a subsequent hyphal coiling stage, with different coiling rates. The two-step antagonism of T. harzianum ETS 323 against B. cinerea during the mycoparasitic process in culture was evaluated using a biexponential equation. In addition, an l-amino acid oxidase (Th-l-AAO) was identified from T. harzianum ETS 323. The secretion of Th-l-AAO was increased when T. harzianum ETS 323 was grown with deactivated hyphae of B. cinerea. Moreover, in vitro assays indicated that Th-l-AAO effectively inhibited B. cinerea hyphal growth, caused cytosolic vacuolization in the hyphae, and led to hyphal lysis. Th-l-AAO also showed disease control against the development of B. cinerea on postharvest apple fruit and tobacco leaves. Furthermore, an apoptosis-like response, including the generation of reactive oxygen species, was observed in B. cinerea after treatment with Th-l-AAO, suggesting that Th-l-AAO triggers programmed cell death in B. cinerea. This may be associated with the two-step antagonism of T. harzianum ETS 323 against B. cinerea.

  2. Physiological variability and in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosen, M. I.; Ahmed, A. U.; Islam, M. R.

    2010-07-01

    Physiological variability was studied in 10 isolates of Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea, collected from diverse agro climatic areas in Bangladesh. The optimum temperature and pH for the best mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea were 20 degree centigrade and 4.5, respectively. The mycelial radial growth increased with the temperature up to 20 degree centigrade thereafter it decreased gradually up to 30 degree centigrade and no growth was observed at 35 degree centigrade. Chickpea dextrose agar (CDA) medium supported the highest mycelial radial growth (79.17 mm). The quickest (in 5 days) sclerotia initiation was recorded on chickpea destrose agar and lentil dextrose agar (LDA) culture media while the highest number of spores (2.5104 mL{sup -}1) were recorded on LDA medium. The antagonist Trichoderma harzianum was found to be a good bio-control agent against B. cinerea. Among the seven fungicides Bavistin 50 WP (Carbendazim), CP-Zim 50 WP (Carbendazim), Sunphanate 70 WP (Thiophanate methyl) and Rovral 50 WP (Iprodione) were the most effective to inhibit the mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea at 500 mg L{sup -}1 concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Odporność grzyba Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary Whetzel (Botrytis cinerea Pers. – patogena malin, truskawek i innych roślin uprawnych na fungicydy benzimidazolowe [Resistance of Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary Whetzel (Botrytis cinerea Pers. to benzimidazole fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arseniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1975-1977 forms of the fungus Botrytis cinerea were found in Poland resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. The incidence of the resistant forms increases with the more intensive use of these fungicides. The resistance of Botrytis cinerea to benzimidazole compounds is a cross-resistance involving the whole group of these agents, nowithstanding wihich of them was applied. The resistance acquired by the fungus does not change its reaction to other prophylactic fungicides.

  4. Odporność grzyba Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary) Whetzel (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) – patogena malin, truskawek i innych roślin uprawnych na fungicydy benzimidazolowe [Resistance of Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary) Whetzel (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) to benzimidazole fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    E. Arseniuk; H. Bryk

    2015-01-01

    In the period 1975-1977 forms of the fungus Botrytis cinerea were found in Poland resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. The incidence of the resistant forms increases with the more intensive use of these fungicides. The resistance of Botrytis cinerea to benzimidazole compounds is a cross-resistance involving the whole group of these agents, nowithstanding wihich of them was applied. The resistance acquired by the fungus does not change its reaction to other prophylactic fungicides.

  5. Application of combined treatment for control of Botrytis cinerea in phytosanitary irradiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Koo; Yoon, Minchul; Park, Hae-Jun; Youll Lee, Kwang; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2014-06-01

    Phytosanitary treatments are required to disinfest quarantine pests and pathogens in agricultural commodities. Gray mold in fruit is caused by Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the major postharvest pathogen of apple and pear. Irradiation treatment is a viable alternative for phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical method for controlling pests and postharvest pathogens. An irradiation dose of over 0.4 kGy is used for the control of insects and fungal disease in fresh fruit, but a loss of firmness occurs. Combined treatments are needed to reduce the irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing. This study focuses on the application of combined treatments to reduce the loss of fruit quality when fresh fruit is irradiated for phytosanitary purposes. Comparing the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, while gamma irradiation showed no antifungal activity at a dose of 1.0 kGy, combined treatments (nano Ag particle, nano-sized silica silver) at a dose of 1.0 kGy showed the strongest antifungal activity. This study demonstrates the synergistic impacts of combined treatments in phytosanitary irradiation processing. Taken together, the combined treatments may affect reduction of fruit injury that occurred with irradiation only, meaning that the use of combined treatments with gamma irradiation is significantly effective for the preservation of fruit quality.

  6. Application of combined treatment for control of Botrytis cinerea in phytosanitary irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytosanitary treatments are required to disinfest quarantine pests and pathogens in agricultural commodities. Gray mold in fruit is caused by Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the major postharvest pathogen of apple and pear. Irradiation treatment is a viable alternative for phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical method for controlling pests and postharvest pathogens. An irradiation dose of over 0.4 kGy is used for the control of insects and fungal disease in fresh fruit, but a loss of firmness occurs. Combined treatments are needed to reduce the irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing. This study focuses on the application of combined treatments to reduce the loss of fruit quality when fresh fruit is irradiated for phytosanitary purposes. Comparing the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, while gamma irradiation showed no antifungal activity at a dose of 1.0 kGy, combined treatments (nano Ag particle, nano-sized silica silver) at a dose of 1.0 kGy showed the strongest antifungal activity. This study demonstrates the synergistic impacts of combined treatments in phytosanitary irradiation processing. Taken together, the combined treatments may affect reduction of fruit injury that occurred with irradiation only, meaning that the use of combined treatments with gamma irradiation is significantly effective for the preservation of fruit quality

  7. Investigations on the effectiveness of some fungicides against gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) isolates isolated from grapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Burçak, A.A.; Delen, N.

    2008-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is especially known as the fungal cause of bunch rot of grapes and can lead to high economic losses. Different fungicides have been used to control the disease. In this study, the effectiveness of some fungicides against Botrytis cinerea isolates that collected from the vineyards in İzmir, Manisa and Bursa in 1994-1996 on grapes have been determined under laboratory conditions. Chemical control of gray mold was tested on the grape berries. The fungicides sprayed were pr...

  8. Contribución al control de Botrytis cinerea pers. en statice (Limonium sinuatum mill) variedad Midnigth blue

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Norma C.; Garcés de Granada Emira; Barrera Miryam J.

    1996-01-01

    This work was outlined under the need of controlling the looses of statice (Limonium sinuatum) caused by patogend fungi, with emphasis to Botrytis cinerea. In soil samples, monitoring and affected plants, were obtained the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp, Alternaria sp and Cladospotium sp, causative of symptoms in stems, roots, leaves and flowers. Upon evaluating "in vitro" the antagonistic capacity of T. hamatum with the fungi, was observed growth inhibition ofthe patogens. The eficiency...

  9. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory induced mutants of Botrytis cinerea with resistance to fluazinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Weichao; Chen, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic and filamentous fungus with a high risk of developing resistance to fungicides. The pyridinamine fungicide fluazinam has been reported to have excellent activity against B. cinerea and better effect on controlling gray mold. In this study, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory-induced mutants of B. cinerea with resistance to fluazinam has been investigated. Compared to the wild-type strains, the fluazinam-resistant mutants had a significant decrease in respiratory rate, glycerol, oxalate, and ATP contents, and an increase in ATPase activity and sensitivity to osmotic pressure, but did not differ in cell membrane permeability. Sequencing indicated that two parental strains and four resistant mutants were identical in the nucleotide sequence of F-ATPase gene. These results will enrich our understanding of the resistance mechanism of B. cinerea to fluazinam.

  10. Attachment capability of antagonistic yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea contributes to biocontrol efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqiang eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various postharvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS, and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability and capsule formation between the mutant and wild type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mould caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.

  11. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea consists of two cryptic species, referred to as Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping, and Group I has been described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea. During a survey for Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Va...

  12. Botrytis cinerea Protein O-Mannosyltransferases Play Critical Roles in Morphogenesis, Growth, and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Mario González; Nélida Brito; Marcos Frías; Celedonio González

    2013-01-01

    Protein O-glycosylation is crucial in determining the structure and function of numerous secreted and membrane-bound proteins. In fungi, this process begins with the addition of a mannose residue by protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs) in the lumen side of the ER membrane. We have generated mutants of the three Botrytis cinerea pmt genes to study their role in the virulence of this wide-range plant pathogen. B. cinerea PMTs, especially PMT2, are critical for the stability of the cell wall an...

  13. Pectin degradation by Botrytis cinerea: recognition of endopolygalacturonases by an Arabidopsis receptor and utilization of Dgalacturonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisha Zhang, Lisha

    2013-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungal plant pathogenBotrytis cinerea is able to infect over 200 host plants and cause severe damage to crops, both pre- and post-harvest. B. cinerea often penetrates host leaf tissue at the anticlinal cell wall and subsequently grows into and through the middle lamella, which consi

  14. The pOT and pLOB vector systems: Improving ease of transgene expression in Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, R.M.; Heneghan, M.N.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Bailey, A.M.; Foster, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the construction of a novel vector system comprising interchangeable terminators, as well as a multiple cloning site (MCS), to facilitate the transformation of the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Previous molecular studies on B. cinerea have relied upon the pLOB1 based ve

  15. Quality loss in packed rose flowers due to Botrytis cinerea infection as related to temperature regimes and packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of package design and temperature treatment (cooling and rewarming) on the quality of rose flowers (cv. Sweet Promise) packed in five types of boxes were investigated, with special regard to fungus (Botrytis cinerea) infection. A significant increase of B. cinerea spotting was observed o

  16. Baseline sensitivity to fluopyram and fungicide resistance phenotypes of botrytis cinerea populations from table grapes in california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of table grapes grown in the Central Valley of California. Understanding fungicide-resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of pre-harvest fungicide programs for control of postharvest gray mold. Baseline s...

  17. Effect of polythene Tunnels and Cultivars on Grey Mould Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Organically Grown Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Albartus Evenhuis; Pascal J. Wanten

    2007-01-01

    The effect of covering the crop with polythene tunnels on Botrytis fruit rot was investigated. Two cultivars were grown organically in three field experiments during 2001-2003. Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to strawberry cultivation in the field, especially when the crop is grown organically. Control of the disease in organic strawberry crops depends merely on prevention. Botrytis infection risk depends on humidity and temperature. Under optimal temperature conditions leaf wetness period...

  18. Synthesis of New Hydrated Geranylphenols and in Vitro Antifungal Activity against Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Soto; Luis Espinoza; María I. Chávez; Katy Díaz; Andrés F. Olea; Lautaro Taborga

    2016-01-01

    Geranylated hydroquinones and other geranylated compounds isolated from Aplydium species have shown interesting biological activities. This fact has prompted a number of studies where geranylated phenol derivatives have been synthesized in order to assay their bioactivities. In this work, we report the synthesis of a series of new hydrated geranylphenols using two different synthetic approaches and their inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea. Five new hydrated geranylp...

  19. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Flora V.; Gabriele Ballistreri; Simona Fabroni; Sonia Pangallo; Maria Giulia Li Destri Nicosia; Leonardo Schena; Paolo Rapisarda

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for th...

  20. Boty, a long-terminal-repeat retroelement in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    OpenAIRE

    Diolez, A; Marches, F; Fortini, D; Brygoo, Y

    1995-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea can infect an extremely wide range of host plants (tomato, grapevine, strawberry, and flax) without apparent specialization. While studying genetic diversity in this fungus, we found an element which is present in multiple copies and dispersed throughout the genome of some of its isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the element contained direct, long-terminal repeats (LTRs) of 596 bp whose features were characteristic of retroviral and retr...

  1. Variability of Botrytis cinerea sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by biological control agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajouz, Sakhr; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fabre, Frédéric; Leroux, Pierre; Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50 (effective concentration to reduce spore germination by 50% comparing to the control) values between the least and the most sensitive isolates. T...

  2. Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2008-01-01

    The genetic architecture of plant defense against microbial pathogens may be influenced by pathogen lifestyle. While plant interactions with biotrophic pathogens are frequently controlled by the action of large-effect resistance genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that plant defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Few studies of quantitative resistance to necrotrophic pathogens have used larg...

  3. Exploring SDHI resistance in Botrytis cinerea : from mutagenesis to enzymatic assays

    OpenAIRE

    LALEVE, Anaïs; Walker, Anne Sophie; Leroux, Pierre; Toquin, V.; Lachaise, H.; Fillinger-David, Sabine, Helma

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic ascomycete responsible for grey mould on many crops. Respiration inhibitors play an increasing role in the control of this disease. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs, including carboxamides) inhibit the fungal respiration by blocking the ubiquinonebinding site of the mitochondrial complex II. Old SDHIs (i.e. carboxin), essentially active against Basidiomycetes were replaced in the 2000s by a new generation of SDHIs with a broader spectrum includin...

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Control of Botrytis Cinerea in Relation to Covering Red Current Shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Piet Creemers; Stijn Van Laer; Fanny Pitsioudis; Patrick Meesters

    2007-01-01

    Covering red currant during the development of the fruits guarantees high quality fruits and delays picking time. Because of these reasons, the number of fruit growers using cover production system is increasing. Covering red currant affects fungicide action and efficacy. Furthermore the climate conditions are altered in the shrub resulting in a different infection risk/pressure for certain fungal diseases. The effect of the timing of covering on the control of Botrytis cinerea which is the ...

  5. Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea by successful introduction of Pantoea ananatis in the grapevine phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Van

    2012-01-01

    Florian Gasser,1 Massimiliano Cardinale,1 Barbara Schildberger,2 Gabriele Berg11Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; 2Höhere Bundesanstalt und Bundesamt für Wein-und Obstbau, Klosterneuburg, AustriaBackground and aims: The fungus Botrytis cinerea is a common problem in viticulture and leads to serious losses in both yield and quality. The objective was to study the potential of the antagonist Pantoea ananatis BLBT1-08 for co...

  6. Nocturnal Ventilation For Controling Greenhouse Humidity and Botrytis Cinerea Severity In Unheated Tomato Greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, F.J.; Bailey, B J; Meneses, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Grey mould disease is one of the most important diseases affecting crops grown in unheated greenhouses, where ventilation is the main technique used to control inside environmental conditions. The main goal of this investigation was to study the influence of nocturnal ventilation on the humidity conditions in unheated tomato greenhouses and the consequences for Botrytis cinerea control. Experimental work was realised at the High Institute of Agronomy in Lisbon in two identical ...

  7. Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea through the manipulation of nitrogen fertilization of tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Manzoor Ali; Lecompte, François; Bardin, Marc; Duffaud, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Although nitrogen fertilization is known to affect plant susceptibility to certain pathogens, little is known on its possible effect on the efficacy of biological control. In the present study we examined the effect of five levels of NO3- nutrition on the efficacy of two biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Microdochium dimerum) to protect pruning wounds of tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Plants were grown for two months in a greenhouse with a soil-less drip-irrigationsystem. Differe...

  8. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A.; Soltis, Nicole E.; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J.; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Atwell, Corwin, Soltis, Subedy, Denby and Kliebenstein. How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic ...

  9. Bombus terrestris as an entomovector for suppressing Botrytis cinerea in open field strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Mänd, Marika; Karise, Reet; Muljar, Riin

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is a fruit crop grown worldwide, but diseases such as the grey mould Botrytis cinerea frequently limit its yield. Most of grey mould infection on the fruits is initiated during the flowering period. Use of foraging bees as disseminators of microbial control agents (MCAs) to flowers is known as entomovector technology. Many researchers have shown that bumble bees can efficiently vector MCAs; however, most studies have been conducted in greenhouse conditions.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation and its convergent treatment for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea of cut roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eun-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Park, Hae-Jun; Jeong, Rae-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Postharvest diseases cause considerable losses to harvested crops. Among them, gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is a major problem of exporting to cut rose flowers into Korea. Irradiation treatment is an alternative to phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical approach to the control of postharvest diseases. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against B. cinerea on cut rose varieties, 'Shooting Star' and 'Babe'. The irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%, D10, was 0.99 kGy. Gamma irradiation showed complete inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea, especially 4.0 kGy in vitro. Antifungal activity of gamma irradiation on rose B. cinerea is a dose-dependent manner. A significant phytotoxicity such as bent neck in cut rose quality was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.4 kGy (pcontrol the postharvest diseases in cut rose flowers, and will provide a promising technology for horticulture products for exportation.

  11. Host-targeting-motif Harbored Secretary Proteins in Genome of Plant Pathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yue; Chen Zi-niu; Su Yuan; Yu Lei

    2012-01-01

    According to our previous study, saprophytic fungi Botrytis cinerea contained 579 predicted secretary proteins. Among them, we found that 122 of these proteins contained the highly conserved pathogenic-related host-targeting-motif RxLx within 100 residues adjacent to the signal peptide cleavage site. According to PEDNAT and COG of the GenBank database, the functions of this motif containing proteins included metabolism modification and cell secretion. We blasted them in GenBank and found 47.54% had highly conserved homologues in other species, among them 74.1% had putative functional domains. This suggests these proteins are presumably ancient and vertically transmitted within the species. Many of these domains belonged to proteins which played roles in the pathogenic process of other kinds of pathogens and some had already been proved to be pathogenic secretary proteins of Botrytis cinerea. So we postulated that proteins contained host-targeting-motif RxLx were candidates participating in the pathogenesis of Botrytis cinerea.

  12. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.

  13. Transformation of Botrytis cinerea by direct hyphal blasting or by wound-mediated transformation of sclerotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ish - Shalom Shahar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botrytis cinerea is a haploid necrotrophic ascomycete which is responsible for 'grey mold' disease in more than 200 plant species. Broad molecular research has been conducted on this pathogen in recent years, resulting in the sequencing of two strains, which has generated a wealth of information toward developing additional tools for molecular transcriptome, proteome and secretome investigations. Nonetheless, transformation protocols have remained a significant bottleneck for this pathogen, hindering functional analysis research in many labs. Results In this study, we tested three different transformation methods for B. cinerea: electroporation, air-pressure-mediated and sclerotium-mediated transformation. We demonstrate successful transformation with three different DNA constructs using both air-pressure- and sclerotium-mediated transformation. Conclusions These transformation methods, which are fast, simple and reproducible, can expedite functional gene analysis of B. cinerea.

  14. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentancor Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea, could infect Physcomitrella, and ii whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1 or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193, could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1, resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193 produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1 or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B

  15. Negative regulation of ABA signaling by WRKY33 is critical for Arabidopsis immunity towards Botrytis cinerea 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shouan; Kracher, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg; Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Somssich, Imre E

    2015-06-15

    The Arabidopsis mutant wrky33 is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea. We identified >1680 Botrytis-induced WRKY33 binding sites associated with 1576 Arabidopsis genes. Transcriptional profiling defined 318 functional direct target genes at 14 hr post inoculation. Comparative analyses revealed that WRKY33 possesses dual functionality acting either as a repressor or as an activator in a promoter-context dependent manner. We confirmed known WRKY33 targets involved in hormone signaling and phytoalexin biosynthesis, but also uncovered a novel negative role of abscisic acid (ABA) in resistance towards B. cinerea 2100. The ABA biosynthesis genes NCED3 and NCED5 were identified as direct targets required for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Loss-of-WRKY33 function resulted in elevated ABA levels and genetic studies confirmed that WRKY33 acts upstream of NCED3/NCED5 to negatively regulate ABA biosynthesis. This study provides the first detailed view of the genome-wide contribution of a specific plant transcription factor in modulating the transcriptional network associated with plant immunity.

  16. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

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    Jorge G Fernández

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o detect Botrytis cinerea ( B. cinerea latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods: I n the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements ( boty and flipper and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. T his molecular method proved to be highly specific and sensitive in detecting latent infections. I t revealed the presence of the pathogen in 83 % of the samples from infected apples with 10 4 conidia/ m L , whereas those infected with 10 6 conidia/m L detected 94 % as compared to the traditional method that revealed the pathogen in 40 % and 66 % of the samples inoculated with 10 4 and 10 6 conidia/m L respectively. F urthermore, the method characterized B. cinerea as subpopulation transposa-type by the presence of the transposable elements boty and flipper Results: T he results obtained from DNA quantification method were compared with enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and these studies showed good correlation. T herefore our method has important advantages compared with others detection methods for B. cinerea, because the proposed methodology allowed distinguishes between its two subpopulations ( vacuma and transposa and this would allow establish possible appropriate control strategies. Conclusions: F inally, the method can be an interesting alternative for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  17. Detection transposable elements in Botrytis cinerea in latent infection stage from symptomless apples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge G Fernndez; Martn A Fernndez-Baldo; Claudio Muoz; Eloy Salinas; Julio Raba; Mara I Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detect Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) latent infections on apples before storage, which is essential for effective control strategies in the fruit postharvest industry. Methods:In the present study, a polymerase chain reaction detection method, based on primers designed on B. cinerea transposable elements (boty and flipper) and intergenic spacer region as internal control, were utilized to reveal the presence of symptomless infections on apple fruits. This molecular method proved to be highly specific and sensitive in detecting latent infections. It revealed the presence of the pathogen in 83%of the samples from infected apples with 104 conidia/mL, whereas those infected with 106 conidia/mL detected 94%as compared to the traditional method that revealed the pathogen in 40%and 66%of the samples inoculated with 104 and 106 conidia/mL respectively. Furthermore, the method characterized B. cinerea as subpopulation transposa-type by the presence of the transposable elements boty and flipper Results:The results obtained from DNA quantification method were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and these studies showed good correlation. Therefore our method has important advantages compared with others detection methods for B. cinerea, because the proposed methodology allowed distinguishes between its two subpopulations (vacuma and transposa) and this would allow establish possible appropriate control strategies. Conclusions:Finally, the method can be an interesting alternative for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  18. Arabidopsis AtERF15 positively regulates immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea

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    Huijuan eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon pathogen infection, activation of immune response requires effective transcriptional reprogramming that regulates inducible expression of a large set of defense genes. A number of ethylene-responsive factor transcription factors have been shown to play critical roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In the present study, we explored the functions of Arabidopsis AtERF15 in immune responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, a (hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen, and Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen. Expression of AtERF15 was induced by infection of Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea and by treatments with salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate. Biochemical assays demonstrated that AtERF15 is a nucleus-localized transcription activator. The AtERF15-overexpressing (AtERF15-OE plants displayed enhanced resistance while the AtERF15-RNAi plants exhibited decreased resistance against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Meanwhile, Pst DC3000- or B. cinerea-induced expression of defense genes was upregulated in AtERF15-OE plants but downregulated in AtERF15-RNAi plants, as compared to the expression in wild type plants. In response to infection with B. cinerea, the AtERF15-OE plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS while the AtERF15-RNAi plants accumulated more ROS. The flg22- and chitin-induced oxidative burst was abolished and expression levels of the pattern-triggered immunity-responsive genes AtFRK1 and AtWRKY53 were suppressed in AtER15-RNAi plants upon treatment with flg22 or chitin. Furthermore, SA-induced defense response was also partially impaired in the AtERF15-RNAi plants. These data demonstrate that AtERF15 is a positive regulator of multiple layers of the immune responses in Arabidopsis.

  19. Attachment Capability of Antagonistic Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea Contributes to Biocontrol Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boqiang; Peng, Huaimin; Tian, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various post-harvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS), and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability, and capsule formation between the mutant and wild-type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild-type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild-type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mold caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild-type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy. PMID:27199931

  20. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

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    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  1. Study on Prevention Technology of Beans Botrytis cinerea%豆角灰霉病防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯健; 冯敏; 方新; 于淼

    2012-01-01

    灰霉病是造成豆角烂荚的主要病害,灰霉病多从残花开始侵染,然后逐渐侵染豆荚,造成烂荚,植株死棵。该研究结果表明:木霉孢子稀释液进行喷施也可以有效防治灰霉病的发生。%Botrytis cinerea is primary diseases which causes rotten bean-pod,Botrytis cinerea infection starts from the flowers,and then gradually infects bean-pod,causes rotten bean-pod and plant trees to die.This study′s results showed that the trichoderma spore diluted solution spraying could effectively control the occurrence of Botrytis cinerea.

  2. The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A contributes to virulence with its necrotizing activity, not with its catalytic activity

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    González Celedonio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A has been previously shown to be required for full virulence of this organism despite its poor contribution to the secreted xylanase activity and the low xylan content of B. cinerea hosts. Intriguingly, xylanases from other fungi have been shown to have the property, independent of the xylan degrading activity, to induce necrosis when applied to plant tissues, so we decided to test the hypothesis that secreted Xyn11A contributes to virulence by promoting the necrosis of the plant tissue surrounding the infection, therefore facilitating the growth of this necrotroph. Results We show here that Xyn11A has necrotizing activity on plants and that this capacity is conserved in site-directed mutants of the protein lacking the catalytic activity. Besides, Xyn11A contributes to the infection process with the necrotizing and not with the xylan hydrolyzing activity, as the catalytically-impaired Xyn11A variants were able to complement the lower virulence of the xyn11A mutant. The necrotizing activity was mapped to a 30-amino acids peptide in the protein surface, and this region was also shown to mediate binding to tobacco spheroplasts by itself. Conclusions The main contribution of the xylanase Xyn11A to the infection process of B. cinerea is to induce necrosis of the infected plant tissue. A conserved 30-amino acids region on the enzyme surface, away from the xylanase active site, is responsible for this effect and mediates binding to plant cells.

  3. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg

  4. INTENZITET NAPADA BOTRYTIS CINEREA PERS. EX FR. NA SORTAMA GRAŠEVINA I TRAMINAC I DJELOTVORNOST BOTRITICIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Vrandečić, Karolina; Mesić, J.

    2005-01-01

    Siva plijesan, koju uzrokuje Botrytis cinerea, značajna je bolest vinove loze diljem svijeta. S ciljem utvrđivanja intenziteta napada B. cinera na zrelim grozdovima i učinkovitosti botriticida (Traminac - iprodion, pirimetanil, fludioksinil+ciprodinil; Graševina - fenheksamid, fludioksinil+ ciprodinil, tebukonazol+ diklofluanid), postavljen je dvogodišnji pokus (2001.-2002.) na lokacijama Mladice (Traminac) i Škomić (Graševina). Procjenom intenziteta napada Botrytis cinerea na Graševini i Tra...

  5. French vineyards provide information that opens ways for effective resistance management of Botrytis cinerea (grey mould).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne-Sophie; Micoud, Annie; Rémuson, Florent; Grosman, Jacques; Gredt, Michel; Leroux, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Resistance to fungicides is an evolutionary process resulting from the selection of advantageous genotypes in naturally diverse populations. Seven fungicide modes of action are authorised to control grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on grapevine in France, and five of them have encountered specific resistance, with variable frequencies in populations and possible consequences for field fungicide efficacy. Moreover, multidrug resistance is caused by fungicide efflux and allows a weak resistance towards six unrelated modes of action. Here, a review is given of the fungicide resistance status of B. cinerea in France, particularly in the vineyards of Champagne, which are the most affected. Recently developed resistance and recent findings concerning the associated resistance mechanisms are focused upon in particular. Finally, antiresistance strategies are presented, and examples of managed resistance are discussed in a more general manner with the aim of extending this knowledge to other crops and countries undergoing similar resistance problems.

  6. Biocontrol de botrytis cinerea a partir de extractos fenólicos de fresa

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Gómez, Tania Belén

    2013-01-01

    Michoacán es el primer productor de fresa a nivel nacional, ocupando aproximadamente 4,300 hectáreas en el último año. El cultivo de fresa, es susceptible a microorganismos patógenos que causan enfermedades, tal como Botrytis cinerea agente causal de la podredumbre gris una de las principales enfermedades de este cultivo. Esta enfermedad, provoca pérdidas económicas importantes. Su control se hace generalmente con agroquímicos resultando en graves consecuencias ecológicas, por lo que se requi...

  7. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea.

  8. The homeobox BcHOX8 gene in Botrytis cinerea regulates vegetative growth and morphology.

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    Zsuzsanna Antal

    Full Text Available Filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion of the BcHOX8 gene in both the B. cinerea B05-10 and T4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like, hyphal growth on hydrophobic surfaces; the mutants were hence named Arabesque. Expression of the BcHOX8 gene is higher in conidia and infection cushions than in developing appressorium or mycelium. In the Arabesque mutants, colony growth rate is reduced and abnormal infection cushions are produced. Asexual reproduction is also affected with abnormal conidiophore being formed, strongly reduced conidia production and dramatic changes in conidial morphology. Finally, the mutation affects the fungus ability to efficiently colonize different host plants. Analysis of the B. cinerea genome shows that BcHOX8 is one member of a nine putative homeobox genes family. Available gene expression data suggest that these genes are functional and sequence comparisons indicate that two of them would be specific to B. cinerea and its close relative Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  9. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. PMID:25171761

  10. Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew VITORATOS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils have the potential to replace the synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest diseases of fruit and vegetables.The aim of this study was to access the in vitro and in vivo activity of essential oil obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. and lemon (Citrus limon L. plants, against some important postharvest pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum. In vitro experiments indicated that P. italicum did not show any mycelium growth in presence of thyme essential oils at concentration of 0.13 μl/ml. Moreover, B. cinerea did not show any mycelium growth in presence of lemon and oregano essential oils at concentration of 17 μl/ml and 0.02 μl/ml, respectively. Moreover, the essential oils from three species were effective in reducing the spore germination. The in vivo experiments confirmed the strong efficacy shown in vitro by essential oils. These oregano and lemon oils were very effective in controlling disease severity of infected fruit by B. cinera in tomatoes, strawberries and cucumbers. In tomatoes, grey mould due to B. cinerea was completed inhibited by oregano essential oils at 0.30 μl/ml. Moreover, lemon essential oils induced a significant reduction of grey mould disease severity. In strawberries, grey mould was completed inhibited by lemon essential oils at 0.05 μl/ml. In addition, lemon essential oils at 0.05 μl/ml showed 39% reduction of infected cucumber fruits by B. cinerea. These results indicate that essential oils after suitable formulation could be used for the control of postharvest diseases caused by Botrytis and Penicillium pathogens.

  11. Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 positively contributes to resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Ding, Yezhang; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Colee, James; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-09-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex functions in diverse biological processes including salicylic acid-mediated immune response. However, how Elongator functions in jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense is unknown. Here, we show that Elongator is required for full induction of the JA/ET defense pathway marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) and for resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (ELP2) alters B. cinerea-induced transcriptome reprogramming. Interestingly, in elp2, expression of WRKY33, OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59 (ORA59), and PDF1.2 is inhibited, whereas transcription of MYC2 and its target genes is enhanced. However, overexpression of WRKY33 or ORA59 and mutation of MYC2 fail to restore PDF1.2 expression and B. cinerea resistance in elp2, suggesting that ELP2 is required for induction of not only WRKY33 and ORA59 but also PDF1.2. Moreover, elp2 is as susceptible as coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1) and ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) to B. cinerea, indicating that ELP2 is an important player in B. cinerea resistance. Further analysis of the lesion sizes on the double mutants elp2 coi1 and elp2 ein2 and the corresponding single mutants revealed that the function of ELP2 overlaps with COI1 and is additive to EIN2 for B. cinerea resistance. Finally, basal histone acetylation levels in the coding regions of WRKY33, ORA59, and PDF1.2 are reduced in elp2 and a functional ELP2-GFP fusion protein binds to the chromatin of these genes, suggesting that constitutive ELP2-mediated histone acetylation may be required for full activation of the WRKY33/ORA59/PDF1.2 transcriptional cascade.

  12. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  13. Apoplastic nucleoside accumulation in Arabidopsis leads to reduced photosynthetic performance and increased susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea

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    Manuel eDaumann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accpmpanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility towards Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  14. Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea by successful introduction of Pantoea ananatis in the grapevine phyllosphere

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    Gasser F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Florian Gasser,1 Massimiliano Cardinale,1 Barbara Schildberger,2 Gabriele Berg11Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; 2Höhere Bundesanstalt und Bundesamt für Wein-und Obstbau, Klosterneuburg, AustriaBackground and aims: The fungus Botrytis cinerea is a common problem in viticulture and leads to serious losses in both yield and quality. The objective was to study the potential of the antagonist Pantoea ananatis BLBT1-08 for controlling this disease.Methods: Pathogen suppression by Pantoea treatments was investigated in different field trials and in detached leaf assays. The mode of action was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy of treated grape leaves and by in vitro assays.Results: The introduction of P. ananatis BLBT1-08 in a 3-year field trial resulted in statistically significant reduction of disease symptoms. However, B. cinerea abundance, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a B. cinerea specific gene, was not reduced when compared to non-treated, symptom-free leaves. A DsRed fluorescent protein labeled BLBT1-08 strain showed a high phyllosphere competence and competition on the leaf surface, but did not colonize the inner parts of plant tissue. Germination of B. cinerea was not inhibited by BLBT1-08 on the leaf, but mycelial growth and symptoms were suppressed without direct pathogen-antagonist contact. The antimicrobial activity was amino acid and temperature dependent.Conclusion: P. ananatis BLBT1-08 is a competitive and promising biocontrol agent for the control of B. cinerea and is highly effective at reducing disease incidence.Keywords: biological control, sustainable viticulture, antagonism

  15. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity.

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    Susanna eAtwell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from 4 independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e. polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative mating assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative mating loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape that had been independently propagated over ten years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen’s broad host range.

  16. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A; Soltis, Nicole E; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range. PMID:26441923

  17. Functional analysis of ABC transporter genes from Botrytis cinerea identifies BcatrB as a transporter of eugenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of multiple ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter genes from the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in protection against natural fungitoxic compounds was studied by expression analysis and phenotyping of gene-replacement mutants. The expressio

  18. Trichothecenes and aspinolides produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum regulate expression of Botrytis cinerea genes involved in virulence and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma arundinaceum (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea (B05.10) produce the sesquiterpenoid compounds harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively. T. arundinaceum Ta(delta)Tri5, a mutant that does not produce HA, produces high levels of the polyketide compounds aspinolide (Asp) B and C. We anal...

  19. Botrydial and botcinins produced by Botrytis cinerea regulate expression of Trichoderma arundinaceum genes involved in trichothecene biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma arundinaceum (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea produce the sesquiterpenes harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively, and also the polyketides aspinolides (Asp) and botcinines (Botc), respectively. In the present work, we analyzed the role of BOT and Botcs in the T. arundinaceum-B. cin...

  20. The p450 monooxygenase BcABA1 is essential for abscisic acid biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewers, V.; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Tudzynski, P.

    2004-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (ABA), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. Biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal ABA biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids...

  1. [Synergistion mechanism of exogenous Ca2+ to SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-lin; Li, Tian-lai; Jiang, Guo-bin; Jin, Hua; Zou, Ji-xiang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato seedlings. We treated a tomato strain susceptible to Botrytis cinerea with foliar spraying of water, SA, SA+CaCl2 and SA+EGTA (Ca2+ chelating agent) for one to five days. During the treatment, leaves were collected to analyze the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase levels, and the expression of pathogenesis related protein 1, 2, 3 (PR1, PR2, PR3). Three days after infection, the disease index was 74.8 in control plants, and 46.9, 38.5 and 70.3 in SA, SA+Ca and SA+ EGTA treated plants, respectively. SA treatment significantly increased ROS leaf accumulation, and activities of PAL, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase. These values were further enhanced in SA+Ca treated plants, but decreased in SA+EGTA treated plants. Application of SA significantly increased the expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b, which were further elevated by the combination treatment with Ca2+. These effects were counteracted by the combination treatment of SA and EGTA. The transcription levels of PR2b and PR3a were up-regulated by 1-2 folds, and PR1, 2a and 3b by 2-5 folds in SA- and SA+Ca-treated plants relative to control. These data suggested that application of Ca2+ could synergistically increase SA-induced resistance to B. cinerea. The resistance was associated with ROS accumulation, therefore the increase in resistance might be through ROS ability to increase the activity of defense-related enzymes and expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b. PMID:26915208

  2. Antifungal activity of resveratrol against Botrytis cinerea is improved using 2-furyl derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caruso

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of three furyl compounds closely related to resveratrol, (E-3,4,5-trimethoxy-β-(2-furyl-styrene (1, (E-4-methoxy-β-(2-furyl-styrene (2 and (E-3,5-dimethoxy-β-(2-furyl-styrene (3 against Botrytis cinerea was analyzed. The inhibitory effect, at 100 µg ml(-1 of compounds 1, 2, 3 and resveratrol on conidia germination, was determined to be about 70%, while at the same concentration pterostilbene (a dimethoxyl derivative of resveratrol produced complete inhibition. The title compounds were more fungitoxic towards in vitro mycelial growth than resveratrol and pterostilbene. Compound 3 was the most active and a potential explanation of this feature is given using density functional theory (DFT calculations on the demethoxylation/demethylation process. Compound 3 was further evaluated for its effects on laccase production, oxygen consumption and membrane integrity of B. cinerea. An increase of the laccase activity was observed in the presence of compound 3 and, using Sytox Green nucleic acid stain, it was demonstrated that this compound altered B. cinerea membrane. Finally, compound 3 partially affected conidia respiration.

  3. Development of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on leaves of common poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Botrytis cinerea was assessed on six cultivars of common poinsettia, differing in the colour of bracts, and being in great demand among buyers of these ornamental plants. Resistance to this pathogen differed in the investigated poinsettias. Cultivar 'Malibu Red' (red bracts turned out to be most susceptible, while cv. 'Marblestar' (cream-pink and cv. 'Coco White' (white - relatively resistant to this fungus. After application of various inoculation methods (leaf discs, cut off leaves, whole plants the differences in resistance to B. cinerea were confirmed for two extreme cultivars - susceptible ('Malibu Red' and resistant ('Coco White', which indicated genetic background of this polymorphism. The rate of disease development on poinsettia leaves was affected by the amount of spores used for inoculation (optimum density of 3.5·105 B. cinerea conidia / ml suspension and the addition of stimulants (0.1 M glucose with 0.05 M KH2PO4, which facilitated germination and infection of the host tissue. The inoculated poinsettia leaves showed high stability of plasma membranes. In the susceptible cultivar, in spite of the development of necrotic spots, a significant increase in the membrane damage index (by 13% was found only on day 7 of the disease development.

  4. Biological characteristics and resistance analysis of the novel fungicide SYP-1620 against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoke; Wu, Dongxia; Duan, Yabing; Ge, Changyan; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo; Chen, Changjun

    2014-09-01

    SYP-1620, a quinone-outside-inhibitor (QoI), is a novel broad-spectrum fungicide. In this study, 108 isolates of Botrytis cinerea from different geographical regions in Jiangsu Province of China were characterized for baseline sensitivity to SYP-1620. The curves of baseline sensitivity were unimodal with a mean EC50 value of 0.0130±0.0109 μg/mL for mycelial growth, 0.01147±0.0062 μg/mL for spore germination, respectively. The biological characterization of SYP-1620 against B. cinerea was determined in vitro. The results indicated that SYP-1620 has a strong inhibiting effect on spore germination, mycelial growth, and respiration. The protective and curative test of SYP-1620 suggested that protective effect was better than curative either on strawberry leaves or on cucumber leaves in vivo. In addition, the biological characterization of SYP-1620-resistant mutants of B. cinerea was investigated. SYP-1620 has no cross-resistance with other types of fungicide. Compared to the sensitive isolates, the resistant mutants had lower mycelial growth and virulence but not differ in mycelial dry weight. Sequencing indicated that SYP-1620 resistance was associated with a single point mutation (G143A) in the cytochrome b gene.

  5. Irradiation and evolution of the gray rot botrytis cinerea at the strawberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry was introduced since french colonization in tunisia as one of plants cultivated. At the end of the 1970's the strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was developed in area of Cap Bon. grey mold, caused by botrytis cinerea is by far the most widespread and serious of strawberry fruit diseases and an ever-present threat to the crop. A wide variety of symptoms is caused by B. Cinerea such as a rot on fruit and blight on leaves. this fungus causes domages bith in the field and during storage. In order to reduce severity of grey mold, biological control in field and radiation on post-harvest are developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonism of some microorganisms against B.Cinerea such as Trichoderma and Bacillus in greenhouse. On the other hand we tested the efficacity of biological products such as Prev-Am and BM 86on enhancing plant defense. For the post-harvest studies, the goal is to provide a wear tool to manage better the fungus by gamma rays radiation. (author). 29 refs

  6. Streptomyces araujoniae Produces a Multiantibiotic Complex with Ionophoric Properties to Control Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo José; Crevelin, Eduardo José; Souza, Wallace Rafael; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2014-12-01

    A recently described actinomycete species (Streptomyces araujoniae ASBV-1(T)) is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of this species to inhibit Botrytis cinerea development in strawberry pseudofruit, and we identified the chemical structures of its bioactive compounds. An ethyl acetate crude extract (0.1 mg ml(-1)) of ASBV-1(T) fermentation broth completely inhibited fungus growth in strawberry pseudofruit under storage conditions. The crude extract was fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; the active fraction was further evaluated by tandem mass spectrometry. ASBV-1(T) produced a multiantibiotic complex with ionophoric properties. This complex contained members of the macrotetralides class (including monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and the cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin, all of which were active against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the addition of 2 mM MgSO4 and 1 mM ZnSO4 enhanced macrotetralide and valinomycin production, respectively, in the culture broth. These compounds are considered to be the main active molecules that S. araujoniae produces to control B. cinerea. Their low to moderate toxicity to humans and the environment justifies the application of ASBV-1(T) in biological control programs that aim to mitigate the damage caused by this phytopathogen. PMID:24983843

  7. Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum

  8. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and its convergent treatment for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea of cut roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postharvest diseases cause considerable losses to harvested crops. Among them, gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is a major problem of exporting to cut rose flowers into Korea. Irradiation treatment is an alternative to phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical approach to the control of postharvest diseases. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against B. cinerea on cut rose varieties, ‘Shooting Star’ and ‘Babe’. The irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%, D10, was 0.99 kGy. Gamma irradiation showed complete inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea, especially 4.0 kGy in vitro. Antifungal activity of gamma irradiation on rose B. cinerea is a dose-dependent manner. A significant phytotoxicity such as bent neck in cut rose quality was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.4 kGy (p<0.05) in both varieties. Although there is no significant difference in both varieties for fresh weight, in the case of flower rate, ‘Babe’ shows more sensitivity than ‘Shooting Star’. In vivo assays demonstrated that established doses in in vitro, over 4 kGy, could completely inactive fungal pathogens, but such high doses can cause severe flowers damage. Thus, to eliminate negative impact on their quality, gamma irradiation was evaluated at lower doses in combination with an eco-friendly chemical, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) to examine the inhibition of B. cinerea. Intriguingly, only the combined treatment with 0.2 kGy of gamma irradiation and 70 ppm of NaDCC exhibited significant synergistic antifungal activity against blue mold decay in both varieties. Together, these results suggest that a synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and NaDCC can be efficiently used to control the postharvest diseases in cut rose flowers, and will provide a promising technology for horticulture products for exportation. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation and Na

  10. Identification and Characterization of Botrytis Blossom Blight of Japanese Plums Caused by Botrytis cinerea and B. prunorum sp. nov. in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Enrique E; Latorre, Bernardo A; Zoffoli, Juan P; Castillo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Blossom blight is a destructive disease of plums (Prunus salicina) when humid and temperate weather conditions occur in Chile. Disease incidence ranging from 4 to 53% has been observed. Symptoms include light brown petal necrosis, starting as light brown mottles or V-shaped necrosis at the margins of the petals, progressing to the stamen and pistils. In this study, the etiology of blossom blight of plums was determined. High- and low-sporulating isolates of Botrytis were obtained consistently from blighted blossoms and apparently healthy flowers of plums. Based on colony morphology, conidial production and molecular phylogenetic analysis, these high- and low-sporulating isolates were identified as B. cinerea and B. prunorum sp. nov., respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60), and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) grouped B. prunorum isolates in a single cluster, distantly from B. cinerea and other Botrytis species. The phylogenetic analysis of necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein (NEP1 and NEP2) genes corroborated these results. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and detection of Boty and Flipper transposable elements, were not useful to differentiate between these Botrytis species. Both species were pathogenic on plum flowers and the fruit of plums, apples, and kiwifruits. However, B. prunorum was less virulent than B. cinerea. These pathogens were re-isolated from inoculated and diseased tissues; thus, Koch's postulates were fulfilled, confirming its role in blossom blight of plums. B. cinerea was predominant, suggesting that B. prunorum may play a secondary role in the epidemiology of blossom blight in plums in Chile. This study clearly demonstrated that the etiology of blossom blight of plums is caused by B. cinerea and B. prunorum, which constitute a species complex living in sympatry on plums and possibly

  11. SIDEROPHORE PRODUCING Pseudomonas AS PATHOGENIC Rhisoctonia solani AND Botrytis cinerea ANTAGONISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Páez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida biovar B, Pseudomonas marginalis y Burkholderia cepacia, aisladas de rizosfera y filosfera de plantas de rosa y alstroemeria, identificadas por ensayos bioquímicos y cultivadas en medio King B, mostraron propiedades antagónicas contra los patógenos (se usó medio PDA agar par el cultivo Rhizoctonia solani y Botrytis cinerea. Estas propiedades coincidieron con la presencia de un sideróforo, sustancia polar con bandas de absorción en 260 nm y 402 nm. Se observó incremento del crecimiento longitudinal de las plantas, medido sobre el tallo central, por influencia de P. putida biovar B, P. aeruginosa y P. marginalis. El crecimiento de rizomas (a: 0.05 fue notorio bajo la influencia de P. marginalis.

  12. Efficacy of the Biofungicide PolyversumTM in Controlling Botrytis cinerea Pers. on Raspberry Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Filajdić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of a biological fungicide product, Polyversum™ (Pythium oligandrum Drechsler, in controlling grey mould of raspberries Botrytis cinerea Pers. was tested at sites around Valjevo, Požega and Šabac in 2004, 2005 and 2006. The experiments were conducted anddata processed using EPPO methods.Efficacy was found to be significantly lower statistically in the experimental variants involving Polyversum™ biofungicide (E = 18.0%-53.9% than the standard botricide Ronilan-DF (E = 56.6%-90.3%.Our results show that the biological product Polyversum™ achieved significant efficacy although poorer than the standard fungicide Ronilan-DF. As it is a biological product almost entirely free of any toxicological and ecotoxicological limitations, it offers a significant advantage for widespread usage in plant protection.

  13. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  14. Evaluation of Chemical Control of Botrytis Cinerea in Relation to Covering Red Current Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Creemers

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Covering red currant during the development of the fruits guarantees high quality fruits and delays picking time. Because of these reasons, the number of fruit growers using cover production system is increasing. Covering red currant affects fungicide action and efficacy. Furthermore the climate conditions are altered in the shrub resulting in a different infection risk/pressure for certain fungal diseases. The effect of the timing of covering on the control of Botrytis cinerea which is the cause of the mayor fruit rot disease of red currants was studied. The results from the trials clearly show the positive effect of covering during bloom on the chemical control of Botrytis on red currant. The chemical control of plants during bloom which were covered from bloom equals that of a full season chemical control of uncovered plants or plants covered after fruit set. The full season chemical control of plants covered from bloom was only statistically better then all other objects tested in one of the two trials. Covering alone without chemical control had only a limited effect.

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Control of Botrytis Cinerea in Relation to Covering Red Current Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Creemers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Covering red currant during the development of the fruits guarantees high quality fruits and delays picking time. Because of these reasons, the number of fruit growers using cover production system is increasing. Covering red currant affects fungicide action and efficacy. Furthermore the climate conditions are altered in the shrub resulting in a different infection risk/pressure for certain fungal diseases. The effect of the timing of covering on the control of Botrytis cinerea which is the cause of the mayor fruit rot disease of red currants was studied. The results from the trials clearly show the positive effect of covering during bloom on the chemical control of Botrytis on red currant. The chemical control of plants during bloom which were covered from bloom equals that of a full season chemical control of uncovered plants or plants covered after fruit set. The full season chemical control of plants covered from bloom was only statistically better then all other objects tested in one of the two trials. Covering alone without chemical control had only a limited effect.

  16. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  17. Selection of antagonists of postharvest apple parasites: Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achbani, E H; Mounir, R; Jaafari, S; Douira, A; Benbouazza; Jijakli, M H

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to constitute a collection of pathogenic agents of economic importance which cause losses of apple fruits after harvest namely Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum and to select in vivo efficient antagonistic strains able to protect fruits against both pathogens at 5 degrees C (P. expansum) and 25 degrees C (P. expansum & B. cinerea). Twenty strains of P. expansum and ten strains of B. cinerea have been isolated from infected apple fruits. Potential antagonistic micro-organisms (thirty three isolates) belonging to yeast, bacteria and fungi have been isolated from apple surface. Six of them (strains Ach1-1, Ach2-1, Ach2-2 belonging to Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary) Arnaud, and strains 1112-3, 1113-10 and 1113-5 belonging to Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Am. v. pullulans) showed a high level of protection (more than 80%) at 25 degrees C. once inoculated with P. expansum or B. cinerea for 5 days. The highest level of protection against P. expansum (96%) was observed with the application of Ach 2-1. Six days after inoculation of B. cinerea, strains Ach 2-2 and Ach 2-1 insured 100% and 96% of protection, respectively. At lower temperature (5 degrees C), first symptoms of P. expansum appeared 13 days after its inoculation. Percentages of protection observed after apple treatment with one of the six antagonistic strains were ranged from 78% to 94% 20 days after P. expansum inoculation. Strains labelled Ach showed a protective level higher than 90% against this pathogen, followed by strain 1113-10 (90%), strain 1113-5 (89%) and strain 1112-3 (82%). At 26 days post-inoculation, levels of protection decreased but remained higher than 60% (more than 80% with strain Ach2-2 and strain 1113-5, 75% with strain Ach2-1 and 1113-10, 72% with ach1-1, 61% for the other strains). Strain Ach2-2 and 1113-10 were retained as the best antagonists for the subsequent studies.

  18. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushen eSivakumaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  19. Purification and Phytotoxic Analysis of Botrytis cinerea Virulence Factors: New Avenues for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Davis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus infecting over 230 plant species worldwide. This highly adaptable pathogen can afflict agricultural products from seed to storage, causing significant economic losses and instability in the food supply. Small protein virulence factors secreted by B. cinerea during infection play an important role in initiation and spread of disease. BcSnod1 was found to be abundantly expressed upon exposure to media containing strawberry extract. From sequence similarity, BcSnod2 was also identified and both were recognized as members of the Ceratoplatanin family of small phytotoxic proteins. Recombinant BcSnod1 was shown to have a phytotoxic effect and play an important role in pathogenicity while the role of BcSnod2 remains less clear. Both bacterial and yeast production systems are reported, though the bacterial protein is less toxic and mostly unfolded relative to that made in yeast. Compared to BcSnod1, recombinant bacterial BcSnod2 shows similar, but delayed phytotoxicity on tomato leaves. Further studies of these critical virulence factors and their inhibition promise to provide new avenues for crop protection.

  20. Phytotoxic activity and metabolism of Botrytis cinerea and structure-activity relationships of isocaryolane derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Jociani; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; Durán-Patrón, Rosa; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Collado, Isidro G

    2013-06-28

    Research has been conducted on the biotransformation of (8S,9R)-isocaryolan-9-ol (4a) and (1S,2S,5R,8S)-8-methylene-1,4,4-trimethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,5)]undecan-12-ol (5a) by the fungal phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea. The biotransformation of compound 4a yielded compounds 6-9, while the biotransformation of compound 5a yielded compounds 10-13. The activity of compounds 4a and 5a against B. cinerea has been evaluated. (8R,9R)-Isocaryolane-8,9-diol (6), a major metabolite of compound 4a, shows activity compared to its parent compound 4a, which is inactive. The effect of isocaryolanes 3, 4a, and 5a, together with their biotransformation products 6-8, 10, and 14-17, on the germination and radicle and shoot growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has also been determined. Compounds 7-13 are described for the first time.

  1. Physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defense signals...upon Botrytis cinerea infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable to analyze plant defense responses activated after pathogen assault. Upon infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea), several defense mechanisms are induced in P. patens, including the fortification of t...

  2. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  3. The Nitrogen Availability Interferes with Mycorrhiza-Induced Resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Troncho, Pilar; Gamir, Jordi; Pozo, Maria J.; Camañes, Gemma; Cerezo, Miguel; Flors, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mycorrhizal plants are generally quite efficient in coping with environmental challenges. It has been shown that the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can confer resistance against root and foliar pathogens, although the molecular mechanisms underlying such mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) are poorly understood. Tomato plants colonized with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis display enhanced resistance against the necrotrophic foliar pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Leaves from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants develop smaller necrotic lesions, mirrored also by a reduced levels of fungal biomass. A plethora of metabolic changes takes place in AMF colonized plants upon infection. Certain changes located in the oxylipin pathway indicate that several intermediaries are over-accumulated in the AM upon infection. AM plants react by accumulating higher levels of the vitamins folic acid and riboflavin, indolic derivatives and phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid. Transcriptional analysis support the key role played by the LOX pathway in the shoots associated with MIR against B. cinerea. Interestingly, plants that have suffered a short period of nitrogen starvation appear to react by reprogramming their metabolic and genetic responses by prioritizing abiotic stress tolerance. Consequently, plants subjected to a transient nitrogen depletion become more susceptible to B. cinerea. Under these experimental conditions, MIR is severely affected although still functional. Many metabolic and transcriptional responses which are accumulated or activated by MIR such NRT2 transcript induction and OPDA and most Trp and indolic derivatives accumulation during MIR were repressed or reduced when tomato plants were depleted of N for 48 h prior infection. These results highlight the beneficial roles of AMF in crop protection by promoting induced resistance not only under optimal nutritional conditions but also buffering the susceptibility triggered by

  4. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator fungi on the aroma character of grape must: A comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-09-15

    Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are among the most relevant fungi in viticulture. In order to deepen our knowledge about their potential impact on wine quality, their effects on the aroma character of the initial stage of wine production, i.e. the must were studied. The main aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and ranked according to their relative intensities by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Clear differences between healthy and infected samples were observed. Botrytis cinerea had a positive impact on fruity and floral notes while several earthy smelling compounds were developed as result of the infection. Unlike in previous studies, however, we did not observe any clear differences in the quantities of earthy-mushroom-like smelling substances as result of the infection process with Erysiphe necator. PMID:27080903

  5. Overexpression of three glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in Brassica napus identifies enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Dongxin Huai; Qingyong Yang; Yan Cheng; Ming Ma; Daniel J Kliebenstein; Yongming Zhou

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Zhang et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original author and source are credited. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales o...

  6. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the pr...

  7. Control biológico "in vitro" de diversos aislados de "Botrytis cinerea" Pers. ex Fr., obtenidos de plantas ornamentales

    OpenAIRE

    Roca García, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Basándonos en que el control biológico usando microorganismos constituye una expectativa esperanzadora de futuro debido a su nula toxicidad para el medio ambiente y tras los estudios realizados con las bacterias Bacillus subtilis y Bacillus velezensis y sus sustancias inhibidoras, y el hongo Trichoderma harzianum para el control de Botrytis cinerea, concluimos con lo siguiente: Los resultados mostraron que el control no fue efectivo para el caso de la aplicación in vitro del ho...

  8. Emerging trends in molecular interactions between plants and the broad host range fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Peyraud, Rémi; Barascud, Marielle; Badet, Thomas; Vincent, Rémy; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is know...

  9. Fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kretschmer; Michaela Leroch; Andreas Mosbach; Anne-Sophie Walker; Sabine Fillinger; Dennis Mernke; Henk-Jan Schoonbeek; Jean-Marc Pradier; Pierre Leroux; Waard, Maarten A. De; Matthias Hahn

    2009-01-01

    The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitorin...

  10. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa González-Domínguez; Tito Caffi; Nicola Ciliberti; Vittorio Rossi

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period ("inflorescences clearly visible" to "berries groat-sized"), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period ("majority of berries touching" to "berries ripe for harvest"), ...

  11. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio; Víctor Olalde Portugal; Hortencia Gabriela Mena Violante; Luis Fernando Ceja Torres; José Venegas González; Guadalupe Oyoque Salcedo; María Valentina Angoa Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer) two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present...

  12. Testing of Eight Medicinal Plant Extracts in Combination with Kresoxim-Methyl for Integrated Control of Botrytis cinerea in Apples

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Burtram C; Cindy-Lee Knowles; Filicity A. Vries; Jeremy A. Klaasen

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes gray mold on many fruit crops. Despite the availability of a large number of botryticides, the chemical control of gray mold has been hindered by the emergence of resistant strains. In this paper, tests were done to determine the botryticidal efficacy of selected plant extracts alone or combined with kresoxim-methyl. In total, eight South African medicinal plants viz Artemisia afra , Elyptropappus rhinocerotis , Galenia africana , Hypoxis hemerocallide...

  13. Control Effect and Possible Mechanism of the Natural Compound Phenazine-1-Carboxamide against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Wang, Chong; Su, Pin; Liao, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    To develop new agents against strawberry grey mould and to aid in the development of biological pesticides, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a natural compound, phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), against Botrytis cinerea using a growth rate assay. Additionally, indoor toxicity and the in vitro control effect of PCN were further studied to determine its potential mechanisms of action on B. cinerea. PCN was inhibitory against B. cinerea with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 108.12 μg/mL; the toxicity of PCN was equivalent to that of carbendazim (CBM). The best in vitro control effect of PCN against grey mould in strawberry (fruit) reached 75.32%, which was slightly higher than that of CBM. The field control effect of PCN against grey mould reached a maximum of 72.31% at a PCN concentration of 700 μg/mL, which was 1.02 times higher than that of CBM. Fungistatic activity was observed at low concentrations of PCN, while high concentrations of PCN resulted in fungicidal activity against B. cinerea. This natural compound strongly inhibited both spore and sclerotium germination of B. cinerea, with the best relative inhibition rates of 77.03% and 82.11%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of PCN on mycelial growth of B. cinerea was significant and reached levels of 87.32%. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the mycelia appeared loose, locally twisted, and folded, with exudation of contents; the mycelia was withered and twisted, with edge burrs, deformations, ruptures and a sheet-like structure. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the structure of the cell nucleus was unclear and the vacuoles had ruptured; additionally, various organelles exhibited disordered structures, there were substantial non-membrane transparent inclusions, the cells were plasmolysed, the cell walls were collapsed in some cases, and the hyphal tissue was essentially necrotic. A PCN

  14. Control Effect and Possible Mechanism of the Natural Compound Phenazine-1-Carboxamide against Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zhang

    Full Text Available To develop new agents against strawberry grey mould and to aid in the development of biological pesticides, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a natural compound, phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN, against Botrytis cinerea using a growth rate assay. Additionally, indoor toxicity and the in vitro control effect of PCN were further studied to determine its potential mechanisms of action on B. cinerea. PCN was inhibitory against B. cinerea with a 50% effective concentration (EC50 of 108.12 μg/mL; the toxicity of PCN was equivalent to that of carbendazim (CBM. The best in vitro control effect of PCN against grey mould in strawberry (fruit reached 75.32%, which was slightly higher than that of CBM. The field control effect of PCN against grey mould reached a maximum of 72.31% at a PCN concentration of 700 μg/mL, which was 1.02 times higher than that of CBM. Fungistatic activity was observed at low concentrations of PCN, while high concentrations of PCN resulted in fungicidal activity against B. cinerea. This natural compound strongly inhibited both spore and sclerotium germination of B. cinerea, with the best relative inhibition rates of 77.03% and 82.11%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of PCN on mycelial growth of B. cinerea was significant and reached levels of 87.32%. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the mycelia appeared loose, locally twisted, and folded, with exudation of contents; the mycelia was withered and twisted, with edge burrs, deformations, ruptures and a sheet-like structure. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the structure of the cell nucleus was unclear and the vacuoles had ruptured; additionally, various organelles exhibited disordered structures, there were substantial non-membrane transparent inclusions, the cells were plasmolysed, the cell walls were collapsed in some cases, and the hyphal tissue was essentially

  15. Control Effect and Possible Mechanism of the Natural Compound Phenazine-1-Carboxamide against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Wang, Chong; Su, Pin; Liao, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    To develop new agents against strawberry grey mould and to aid in the development of biological pesticides, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a natural compound, phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), against Botrytis cinerea using a growth rate assay. Additionally, indoor toxicity and the in vitro control effect of PCN were further studied to determine its potential mechanisms of action on B. cinerea. PCN was inhibitory against B. cinerea with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 108.12 μg/mL; the toxicity of PCN was equivalent to that of carbendazim (CBM). The best in vitro control effect of PCN against grey mould in strawberry (fruit) reached 75.32%, which was slightly higher than that of CBM. The field control effect of PCN against grey mould reached a maximum of 72.31% at a PCN concentration of 700 μg/mL, which was 1.02 times higher than that of CBM. Fungistatic activity was observed at low concentrations of PCN, while high concentrations of PCN resulted in fungicidal activity against B. cinerea. This natural compound strongly inhibited both spore and sclerotium germination of B. cinerea, with the best relative inhibition rates of 77.03% and 82.11%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of PCN on mycelial growth of B. cinerea was significant and reached levels of 87.32%. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the mycelia appeared loose, locally twisted, and folded, with exudation of contents; the mycelia was withered and twisted, with edge burrs, deformations, ruptures and a sheet-like structure. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the structure of the cell nucleus was unclear and the vacuoles had ruptured; additionally, various organelles exhibited disordered structures, there were substantial non-membrane transparent inclusions, the cells were plasmolysed, the cell walls were collapsed in some cases, and the hyphal tissue was essentially necrotic. A PCN

  16. Genome-wide characterization of ISR induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 against Botrytis cinerea infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janick eMathys

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime and after (ISR-boost additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance (SAR, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance towards secondary infections. Treatment with Trichoderma hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime, resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against Botrytis cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the Botrytis cinerea induced defense response (BIDR. Microarray results were confirmed for representative genes by qRT-PCR, by analysis of transgenic plants expressing relevant promoter-GUS constructs and by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in various defense-related pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach.

  17. Effect of polythene Tunnels and Cultivars on Grey Mould Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Organically Grown Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albartus Evenhuis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of covering the crop with polythene tunnels on Botrytis fruit rot was investigated. Two cultivars were grown organically in three field experiments during 2001-2003. Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to strawberry cultivation in the field, especially when the crop is grown organically. Control of the disease in organic strawberry crops depends merely on prevention. Botrytis infection risk depends on humidity and temperature. Under optimal temperature conditions leaf wetness period necessary for infection of strawberry flowers decreases (Bulger et al., 1997. Prevention or shortening of the leaf wetness period might help to reduce infection risk of strawberries. Cv. Elsanta proved less susceptible to B. cinerea than cv. Darselect, thus choosing an appropriate cultivar is a helpful means to control grey mould. Covering the crop with polythene tunnels effectively reduced the infection risk of B. cinerea on strawberry flowers. Mechanisms to regulate the temperature in the tunnel are necessary to ensure fruit quality and should be investigated further.

  18. Effect of polythene Tunnels and Cultivars on Grey Mould Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Organically Grown Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albartus Evenhuis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of covering the crop with polythene tunnels on Botrytis fruit rot was investigated. Two cultivars were grown organically in three field experiments during 2001-2003. Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to strawberry cultivation in the field, especially when the crop is grown organically. Control of the disease in organic strawberry crops depends merely on prevention. Botrytis infection risk depends on humidity and temperature. Under optimal temperature conditions leaf wetness period necessary for infection of strawberry flowers decreases (Bulger et al., 1997. Prevention or shortening of the leaf wetness period might help to reduce infection risk of strawberries. Cv. Elsanta proved less susceptible to B. cinerea than cv. Darselect, thus choosing an appropriate cultivar is a helpful means to control grey mould. Covering the crop with polythene tunnels effectively reduced the infection risk of B. cinerea on strawberry flowers. Mechanisms to regulate the temperature in the tunnel are necessary to ensure fruit quality and should be investigated further.

  19. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Tao Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain.

  20. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  1. Development and evaluation of a novel and rapid detection assay for Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Bing Duan

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a devastating plant pathogen that causes grey mould disease. In this study, we developed a visual detection method of B. cinerea based on the Bcos5 sequence using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63 °C for 45 min. When HNB was added prior to amplification, samples with B. cinerea DNA developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with DNA of other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for B. cinerea was 10(-3 ng µL(-1 of genomic DNA per reaction, which was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR (10(-2 ng µL(-1. Detection of the LAMP assay for inoculum of B. cinerea was possible in the inoculated tomato and strawberry petals. In the 191 diseased samples, 180 (94.2% were confirmed as positive by LAMP, 172 (90.1% positive by the tissue separation, while 147 (77.0% positive by PCR. Because the LAMP assay performed well in aspects of sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reliability, and visibility, it is suitable for rapid detection of B. cinerea in infected plant materials prior to storage and during transportation, such as cut flowers, fruits and vegetables.

  2. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Flora V; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Fabroni, Simona; Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria Giulia Li Destri; Schena, Leonardo; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C) was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg) while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C) showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg). Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h) between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22-24 °C and high relative humidity (RH). This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories. PMID:26133760

  3. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora V. Romeo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L. fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg. Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22–24 °C and high relative humidity (RH. This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories.

  4. Effect of UV-C on phytoalexin accumulation and resistance to Botrytis cinerea in stored carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV-C (220-280 nm) on the accumulation of phytoalexin and resistance to Botrytis cinerea was studied in cold-stored carrots. Carrots were surface-wounded, treated with a range of UV doses and stored at 1 degree C for 25 days in lots of 22 roots. The level of the phytoalexin, 6-methoxymellein, in each lot was then assayed in the peel of eight roots. Twelve of the remaining roots were subsequently inoculated with mycelial plugs to evaluate their level of disease resistance. The elicitation of 6-methoxymellein by UV increased significantly the resistance of the roots to B. cinerea. The effect of UV in freshly harvested carrots was curvilinear, showing an optimum between 0.44 and 0.88 Merg/cm(2). However, only a linear relationship was observed with aged (stored for 4 months at 1 degree C) carrots for the same doses, suggesting a modification in the response to UV with age. Wounding was necessary for carrots kept at 1 degree C to respond to UV treatment. Neither UV nor wounding alone caused any elicitation at this temperature. Since unwounded roots could respond to UV at 20 degrees C, it is hypothesized that the level of physiological activity of the roots determines their response to UV. An increase in the physiological activity by higher temperatures or wounding would allow the elicitation process to take place. Since UV irradiation can increase the level of disease resistance in treated tissues, this treatment has potential as an alternative method for the control of post-harvest diseases in carrots

  5. Biological control of postharvest spoilage caused by Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea in apple by using the bacterium Rahnella aquatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Juan; Calvente, Viviana; de Orellano, María Edith; Benuzzi, Delia; Sanz de Tosetti, Maria Isabel

    2007-02-15

    The epiphytic bacterium Rahnella aquatilis, isolated from fruit and leaves of apples, was tested for antagonistic properties against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on Red Delicious apple fruit. In "in vitro" assays, this bacterium inhibited completely the germination of P. expansum and B. cinerea spores, but it needed direct contact with the spores to do it. However the putative mechanism seemed be different for the two pathogens. The bacterium did not produce extracellular antibiotic substances and when the acute toxicity test was performed no mortality, toxicity symptoms or organ alterations of the test animals (Wistar rats) were observed. Assays of biological control of P. expansum and B. cinerea on apple fruit were carried out at different temperatures. At 15 degrees C and 90% RH, the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum on apples stored for 20 days, was reduced by nearly 100% by R. aquatilis (10(6) cells/ml), while in the case of B. cinerea, the reduction of decay severity was nearly 64% but there was no reduction in the incidence of disease. At 4 degrees C and 90% RH the treatment with the bacterium significantly inhibited the development of B. cinerea on apples stored for 40 days and the incidence of disease was reduced by nearly 100%, while the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum at 4 degrees C was 60%. The results obtained show that R. aquatilis would be an interesting microorganism to be used as a biocontrol agent.

  6. Plant signalling components EDS1 and SGT1 enhance disease caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Oirdi, Mohamed; Bouarab, Kamal

    2007-01-01

    * Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that causes grey mould on a wide range of food plants, especially grapevine, tomato, soft fruits and vegetables. This disease brings about important economic losses in both pre- and postharvest crops. Successful protection of host plants against this pathogen is severely hampered by a lack of resistance genes in the hosts and the considerable phenotypic diversity of the fungus. * The aim of this study was to test whether B. cinerea manipulates the immunity-signalling pathways in plants to restore its disease. * We showed that B. cinerea caused disease in Nicotiana benthamiana through the activation of two plant signalling genes, EDS1 and SGT1, which have been shown to be essential for resistance against biotrophic pathogens; and more interestingly, virus-induced gene silencing of these two plant signalling components enhanced N. benthamiana resistance to B. cinerea. Finally, plants expressing the baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35 were more resistant to this necrotrophic pathogen than wild-type plants. * This work highlights a new strategy used by B. cinerea to establish disease. This information is important for the design of strategies to improve plant pathogen resistance.

  7. Synthesis, Fungicidal Activity and Mode of Action of 4-Phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-aminopyrimidines against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anilinopyrimidines are the main chemical agents for management of Botrytis cinerea. However, the drug resistance in fungi against this kind of compounds is very serious. To explore new potential fungicides against B. cinerea, a series of 4-phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-amino-pyrimidine compounds (compounds III-1 to III-22 were synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, IR and MS. Most of these compounds possessed excellent fungicidal activity. The compounds III-3 and III-13 showed higher fungicidal activity than the positive control pyrimethanil on fructose gelatin agar (FGA, and compound III-3 on potato dextrose agar (PDA indicated high activity compared to the positive control cyprodinil. In vivo greenhouse results indicated that the activity of compounds III-3, III-8, and III-11 was significantly higher than that of the fungicide pyrimethanil. Scanning electron micrography (SEM and transmission electron micrography (TEM were applied to illustrate the mechanism of title compounds against B. cinerea. The title compounds, especially those containing a fluorine atom at the ortho-position on the benzene ring, could maintain the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, but their mechanism of action is different from that of cyprodinil. The present study lays a good foundation for us to find more efficient reagents against B. cinerea.

  8. Synthesis, Fungicidal Activity and Mode of Action of 4-Phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-aminopyrimidines against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhui; Cui, Zining; Yan, Xiaojing; Qi, Zhiqiu; Ji, Mingshan; Li, Xinghai

    2016-01-01

    Anilinopyrimidines are the main chemical agents for management of Botrytis cinerea. However, the drug resistance in fungi against this kind of compounds is very serious. To explore new potential fungicides against B. cinerea, a series of 4-phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-amino-pyrimidine compounds (compounds III-1 to III-22) were synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, IR and MS. Most of these compounds possessed excellent fungicidal activity. The compounds III-3 and III-13 showed higher fungicidal activity than the positive control pyrimethanil on fructose gelatin agar (FGA), and compound III-3 on potato dextrose agar (PDA) indicated high activity compared to the positive control cyprodinil. In vivo greenhouse results indicated that the activity of compounds III-3, III-8, and III-11 was significantly higher than that of the fungicide pyrimethanil. Scanning electron micrography (SEM) and transmission electron micrography (TEM) were applied to illustrate the mechanism of title compounds against B. cinerea. The title compounds, especially those containing a fluorine atom at the ortho-position on the benzene ring, could maintain the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, but their mechanism of action is different from that of cyprodinil. The present study lays a good foundation for us to find more efficient reagents against B. cinerea. PMID:27347910

  9. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  10. Chemical Control of Botrytis cinerea%灰霉病的化学防治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟群; 陈杰

    2002-01-01

    灰霉(Botrytis cinerea)是一种世界性的病菌,能造成葡萄、蔬菜和浆果严重的经济损失.近几年开发成功的防治灰霉病的主要药剂有嘧啶胺类(anilinopyrimidines)杀菌剂如:嘧霉胺(pyrimethanil)、嘧菌环胺(cyprodinil)、嘧菌胺(mepanipyrim);吡咯类(anilinopyyols)杀菌剂咯菌腈(fludioxonil)和酰胺类(hydroxyanilides)杀菌剂环酰菌胺(fenhexamid).嘧啶胺类最初抑制靶标位点是胱硫醚β裂解酶,以及抑制病原菌胞外蛋白酶(包括水解酶)的分泌;吡咯类咯菌腈作用于渗透调节的信号传递途径;而环酰菌胺的作用靶位尚不完全清楚,但研究表明其作用机理不同于其他类杀菌剂,因此,环酰菌胺将有可能成为治理杀菌剂抗性的有效药剂之一.

  11. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  12. Botrydial and botcinins produced by Botrytis cinerea regulate the expression of Trichoderma arundinaceum genes involved in trichothecene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; Izquierdo-Bueno, Inmaculada; Mccormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Moraga, Javier; Gomes, Eriston V; Proctor, Robert H; Collado, Isidro G; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea produce the sesquiterpenes harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively, and also the polyketides aspinolides and botcinins (Botcs), respectively. We analysed the role of BOT and Botcs in the Ta37-B. cinerea interaction, including the transcriptomic changes in the genes involved in HA (tri) and ergosterol biosynthesis, as well as changes in the level of HA and squalene-ergosterol. We found that, when confronted with B. cinerea, the tri biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in all dual cultures analysed, but at higher levels when Ta37 was confronted with the BOT non-producer mutant bcbot2Δ. The production of HA was also higher in the interaction area with this mutant. In Ta37-bcbot2Δ confrontation experiments, the expression of the hmgR gene, encoding the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which is the first enzyme of the terpene biosynthetic pathway, was also up-regulated, resulting in an increase in squalene production compared with the confrontation with B. cinerea B05.10. Botcs had an up-regulatory effect on the tri biosynthetic genes, with BotcA having a stronger effect than BotcB. The results indicate that the interaction between Ta37 and B. cinerea exerts a stimulatory effect on the expression of the tri biosynthetic genes, which, in the interaction zone, can be attenuated by BOT produced by B. cinerea B05.10. The present work provides evidence for a metabolic dialogue between T. arundinaceum and B. cinerea that is mediated by sesquiterpenes and polyketides, and that affects the outcome of the interaction of these fungi with each other and their environment. PMID:26575202

  13. INTENSITY OF ATTACK OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA PERS. EX FR. ON THE CV. GRAŠEVINA AND TRAMINAC GRAPES AND THE EFFICIENCY OF BOTRYTICIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Brankica Svitlica; Jasenka Ćosić; Karolina Vrandečić; Josip Mesić

    2005-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important pathogen of grapevines all over the world. In order to determine the intensity of B. cinerea attack on mature grapes and efficiency of botryticides (cv. Traminac - iprodion, pyrimethanil, fludioxinil + cyprodinil; cv. Graševina - fenhexamid, fludioxinil+cyprodinil, tebuconazol+diclofluanid) a two-year experiment (2001-2002) was set up on locations Mladice (Traminac) and Škomić (Graševina). By evaluation of the intensity of B. cin...

  14. EFFECT OF BOTRYCIDES AND ATTACK INTENSITY OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA Pers. ex Fr. ON GRAŠEVINA AND TRAMINAC cv. IN KUTJEVO VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Brankica Svitlica

    2004-01-01

    During 2001/2002 experiments made in the vineyards of Kutjevo, the examinations were conducted on the intensity of infection with Botrytis cinerea Pers., the efficiency of the applied botryticides, the achieved grape production and the impact of meteorological factors on the development and intensity of the disease. Among the examined sorts of Graševina and Traminac, the intensity of infection with Botrytis in both years and on all localities was the highest on the control fields, which there...

  15. Independent Emergence of Resistance to Seven Chemical Classes of Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ortuño, Dolores; Grabke, Anja; Li, Xingpeng; Schnabel, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Gray mold, caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive diseases of small fruit crops and control is largely dependent on the application of fungicides. As part of a region-wide resistance-monitoring program that investigated 1,890 B. cinerea isolates from 189 fields in 10 states of the United States, we identified seven isolates (0.4%) from five locations in four different states with unprecedented resistance to all seven Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) codes with single-site modes of action including FRAC 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 17 registered in the United States for gray mold control. Resistance to thiophanate-methyl, iprodione, boscalid, pyraclostrobin, and fenhexamid was based on target gene mutations that conferred E198A and F200Y in β-tubulin, I365N/S in Bos1, H272R/Y in SdhB, G143A in Cytb, and T63I and F412S in Erg27. Isolates were grouped into MDR1 and MDR1h phenotypes based on sensitivity to fludioxonil and variations in transcription factor mrr1. MDR1h isolates had a previously described 3-bp deletion at position 497 in mrr1. Expression of ABC transporter atrB was increased in MDR1 isolates but highest in MDR1h isolates. None of the isolates with seven single resistances (SR) had identical nucleotide variations in target genes, indicating that they emerged independently. Multifungicide resistance phenotypes did not exhibit significant fitness penalties for the parameters used in this study, but MDR1h isolates produced more sclerotia at low temperatures and exhibited increased sensitivity to salt stress. In this study we show that current resistance management strategies have not been able to prevent the geographically independent development of resistance to all seven site-specific fungicides currently registered for gray mold control in the United States and document the presence of MDR1h in North America.

  16. Independent Emergence of Resistance to Seven Chemical Classes of Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ortuño, Dolores; Grabke, Anja; Li, Xingpeng; Schnabel, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Gray mold, caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive diseases of small fruit crops and control is largely dependent on the application of fungicides. As part of a region-wide resistance-monitoring program that investigated 1,890 B. cinerea isolates from 189 fields in 10 states of the United States, we identified seven isolates (0.4%) from five locations in four different states with unprecedented resistance to all seven Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) codes with single-site modes of action including FRAC 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 17 registered in the United States for gray mold control. Resistance to thiophanate-methyl, iprodione, boscalid, pyraclostrobin, and fenhexamid was based on target gene mutations that conferred E198A and F200Y in β-tubulin, I365N/S in Bos1, H272R/Y in SdhB, G143A in Cytb, and T63I and F412S in Erg27. Isolates were grouped into MDR1 and MDR1h phenotypes based on sensitivity to fludioxonil and variations in transcription factor mrr1. MDR1h isolates had a previously described 3-bp deletion at position 497 in mrr1. Expression of ABC transporter atrB was increased in MDR1 isolates but highest in MDR1h isolates. None of the isolates with seven single resistances (SR) had identical nucleotide variations in target genes, indicating that they emerged independently. Multifungicide resistance phenotypes did not exhibit significant fitness penalties for the parameters used in this study, but MDR1h isolates produced more sclerotia at low temperatures and exhibited increased sensitivity to salt stress. In this study we show that current resistance management strategies have not been able to prevent the geographically independent development of resistance to all seven site-specific fungicides currently registered for gray mold control in the United States and document the presence of MDR1h in North America. PMID:25317841

  17. Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) Ether, a Marine Algae Derived Bromophenol, Inhibits the Growth of Botrytis cinerea and Interacts with DNA Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liu; Genzhu Wang; Lin Xiao; Xuanli Xu; Xiaohui Liu(High Energy Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A.); Pingxiang Xu; Xiukun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (BDDE) is a bromophenol isolated from marine algae. Previous reports have shown that BDDE possesses cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that BDDE displays broad-spectrum antifungal activities, especially on Botrytis cinerea. BDDE inhibits the growth of B. cinerea cultured on a solid medium of potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as on the potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Moreover, BDDE decreases the incidence...

  18. Identification of miRNAs Responsive to Botrytis cinerea in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall., one of the world’s most important ornamental plants, is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, and improving resistance to this pathogenic fungus is a problem yet to be solved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an essential role in resistance to B. cinerea, but until now, no studies have been reported concerning miRNAs induction in P. lactiflora. Here, we constructed and sequenced two small RNA (sRNA libraries from two B. cinerea-infected P. lactiflora cultivars (“Zifengyu” and “Dafugui” with significantly different levels of resistance to B. cinerea, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. From the raw reads generated, 4,592,881 and 5,809,796 sRNAs were obtained, and 280 and 306 miRNAs were identified from “Zifengyu” and “Dafugui”, respectively. A total of 237 conserved and 7 novel sequences of miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars, and we predicted and annotated their potential target genes. Subsequently, 7 differentially expressed candidate miRNAs were screened according to their target genes annotated in KEGG pathways, and the expression patterns of miRNAs and corresponding target genes were elucidated. We found that miR5254, miR165a-3p, miR3897-3p and miR6450a might be involved in the P. lactiflora response to B. cinerea infection. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance to B. cinerea in P. lactiflora.

  19. ANTAGONISMO IN VITRO DE AISLADOS BACTERIANOS DE FRESA COMERCIAL Y SILVESTRE VS. Botrytis cinerea Y Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa I. Plascencia-Tenorio; Víctor Olalde-Portugal; Hortencia G. Mena-Violante; Luis F. Ceja-Torres; José Venegas- González; Guadalupe Oyoque- Salcedo; M. Valentina Angoa- Pérez

    2012-01-01

    La fresa es una fruta no climatérica, con una vida postcosecha muy corta. La pérdida de calidad del fruto puede deberse, entre otros factores a daños ocasionados por fitopatógenos. Entre los más comunes se encuentran los hongos causantes del moho gris (Botrytis cinerea), y podredumbre blanca (Rhizopus stolonifer) dos fitopatógenos de gran impacto por su velocidad de crecimiento la cual les permite colonizar la superficie de los mismos ocasionado importantes pérdidas económicas. Una alternativ...

  20. Caracterización de aislamientos de Botrytis cinerea de rosa en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Rodríguez, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    El Moho gris causado por Botrytis cinerea es una de las principales enfermedades que afectan al cultivo de rosa en Colombia. Este pa´togeno causa lesiones en diferentes tejidos de la planta, lo que reduce la producción y calidad de las rosas. El manejo de la enfermedad se realiza de manera integrada, considerando prácticas culturales, físicas y un intensivo programa de aplicaciones de fungicidas, no obstante esto no es suficiente para su control. Una de las posibles razones podría ser consecu...

  1. Emerging trends in molecular interactions between plants and the broad host range fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malick eMbengue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum , the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi.

  2. Unraveling the in vitro secretome of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea to understand the interaction with its hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eGonzález-Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus with high adaptability to different environments and hosts. It secretes a large number of extracellular proteins, which favor plant tissue penetration and colonization, thus contributing to virulence. Secretomics is a proteomics sub-discipline which study the secreted proteins and their secretion mechanisms, so-called secretome. By using proteomics as experimental approach, many secreted proteins by B. cinerea have been identified from in vitro experiments, and belonging to different functional categories: i cell wall-degrading enzymes such as pectinesterases, and endo-polygalacturonases; ii proteases involved in host protein degradation such as an aspartic protease; iii proteins related to the oxidative burst such as glyoxal oxidase; iv proteins which may induce the plant hypersensitive response such as a cerato-platanin domain-containing protein; and v proteins related to production and secretion of toxins such as malate dehydrogenase. In this mini-review, we made an overview of the proteomics contribution to the study and knowledge of the B. cinerea extracellular secreted proteins based on our current work carried out from in vitro experiments, and recent published papers both in vitro and in planta studies on this fungi. We hypothesize on the putative functions of these secreted proteins, and their connection to the biology of the B. cinerea interaction with its hosts.

  3. Effect of temperature on the morphological characteristics of Botrytis cinerea and its correlated with the genetic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G Fernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of temperature on the morphological characteristics of Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea and its correlated with the genetic variability. B. cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus that produces the disease known as grey mould in a wide variety of agriculturally important hosts in many countries. Methods: Six strains from different host collected have been isolated and characterized by several methods as mycelial growth, fungicide resistance, pathogenicity and the effects of the temperature. Also was analyzed by PCR and distinguished by the presence or absence of transposable elements. Results: Results showed that clear morphological differences exist between strains at the temperature of 4, 12 and 28 °C. All strains analyzed molecularly were classified as Group II (transposa-type. Demonstrating a negative correlation between mycelial growth and other characteristics as the fungicide resistance and pathogenicity. Lastly, it is difficult to establish relationships phenotypic and genotypic between strains of B. cinerea. Conclusions: The results indicated that the mycelial growth, resistance at fungicide and pathogenicity are independent of the characteristics molecular, however, are dependent of a factor such as temperature.

  4. Emerging Trends in Molecular Interactions between Plants and the Broad Host Range Fungal Pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Peyraud, Rémi; Barascud, Marielle; Badet, Thomas; Vincent, Rémy; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi. PMID:27066056

  5. Fitness and Competitive Ability of Botrytis cinerea Isolates with Resistance to Multiple Chemical Classes of Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S N; Luo, C X; Hu, M J; Schnabel, G

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides in Botrytis cinerea isolates from eastern United States strawberry fields is common and strategies to control them are needed. In this study, we compared fitness and competitive ability of eight sensitive isolates (S), eight isolates resistant to five or six chemical classes of fungicides but not to phenylpyrroles (5CCR), and eight isolates resistant to six or seven chemical classes including phenylpyrroles (6CCR/MDR1h). The latter included the MDR1h phenotype due to overexpression of atrB based on Δ497V/L in mrr1. The 6CCR/MDR1h isolates grew more slowly at 4°C on potato dextrose agar, and both 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were hypersensitive to osmotic stress compared with S isolates. In contrast, no differences were found in oxidative sensitivity, aggressiveness, and spore production in vivo, and sclerotia production and viability in vitro. In competition experiments, the 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were both outcompeted by S isolates and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were outcompeted by 5CCR isolates in the absence of fungicide pressure. Under selective pressure of a fludioxonil/pyraclostrobin rotation, the 6CCR/MDR1h isolates dominated after coinoculation with 5CCR and S isolates. The competitive disadvantage of 5CCR and especially 6CCR/MDR1h isolates suggest that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, S isolates may reduce inoculum potential of multifungicide-resistant isolates under field conditions.

  6. Expression in E. coli and characterization of the catalytic domain of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piffeteau Annie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitin synthase 3a (CHS3a from Botrytis cinerea (Bc catalyses the multiple transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc residues to the growing chitin chain. Chitin, a β-1,4 linked GlcNAc homopolymer, is an essential cell wall component of filamentous fungi. Chitin synthase, processive membranous protein, has been recognized as a promising target for new antifungicides. Enzymatic characterizations of chitin synthases have been limited, mainly because purity and amounts of integral enzyme obtained after purification procedures have not been sufficient. Findings We undertook the preparation of two BcCHS3a fragment proteins, containing only the central domain and devoid of the N-terminal and transmembrane C-terminal regions. The central domain of CHS3a, named SGC (Spsa GntI Core, is conserved in all UDP-glycosyltransferases and it is believed to contain the active site of the enzyme. CHS3a-SGC protein was totally expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. We performed recombinant CHS3a-SGC purification in denaturing conditions, followed by a refolding step. Although circular dichroism spectra clearly exhibited secondary structures of renatured CHS3a-SGC, no chitin synthase activity was detected. Nevertheless CHS3a-SGC proteins show specific binding for the substrate UDP-GlcNAc with a dissociation constant similar to the Michaelis constant and a major contribution of the uracil moiety for recognition was confirmed. Conclusions Milligram-scale quantities of CHS3a-SGC protein with native-like properties such as specific substrate UDP-GlcNAc binding could be easily obtained. These results are encouraging for subsequent heterologous expression of full-length CHS3a.

  7. 山西省灰霉菌对啶酰菌胺的敏感性测定%Sensitivity of Botrytis Cinerea from Shanxi Province to Boscalid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玲; 刘慧平; 韩巨才; 张宝俊

    2012-01-01

    啶酰菌胺是一种较新的用于防治灰霉菌的杀菌剂,国内鲜有灰霉菌对该杀菌剂的抗性报道.为了明确山西省灰霉菌对啶酰菌胺敏感性情况,通过菌落直径法测定了山西省8个地区139株灰霉菌对该杀菌剂的敏感性.结果表明,所采菌株中137株为相对敏感菌株,2株表现为低抗,敏感菌株占98%以上,说明山西省灰霉菌对啶酰菌胺具有较高的敏感性,但啶酰菌胺具有中度抗性风险,且灰霉菌极易产生抗药性,故有必要做好抗性预防工作.%Boscalid is a quite new fungicide which is used to control Botrytis cinerea. The report of the resistance to Boscalid in Botrytis cinerea in China is seldom. In order to clear the sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to Boscalid, inhibition of mycelia growth was used to determine sensitivity of 139 isolates of Botrytis cinerea from 8 areas in Shanxi province. The result showed that 137 isolates were relatively sensitive strains, and 2 strains showed low resistance. The percentage of relatively sensitive strains was over 98%, suggesting that sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea from Shanxi province to Boscalid was relatively high. However, as B. cinerea is a high-risk pathogen and Boscalid is a middle-risk fungicide, appropriate precautions against resistance development should be taken.

  8. Assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: characterization of the White Collar Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canessa

    Full Text Available Organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. While several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause disease on a wide range of plant species. Natural B. cinerea isolates exhibit a high degree of diversity in their predominant mode of reproduction. Thus, the majority of naturally occurring strains are known to reproduce asexually via conidia and sclerotia, and sexually via apothecia. Studies from the 1970's reported on specific developmental responses to treatments with near-UV, blue, red and far-red light. To unravel the signaling machinery triggering development--and possibly also connected with virulence--we initiated the functional characterization of the transcription factor/photoreceptor BcWCL1 and its partner BcWCL2, that form the White Collar Complex (WCC in B. cinerea. Using mutants either abolished in or exhibiting enhanced WCC signaling (overexpression of both bcwcl1 and bcwcl2, we demonstrate that the WCC is an integral part of the mentioned machinery by mediating transcriptional responses to white light and the inhibition of conidiation in response to this stimulus. Furthermore, the WCC is required for coping with excessive light, oxidative stress and also to achieve full virulence. Although several transcriptional responses are abolished in the absence of bcwcl1, the expression of some genes is still light induced and a distinct conidiation pattern in response to daily light oscillations is enhanced, revealing a complex underlying photobiology. Though overlaps with well-studied fungal systems exist, the light-associated machinery of B

  9. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  10. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  11. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26347324

  12. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period ("inflorescences clearly visible" to "berries groat-sized"), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period ("majority of berries touching" to "berries ripe for harvest"), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808

  13. Screening of Antagonistic Strain Against Botrytis cinerea%番茄灰霉病菌颉颃菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪辉

    2011-01-01

    68 strains were collected fiom different environments around Xingtai University and purified. 16 strains having antagonistics effect to Botrytis cinerea, which account for 23.5% in total were obtained. Among them, 9 strains having great intensive repression to Botrytis cinerea were detected. According to filter-paper detection, the suppression ratio of varieties maintained ranged fiom 65.1% to 92.0%; and bacteria-resistance region ranged fiom 2.0 to 11.0 mm. In addition, 8 anti-bacteria strains were obtained for biological control.%对从不同生态环境下采集的样品进行分离纯化,共得到菌株68株.经初筛,得到对番茄灰霉有颉颃作用的生防菌株16株,占分离菌株的23.5%.并对其中较强颉颃作用的9株菌株进行抑茵活性的测定.结果表明:滤纸片法得到的各菌株对番茄灰霉的抑制率在65.1%~92.0%之间,抑菌带在2.0~11.0mm之间,共获得颉颃菌株8株,占分离菌株的11.8%.

  14. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska, E; Różalska, S; Kaźmierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Małolepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and superoxide anion (O₂(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper. PMID:25064634

  15. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  16. Multidrug resistance in Botrytis cinerea associated with decreased accumulation of the azole fungicide oxpoconazole and increased transcription of the ABC transporter gene BcatrD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Sugiura, H.; Waard, De M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Azole-resistant mutants of Botrytis cinerea have a multidrug resistance phenotype since they exhibit cross-resistance to unrelated chemicals. These mutants also display resistance to the new azole fungicide oxpoconazole. Resistance to oxpoconazole is associated with decreased accumulation of the fun

  17. Bcmfs1, a novel major facilitator superfamily transporter from Botrytis cinerea, provides tolerance towards the natural toxic compounds camptothecin and cercosporin and towards fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, De M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bcmfs1, a novel major facilitator superfamily gene from Botrytis cinerea, was cloned, and replacement and overexpression mutants were constructed to study its function. Replacement mutants showed increased sensitivity to the natural toxic compounds camptothecin and cercosporin, produced by the plant

  18. 三株生防酵母菌对Botrytis cinerea的抑菌作用研究%Study on antifungal activities of biocontrol yeasts against Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王傲雪; 关鑫; 张俊峰; 张珍珠; 王瑞虎; 陈秀玲

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the antifungal activities of biocontrol yeasts Cryptococcus albidus 63(Ca63), Cryptococcus albidus 64 (Ca64) and Candida parapsilosis yett1006 against Botrytis cinerea were investigated. The dual culture between three biocontrol yeasts and B. cinerea t08016b results showed that no obvious inhibiting zone appeared, but the pathogen growed more weakly than the control. The results of chitinase andβ-1, 3-glucanase activities assay showed that the levels of the two enzymes activities did not change significantly (P>0.05) when the three biocontrol yeasts cultured with pathogen. The inhibition rates of three biocontrol yeast strains on mycelium growth were 88.57%, 90.66% and 85.65%, respectively. High concentrations of biocontrol yeasts had a strong inhibitory effect on the spore germination of B. cinerea t08016b. Especial y, 1 × 108 cfu·mL-1 biocontrol yeasts almost stopped the spore germination of B. cinerea t08016b. Heat-inactived yeast suspension and culture supernatant had no significant inhibitory effects on B. cinerea. These results il ustrated that the antagonic effect of biocontrol yeasts was mainly due to the competition of limited space and nutrient conditions, not secreting antifungal substances.%针对三株生防酵母菌Cryptococcus albidus 63(Ca63)、Cryptococcus albidus 64(Ca64)、Candida parapsilosis yett1006对番茄灰霉病病原菌B. cinerea t08016b的抑菌作用进行研究。三株生防酵母菌与B. cinerea t08016b的对峙培养过程中,未产生明显抑菌圈,均可减弱B. cinerea t08016b生长势;几丁质酶和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶活性测定结果表明, t08016b并无诱导三株酵母菌分泌酶活显著增加(P>0.05);研究酵母菌对B. cinerea t08016b菌丝生长和孢子萌发率影响发现,C.albidus 63、C.albidus 64和C.parapsilosis yett1006对菌丝生长量的抑制率分别为88.57%、90.66%和85.65%,高浓度菌液对孢子萌发有显著抑制效果,1×108 cfu·mL-1菌体活

  19. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  20. Genome-Wide Characterization of ISR Induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 Against Botrytis cinerea Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Janick; De Cremer, Kaat; Timmermans, Pieter; Van Kerckhove, Stefan; Lievens, Bart; Vanhaecke, Mieke; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; De Coninck, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime) and after (ISR-boost) additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance toward secondary infections. Treatment with T. hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime), resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against B. cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the B. cinerea induced defense response. Microarray results were validated for representative genes by qRT-PCR. The involvement of various defense-related pathways was confirmed by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in these pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach. Combined with additional anthocyanin analysis data these results all point to the involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in T. hamatum T382-induced ISR. PMID:22661981

  1. Origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Chamont, Sophie; Blancard, Dominique; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    One of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. Among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. A microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four French regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in geosmin appearance of Streptomyces spp. and Penicillium spp., two types of microorganisms present on grape, that are known for their ability to produce geosmin. In earthy grapes, Botrytis cinerea was largely present. Different species of Streptomyces were also isolated, but their pH sensitivity was an extremely limiting parameter for their development on grape juice, grapes or stem, and consequently for their potentiality to generate geosmin in the vineyard. Penicillium expansum, producing geosmin on a model medium, was omnipresent. Penicillium carneum, which is also a geosmin producer, was represented by a single colony during the 4 years of this study. P. expansum alone was able to produce geosmin on a model medium but not on grapes. However, after 7 days' pre-culture of some B. cinerea strains on grape juice, this juice became favourable to geosmin production by P. expansum. We demonstrated the necessary and complementary action of B. cinerea and P. expansum in geosmin production in grape juice and in crushed grape berries.

  2. The WRKY57 Transcription Factor Affects the Expression of Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Genes Transcriptionally to Compromise Botrytis cinerea Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-08-01

    Although necrotrophic pathogens cause many devastating plant diseases, our understanding of the plant defense response to them is limited. Here, we found that loss of function of WRKY57 enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against Botrytis cinerea infection. Further investigation suggested that the negative regulation of WRKY57 against B cinerea depends on the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that WRKY57 directly binds to the promoters of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and JAZ5, encoding two important repressors of the JA signaling pathway, and activates their transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that WRKY57 interacts with nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2. Further experiments display that the same domain, the VQ motif, of SIB1 and SIB2 interact with WRKY33 and WRKY57. Moreover, transient transcriptional activity assays confirmed that WRKY57 and WRKY33 competitively regulate JAZ1 and JAZ5, SIB1 and SIB2 further enhance these competitions of WRKY57 to WRKY33. Therefore, coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis against B cinerea by transcription activators and repressors would benefit plants by allowing fine regulation of defense.

  3. Arabidopsis WRKY33 is a key transcriptional regulator of hormonal and metabolic responses toward Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Diezel, Celia; Somssich, Imre E

    2012-05-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor WRKY33 is essential for defense toward the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Here, we aimed at identifying early transcriptional responses mediated by WRKY33. Global expression profiling on susceptible wrky33 and resistant wild-type plants uncovered massive differential transcriptional reprogramming upon B. cinerea infection. Subsequent detailed kinetic analyses revealed that loss of WRKY33 function results in inappropriate activation of the salicylic acid (SA)-related host response and elevated SA levels post infection and in the down-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA)-associated responses at later stages. This down-regulation appears to involve direct activation of several jasmonate ZIM-domain genes, encoding repressors of the JA-response pathway, by loss of WRKY33 function and by additional SA-dependent WRKY factors. Moreover, genes involved in redox homeostasis, SA signaling, ethylene-JA-mediated cross-communication, and camalexin biosynthesis were identified as direct targets of WRKY33. Genetic studies indicate that although SA-mediated repression of the JA pathway may contribute to the susceptibility of wrky33 plants to B. cinerea, it is insufficient for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Thus, WRKY33 apparently directly targets other still unidentified components that are also critical for establishing full resistance toward this necrotroph.

  4. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  5. Botrytis pseudocinerea Is a Significant Pathogen of Several Crop Plants but Susceptible to Displacement by Fungicide-Resistant B. cinerea Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Rupp, Sabrina; Leroch, Michaela; Hahn, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, causing gray mold on a large variety of crops. Botrytis pseudocinerea has been found previously to occur together with B. cinerea in low abundance in vineyards and strawberry fields. Here, we report B. pseudocinerea to be common and sometimes dominant over B. cinerea on several fruit and vegetable crops in Germany. On apples with calyx end rot and on oilseed rape, it was the major gray mold species. Abundance of B. pseudocinerea was often negatively correlated with fungicide treatments. On cultivated strawberries, it was frequently found in spring but was largely displaced by B. cinerea following fungicide applications. Whereas B. cinerea strains with multiple-fungicide resistance were common in these fields, B. pseudocinerea almost never developed resistance to any fungicide even though resistance mutations occurred at similar frequencies in both species under laboratory conditions. The absence of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors in B. pseudocinerea was correlated with an intron in cytB preventing the major G143A resistance mutation. Our work indicates that B. pseudocinerea has a wide host range similar to that of B. cinerea and that it can become an important gray mold pathogen on cultivated plants.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  7. Pichia angusta is an effective biocontrol yeast against postharvest decay of apple fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Fadda, Angela; Giobbe, Sara; Berardi, Enrico; Migheli, Quirico

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of eight isolates of Pichia angusta against three common postharvest pathogens of apple fruit was evaluated for the first time. All tested strains showed significant biocontrol activity against both Botrytis cinerea and Monilia fructicola, whereas efficacy against Penicillium expansum was poor. A leucine-auxotrophic mutant had no significant biocontrol activity against brown rot of apple, while the addition of 0.6-1.2 g L(-1) leucine in the fruit wound fully restored the biocontrol activity of this mutant against M. fructicola. Given the extremely well-developed classical and molecular genetics, the availability of genomic libraries, and its complete genomic sequence, this species can serve to elucidate the mechanisms related to biocontrol capacity.

  8. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  9. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits.

  10. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  11. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy eDieryckx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873.

  12. Contribución al control de Botrytis cinerea pers. en statice (Limonium sinuatum mill variedad Midnigth blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Norma C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was outlined under the need of controlling the looses of statice (Limonium sinuatum caused by patogend fungi, with emphasis to Botrytis cinerea. In soil samples, monitoring and affected plants, were obtained the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp, Alternaria sp and Cladospotium sp, causative of symptoms in stems, roots, leaves and flowers. Upon evaluating "in vitro" the antagonistic capacity of T. hamatum with the fungi, was observed growth inhibition ofthe patogens. The eficiency tests of the (fungicides
    Iprodione (Rovral and Captan (Orthocide, on the patogens and the antagonist, determined the lethal dose of these (1 gmllt evaluated in the chemical and integrated treatments. In field was accomplished the assembly of the treatments (biological, chemical and integrated, to find the most effective in the control of the patogens. The efficiency
    was evaluated taking into account the production of export branches (550-560 gr.; national branches (twisted stems (decoloratedj; and branches lost by disease; the
    integrated treatment was the best, with a production of 1.8 branches/plant, followed of the Chemical trealment, with 1.62 branches/plant. The branches lost by disease were of 0.14 branches/plant in the integrated treatment and 0.26 branches/plant in the Chemical treatments-Biological and Chemical-Cultural. Treatment with smaller productivity
    was the Chemical-Cultural with 1.42 branches/plant.Este trabajo se planteó bajo la necesidad de controlar las pérdidas de Statice (Limonium sinuatum causados por hongos patógenos, con énfasis a Botrytis cinerea. En las muestras de suelo, monitoreo y plantas afectadas, se obtuvieron los hongos Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp, Alternaría sp y Cladosporium sp, causantes de síntomas
    en tallos, raíces, hojas y flores. Al evaluar "in vitro" la capacidad antagónica de T. hamatum con los hongos, se
    observó inhibición de crecimiento de los patógenos. Las pruebas de

  13. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  14. Use of gamma irradiation for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of employing gamma irradiation for the control of postharvest Botrytis bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage was studied. Table grape cultivars from commercial vineyards in the Paarl and Hex River Valley areas were packed as for export in vented corrugated cartons. The cartons were irradiated at 0; 1,5; 2,0 or 3,0 kGy. After irradiation, grapes were kept for 4 weeks at -0,5 degrees C, followed by another week at 10 degrees C. Less decay was observed when table grapes were irradiated soon after picking than after a storage period. Irradiation at 1,5; 2,0 and 3,0 kGy reduced the effects of Botrytis cinerea on Barlinka grapes stored without sulphur dioxide. Irradiation of Waltham Cross and Barlinka grapes at a dose of 2,0 kGy, combined with reduced SO2 treatments, resulted in similar control as with the standard practice of enclosing an SO2 generator. Browning of Waltham Cross berries and bacterial and yeast growth occurred on the surface of berries irradiated at a dose of 3,0 kGy. Irradiation had no adverse effect on other aspects of quality. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Boualem Boumaaza; Mohamed Benkhelifa; Moulay Belkhoudja

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations....

  16. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  17. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  18. Synthesis and fungistatic activity of bicyclic lactones and lactams against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus glaucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Paulina; Pannek, Jakub; Boratyński, Filip; Janik-Polanowicz, Agata; Olejniczak, Teresa

    2014-08-27

    Six analogues of natural trans-4-butyl-cis-3-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-2-one (3) and three derivatives, 11, 12, and 13, of Vince lactam (10) were synthesized and tested as fungistatic agents against Botrytis cinerea AM235, Penicillium citrinum AM354, and six strains of Aspergillus. Moreover, bioresolution carried out by means of whole cell microorganisms and commercially available enzymes afforded opposite enantiomerically enriched (-) and (+) isomers of Vince lactam (10), respectively. The effect of compound structures and stereogenic centers on biological activity has been discussed. The highest fungistatic activity was observed for four lactones: 3, 4, 7, and 8 (IC50 = 104.6-115.2 μg/mL) toward B. cinerea AM235. cis-5,6-Epoxy-2-aza[2.2.1]heptan-3-one (13) indicated significant fungistatic activity (IC50 = 107.1 μg/mL) against Aspergillus glaucus AM211. trans-4-Butyl-cis-3-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-2-one (3) and trans-4-butyl-cis-3-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-7-en-2-one (7) exhibited high fungistatic activity (IC50 = 143.2 and 110.2 μg/mL, respectively) against P. citrinum AM354 as well. PMID:25110806

  19. Suppression of the homeobox gene HDTF1 enhances resistance to Verticillium dahliae and Botrytis cinerea in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Lu Long; Li Xu; Keith Lindsey; Xianlong Zhang; Longfu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Development of pathogen-resistant crops, such as fungus-resistant cotton, has significantly reduced chemical application and improved crop yield and quality. However, the mechanism of resistance to cotton pathogens such as Verticillium dahliae is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a cotton gene (HDTF1) that was isolated following transcriptome profiling during the resistance response of cotton to V. dahliae. HDTF1 putatively encodes a homeodomain transcription factor, and its expression was found to be down-regulated in cotton upon inoculation with V. dahliae and Botrytis cinerea. To characterise the involvement of HDTF1 in the response to these pathogens, we used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate HDTF1-silenced cotton. VIGS reduction in HDTF1 expression significantly enhanced cotton plant resistance to both pathogens. HDTF1 silencing resulted in activation of jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling and JA accumulation. However, the silenced plants were not altered in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) or the expression of marker genes associated with SA signaling. These results suggest that HDTF1 is a negative regulator of the JA pathway, and resistance to V. dahliae and B. cinerea can be engineered by activation of JA signaling.

  20. Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic broccoli with a Trichoderma viride endochitinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya; REN Shu-xin; GUO Yang-dong; ZHANG Lei; LIAN Wei-ran; XU Feng-feng; LI Shuang-tao; XIANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-zhen; HU Zan-min; ZHAO Bing

    2015-01-01

    A endochitinase gene (Tch ) from the fungus Trichoderma viride was introduced into broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Sixty-eight putative transformants were obtained and the presence of the Tch gene was conifrmed by both PCR and Southern blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis showed an accumulation of the transcript encoding the endochitinase protein in the transgenic plants. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression proifling of endochitinase gene was analyzed. Primary transformants and selfed progeny were examined for expression of the endo-chitinase using a lfuorometric assay and for their resistance to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. The endochitinase activities in T0 in vitro plants, T0 mature plants and T1 mature plants were correlated with leaf lesions, and the transgenic line T618 had high endochitinse activities of 102.68, 114.53 and 120.27 nmol L–1 MU min–1 mg–1 protein in the three kinds of plants, respectively. The endochitinase activity showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the pathogens. Most transgenic T0 broccoli had increased resistance to the pathogens of B. cinerea and R. solani in leaf assays and this resistance was conifrmed to be inheritable. These ifndings suggested that expression of the Tch gene from T. viride could enhance resistance to pathogenic fungi in Brassica species.

  1. Testing of Eight Medicinal Plant Extracts in Combination with Kresoxim-Methyl for Integrated Control of Botrytis cinerea in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtram C. Fielding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes gray mold on many fruit crops. Despite the availability of a large number of botryticides, the chemical control of gray mold has been hindered by the emergence of resistant strains. In this paper, tests were done to determine the botryticidal efficacy of selected plant extracts alone or combined with kresoxim-methyl. In total, eight South African medicinal plants viz Artemisia afra, Elyptropappus rhinocerotis, Galenia africana, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Siphonochilus aetheopicus, Sutherlandia frutescens, Tulbaghia violacea and Tulbaghia alliacea were screened. Allium sativum, a plant species known to have antifungal activity, was included in the in vivo studies. For the in vitro studies, synergistic interactions between the plant extracts and the kresoxim-methyl fungicide were tested with radial growth assays. Data indicated synergistic inhibitory effects between the fungicide and the plant extracts. Next, different doses of plant extracts combined with kresoxim-methyl were used for decay inhibition studies on Granny Smith apples. Synergistic and additive effects were observed for many of the combinations. Even though this study was done using only one strain of B. cinerea, results showed that the tested indigenous South African plant species possess natural compounds that potentiate the activity of kresoxim-methyl.

  2. Efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. como alternativas de manejo de Botrytis cinerea en fresa

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alejandro Taborda Andrade; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Carlos Huertas Davey

    2015-01-01

    El moho gris de la fresa causado por Botrytis cinerea es una enfermedad que produce importantes pérdidas poscosecha. En el estudio se evaluó el efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. en concentraciones de 128, 256 y 500 mg/lt sobre B. cinerea in vitro e in vivo. In vitro se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento micelial del hongo. En estas condiciones se observó que el aceite esencial (AE) de L. origanoides presentó...

  3. Overexpression of Three Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Genes in Brassica napus Identifies Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Huai, Dongxin; Yang, Qingyong; Cheng, Yan; Ma, Ming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1), respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies. PMID:26465156

  4. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  5. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the synergistic disinfection effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits. - Highlights: • Paprikas were treated with irradiation and NaDCC to control gray mold. • We confirmed that the combined treatment was synergistically affected. • The treatment can contribute to a reduction of postharvest losses caused by fungi. • This combined treatment can also reduce the doses of irradiation

  6. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation. PMID:26714103

  7. Overexpression of Three Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Genes in Brassica napus Identifies Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1, respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies.

  8. Induction of Volatile Organic Compounds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Its Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by Burdock Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Qing He; Li Tian; Kao-Shan Chen; Lin-Hua Hao; Guang-You Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and its resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by burdock oligosaccharide. The disease severity of L. esculentum was evaluated 48 h after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide, followed by inoculation with a spore suspension of B. cinerea. The formation of O()2, the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the quantity and quality of changes in VOCs were determined a period of time after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide. The results demonstrated that the disease index in treated plants was decreased by 42.5% compared with control 96 h after inoculation. The production of O()2 reached a maximum 6 h after treatment (1.36-fold compared with control). There was an increase in LOX, POD, CAT and SOD activity in response to burdock oligosaccharide treatment and the enzymes showed different trends in the time-course of induction. At 120 h after treatment,(E)-2-hexenal was increased by 92% compared with control, whereas methyl salicylate showed a gradual increase with induction period. Previous results had demonstrated that chitosan elicitor enhanced the production VOCs of L. esculentum and decreased plant susceptibility towards B. cinerea. Together, these findings suggest that increasing the production of VOCs in response to burrdock oligosaccharide may be an important mechanism for L. esculentumin its defense against pathogens. In addition, burrdock oligosaccharide may act as a potent elicitor of resistance to disease in L. esculentum.

  9. Ulteriori esperienze di lotta contro il «marciume dei capolini» del carciofo da Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Corda, Pietro Maria; Fiori, Mario; Franceschini, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    During the winter of 1982 field control trials were carried out against head rot of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) induced by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Treatments bega n when first symptoms appeared and were repeated every 10 days. for 4 times in alI. Among tested compounds the best results were given by dicarboximide derivatives (vinchlozolin, procymidox, iprodione, dichlozolinate) and by prochloraz while less satisfactory appeared dichlofluanid and a mixture of captafol + ...

  10. The grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (VvPGIP1) reduces Botrytis cinerea susceptibility in transgenic tobacco and differentially inhibits fungal polygalacturonases

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, D.A.; Slaughter, A. R.; Kemp, G; Becker, J.V.W.; Krooshof, G. H.; Bergmann, C.; Benen, J.A.E.; Pretorius, I. S.; Vivier, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) selectively inhibit polygalacturonases (PGs) secreted by invading plant pathogenic fungi. PGIPs display differential inhibition towards PGs from different fungi, also towards different isoforms of PGs originating from a specific pathogen. Recently, a PGIP-encoding gene from Vitis vinifera (Vvpgip1) was isolated and characterised. PGIP purified from grapevine was shown to inhibit crude polygalacturonase extracts from Botrytis cinerea, but this inhi...

  11. Exploring Mechanisms of Resistance to Respiratory Inhibitors in Field Strains of Botrytis cinerea, the Causal Agent of Gray Mold ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Pierre; Gredt, Michel; Leroch, Michaela; Walker, Anne-Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory inhibitors are among the fungicides most widely used for disease control on crops. Most are strobilurins and carboxamides, inhibiting the cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex III and the succinate dehydrogenase of mitochondrial complex II, respectively. A few years after the approval of these inhibitors for use on grapevines, field isolates of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, resistant to one or both of these classes of fungicide were recovered in France and Germa...

  12. Epiphytic fungi on apple leaves and their value for control of the postharvest pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructigena and Penicillium expansum

    OpenAIRE

    Falconi, Carlos J.; Mendgen, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    Fungal populations were examined each month on apple leaves, cv. 'Golden Delicious', during 1989. Out of 32 different fungal species studied, 21 were present throughout the season in large numbers. Of these, 368 isolates were selected and tested in vitro and in vivo for antagonistic activity against the postharvest pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructigena and Penicillium expansum. If applied to wounded apples, isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans, Epicoccum purpurascem, Sorclaria fimic...

  13. Identification of Metabolic Pathways Expressed by Pichia anomala KH6 in the Presence of the Pathogen Botrytis cinerea on Apple: New Possible Targets for Biocontrol Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Kwasiborski; Mohammed Bajji; Jenny Renaut; Pierre Delaplace; M Haissam Jijakli

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Pichia anomala strain Kh6 Kurtzman (Saccharomycetales: Endomycetaceae) exhibits biological control properties that provide an alternative to the chemical fungicides currently used by fruit or vegetable producers against main post-harvest pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae). Using an in situ model that takes into account interactions between organisms and a proteomic approach, we aimed to identify P. anomala metabolic pathways influenced by the presence of B...

  14. Biological control of botrytis cinerea growth on apples stored in modified atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dock, Lise Lotte; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Floros, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of modified-atmosphere packaging and theapplication of a bacterial antagonist (Erwinia sp.) on Botrytiscinerea growth on apples (cv. 'Golden Delicious') was investigated.Inoculated apples were stored in polyethylene bags at 5 degrees C. Theinitial gas composition in each bag...... by about 6days at low levels of CO2. However, at high CO2 levels, O2 had noeffect. The strongest antagonistic effect was observed under ambientconditions. Overall, results showed that high CO2 atmospheres can slowthe growth of B. cinerea and that Erwinia sp. was an effectiveantagonist against B. cinerea...

  15. T-S fuzzy model and control for Botrytis cinerea of greenhouse strawberry%温室草莓灰霉病T-S模糊控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻飞祥; 赵立纯; 刘敬娜; 韩立红

    2015-01-01

    基于生物种群的Logistic增长模型,结合灰霉病病菌的模糊性,建立温室草莓灰霉病病菌的T-S模糊模型.根据Lyapunov稳定性定理,给出所建T-S模糊控制系统稳定的充分条件,并设计控制器,使模型全局稳定,实现对温室草莓灰霉病的预防与控制.最后利用Matlab进行数值仿真,以验证结论的正确性.%Combined Logistic model of biological population with the fuzziness of Botrytis cinerea, the corre-sponding T-S fuzzy model for the Botrytis cinerea of greenhouse strawberry is proposed. According to the sta-bility theory of Lyapunov, some sufficient conditions which make the T-S fuzzy model stable are obtained. Fur-ther, the controllers which make the model global stable are designed to realize the prevention and control for the Botrytis cinerea of greenhouse strawberry. Finally, the simulations are carried out to prove the correctness of the conclusion by means of Matlab software.

  16. Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel; Hahn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

  17. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  18. The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling components and the Ste12 transcription factor in germination and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Astrid; Leroch, Michaela; Diwo, Janine; Mendgen, Kurt; Hahn, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In all fungi studied so far, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades serve as central signalling complexes that are involved in various aspects of growth, stress response and infection. In this work, putative components of the yeast Fus3/Kss1-type MAP kinase cascade and the putative downstream transcription factor Ste12 were analysed in the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion mutants of the MAP triple kinase Ste11, the MAP kinase kinase Ste7 and the MAP kinase adaptor protein Ste50 all resulted in phenotypes similar to that of the previously described BMP1 MAP kinase mutant, namely defects in germination, delayed vegetative growth, reduced size of conidia, lack of sclerotia formation and loss of pathogenicity. Mutants lacking Ste12 showed normal germination, but delayed infection as a result of low penetration efficiency. Two differently spliced ste12 transcripts were detected, and both were able to complement the ste12 mutant, except for a defect in sclerotium formation, which was only corrected by the full-sized transcript. Overexpression of the smaller ste12 transcript resulted in delayed germination and strongly reduced infection. Bc-Gas2, a homologue of Magnaporthe grisea Gas2 that is required for appressorial function, was found to be non-essential for growth and infection, but its expression was under the control of both Bmp1 and Ste12. In summary, the role and regulatory connections of the Fus3/Kss1-type MAP kinase cascade in B. cinerea revealed both common and unique properties compared with those of other plant pathogenic fungi, and provide evidence for a regulatory link between the BMP1 MAP kinase cascade and Ste12. PMID:20078780

  19. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. PMID:25420720

  20. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  1. Fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kretschmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1 that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of

  2. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  3. Effects of Some Plant Essential Oils Against Botrytis cinerea and Tetranychus urticae on Grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞU, Duygu MERMER; ZOBAR, Damla

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of grapes in the world in terms of the first-ranked Turkey as well as the appropriate climatic zone, has potential for rich gene and ancient viticulture culture. Grape growers, starting from production until it reaches the consumer is faced with various problems in the process. Plant protection faced in the vineyards of the manufacturers in terms of the most important causes of losses; Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola), Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator), Gray mold (Botrytis c...

  4. Inhibition of Secondary Metabolites from Botrytis cinerea to Growth of Six Plant Pathogens%灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)次生代谢产物的抑菌活性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康敏; 韩庆莉; 沈嘉祥; 杨美林; 叶敏; 肖春

    2006-01-01

    用生长速率法及抑菌圈法测定了灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)高产菌株次生代谢产物提取物对6种植物病原菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,灰葡萄孢菌的提取物对稻瘟病菌(Pyricularia oryzae)、烟草赤星病菌(Alternaria alternata)、番茄早疫病菌(Alternaria solani)和梨黑星病菌(Venturia nashicola)的菌丝生长有明显的抑制作用,能够完全抑制菌丝生长的浓度分别为2、2、4和8mg/mL,EC50则分别为0.1039、0.3816、0.8418和1.4950mg/mL.对烟草野火病菌(Pseudomonas syuringae pv.tabaco)、白菜软腐病菌(Erwinia carotovora)2种细菌也有抑制作用,在浓度为2mg/mL时,抑菌圈直径均为2.8cm.

  5. Chemically Induced Cryptic Sesquiterpenoids and Expression of Sesquiterpene Cyclases in Botrytis cinerea Revealed New Sporogenic (+)-4-Epieremophil-9-en-11-ols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Cristina; Moraga, Javier; Barua, Javier; González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Aleu, Josefina; Durán-Patrón, Rosa; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Hanson, James R; Viaud, Muriel; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Garrido, Carlos; Collado, Isidro G

    2016-05-20

    The sequencing of the genomes of the B05.10 and T4 strains of the fungus Botrytis cinerea revealed an abundance of novel biosynthetic gene clusters, the majority of which were unexpected on the basis of the previous analyses of the fermentation of these and closely related species. By systematic alteration of easy accessible cultivation parameters, using chemical induction with copper sulfate, we have found a cryptic sesquiterpenoid family with new structures related to eremophil-9-ene, which had the basic structure of the sesquiterpene (+)-5-epiaristolochene ((+)-4-epieremophil-9-ene). An expression study of the sesquiterpene cyclase genes present in the Botrytis cinerea genome, under culture conditions, is reported. In general, a 3 day delay and a higher BcSTC genes expression were observed when copper (5 ppm) was fed to the fermentation broth. In addition, to the observed effect on the BcBOT2 (BcSTC1) gene, involved in the biosynthesis of the botrydial toxin, a higher expression level for BcSTC3 and BcSTC4 was observed with respect to the control in the strain B05.10. Interestingly, under copper conditions, the BcSTC4 gene was the most expressed gene in the Botrytis cinerea UCA992 strain. In vitro evaluation of the biological role of these metabolites indicates that they contributed to the conidial development in B. cinerea and appear to be involved in self-regulation of the production of asexual spores. Furthermore, they promoted the formation of complex appressoria or infection cushions.

  6. Chemically Induced Cryptic Sesquiterpenoids and Expression of Sesquiterpene Cyclases in Botrytis cinerea Revealed New Sporogenic (+)-4-Epieremophil-9-en-11-ols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Cristina; Moraga, Javier; Barua, Javier; González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Aleu, Josefina; Durán-Patrón, Rosa; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Hanson, James R; Viaud, Muriel; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Garrido, Carlos; Collado, Isidro G

    2016-05-20

    The sequencing of the genomes of the B05.10 and T4 strains of the fungus Botrytis cinerea revealed an abundance of novel biosynthetic gene clusters, the majority of which were unexpected on the basis of the previous analyses of the fermentation of these and closely related species. By systematic alteration of easy accessible cultivation parameters, using chemical induction with copper sulfate, we have found a cryptic sesquiterpenoid family with new structures related to eremophil-9-ene, which had the basic structure of the sesquiterpene (+)-5-epiaristolochene ((+)-4-epieremophil-9-ene). An expression study of the sesquiterpene cyclase genes present in the Botrytis cinerea genome, under culture conditions, is reported. In general, a 3 day delay and a higher BcSTC genes expression were observed when copper (5 ppm) was fed to the fermentation broth. In addition, to the observed effect on the BcBOT2 (BcSTC1) gene, involved in the biosynthesis of the botrydial toxin, a higher expression level for BcSTC3 and BcSTC4 was observed with respect to the control in the strain B05.10. Interestingly, under copper conditions, the BcSTC4 gene was the most expressed gene in the Botrytis cinerea UCA992 strain. In vitro evaluation of the biological role of these metabolites indicates that they contributed to the conidial development in B. cinerea and appear to be involved in self-regulation of the production of asexual spores. Furthermore, they promoted the formation of complex appressoria or infection cushions. PMID:26900713

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  8. Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether, a marine algae derived bromophenol, inhibits the growth of Botrytis cinerea and interacts with DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Genzhu; Xiao, Lin; Xu, Xuanli; Liu, Xiaohui; Xu, Pingxiang; Lin, Xiukun

    2014-07-01

    Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (BDDE) is a bromophenol isolated from marine algae. Previous reports have shown that BDDE possesses cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that BDDE displays broad-spectrum antifungal activities, especially on Botrytis cinerea. BDDE inhibits the growth of B. cinerea cultured on a solid medium of potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as on the potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Moreover, BDDE decreases the incidence of fruit decay and severity of strawberries infected with B. cinerea. Further studies have revealed that BDDE decreases the germination rate and inhibits the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The inhibition mechanisms are related to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity in B. cinerea spores and newly formed germ tubes. This study also suggests that BDDE possibly interacts with DNA via intercalation and minor groove binding. The studies provide evidence that BDDE has potential application in the control of gray mold after fruit harvest and the compound could serve as a candidate or lead template for rational drug design and for the development of antifungal agents. PMID:24979270

  9. Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl Ether, a Marine Algae Derived Bromophenol, Inhibits the Growth of Botrytis cinerea and Interacts with DNA Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl ether (BDDE is a bromophenol isolated from marine algae. Previous reports have shown that BDDE possesses cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that BDDE displays broad-spectrum antifungal activities, especially on Botrytis cinerea. BDDE inhibits the growth of B. cinerea cultured on a solid medium of potato dextrose agar (PDA as well as on the potato dextrose broth (PDB medium. Moreover, BDDE decreases the incidence of fruit decay and severity of strawberries infected with B. cinerea. Further studies have revealed that BDDE decreases the germination rate and inhibits the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The inhibition mechanisms are related to the disruption of the cell membrane integrity in B. cinerea spores and newly formed germ tubes. This study also suggests that BDDE possibly interacts with DNA via intercalation and minor groove binding. The studies provide evidence that BDDE has potential application in the control of gray mold after fruit harvest and the compound could serve as a candidate or lead template for rational drug design and for the development of antifungal agents.

  10. Fast detection of peroxidase (POD) activity in tomato leaves which infected with Botrytis cinerea using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Bao, Yidan; Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Tomatoes are cultivated around the world and gray mold is one of its most prominent and destructive diseases. An early disease detection method can decrease losses caused by plant diseases and prevent the spread of diseases. The activity of peroxidase (POD) is very important indicator of disease stress for plants. The objective of this study is to examine the possibility of fast detection of POD activity in tomato leaves which infected with Botrytis cinerea using hyperspectral imaging data. Five pre-treatment methods were investigated. Genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) was applied to select optimal wavelengths. A new fast learning neural algorithm named extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed as multivariate analytical tool in this study. 21 optimal wavelengths were selected by GA-PLS and used as inputs of three calibration models. The optimal prediction result was achieved by ELM model with selected wavelengths, and the r and RMSEP in validation were 0.8647 and 465.9880 respectively. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be considered as a valuable tool for POD activity prediction. The selected wavelengths could be potential resources for instrument development.

  11. Population structure and temporal maintenance of the multihost fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea: causes and implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne-Sophie; Gladieux, Pierre; Decognet, Véronique; Fermaud, Marc; Confais, Johann; Roudet, Jean; Bardin, Marc; Bout, Alexandre; Nicot, Philippe C; Poncet, Christine; Fournier, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the causes of population subdivision is of fundamental importance, as studying barriers to gene flow between populations may reveal key aspects of the process of adaptive divergence and, for pathogens, may help forecasting disease emergence and implementing sound management strategies. Here, we investigated population subdivision in the multihost fungus Botrytis cinerea based on comprehensive multiyear sampling on different hosts in three French regions. Analyses revealed a weak association between population structure and geography, but a clear differentiation according to the host plant of origin. This was consistent with adaptation to hosts, but the distribution of inferred genetic clusters and the frequency of admixed individuals indicated a lack of strict host specificity. Differentiation between individuals collected in the greenhouse (on Solanum) and outdoor (on Vitis and Rubus) was stronger than that observed between individuals from the two outdoor hosts, probably reflecting an additional isolating effect associated with the cropping system. Three genetic clusters coexisted on Vitis but did not persist over time. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated that outdoor populations were regularly recombining, whereas clonality was predominant in the greenhouse. Our findings open up new perspectives for disease control by managing plant debris in outdoor conditions and reinforcing prophylactic measures indoor. PMID:25040694

  12. An ABAGS-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 and Its Inhibitory Activity to Seed Germination of Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at finding out natural compounds to kill weeds, a plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4, was chosen as a source. A significantly polar metabolite, which was different in chromatographic behavior from ABAGE-like metabolite, was isolated from cultural filtrate of the fungus by column chromatography on silica gel, preparative LC, TLC and HPLC. The structure of the metabolite was determined by HPLC-ESI MS, g.l.c, IR, 1H NMR and hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar with ABAGS. The bioassay showed the metabolite had inhibition to seed germination of both broadleaf weeds [Amaranthus retroflerus L. and Chenopodium album L.] and gramineae weeds [Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop and Echinochloa crusgalii L. Beauv]. It also had inhibitory activity to the seedling growth of broadleaf weeds. The bioassay, using Amaranthus retroflexus L. as an indicator, showed that the lowest concentration of the metabolite to inhibit root+sprout growth of A. retroflexus was 0.6 μM, and the concentration for 50%inhibition was 1.3 μM.

  13. INTENSITY OF ATTACK OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA PERS. EX FR. ON THE CV. GRAŠEVINA AND TRAMINAC GRAPES AND THE EFFICIENCY OF BOTRYTICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Svitlica

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important pathogen of grapevines all over the world. In order to determine the intensity of B. cinerea attack on mature grapes and efficiency of botryticides (cv. Traminac - iprodion, pyrimethanil, fludioxinil + cyprodinil; cv. Graševina - fenhexamid, fludioxinil+cyprodinil, tebuconazol+diclofluanid a two-year experiment (2001-2002 was set up on locations Mladice (Traminac and Škomić (Graševina. By evaluation of the intensity of B. cinerea infection on the Graševina and Traminac grapes the strongest infection determined on the control, and the weakest on the variant with botryticides Switch. Comparison of infection intensity on the Traminac grapes with the Graševina grapes led to no differences concerning the sensitivity of varieties. The disease intensity primarily depended on climate conditions. Both experimental years were charactized by the quantity of precipitation in the vine-yards which were in favour of the high humidity allowing high disease intensity.

  14. Modulation de l’expression du pouvoir pathogène de Botrytis fabae Sard. et de Botrytis cinerea Pers. par des bactéries du phylloplan de Vicia faba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Vedie, R.; Le Normand, M.

    1984-01-01

    La formation et le développement de lésions nécrotiques par Botrytis fabae et B. cinerea sur feuilles détachées de Vicia faba sont inhibés par la présence de sulfate ferrique dans la goutte d’inoculum. Le sulfate ferrique n’a pas d’effet sur la germination des conidies de Botrytis sur lames de verre, mais entraîne une forte stimulation de la croissance des tubes germinatifs. L’inhibition observée sur les feuilles détachées ne s’explique pas par la production de phytoalexines ni par la stim...

  15. Biocatalytic preparation and absolute configuration of enantiomerically pure fungistatic anti-2-benzylindane derivatives. Study of the detoxification mechanism by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina; Aleu, Josefina; Grande Benito, Manuel; Collado, Isidro G

    2010-08-21

    Enantiomerically pure 2-benzylindane derivatives were prepared using biocatalytic methods and their absolute configuration determined. (1R,2S)-2-Benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2) and (S)-2-benzylindan-1-one ((S)-3) were produced by fermenting baker's yeast. Lipase-mediated esterifications and hydrolysis of the corresponding racemic substrates gave rise to the enantiopure compounds (1S,2R)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1S,2R)-2) and (1R,2S)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2), respectively. The antifungal activity of these products against two strains of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea was tested. The metabolism of anti-(+/-)-2-benzylindan-1-ol (anti-(+/-)-2) by B. cinerea as part of the fungal detoxification mechanism is also described and revealed interesting differences in the genome of both strains.

  16. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  17. Development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to the Botrytis cinerea quantification in tissues of postharvest fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raba Julio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for the disease known as gray mold, which causes substantial losses of fruits at postharvest. This fungus is present often as latent infection and an apparently healthy fruit can deteriorate suddenly due to the development of this infection. For this reason, rapid and sensitive methods are necessary for its detection and quantification. This article describes the development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for quantification of B. cinerea in apple (Red Delicious, table grape (pink Moscatel, and pear (William's tissues. Results The method was based in the competition for the binding site of monoclonal antibodies between B. cinerea antigens present in fruit tissues and B. cinerea purified antigens immobilized by a crosslinking agent onto the surface of the microtiter plates. The method was validated considering parameters such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and sensibility. The calculated detection limit was 0.97 μg mL-1 B. cinerea antigens. The immobilized antigen was perfectly stable for at least 4 months assuring the reproducibility of the assay. The fungus was detected and quantified in any of the fruits tested when the rot was not visible yet. Results were compared with a DNA quantification method and these studies showed good correlation. Conclusions The developed method allowed detects the presence of B. cinerea in asymptomatic fruits and provides the advantages of low cost, easy operation, and short analysis time determination for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of pectate-induced gene expression in Botrytis cinerea: identification and functional analysis of putative d-galacturonate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisha; Hua, Chenlei; Stassen, Joost H M; Chatterjee, Sayantani; Cornelissen, Maxim; van Kan, Jan A L

    2014-11-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea produces a spectrum of cell wall degrading enzymes for the decomposition of host cell wall polysaccharides and the consumption of the monosaccharides that are released. Especially pectin is an abundant cell wall component, and the decomposition of pectin by B. cinerea has been extensively studied. An effective concerted action of the appropriate pectin depolymerising enzymes, monosaccharide transporters and catabolic enzymes is important for complete d-galacturonic acid utilization by B. cinerea. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing to compare genome-wide transcriptional profiles between B. cinerea cultures grown in media containing pectate or glucose as sole carbon source. Transcript levels of 32 genes that are induced by pectate were further examined in cultures grown on six different monosaccharides, by means of quantitative RT-PCR, leading to the identification of 8 genes that are exclusively induced by d-galacturonic acid. Among these, the hexose transporter encoding genes Bchxt15 and Bchxt19 were functionally characterised. The subcellular location was studied of BcHXT15-GFP and BcHXT19-GFP fusion proteins expressed under control of their native promoter, in a B. cinerea wild-type strain. Both genes are expressed during growth on d-galacturonic acid and the fusion proteins are localized in plasma membranes and intracellular vesicles. Target gene knockout analysis revealed that BcHXT15 contributes to d-galacturonic acid uptake at pH 5∼5.6. The virulence of all B. cinerea hexose transporter mutants tested was unaltered on tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. PMID:24140151

  19. Isolation and Selection of Epiphytic Yeast for Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea Pers. on Table Grapes Aislación y Selección de Levaduras Epífitas para el Biocontrol de Botrytis cinerea Pers. en Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers., the causal agent of gray mold, infects more than 200 plant species. This pathogen has traditionally been controlled by fungicides. However, with the increasing demand for pesticide-free foods new control strategies are needed. The objective of this study was to isolate and select grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. epiphytic yeasts for the biocontrol of B. cinerea in table grapes. Of the total isolated yeasts (n = 256, 32 exhibited mycelial growth inhibition in dual cultures with a halo > 4 mm, and eight of these isolates inhibited > 90% of conidial germination. When evaluating increasing concentrations on conidial germination inhibition, a dose-dependent response was observed with EC90 values from 0.45 x 10(5 to 0.22 x 10(8 cells mL-1. The antagonistic activity of six yeasts against B. cinerea in table grape berries 'Flame Seedless' increased as the yeast colonization time increased from 1 to 24 h on the berries, resulting in a higher biocontrol activity on B. cinerea. These results show the effectiveness of grapevine epiphytic yeasts as biocontrol agents of B. cinerea on table grapes.Botrytis cinerea Pers., agente causal de la pudrición gris, infecta a más de 200 especies vegetales. Tradicionalmente, este patógeno ha sido controlado con fungicidas; sin embargo, la creciente demanda de alimentos libres de pesticidas hace necesario el uso de nuevas estrategias de control. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y seleccionar levaduras epífitas de vid (Vitis vinifera L. para el biocontrol de B. cinerea en uva de mesa. Del total de levaduras aisladas (n = 256, 32 presentaron inhibición del crecimiento micelial, en cultivos duales, con un halo > 4 mm y ocho de estos aislamientos inhibieron la germinación de conidias > 90%. Al evaluar concentraciones crecientes de levaduras sobre la inhibición de la germinación de conidias, se observó una respuesta dosis-dependiente, con valores de CE90 de 0,45 x 10(5 a 0,22 x 10(8 c

  20. The Endo-Arabinanase BcAra1 Is a Novel Host-Specific Virulence Factor of the Necrotic Fungal Phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Zhang, Lisha;

    2014-01-01

    The plant cell wall is one of the first physical interfaces encountered by plant pathogens and consists of polysaccharides, of which arabinan is an important constituent. During infection, the necrotrophic plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea secretes a cocktail of plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes, i......, consequently, the ΔBcara1 mutants showed the wild-type level of virulence on N. benthamiana leaves. These results support the conclusion that the expression of Bcara1 is host dependent and is a key determinant of the disease outcome....

  1. Suzbijanje aktivnosti plijesni Botrytis cinerea s pomoću bakterije Bacillus coagulans TQ33, izolirane iz obranog mlijeka u prahu

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai Kuan; Xiao, Rui Feng; Qi†, Wei

    2013-01-01

    U radu je izolirana bakterija Bacillus coagulans TQ33 iz obranog mlijeka u prahu, te je ispitan njezin antifungalni učinak na različite patogene plijesni, kao što su: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum i Glomerella cingulata. Procijenjena su svojstva aktivne tvari izolirane iz bakterije Bacillus coagulans TQ33 i njezin antifungalni učinak na rast fitopatogenih plijesni. Ispitan je utjecaj pH-vrijednosti, temperature i prisutnosti različitih...

  2. Biološka kontrola sive plijesni Botrytis cinerea na grožđu s pomoću autohtonih vinskih kvasaca

    OpenAIRE

    Raspor, Peter; Miklič-Milek, Damjana; Avbelj, Martina; Čadež, Neža

    2010-01-01

    Ispitana je aktivnost različitih vrsta i sojeva kvasaca, izoliranih iz grožđa, mošta i vina, u sprečavanju bolesti grožđa, i to u usporedbi s komercijalnim kvascem Candida oleophila, koji djeluje kao antagonist. Na pločama agara preliminarno je ispitan 591 izolat kvasca radi odabira onih koji inhibiraju uzročnika sive plijesni na grožđu (Botrytis cinerea). Kvasci Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima i Pichia guilliermondii prosječno su imali veću aktivnost od kvasca Candida oleo...

  3. Action mechanism for 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonora; Ribera, Alejandra; Saavedra, Alejandra; Silva, Evelyn; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro; Cotoras, Milena

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the diterpenoid 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and the anthraquinone 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea was studied. The effect of both compounds on the respiratory process and on the membrane integrity of B. cinerea was evaluated. The results showed that 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid inhibited the growth of this fungus by disrupting the plasmatic membrane. This compound also partially affected oxygen consumption of B. cinerea germinating conidia. Conversely, 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione did not produce membrane disruption of B. cinerea. The effect of this compound on mycelial growth was notably increased by the presence of an inhibitor of the cyanide-resistant respiration pathway. It also was shown that the anthraquinone inhibited oxygen consumption by about 80%; therefore this compound would act as a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway of the respiratory chain to exert its antifungal effect. PMID:25977212

  4. Identification of metabolic pathways expressed by Pichia anomala Kh6 in the presence of the pathogen Botrytis cinerea on apple: new possible targets for biocontrol improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kwasiborski

    Full Text Available Yeast Pichia anomala strain Kh6 Kurtzman (Saccharomycetales: Endomycetaceae exhibits biological control properties that provide an alternative to the chemical fungicides currently used by fruit or vegetable producers against main post-harvest pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae. Using an in situ model that takes into account interactions between organisms and a proteomic approach, we aimed to identify P. anomala metabolic pathways influenced by the presence of B. cinerea. A total of 105 and 60 P. anomala proteins were differentially represented in the exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively. In the exponential phase and in the presence of B. cinerea, the pentose phosphate pathway seems to be enhanced and would provide P. anomala with the needed nucleic acids and energy for the wound colonisation. In the stationary phase, P. anomala would use alcoholic fermentation both in the absence and presence of the pathogen. These results would suggest that the competitive colonisation of apple wounds could be implicated in the mode of action of P. anomala against B. cinerea.

  5. Efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. como alternativas de manejo de Botrytis cinerea en fresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Taborda Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El moho gris de la fresa causado por Botrytis cinerea es una enfermedad que produce importantes pérdidas poscosecha. En el estudio se evaluó el efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. en concentraciones de 128, 256 y 500 mg/lt sobre B. cinerea in vitro e in vivo. In vitro se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento micelial del hongo. En estas condiciones se observó que el aceite esencial (AE de L. origanoides presentó el porcentaje de control más alto (66.2% sobre B. cinerea. In vivo, se observó que en bananos inoculados con B. cinerea después de 120 los AE controlaron eficientemente la incidencia de daño causado por el patógeno estudiado y no se encontraron diferencias significativas con el control químico utilizando el fungicida Benomil

  6. UVR8 mediates UV-B-induced Arabidopsis defense responses against Botrytis cinerea by controlling sinapate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkura, Patricia V; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2012-05-01

    Light is emerging as a central regulator of plant immune responses against herbivores and pathogens. Solar UV-B radiation plays an important role as a positive modulator of plant defense. However, since UV-B photons can interact with a wide spectrum of molecular targets in plant tissues, the mechanisms that mediate their effects on plant defense have remained elusive. Here, we show that ecologically meaningful doses of UV-B radiation increase Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and that this effect is mediated by the photoreceptor UVR8. The UV-B effect on plant resistance was conserved in mutants impaired in jasmonate (JA) signaling (jar1-1 and P35S:JAZ10.4) or metabolism of tryptophan-derived defense compounds (pen2-1, pad3-1, pen2 pad3), suggesting that neither regulation of the JA pathway nor changes in levels of indolic glucosinolates (iGS) or camalexin are involved in this response. UV-B radiation, acting through UVR8, increased the levels of flavonoids and sinapates in leaf tissue. The UV-B effect on pathogen resistance was still detectable in tt4-1, a mutant deficient in chalcone synthase and therefore impaired in the synthesis of flavonoids, but was absent in fah1-7, a mutant deficient in ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase, which is essential for sinapate biosynthesis. Collectively, these results indicate that UVR8 plays an important role in mediating the effects of UV-B radiation on pathogen resistance by controlling the expression of the sinapate biosynthetic pathway. PMID:22447155

  7. UVR8 Mediates UV-B-Induced Arabidopsis Defense Responses against Botrytis cinerea by Controlling Sinapate Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V. Demkura; Carlos L. Ballaré

    2012-01-01

    Light is emerging as a central regulator of plant immune responses against herbivores and pathogens.Solar UV-B radiation plays an important role as a positive modulator of plant defense.However,since UV-B photons can interact with a wide spectrum of molecular targets in plant tissues,the mechanisms that mediate their effects on plant defense have remained elusive.Here,we show that ecologically meaningful doses of UV-B radiation increase Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and that this effect is mediated by the photoreceptor UVR8.The UV-B effect on plant resistance was conserved in mutants impaired in jasmonate (JA) signaling (jar1-1 and P35S:JAZ10.4) or metabolism of tryptophan-derived defense compounds (pen2-1,pad3-1,pen2 pad3),suggesting that neither regulation of the JA pathway nor changes in levels of indolic glucosinolates (iGS) or camalexin are involved in this response.UV-B radiation,acting through UVR8,increased the levels of flavonoids and sinapates in leaf tissue.The UV-B effect on pathogen resistance was still detectable in tt4-f,a mutant deficient in chalcone synthase and therefore impaired in the synthesis of flavonoids,but was absent in fah1-7,a mutant deficient in ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase,which is essential for sinapate biosynthesis.Collectively,these results indicate that UVR8 plays an important role in mediating the effects of UV-B radiation on pathogen resistance by controlling the expression of the sinapate biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm. PMID:25883657

  9. Assessment of the Role of Local Strawberry Rhizosphere—Associated Streptomycetes on the Bacterially—Induced Growth and Botrytis cinerea Infection Resistance of the Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. İpek Kurtböke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The future need for sustainable agriculture will be met in part by wider use of biological control of plant pathogens over conventional fungicides hazardous to the environment and to public health. Control strategies involving both (i direct use of microorganisms antagonistic to the phytopathogen, and (ii use of bioactive compounds (secondary metabolites/antibiotic compounds from microorganisms on the phytopathogen were both adapted in order to investigate the ability of streptomycetes isolated from the rhizosphere of strawberry plants to promote the growth of the fruit and suppress Botrytis cinerea causing strawberry rot on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. In vitro studies showed that 25/39 streptomycetes isolated from strawberry field soils inhibited B. cinerea growth by antifungal activity, ranging from antibiosis to volatile compound production. However, when non-volatile antifungal compounds were extracted and applied aerially to the actively growing strawberry fruits infected with B. cinerea, a significant disease reduction was not recorded. On the other hand, plant and fruit growth was promoted by the presence of actively growing streptomycetes in container media. Findings might indicate that live streptomycete inoculum can be used as growth promoting agent in container media for this economically important crop.

  10. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%). PMID:25589008

  11. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  12. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1-JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  13. Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Acosta, A; Rodríguez, C

    2014-09-01

    Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8% of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC50 values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC50 value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC50 value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8% of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC50 values were within the range of 0.009-0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014-0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31% reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively.

  14. Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Acosta, A; Rodríguez, C

    2014-09-01

    Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8% of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC50 values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC50 value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC50 value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8% of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC50 values were within the range of 0.009-0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014-0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31% reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively. PMID:24817605

  15. Avaliação da atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de folhas de Eucalyptus sobre Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipolaris sorokiniana Fungitoxic activity evaluation of essential leaf oils of Eucalyptus on Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Soares P. Salgado; Maria das Graças Cardoso; Paulo Estevão de Souza; Josefina Aparecida de Souza; Celeste Maria P. Abreu; José Eduardo B.P. Pinto

    2003-01-01

    A maioria das plantas são resistentes aos diferentes patógenos, e essa resistência pode estar relacionada à existência de compostos fungistáticos naturalmente produzidos. Com o presente trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de eucaliptos. Os óleos foram obtidos de folhas dos eucaliptos mediante arraste a vapor de água, utilizando o aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Nos ensaios biológicos, foram empregados os fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipol...

  16. Bioatividade de óleos essenciais no controle de Botrytis cinerea isolado de morangueiro Essential oils bioactivity in strawberry grey mould control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Lorenzetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de óleos essenciais sobre isolados de Botrytis cinerea, causador do mofo cinzento em morangueiro. Foram testados óleos essenciais de capim-limão, palmarosa, citronela, cravo, canela, menta, lavanda, tangerina, eucalipto, melaleuca, alecrim e laranja, todos estes analisados em cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a detector de massas, para identificação dos principais componentes dos óleos. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial, produção e germinação de conídios de B. cinerea, com a incorporação do óleo no meio de cultura. Realizou-se ainda uma avaliação de voláteis e a eficiência de óleos em isolado resistente a fungicida. Para cada teste, diferentes óleos apresentaram eficiência, contudo capim limão, palmarosa, canela e menta demonstraram os melhores efeitos em todos os testes realizados. Todos os tratamentos a base de óleos demonstraram efeito semelhante a um fungicida recomendado para a cultura, a base de tiofanato metílico. Dois tratamentos mostraram-se efetivos no caso de isolado resistente (óleo de capim limão e de canela. Óleos essenciais mostram-se como opção promissora para o desenvolvimento de possíveis produtos fitossanitários para o manejo de doenças em plantas.This study aimed evaluates essential oils in Botrytis cinerea isolates growth, which causes gray mould on strawberry. Were tested essential oils of lemon grass, palmrose, citronella, clove, cinnamon, mint, lavender, tangerine, eucalyptus, tea tree, rosemary and orange. The oils were analyzed in gas chromatograph attached to mass detector for identifying the mainly oils components. Were evaluated mycelial growth, conidia production and conidia germination of B. cinerea, with oil incorporation in culture medium. Were conducted an evaluation of oils volatile components and the efficiency of oils in fungicide-resistant isolate. For each test, different oils showed efficiency, however lemongrass, palmarosa, cinnamon and mint

  17. ROS signaling, phytohormone signaling and toxin tolerance: defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Fuqiang

    2014-01-01

    To face the constant challenges from numerous pathogens in the environment, sophisticated defense systems have evolved in plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormones are important cellular compounds that regulate plant defense systems to overcome biotic stresses from different pathogens. Against biotrophic pathogens, which require living host cells, hypersensitive cell death response (HR), a type of programed cell death mediated by ROS and salicylic acid (SA), is effective for imm...

  18. Estudio del metabolismo del óxido nítrico (NO) en Botrytis cinerea: mecanismos de producción y efectos fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Santander Gordón, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Botrytis cinerea es un hongo fitopatógeno que infecta a más de 200 especies de plantas y es considerado un organismo necrótrofo ¿modelo¿ que crece preferentemente en tejido muerto o senescente pero que también puede infectar a los tejidos sanos de la planta. Las enormes pérdidas económicas que causa a nivel mundial y su relevancia científica le han dado la categoría de segundo hongo fitopatógeno más importante dentro de la patología molecular de plantas. Durante la interacción planta-...

  19. Reduction of nectarine decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum with Aloe vera gel alone or with the addition of thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Diana; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Guillén, Fabián; Zapata, Pedro J; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo

    2011-12-01

    Two nectarine cultivars ('Flavela' and 'Flanoba') were treated with Aloe vera gel alone, or with the addition of thymol, and then inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum. Both treatments were effective in reducing the decay incidence caused by the 3 fungi species, although the addition of thymol did not generally improve the efficacy of Aloe vera gel on reducing the infection damage. The coatings were clearly effective in reducing the postharvest ripening process of both nectarine cultivars manifested by a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate, weight loss and softening. Interestingly, these coatings showed effectiveness on reducing decay development in inoculated fruits and thus Aloe vera could be considered as natural antifungal compound and might serve as alternative of synthetic fungicides. PMID:21974979

  20. Screening for Fungicides to Control Strawberry Botrytis cinerea%几种杀菌剂对草莓灰霉病菌的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐永霞; 陈方新; 李欠欠

    2009-01-01

    在实验室条件下,采用茵丝生长速率法测定了6种杀菌剂对草莓灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的毒力.结果表明,咪鲜胺、多菌灵、速克灵、扑海因、烯唑醇和三唑酮对草莓灰霉病菌的质量浓度EC50值分别为0.0233、0.0421、0.1724、0.2837、0.3021和0.3263 mg/L.草莓灰霉病菌对上述6种杀菌剂均表现敏感,其中,供试草莓灰霉病菌对咪鲜胺最敏感.

  1. 内生拮抗放线菌防治番茄灰霉病的研究%Study on Control Tomato Botrytis cinerea by Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛春艳; 张丽萍; 谢莉; 程辉彩; 张根伟; 李书生

    2009-01-01

    从番茄植物组织内分离到一株对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)有拮抗作用的放线菌株No.37,此菌株产生的抗菌物质能显著抑制番茄灰霉病菌的菌丝生长和孢子萌发,对盆栽番茄幼苗的预防保护作用和治疗作用分别达到89.7%和80.3%,10倍稀释液的田间防治效果达到84.1%.

  2. An ABAGE-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 Inhibited the Growth of Hypocotyls and Roots of Amaranthus retroflexus Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; DONG Jin-gao; SHANG Hong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite, which had an inhibitory effect on plant growth, was isolated from cultural filtrate of Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4 by column chromatography on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Its structure was determined from HPLC-ESI MS, GC,IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data, as well as chemical hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar to abscisic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(ABAGE) in structure. The inhibitory effect of the ABAGE-like metabolite on plant growth was investigated using a weed Amaranthus retroflexus L. as a bioassay material. The results showed that it inhibited hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seedlings when its concentration was over 0.5 μM. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus seedlings were 2.8 and 1.4 μM, respectively.

  3. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Confers Grapevine Resistance against Botrytis cinerea via a Direct Antimicrobial Effect Combined with a Better Resource Mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto-Vilanova, Lidiane; Jacquard, Cédric; Courteaux, Barbara; Wortham, Laurence; Michel, Jean; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaïd A; Sanchez, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Plant innate immunity serves as a surveillance system by providing the first line of powerful weapons to fight against pathogen attacks. Beneficial microorganisms and Microbial-Associated Molecular Patterns might act as signals to trigger this immunity. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, a highly efficient plant beneficial endophytic bacterium, promotes growth in a wide variety of plants including grapevine. Further, the bacterium induces plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses. However, no study has deciphered triggered-mechanisms during the tripartite interaction between grapevine, B. phytofirmans PsJN and Botrytis cinerea. Herein, we showed that in contrast with classical rhizobacteria, which are restricted in the root system and act through ISR, B. phytofirmans PsJN is able to migrate until aerial part and forms at leaves surface a biofilm around B. cinerea mycelium to restrict the pathogen. Nevertheless, considering the endophytic level of PsJN in leaves, the plant protection efficacy of B. phytofirmans PsJN could not be explained solely by its direct antifungal effect. Deeper investigations showed a callose deposition, H2O2 production and primed expression of PR1, PR2, PR5, and JAZ only in bacterized-plantlets after pathogen challenge. The presence of PsJN modulated changes in leaf carbohydrate metabolism including gene expression, sugar levels, and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging after Botrytis challenge. Our findings indicated that protection induced by B. phytofirmans PsJN was multifaceted and relied on a direct antifungal effect, priming of defense mechanisms as well as the mobilization of carbon sources in grapevine leaf tissues. PMID:27602036

  4. A Study on Selecting the Optimal Concentration of Sulfur Dioxide to Inhibit Botrytis cinerea Pers on Grapes%抑制葡萄灰霉菌适宜SO2浓度筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤超; 李学文; 韩江; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the sulfur dioxide (SO2) to inhibit Botrytis cinera Pers to control the decay of grapes during storage to select suitable SO2 concentration inhibiting Botrytis cinera Pers to provide a bass for controlling decay of grapes during storage.The fuming treatment medium with different SO2 concentrations and Botrytis cinera Pers on the surface of grapes fruit were used to study inhibition effects on Botrytis cinera Pers and effects on grapes quality and to select suitable SO2 treatment concentration.Resuts showed that there was positive correlation between the inhibition effect of Botrytis cinera Pers in vitro and the inhibition and concentration of Botrytis cinera Pers.The significant effect of SO2 to control Botrytis cinerea Pers was beginning from 200μL/L.Grapes inoculated Botrytis cinerea Pers bacteriostatic experiment showed,200 μL/L or 250 μl/L treatment effect was significantly better than the other concentrations.But 250μl/L SO2 handling was harmful to grape quality.Suming up the inhibition of Botrytis cinerea Pers and the affection of grape fruit quality,SO2 concentration of 200 μL/L was suit for embalmed thompson seedless storage.%采用不同SO2浓度熏蒸处理培养基及表面接种葡萄果实上的灰霉菌(Botrytis cinera Pers),研究其对灰霉菌的抑制效果及对葡萄品质的影响,筛选适宜的SO2处理浓度.体外抑菌试验表明,SO2对灰霉菌的抑制作用与浓度成正相关,从200 μL/L开始抑制效果显著,SO2对表面接种灰霉菌葡萄的抑菌试验,SO2浓度为200,250 μL/L的处理效果明显好于其他浓度,但250 μL/L SO2处理对葡萄品质产生了伤害,综合对灰霉菌的抑制及对葡萄果实品质的影响,SO2浓度为200 μL/L适宜无核白葡萄贮藏防腐处理.

  5. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  6. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boumaaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm.

  7. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. PMID:25583341

  8. Research progress in breeding of tomato resistance to Botrytis cinerea%番茄抗灰霉病育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵统敏; 余文贵; 赵丽萍; 董友磊; 陈怀谷; 李永灿; 杨玛丽

    2011-01-01

    灰霉病是设施栽培番茄的主要病害之一,常导致番茄减产30%~40%,给番茄生产造成严重损失,防治该病的根本措施是培育抗病品种.该文对番茄灰霉病菌的侵染、病菌分化、诱导抗性、抗源筛选、抗性基因定位及基因工程等方面的研究进展进行了综述,以期为番茄灰霉病抗性育种提供有益信息,同时结合育种实践对进一步研究进行讨论和展望.%Botrytis blight is one of the major plant disease in protected cultivation, which often causes yield reduction by 30% -40% and results in great economic losses. Planting resistant variety is the main control measure. In order to provide available information on tomato inheritance improvement, the recent research progress in infection and differentiation of pathogen (Botrytis cinerea), induced resistance, resistance sources screening, resistance gene mapping and genetic engineering were reviewed in this paper. The strategies of further resistance breeding were also discussed.

  9. Functional characterization of three ethylene response factor genes from Bupleurum kaoi indicates that BkERFs mediate resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Yu; Chiou, Shu-Jiau; Ko, Chia-Yun; Lin, Tsai-Yun

    2011-03-01

    Three novel ethylene response factor (ERF) genes, BkERF1, BkERF2.1 and BkERF2.2, were isolated from a medicinal plant, Bupleurum kaoi. The deduced BkERFs contain a canonical nuclear localization signal and an ERF/AP2 DNA binding domain. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that BkERF1 and BkERF2.1 were ubiquitously expressed at low levels in all parts of mature plants, and that BkERF2.2 was expressed at moderate levels in vegetative tissues. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induced BkERF1/2.1/2.2 transcripts. BkERF2.2 transcript levels were slightly increased by addition of ethephon and salicylic acid. BkERFs were localized in the plant nucleus and functioned as transcriptional activators. In B. kaoi cells overexpressing BKERFs, inoculation with Botrytis cinerea increased expression of some defense genes which are associated with enhanced disease resistance. Similarly, overexpression of BkERFs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in elevated mRNA levels of the defense gene PDF1.2, and in enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Collectively, these results provide evidence that BkERFs mediate the expression of defense-related genes in plants.

  10. Effects of Crop Development on the Emission of Volatiles in Leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum and Its Inhibitory Activity to Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Volatiles emitted from the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum at the two-, ten-leaf and anthesis periods were collected by a gas absorbing method and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. In total, 33 compounds of volatiles emitted from three developmental stage plants were separated and identified, and quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard addition method. All of the samples of volatile were found to be rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.β-phellandrene and caryophyllene predominated in the volatiles of the leaves of plants at the two- and ten-leaf stages.Furthermore, (E)-2-hexenal were the dominant components in the volatiles emitted from anthesis plants. The results of volatiles analyzed show that the compositions varied depending on the developmental stages. The volatiles emitted from crushed tomato leaves of plants at the anthesis stage had the most strongly inhibitory activity against the spore germination and hyphal growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, followed by ten- and two-leaf plants. However, the activity of volatiles, emitted from the leaves of plants at the two-leaf stage, in inhibiting F. oxysporum was greater than B. cinerea.

  11. 灰葡萄孢对杀菌剂抗性研究进展%Research Progress onBotrytis cinerea Resistance to Different Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩之琪; 贲海燕; 谢学文; 石延霞; 李宝聚

    2014-01-01

    灰葡萄孢寄主范围广泛,可引起多种蔬菜、果树及观赏作物发生灰霉病。近年来,灰葡萄孢对杀菌剂产生越来越严重的抗药性,本文综述了国内外多种寄主植物上的灰葡萄孢对不同杀菌剂产生的抗药性、抗性机制、抗性菌株检测方法等方面的研究进展,并对未来研究方向进行了展望。%Botrytis cinereas a phytopathogenic fungi responsible for grey mould,which is an important disease in many species of fruit trees,vegetables and ornamental crops. Recently,B. cinerea has developed increasing severe resistance to a broad range of fungicides. This paper summarizes the research progress about B. cinereaat varioushost plant’s resistance to drugs,their resistance mechanism and methods for detecting tolerant bacteria reported at home and abroad. It also predicts the future orientation of this study.

  12. Bcmfs1, a novel major facilitator superfamily transporter from Botrytis cinerea, provides tolerance towards the natural toxic compounds camptothecin and cercosporin and towards fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keisuke; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; De Waard, Maarten A

    2002-10-01

    Bcmfs1, a novel major facilitator superfamily gene from Botrytis cinerea, was cloned, and replacement and overexpression mutants were constructed to study its function. Replacement mutants showed increased sensitivity to the natural toxic compounds camptothecin and cercosporin, produced by the plant Camptotheca acuminata and the plant pathogenic fungus Cercospora kikuchii, respectively. Overexpression mutants displayed decreased sensitivity to these compounds and to structurally unrelated fungicides, such as sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). A double-replacement mutant of Bcmfs1 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene BcatrD was more sensitive to DMI fungicides than a single-replacement mutant of BcatrD, known to encode an important ABC transporter of DMIs. The sensitivity of the wild-type strain and mutants to DMI fungicides correlated with Bcmfs1 expression levels and with the initial accumulation of oxpoconazole by germlings of these isolates. The results indicate that Bcmfs1 is a major facilitator superfamily multidrug transporter involved in protection against natural toxins and fungicides and has a substrate specificity that overlaps with the ABC transporter BcatrD. Bcmfs1 may be involved in protection of B. cinerea against plant defense compounds during the pathogenic phase of growth on host plants and against fungitoxic antimicrobial metabolites during its saprophytic phase of growth.

  13. Efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de lippia ori-ganoides hbk y thymus vulgaris l. como alternativas de manejo de botrytis cinerea en fresa

    OpenAIRE

    Taborda Andrade, Luis Alejandro; Sanchez Orozco, Manuel salvador; Bonilla Correa, Carmen Rosa; Huertas Davey, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    El moho gris de la fresa causado por Botrytis cinerea es una enfermedad que produce importantes pérdidas poscosecha. En el estudio se evaluó el efecto fungistático de extractos y aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides HBK y Thymus vulgaris L. en concentraciones de 128, 256 y 500 mg/lt sobre B. cinerea in vitro e in vivo. In vitro se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento micelial del hongo. En estas condiciones se observó que el aceite esencial (AE) de L. origanoides prese...

  14. Regularity of Botrytis cinerea Damaged Jatropha curcas and its Control Methods%麻疯树灰霉病发生规律及其防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文进; 方红云; 袁瑞琳; 蔡芳; 陈鹏

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha curcas were sprayed by using Huahui Wettable powder ( 40% Procymidone+10% Thiram+0 .5% Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate)and Kangfeng No .8 (10% Flusilazole+40% Iprodione) to against Botry‐tis cinerea .Result shows that the pharmacy mixed with 600‐1 000 mg Huahui WP and 500‐900 mg Kangfeng No .8 per liter of clean water can effectively control the spread of Botrytis cinerea .The optimal control effect is the mixed pharmacy (per liter of clean water+ Huahui WP +900 mg Kangfeng No .8 EW);the prevention correction by spra‐ying are 94 .2% for continuous three times;the control effect are significantly different with different spraying time;the control effect increased significantly with the increase in the number of spraying ;the control effect has no signifi‐cant difference with different concentrations .Mixed pharmacy (Huahui WP and Kangfeng No .8) with low concen‐trations should be selected to against Botrytis cinerea .Increasing appropriately the number of sprays can achieve the desired control effect .%通过使用化灰和康丰8号混配药剂喷洒麻疯树对麻疯树灰霉病进行防治试验,结果表明:按每升清水加化灰600~1000mg与康丰8号500~900mg均匀混合配制而成的药剂能有效控制麻疯树灰霉病的蔓延,以混配药剂C(每升清水加化灰可湿性粉剂1000mg和康丰8号水乳剂900mg)防治效果最好,连续喷施3次对灰霉病的校正防效达94.2%;不同喷药次数间防治效果差异显著,随着喷药次数的增加,防治效果也明显增加;不同浓度间的防治效果无明显差异。进行麻疯树灰霉病防治时,可尽量选用化灰和康丰2种混配药剂的低浓度剂量,适当增加喷洒次数,可达到预期的防治效果。

  15. Status and Controlling Measures for Botrytis cinerea of Eucalyptus spp in Shiping County%桉树灰霉病在石屏县的发生情况及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2012-01-01

    介绍桉树灰霉病分布,在我国桉树栽培区流行原因,植株感病症状,石屏县适于灰霉病发生的自然条件以及近年来发生情况.分析近年来桉灰霉病高发的诸多因素.提出加强检疫,控制病菌扩散;选育抗病品种或品系;实施生态防治、化学防治等灰霉病的防治措施,以及一些病害持续控制策略.%This paper introduced the distribution of Botrytis cinerea of Eucalyptus spp, and its happening reasons in eucalyptus cultivation area of China, the disease symptoms of plants sense, natural conditions suitable for Botrytis cinerea in Shiping County and the recent occurrence. Also analyzed many factors causing a high incidence of Botrytis cinerea of Eucalyptus spp in recent years. In this way, controlling measures have been proposed to strengthen quarantine: to control disease spreading: to breed disease-resistant varieties or strains: to implement ecological control and chemical control, etc, as well as some diseases sustained controlling strategy.

  16. Are bacterial volatile compounds poisonous odors to a fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, alarm signals to Arabidopsis seedlings for eliciting induced resistance, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min eRyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control (biocontrol agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR. Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen

  17. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 h post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen colonization. This study

  18. 低温对葡萄孢菌( Botrytis cinerea )菌丝生长和孢子萌发以及对贮藏菊苣侵染力的影响%EFFECTS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON MYCELIAL GROWTH AND SPORE GERMINATION OF Botrytis cinerea IN VITRO AND ON ITS INFECTIVITY TO STORED CHICORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田世平

    2001-01-01

    本文主要研究葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)在20、10、4、2、0、—2和—4℃下菌丝生长和孢子萌发的情况,以及在同样温度下对菊苣(Cichorium intybus L.)致病力的影响。尽管在PDA培养基上0℃以下低温明显地抑制菌丝生长和推迟孢子的萌发时间,但葡萄孢菌仍能在—4℃下14 d后达到100%的萌发率,24周后菌落的生长直径为10 mm。用Botrytis cinerea孢子接种的菊苣在—2℃下6周以前的发病率较低,在—4℃下8周以前没有病害发生,但随着贮藏时间的延长,发病率逐渐上升,12周后腐烂率达到77%和71%,病害严重程度指数分别为37和31。菊苣贮藏在—2℃和—4℃下后期腐烂率的快速增加可能与此时菊苣产生冷害有关。%The effects of low temperature ranging from 20℃ to —4℃ on mycelial growth, the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea in culture and its infectivity to stored chicory (Cichorium intybus L. ) were investigated. Although temperatures below 0℃ could inhibit the mycelial growth and delay the conidial germination, B. cinerea was able to grow and germinate on PDA and to infect chicory even at —4℃. Germination rate reached 100% after 14 days and mycelial diameter was 10 mm after 24 weeks at such temperature. No decay was found in chicory kept at —4℃ before 8 weeks and there was very low disease incidence in chicory stored at —2℃ in 6 weeks of storage. After 12 weeks in storage, disease incidence reached 77% and 71% with a disease severity score of 37 and 31, respectively, which may be related partly to freezing injury of chicory stored at such temperatures.

  19. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Segarra

    Full Text Available Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  20. Digital Gene Expression Analysis to Screen Disease Resistance-Relevant Genes from Leaves of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saijie Gong

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a well-known traditional flower in China and is widely used for landscaping and garden greening due to its high ornamental value. However, disease spots usually appear after the flowering of the plant and may result in the withering of the plant in severe cases. This study examined the disease incidence in an herbaceous peony field in the Yangzhou region, Jiangsu Province. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, the disease in this area was identified as a gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Based on previously obtained transcriptome data, eight libraries generated from two herbaceous peony cultivars 'Zifengyu' and 'Dafugui' with different susceptibilities to the disease were then analyzed using digital gene expression profiling (DGE. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened by comparing the eight samples, and these genes were annotated using the Gene ontology (GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG database. The pathways related to plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism synthesis and antioxidant system were concentrated, and 51, 76, and 13 disease resistance-relevant candidate genes were identified, respectively. The expression patterns of these candidate genes differed between the two cultivars: their expression of the disease-resistant cultivar 'Zifengyu' sharply increased during the early stages of infection, while it was relatively subdued in the disease-sensitive cultivar 'Dafugui'. A selection of ten candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to validate the DGE data. These results revealed the transcriptional changes that took place during the interaction of herbaceous peony with B. cinerea, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of host resistance to gray mold.

  1. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  2. Functional and structural comparison of pyrrolnitrin- and iprodione-induced modifications in the class III histidine-kinase Bos1 of Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fillinger

    Full Text Available Dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles are commonly used fungicides against plant pathogenic ascomycetes. Although their effect on fungal osmosensing systems has been shown in many studies, their modes-of-action still remain unclear. Laboratory- or field-mutants of fungi resistant to either or both fungicide categories generally harbour point mutations in the sensor histidine kinase of the osmotic signal transduction cascade.In the present study we compared the mechanisms of resistance to the dicarboximide iprodione and to pyrrolnitrin, a structural analogue of phenylpyrrole fungicides, in Botrytis cinerea. Pyrrolnitrin-induced mutants and iprodione-induced mutants of B. cinerea were produced in vitro. For the pyrrolnitrin-induced mutants, a high level of resistance to pyrrolnitrin was associated with a high level of resistance to iprodione. For the iprodione-induced mutants, the high level of resistance to iprodione generated variable levels of resistance to pyrrolnitrin and phenylpyrroles. All selected mutants showed hypersensitivity to high osmolarity and regardless of their resistance levels to phenylpyrroles, they showed strongly reduced fitness parameters (sporulation, mycelial growth, aggressiveness on plants compared to the parental phenotypes. Most of the mutants presented modifications in the osmosensing class III histidine kinase affecting the HAMP domains. Site directed mutagenesis of the bos1 gene was applied to validate eight of the identified mutations. Structure modelling of the HAMP domains revealed that the replacements of hydrophobic residues within the HAMP domains generally affected their helical structure, probably abolishing signal transduction. Comparing mutant phenotypes to the HAMP structures, our study suggests that mutations perturbing helical structures of HAMP2-4 abolish signal-transduction leading to loss-of-function phenotype. The mutation of residues E529, M427, and T581, without consequences on HAMP structure

  3. Plant hemoglobin gene expression adjusts Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas synringae and Botrytis cinerea though scavenging of nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Hebelstrup, Kim; Cristescu, Simona;

    2011-01-01

    NO has earlier been shown to influence ethylene production during Pseudomonas syringae elicited hypersensitive response in tobacco. In this work Arabidopsis plants with silencing or null mutation of hemoglobin genes (glb1 and glb2) and transgenic lines over-expressing Glb1 and Glb2 demonstrated a...... causal link between NO generation, hemoglobin-dependent NO scavenging, the production of ethylene and resistance to Botrytis or Pseudomonas....

  4. Eficiência de Trichoderma harzianum e Gliocladium viride na redução da incidência de Botrytis cinerea em tomateiro cultivado sob ambiente protegido Efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium viride in decreasing the incidence of Botrytis cinerea in tomato cultivated in protected environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Brito Lisboa; Carla Centeno Bochese; Luciano Kayser Vargas; José Ricardo Pfeifer Silveira; Bernadete Radin; Andréia Mara Rota de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    A produção de tomates no Estado do RS ocupa um importante papel sócio-econômico, que pode ser constatado pelo crescimento do cultivo dessa hortaliça em ambiente protegido. Essa técnica permite a produção de tomates em período de entressafra; no entanto, ocorrem também condições favoráveis para o desenvolvimento de doenças fúngicas como o mofo cinzento provocado por Botrytis cinerea. O surgimento de raças de patógenos resistentes a fungicidas químicos vem fazendo com que o controle biológico t...

  5. Effect of temperature on the morphological characteristics of Botrytis cinerea and its correlated with the genetic variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge G Fernndez; Martn A Fernndez-Baldo; Gabriela Sansone; Viviana Calvente; Delia Benuzzi; Eloy Salinas; Julio Raba; Mara I Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of temperature on the morphological characteristics of Botrytiscinerea (B. cinerea) and its correlated with the genetic variability. B. cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus that produces the disease known as grey mould in a wide variety of agriculturally important hosts in many countries.Methods:Six strains from different host collected have been isolated and characterized by several methods as mycelial growth, fungicide resistance, pathogenicity and the effects of the temperature. Also was analyzed by PCR and distinguished by the presence or absence of transposable elements.Results:Results showed that clear morphological differences exist between strains at the temperature of 4, 12 and 28 °C. All strains analyzed molecularly were classified as Group II (transposa-type). Demonstrating a negative correlation between mycelial growth and other characteristics as the fungicide resistance and pathogenicity. Lastly, it is difficult to establish relationships phenotypic and genotypic between strains of B. cinerea.Conclusions:The results indicated that the mycelial growth, resistance at fungicide and pathogenicity are independent of the characteristics molecular, however, are dependent of a factor such as temperature.

  6. EFFECT OF BOTRYCIDES AND ATTACK INTENSITY OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA Pers. ex Fr. ON GRAŠEVINA AND TRAMINAC cv. IN KUTJEVO VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Svitlica

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2001/2002 experiments made in the vineyards of Kutjevo, the examinations were conducted on the intensity of infection with Botrytis cinerea Pers., the efficiency of the applied botryticides, the achieved grape production and the impact of meteorological factors on the development and intensity of the disease. Among the examined sorts of Graševina and Traminac, the intensity of infection with Botrytis in both years and on all localities was the highest on the control fields, which therefore indicate justified and appropriate use of fungicides. The examined efficiency of fungicides applied throughout all four phenophases of the vine development indicates the differences in their efficiency according to sorts and localities as well as the length of examination. With the sort Traminac the best efficiency was achieved with the Switch 62,5 WG, somewhat weaker efficiency with the Mythos SC, and in the last place is the Kidan SC. As for the sort Graševina, the best efficiency was achieved with the Teldor SC, insignificantly weaker efficiency with the Switch 62,5 WG, and last place is the combination of Folicur EW 50 + Euparen 50 WP. The production of grape achieved in the years of examination on certain localities did not show the expected results, since the unfavourable climatic conditions (too much humidity in both years caused the extraordinary attack of the grey mould of grapes. The lowest production was achieved on the control fields with Traminac as well as with Graševina, whereas a better production was achieved with the sorts treated with fungicides, according to their efficiency. There is a significant impact of climatic factors (precipitation and temperatures on the intensity of infection, the efficiency of fungicides and achieved production of grape. Both years of the examination in the months of grape ripening abounded in great amounts of rain. In 2001 the six-month average (V-X month of the total quantity of rain was 504,4 mm, and

  7. ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Moffat

    Full Text Available The ethylene response factor (ERF family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises 122 members in 12 groups, yet the biological functions of the majority remain unknown. Of the group IX ERFs, the IXc subgroup has been studied the most, and includes ERF1, ERF14 and ORA59, which play roles in plant innate immunity. Here we investigate the biological functions of two members of the less studied IXb subgroup: ERF5 and ERF6. In order to identify potential targets of these transcription factors, microarray analyses were performed on plants constitutively expressing either ERF5 or ERF6. Expression of defense genes, JA/Et-responsive genes and genes containing the GCC box promoter motif were significantly upregulated in both ERF5 and ERF6 transgenic plants, suggesting that ERF5 and ERF6 may act as positive regulators of JA-mediated defense and potentially overlap in their function. Since defense against necrotrophic pathogens is generally mediated through JA/Et-signalling, resistance against the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea was examined. Constitutive expression of ERF5 or ERF6 resulted in significantly increased resistance. Although no significant difference in susceptibility to B. cinerea was observed in either erf5 or erf6 mutants, the erf5 erf6 double mutant showed a significant increase in susceptibility, which was likely due to compromised JA-mediated gene expression, since JA-induced gene expression was reduced in the double mutant. Taken together these data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 play positive but redundant roles in defense against B. cinerea. Since mutual antagonism between JA/Et and salicylic acid (SA signalling is well known, the UV-C inducibility of an SA-inducible gene, PR-1, was examined. Reduced inducibilty in both ERF5 and ERF6 constitutive overexepressors was consistent with suppression of SA-mediated signalling, as was an increased susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. These data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 may also play a

  8. Resistência a fungicidas de Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries, fungo causador de tombamento em mudas de Eucalyptus sp. em viveiros florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Silva Medeiros da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fungicide resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries causal agent of Eucalypt seedling damping off, was evaluated in laboratory tests conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. To evaluate the fungicide effects on the mycelium growth and conidium germination, three active ingredients were tested: benomyl, procimidone and thiabendazole. The treatments consisted of four dosages for each fungicide: zero (control, one half of the recommended dosage, full dosage and twice the dosage. The evaluations were done every 24 hours during 7 days for the mycelium growth, and at 24 and 48 hours for spore germination. To determine the occurrence of resistance two isolates were compared, one from a commercial nursery in Rio Grande do Sul (IB-1, and the other (wild (IB-2 from the Vegetable Crops Department, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. The isolate IB-1 grew on all concentrations of benomyl, while the wild isolate was inhibited at all concentrations, indicating that the first isolate was resistant to benomyl.

  9. Potencial de extratos à base de Calendula officinalis L. na indução da síntese de fitoalexinas e no efeito fungistático sobre Botrytis cinerea, in vitro Potential of Calendula officinalis L. extracts in inducing phytoalexin synthesis and fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mazaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de preparados a base de calêndula (Calendula officinalis L. na indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja, na indução de mecanismos de resistência em frutos de morango, e o efeito fungistático sobre Botrytis cinerea in vitro. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, para 15 tratamentos resultantes da combinação de três formas de extração (extrato alcoólico, infusão, e maceração em cinco concentrações (zero; 1,25; 2,5; 5; e 10%. Os resultados demonstram que os preparados de C. officinalis apresentaram capacidade de indução das fitoalexinas gliceolinas em cotilédones de soja. Na aplicação dos preparados em pós-colheita de morangos ocorreu alteração no teor de flavonóides, bem como a atividade da enzima FAL foi estimulada pela aplicação dos extratos; no entanto, não foi constatado o controle de podridão dos frutos. O efeito fungistático foi observado na extração por maceração em todas as suas concentrações reduzindo o crescimento do fungo B. cinerea in vitro sendo que, a partir de 2,5%, observou-se inibição total. A extração por infusão também apresentou resposta positiva na redução do crescimento de B. cinerea, com melhor resposta na concentração de 10% do preparado.Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of calendula (Calendula officinalis L. extracts for phytoalexin induction in soybean cotyledons, resistance mechanism induction in strawberry fruits and fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Experimental design was completely randomized with 15 treatments resulting from the combination of three forms of extraction (alcohol extract, infusion and maceration at five concentrations (zero, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10%. Results showed that C. officinalis extracts could induce the phytoalexins glyceollins in soybean cotyledons. In the application of extracts

  10. Establishment and Optimization of Flipper Transposon PCR Amplification System of the Grape Botrytis cinerea%葡萄灰霉病菌 Flipper 转座子扩增体系的建立和优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常佳迎; 寇宏达; 乔丹娜; 张艳杰; 赤国彤; 李亚宁; 李兴红; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

      Grape gray mold caused by Botrytic cinerea Pers.is one of the most important diseases on grapes worldwide.The genetic variation of Botrytis cinerea is widely and adaptable,which is easy to produce drug-resistant strains.It is reported that Boty and Flipper transposon of Botrytis cinerea are related to the presence or absence of resistant strains.By setting different gradient and optimize Botrytis cinerea Flipper transposon PCR amplification sys-tem of grape in China,including template DNA,primer,dNTPs,10 ×Taq 10 Buffer,Taq DNA polymerase,annea-ling temperature,cycle indexthe 1 159 bp fragment was obtained ,which has 99% similarity with Botryotinia fuckeli-ana Flipper transposable element transposase gene through NCBI blastn .So the amplified fragment is verified as ex-pected target fragment.The establishment and optimization of Flipper transposon PCR amplification system of the grape Botrytis cinerea in China provide an important foundation to further study of the relationship between the trans -posable elements,pathogenicity and resistant.%  通过对模板 DNA、Primer、dNTPs、10×Taq 10 Buffer、Taq 酶的不同浓度进行单因素筛选,并对退火温度和循环次数进行摸索,建立和优化了灰葡萄孢菌 Flipper 转座子 PCR 扩增体系。采用该体系及 Flipper 转座子引物扩增得到了1159 bp 的片段,通过比对发现,该片段与 Botryotinia fuckeliana 的 Flipper 转座因子转座酶基因相似性达99%,表明扩增得到的是预期目的片段。 Flipper 转座子扩增体系的建立,为深入研究我国葡萄灰霉病菌菌株的转座子类型及其与致病力、抗药性等因素之间的关系奠定了重要的基础。

  11. Avaliação de quitosana, aplicada em pós-colheita, na proteção de uva 'Itália' contra Botrytis cinerea Evaluation of chitosan on postharvest protection of ‘Itália’ grapes against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Clarete Camili

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Perdas significativas ocorrem durante o armazenamento e a comercialização de uvas de mesa devido, principalmente, à ocorrência do mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. e, para o controle de patógenos emprega-se, geralmente, o dióxido de enxofre (SO2. Diante da restrição crescente ao uso de produtos químicos em pós-colheita, tem ocorrido considerável interesse em métodos alternativos de controle. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar os efeitos da quitosana, na proteção pós-colheita de uva 'Itália' contra B. cinerea. In vivo, avaliou-se o efeito direto e indireto da quitosana pelo tratamento dos cachos de uva, antes e após a inoculação com o patógeno. Utilizou-se quitosana nas concentrações de 0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 % (v/v. Para inoculação, em 10 bagas de cada cacho de uva foram feitos ferimentos de ±2 mm de profundidade, procedendo-se em seguida, a aspersão da suspensão de conídios (±10(5 conídios.mL-1 de B. cinerea. Após os tratamentos, os cachos foram mantidos a 25±1 °C / 80-90 % UR e avaliados diariamente quanto à incidência e severidade da podridão. Avaliações in vitro do efeito do produto sobre o patógeno também foram realizadas analisando-se o crescimento micelial e a germinação dos conídios de B. cinerea. A solução de quitosana, nas concentrações de 1,5 e 2,0 % (v/v, quando empregada após a inoculação com B cinerea, reduziu significativamente o índice de doença no entanto, quando os cachos foram tratados antes da inoculação, não houve efeito significativo do tratamento sobre o desenvolvimento da doença. Nos ensaios in vitro, a solução de quitosana, nas maiores concentrações, suprimiu o crescimento micelial do patógeno e retardou a germinação dos conídios.Significant losses of table grapes are seem during storage and marketing due mainly to the occurrence of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr., whick has been frequently controlled by using

  12. Vaporização de ácido acético para o controle pós-colheita de botrytis cinerea em uva 'Itália' Fumigation of 'itália'grape with acetic acid for postharvest control of botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Clarete Camili

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar o efeito do vapor de ácido acético (AA como medida alternativa no controle pós-colheita do mofo-cinzento (Botrytis cinerea em uva 'Itália', foram conduzidos dois ensaios in vivo onde se avaliou o efeito direto e indireto do AA através do tratamento dos cachos antes e após a inoculação do patógeno, sendo: 1 cachos de uva foram inoculados e, após 4 h, vaporizados com AA (0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0 ou 2,0 mL 100 L-1 vol. de câmara em tambores herméticos (200 L, a 25±1 ºC / 70-80 % UR, por 30 min; 2 cachos foram, ou não, vaporizados com AA (1 mL 100 L-1 vol. de câmara e, após 24; 48; 72 ou 96 h, inoculados com B. cinerea. Para inoculação, em cada cacho, 10 por tratamento, foram feridas 10 bagas, fazendo-se um furo por baga de ±2 mm de profundidade, procedendo-se, em seguida, aspersão de suspensão de esporos (±105 conídios mL-1. Após os tratamentos, os cachos foram mantidos a 25±1 ºC / 80-90 % UR e avaliados diariamente quanto à incidência e severidade da podridão. O efeito in vitro do vapor de AA no controle do patógeno foi avaliado com o intuito de verificar se tal agente estaria exercendo efeito direto sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de conídios de B. cinerea. Nos ensaios in vivo, o vapor de AA controlou a podridão de B. cinerea em uva 'Itália', nos cachos inoculados antes ou após o tratamento com AA, sendo as uvas inoculadas 48 h após o tratamento, as que apresentaram menor índice de doença. In vitro, o AA exerce efeito direto sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de conídios de B. cinerea.Two in vivo trials were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid vapor (AA as an alternative for postharvest control of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea in 'Itália' grapes. The direct and indirect effect of AA over treated bunches before and after pathogen inoculation was evaluated. In trial 1, grape bunches were inoculated and after 4 h submitted to AA vapors (0.0, 0.25, 0

  13. The Resistance Detection to Diethofencarb in Botrytis cinerea Pers.in Shanxi Province%山西省黄瓜灰霉病菌对乙霉威的抗药性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓军; 王美琴; 周建波; 张鑫; 任璐

    2011-01-01

    To study the resistant level of Botrytis cinerea Pers. To diethofencarb, 176 Botrytis cinerea strains were isolated adopting tissue segregation method from 8 vegetable cultivation bases in Shanxi province. The resistance frequency and the resistance level were detected by the methods of minimum inhibitory concentration (MlC)and growth of colonies diameter. The results showed that the resistance frequency of the strains was 77.84%, and the average resistance level was 312.1 times. Among the strains, there were 39 sensitive resistant strains, 46 low resistant strains, 28 moderate resistant strains, 50 high resistant strains and 13 super resistant strains. It indicated that the resistance level of Botrytis cinerea Pers. To diethofencarb in Shanxi province increased. It was recommend to reduce use of diethofencarb, or in its using mix it with other fungicides.%为了明确山西主要蔬菜种植区黄瓜灰霉病菌对乙霉威的敏感性,采用组织分离法从罹病黄瓜上得到176株灰霉病菌菌株(Botrytis cinerea Pers.),并采用最低抑制浓度法(MIC)和菌落直径生长法分别测定了176株菌株的抗性频率和抗性水平.结果表明:来自8个市区的176株黄瓜灰霉病菌菌株对乙霉威的抗性频率为77.84%,平均抗性水平为312.1倍,其中,敏感菌株39株,低抗菌株46株,中抗菌株28株,高抗菌株50株,特高抗菌株13株.表明山西黄瓜灰霉病菌对乙霉威的抗性程度增强,建议在生产中减少乙霉威的使 用或与其他药剂混合使用.

  14. Selection of Trichoderma Strains for Suppression of Strawberry Mold Disease Caused by Botrytis cinerea%草莓灰霉病拮抗木霉菌株筛选及温室防效测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 汪章勋; 樊美珍; 骆绪美

    2005-01-01

    草莓灰霉病是草莓的主要病害之一,其病原为灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea Pers.),近年来,随着温室、大棚等栽培设施的发展,该病的发生日益严重。目前,化学药剂防治仍然是控制该病的主要措施,但由于长期用药,病原菌逐渐产生抗性,防治效果日益降低。

  15. Test on Controlling Botrytis cinerea of Kiwifruit by Smoke Agent during Being Stored%烟剂防治贮藏期猕猴桃灰霉病之效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈川; 惠伟; 郭小侠; 石勇强; 唐周怀

    2005-01-01

    灰霉病是猕猴桃贮藏期的重要病害,严重影响猕猴桃商品价值与经济效益.采用烟剂对贮藏期猕猴桃灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea)进行了毒力与防效研究,结果表明,3种烟剂对防治贮藏期猕猴桃灰霉病均具有较好的效果,其中烟剂2号效果好于其他2种烟剂.

  16. The combined effect of gamma rays and the preparations orthocide and ortophaltane on the development of grey rot (Botrytis cinerea, Persoon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out with the view to depress the developement of grey rot (coused by Botrytis cinerea) thus achieving a longer preservation of the Bolgar grapes in storage. The clusters were treated with orthocide-75 and ortophaltane, each at the rate of 20 mg/l, and irradiated with 1000, 2000 and 3000 Gy. The control constituted grapes were treated with orthophaltane and ortocide but not with gamma rays. Another treatment was also used with 1000, 2000 and 3000 Gy irradiation without a preliminary fungicide application. The clusters were kept in cold storage at 4 to 10 grad C and relative air humidity of 80%. The results were interpreted on the base of the disease index. The highest index was found in the 1000 and 2000 Gy treatments, being 3,85% and 1,68% (on day 10) and 7l,63% and 57,68% (on day 60). In the orthophaltane and orthocide treatments without irradiation the index was 39,86% and 35,16% on day 60. In the orthophaltane + irradiation treatments (1000, 2000 and 3000 Gy) the index on day 60 was 8,92%, 7,68% and 7,15%. For orthocide+irradiation, again on day 60, it was 3,89%, 2,52% and 0,29%. In the orthocide and orthophaltane+irradiation (1000 Gy) treatments the affection index was 0,09% and 1,45% on day 10 and 8,92 and 3,89% at the end of the experiment. This combination preserved the grapes in the best condition. The content of reducing sugars remained almost unchanged, their slight increase beein attributed to the drying up of some grapes upon irradiation at higher rates

  17. Expression of the Grape VqSTS21 Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Biotrophic Pathogens but Not Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zhang, Songlin; Singer, Stacy D.; Yin, Xiangjing; Yang, Jinhua; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid), that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:27695466

  18. Eficiência de Trichoderma harzianum e Gliocladium viride na redução da incidência de Botrytis cinerea em tomateiro cultivado sob ambiente protegido Efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium viride in decreasing the incidence of Botrytis cinerea in tomato cultivated in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção de tomates no Estado do RS ocupa um importante papel sócio-econômico, que pode ser constatado pelo crescimento do cultivo dessa hortaliça em ambiente protegido. Essa técnica permite a produção de tomates em período de entressafra; no entanto, ocorrem também condições favoráveis para o desenvolvimento de doenças fúngicas como o mofo cinzento provocado por Botrytis cinerea. O surgimento de raças de patógenos resistentes a fungicidas químicos vem fazendo com que o controle biológico torne-se uma alternativa necessária. Neste trabalho foi realizada seleção in vitro de 24 isolados do fungo Trichoderma harzianum e 12 de Gliocladium viride que inibiram o desenvolvimento do patógeno B. cinerea. Foram selecionados dois isolados (TRIC-30 e GLIO-10 para serem testados em experimentos em condições de campo com tomates cultivados sob ambiente protegido, nos quais a pulverização foliar semanal com uma suspensão com 2x10(7 conídios mL-1 reduziu significativamente a incidência do mofo cinzento, enquanto a aplicação dos antagonistas nas sementes, no substrato e na cova, no momento do plantio, não reduziu a incidência do patógeno.The production of tomato in the State of Rio Grande do Sul performs an important economical and social role that can be evidenced by the increase in cultivation of this vegetable in protected environment. This practice allows the production of tomato during the off-season periods. However, it can also promote favorable conditions to the development of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea, and the arising of pathogen races resistant to fungicides is turning biological control into a necessary alternative. In the present work, an in vitro selection among 24 isolates of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and 12 of Gliocladium viride that inhibited the development of the pathogen B. cinerea was carried out. Two isolates (TRIC-30 e GLIO-10 were selected to be tested in an experiment in field

  19. Avaliação da atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de folhas de Eucalyptus sobre Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipolaris sorokiniana Fungitoxic activity evaluation of essential leaf oils of Eucalyptus on Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Soares P. Salgado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das plantas são resistentes aos diferentes patógenos, e essa resistência pode estar relacionada à existência de compostos fungistáticos naturalmente produzidos. Com o presente trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de eucaliptos. Os óleos foram obtidos de folhas dos eucaliptos mediante arraste a vapor de água, utilizando o aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Nos ensaios biológicos, foram empregados os fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipolaris sorokiniana. O crescimento dos microorganismos na presença de diferentes concentrações de óleo (5, 50 e 500 mg/Kg, usando os meios de cultura BDA (Batata-Dextrose-Ágar e PCA (Batata-Cenoura-Ágar, foi avaliado. Nas concentrações de 500 mg/Kg dos óleos, foram observadas inibições significativas no crescimento micelial das espécies fúngicas, após período de 7 dias. No entanto, o óleo essencial de Eucalyptus urophylla foi o que apresentou maior ação fungitóxica, que foi atribuída à presença do composto denominado globulol, ausente no E.camaldulensis e no E. citriodora.Most plants are resistant to different pathogens and this resistance may be related to the existence of naturally produced fungistatic components. The present work evaluated the fungitoxic activity of essential oils from three eucalyptus species. The essential oils were obtained from eucalyptus leaves by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The phytopatogens Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana were employed in the biological tests. The growth of fungi in the presence of different concentrations of oil (5, 50, and 500 mg/kg, using BDA (Potato-Dextrose-agar and PCA (Potato-Carrot-agar culture media were evaluated. Significant inhibition of the micelial growth of the fungal species was observed at the concentration of 500 mg/kg of oil after a period of seven days. The essential oil of Eucalyptus urophylla showed the

  20. 灰葡萄孢蚕豆分离物的遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity of Botrytis cinerea Isolates from Broad Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 朱振东; 段灿星; 武小菲; 东方阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important pathogens causing chocolate spot, blossom blight and pod rot in broad bean. B. cinerea is a species complex that comprises two cryptic species, Group I and Group II, and exhibits a great morphological and genetic diversity. However, the status of B. cinerea species complex from broad bean as well as their genetic characteristics have been poorly understood. Therefore, this study aims to determine the status and investigate the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of isolates of B. cinerea complex from broad bean obtained from six different geographic regions.[Method]The B. cinerea isolates were observed for cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar. Transposons types of the isolates were detected using Flipper-and Boty-specific primers. Group determination of the isolates was analyzed by PCR-RFLP of Bc-hch gene, and their genetic characteristics was analyzed using SSR markers. [Result] All the 100 isolates were identified as B. cinerea group II. Three colony types, including mycelial type, sclerotial type and conidial type, were produced, and 76 isolates belonged to sclerotial type. Three transposon genotypes were identified in 92 isolates, which contained Boty-only, Fliper-only and Boty+Fliper genotypes. The most prevalent transposon genotype was Boty-only which was detected in isolates from Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu and Hebei, while genotype Fliper-only was only found in isolates from Jiangsu. SSR analysis detected 92 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) among the 100 isolates with averaged gene and genotypic diversity of 0.5140 and 0.9982, respectively. Analysis of AMOVA revealed that genetic variation within populations accounted for 86.70%of the total genetic variation. The standardized index of association (rD) was estimated to range from 0.0312 to 0.1261 with the average value of 0.0491. In all comparsions, the values of fixation index (FST) ranged from 0.0085-0.2650 with the average value of 0

  1. Elicitin-like proteins Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 from Pythium oligandrum trigger hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana and induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-04-01

    The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum and its elicitin-like proteins oligandrins have been shown to induce disease resistance in a range of plants. In the present study, the ability of two oligandrins, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2, to induce an immune response and the possible molecular mechanism regulating the defence responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato were investigated. Infiltration of recombinant Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 proteins induced a typical immune response in N. benthamiana including the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR), accumulation of reactive oxygen species and production of autofluorescence. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays revealed that full-length Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were required for full HR-inducing activity in N. benthamiana, and virus-induced gene silencing-mediated knockdown of some of the signalling regulatory genes demonstrated that NbSGT1 and NbNPR1 were required for Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 to induce HR in N. benthamiana. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were targeted to the plasma membrane of N. benthamiana. When infiltrated or transiently expressed in leaves, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato and activated the expression of a set of genes involved in the jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET)-mediated signalling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 are effective elicitors capable of inducing immune responses in plants, probably through the JA/ET-mediated signalling pathway, and that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 have potential for the development of bioactive formulae for crop disease control in practice. PMID:25047132

  2. 设施番茄灰霉病菌孢子扩散动态与田间病情相关性%Dynamics of Sporangium Diffusion in Tomato Botrytis cinerea and its Corrflation with Disfasf Incidfncf in Grffnhousf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群航; 陈仁; 杜宜新; 俞晓利; 陈福如

    2014-01-01

    以捕捉孢子的方法观察设施番茄灰霉病菌分生孢子扩散的时间和空间动态,结果表明番茄灰霉病菌分生孢子在温棚内扩散是随机的,不同高度孢子捕捉量没有明显差异。番茄灰霉菌分生孢子扩散主要集中在白天,从8:00到20:00,孢子捕捉量占全天总量的88.4%,而8:00以前和20:00以后孢子捕捉量较小,仅占全天总量的11.6%,每日10:00后捕孢量开始迅速增加,而16:00后明显下降以10:00~16:00的捕孢量最多最稳定,1 d中最大捕孢量出现在12:00~14:00时。分生孢子捕捉量与对应田间病情指数呈显著正相关(R =0.8850,P <0.01),因此通过捕捉分生孢子,并监测其扩散动态,预测番茄灰霉病的发生期及防治适期具备可行性。%To evaluated the dynamics of sporangium diffusion in Tomato Botrytis cinerea and its correlation with disease incidence in greenhouse,observation the dynamic time and space of airborne spores of Tomato Gray Mold by trapped the conidium was assayed.The results showed that the diffusion of Botrytis cinerea on the time and space are randomly Sporangium diffusion occurred mainly during daytime and 88.4% of Botrytis cinerea were trapped during 8:00 to 20:00.The trapped quantity of Botrytis cinerea increased after10:00 and reducedafter 16:00 quickly,and the maximum quantity of conidium Trapped occurred between 12:00 to 14:00. Our results suggest that the trapped quantity of Botrytis cinerea correlated with the Disease index of Gray Mold in the greenhouse during mid to late March to late Aprill (R=0.8850,P <0.01)significantly,and it will be benefit for the predict tomato gray mold and select suitable date for control.

  3. 灰葡萄孢多药抗性菌株的筛选和鉴定%Screening and identification of multi-drug resistant Botrytis cinerea strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟群; 朱卫刚; 张蕊蕊; 陈杰

    2011-01-01

    从浙江杭州市售草莓上分离得到83个灰葡萄孢菌株,测定了这些菌株对苯醚菌酯、多菌灵和异菌脲的敏感性,筛选出对这3种药剂同时产生了抗性的两个菌株HZ021和HZ054,其在马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂(PDA)平板上的菌丝生长和产孢量与敏感菌株相比无显著差异,在黄瓜叶片上均表现出很强的致病力.结果表明,HZ021和HZ 054有很高的适合度.通过对抗性菌株中细胞色素b(CYT b)、双组份组氨酸激酶(OS-1)和β-微管蛋白(TUB 2)基因序列进行分析发现,HZ021和HZ054对多种药剂的抗性是由于其药剂靶标基因上的点突变所致.%Eighty three Botrytis cinerea isolates from commercial strawberry were obtained,and then-sensitivity to the fungicides ZJ0712, carbendazim and iprodione, which belong to different chemical groups,were determined. Among these 83 isolates,two (HZ021 and HZ054) showed multiple resistant to all of the fungicides tested. Compared to three wild-type sensitive isolates, these two multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates did not show significant difference in mycelial growth and conidiation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. Inoculation assays showed that the MDR isolates revealed highly pathogenic on cucumber leaves. These results indicate that the MDR isolates remain high survival fitness. Analyses of DNA sequences of the cytochrome b ( CYT b), two component histidine kinase (OS-1) , and beta-tubulin (TUB 2) genes showed that multi-drug resistance of two MDR isolates was caused by mutations in these fungicide target genes.

  4. 北京地区番茄灰霉病菌的多重抗药性检测%Detection of multiple fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from tomato in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔广行; 严红; 么奕清; 黄金宝; 李兴红

    2011-01-01

    From December of 2009 to May of 2010, 150 Botrytis cinerea samples were collected from 12 suburban counties in Beijing, and 109 isolates were purified from them. The isolates were detected of their multiple fungicide resistance to benzimidazole (carbendazim), dicarboximides (procymidone) and carbamate (diethofencarb) by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The results showed that the percentages of carbendazim resistance (BenR), procymidone resistance (DicsR) and diethofencarb resistance (NPCR) were 96.3%, 80.7% and 58. 7%, respectively, and the resistance types were BenRDicsNPCs, BensDicsNPCR, BenRDicRNPCs and BenRDicRNPCR, accounting for 19. 3%, 3. 7%, 21.1% and 56. 0%, respectively. These results suggested that benzimidazole (carbendazim), dicarboximides (procymidone) and carbamate (diethofencarb) resistances were common and severe in Beijing. It is necessary to use new types of fungicides or bio-fungicides to control Botrytis cinerea.%2009年12月-2010年5月,在北京12个郊区县采集番茄病标样150份,分离纯化得到109个灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea)单孢菌株,用最低抑制浓度法(MIC)测定了其对苯并咪唑类(多菌灵)、二甲酰亚胺类(腐霉利)和氨基甲酸酯类(乙霉威)杀菌剂的抗药性.结果表明:番茄灰霉病菌对多菌灵、腐霉利和乙霉威产生抗性菌株的频率分别为96.3%、80.7%和58.7%;所测菌株对3类杀菌剂的抗性类型有BenRDicsNPCs、BensDicsNPCR、BenRDicRNPCs和BenRDicRNPCR4种,所占比例分别是19.3%、3.7%、21.1%和56.0%,表明北京地区番茄灰霉病菌对苯并咪唑类、二甲酰亚胺类和氨基甲酸酯类三类杀菌剂的抗药性严重,在生产中需慎用,应选择一些替代的新型杀菌剂和生物农药.

  5. Effects of Chitosan and Organosilicon on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Tomato Seedlings Diseased with Botrytis cinerea%壳聚糖与有机硅对番茄幼苗感染灰霉病后抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽嫱

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore effects of chitosan and organosilicon on tomato resistance against Botrytis cinerea. [Method] With leaf spraying method adopted, four groups were set in the test, including control group, groups treated with Botrytis cinerea, with chitosan and Botrytis cinerea, and with chitosan, organosilicon, and Botrytis cinerea, in order to study on effects of chitosan and organosilicon on antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato. [Result] Antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato seedlings were improved in groups with chitosan, organosilicon, and Botrytis cinerea and with chitosan and Botrytis cinerea compared with the group treated with Botrytis cinerea. On the 6th d, activities of PAL, SOD, POD, PPO and CAT in groups with chitosan and Botrytis cinerea, and with chitosan, organosilicon, and Botrytis cinerea increased by 27.36%, 52.07%, 43.55%, 82.02% and 71.82%, and 18.91%, 30.22%, 57.14%, 38.09% and 53.64%, respectively. [Conclusion] Antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato seedlings could be improved by chitosan and organosilicon.%[目的]为明确壳聚糖与有机硅对番茄抗灰霉病菌能力的影响。[方法]采用叶面喷施法,通过测定在4个处理下,即空白对照、灰霉病菌处理、壳聚糖+灰霉病菌处理、壳聚糖+有机硅+灰霉病菌处理,番茄的抗氧化酶活性来研究壳聚糖和有机硅对番茄抗氧化酶活性的影响。【结果]壳聚糖+有机硅+灰霉病菌处理组和壳聚糖+灰霉病菌处理组与灰霉病菌处理相比可提高番茄幼苗叶片中抗氧化酶活性,在第6天,壳聚糖+有机硅+灰霉病菌处理组和壳聚糖+灰霉病菌处理组的PAL、SOD、POD、PPO、CAT活性比灰霉病菌处理组分别提高27.36%、52.07%、43.55%、82.02%、71.82%和18.91%、30.22%、57.14%、38.09%、53.64%。[结论]壳聚糖和有机硅可增加番茄幼苗感染灰霉病后抗氧化酶的活性。

  6. Evaluation on Resistance of Grape Gray Mold Pathogen Botrytis cinerea to Pyrimethanil in China%中国葡萄灰霉病菌对嘧霉胺的抗药性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 乔广行; 黄金宝; 王忠跃; 李兴红

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The resistance to pyrimethanil of Botrytis cinerea isolated from diseased grape berries in China was studied.[Method] A total of 104 single conidial isolates ofB.cinerea were isolated from diseased grape berries which were collected from vineyards located in 14 different cities or suburban counties in China.The method of mycelial growth inhibition was used to determine the resistance of B.cinerea to anilinopyrimidine fungicides pyrimethanil.[Result] The findings in the current work demonstrated that the resistance frequency orB.cinerea to pyrimethanil was 22.22% to 62.5%.Most of the resistant isolates showed middle resistant or high resistant phenotype,and the resistant frequency of high resistant isolates reached up to 44.23%.Resistance to pyrimethanil of B.cinerea differs in different viticulture climate zones.[Conclusion] Resistance to pyrimethanil of B.cinerea isolated from grape diseased samples in China is commonly present,and the resistant isolates showed cross resistance.Accordingly,the frequency of use of pyrimethanil should be limited in the prevention of grape gray mold,and fungicides such as dicarboximide and carbamates can be used alternatively.It was suggested that novel fungicides or biofungicides should be introduced for the control of grape gray mold.%[目的]检测中国葡萄灰霉病菌对苯胺基嘧啶类杀菌剂嘧霉胺的抗药性,明确中国不同葡萄产区灰霉病菌对嘧霉胺的抗药性及抗性频率,为葡萄灰霉病的药剂防治提供理论基础.[方法]从中国葡萄主产区采集、分离纯化104个葡萄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)的单孢菌株,采用菌丝生长速率法测定其对嘧霉胺的抗药性.[结果]中国葡萄灰霉病菌对嘧霉胺的抗性频率为22.22%-62.5%,且以高抗和中抗菌株为主,其中高抗菌株频率达44.23%;葡萄不同气候栽培区的灰霉病菌对嘧霉胺抗药性不同.[结论]中国葡萄灰霉病菌对嘧霉胺的抗药性较为普遍,

  7. Preliminary Study on Biological Characters and Pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea from Vegetable Crops in Jiangsu Province%江苏省蔬菜灰葡萄孢生物学性状及致病力研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童蕴慧; 陈夕军; 徐敬友; 丁飞燕; 纪兆林

    2003-01-01

    @@ 灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)所致的灰霉病是多种蔬菜上普遍发生的病害,在许多地区已造成严重损失.据Tortora等研究,灰葡萄孢不同菌株在生物学性状和致病力方面有一定变化[1-2].该病菌在自然界分布广泛,菌源复杂,寄主植物繁多.本文对江苏省各地不同蔬菜上灰葡萄孢一般生物学特性和致病力差异进行了初步研究.

  8. THE STUDY ON ANTAGONISM OF TRICHODERMA SP·AGAINST BOTRYTIS CINEREA AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL%T95对灰葡萄孢的拮抗作用及田间防病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芙蓉; 吴悦明; 徐玉芳; 张修国; 张福进

    2005-01-01

    用对峙培养法和抑制孢子萌发法,筛选出1株对灰葡萄孢Botrytis cinerea Pers.具有较强拮抗作用的木霉菌株T95,该菌株可产生大量较细的螺旋状分枝菌丝缠绕病菌菌丝,使其断裂并可迅速消解病菌的菌丝和孢子.孢子浓度为6×106/ml时,可有效抑制病菌孢子萌发.田间防病试验显示,T95孢子量为5×106/ml,喷雾2次,对冬季大棚番茄灰霉病的防效可达80.9%.

  9. 50%农利灵(Ronilon)DF防治大棚番茄灰霉病试验%THE EXPERIMENT OF USING 50% RONILON DF TO CONTROL Botrytis cinerea UNDER PLASTIC TUNNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永兵; 陈孟贵

    2004-01-01

    在室内条件下,采用抑菌圈法测定50%农利灵(Ronilon)水分散剂对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的抑菌能力,其毒力回归方程为:y=-3.5394+2.7017x,r=0.9043 ,y与x呈正相关,其ED50=1448.10g/m3.田间病害药效防治试验表明,50%农利灵水分散剂800~1000倍液处理对番茄叶片及果实灰霉病有较好的防效,在生产上可推广应用.

  10. 大蒜鳞茎粗提物对番茄灰霉病的抑菌和防治效果%Inhibition and Control Effects of Garlic Bulb Crude Extracts on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉婷婷; 程智慧; 冯武焕

    2010-01-01

    利用水提法提取大蒜鳞茎的粗提物,对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)进行防治效果研究.结果表明,最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为60.00 mg/mL;质量浓度达到60.00 mg/mL时,对孢子萌发的抑制率达到98.15%;质量浓度达到120.00 mg/mL时,对菌丝生长的抑制率以及对番茄离体叶片的预防和治疗效果分别达到100.00%、92.77%和88.56%.大蒜鳞茎粗提物可有效抑杀番茄灰霉病菌.

  11. 几种温室花卉灰霉病的发生与防治初探%Initial Research on the Control of Botrytis Cinerea Pers. On Several Green House Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱纯; 阮琳; 卢树洁; 冯爱卿; 张永强; 姜子德; 习平根

    2002-01-01

    灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea Pers)是广州地区温室盆栽花卉的重要病害之一.严重影响玫瑰海棠、百合、一品红和新几内亚凤仙等花卉的生长和观赏效果,国内对这几种花卉灰霉病的报道不多,笔者于1998年-2000年就发病气候小环境进行研究,并筛选经济有效的农药,结果显示连续阴雨3-4天,温室内过于潮湿便可发病,加强农业防治和药物防治可将病害控制在一定范围.

  12. 木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和人参灰霉病菌的抑菌作用%Inhibition Effects of Wood Vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔国; 韩莲花; 吴松权; 朴仁哲; 刘海峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Less fungicides could be used to bio-control Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,this experiment can offer preliminary theory for wood vinegar as a botanic fungicide.Methods:The in vitro inhibition activities of wood vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea were tested by using mycelial growth rate method and spore germination method.Results:Inhibition of mycelium growth rate to Alternaria panax was 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 3.0%,while the inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate were 70.68% and 84.47 %,respectively,at concentration of wood vinegar 2.25%.Inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate to Botrytis cinerea were 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 2.25%.Conclusion:Wood vinegar concentration of no less than 2.25 % can be used as a bio-control agent of Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,it is useful for the further field trial.%目的:生产上用于生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂种类较少,本试验为将木醋液作为一种新型植物源杀菌剂提供理论依据.方法:采用菌丝生长速率法和孢子萌发法,测试了木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的离体抑菌活性.结果:木醋液的浓度在3.0%及以上时,对人参黑斑病菌的菌丝生长抑制率为100%,而木醋液的浓度在2.25%时,菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率分别为70.68%和84.47%;木醋液的浓度在2.25%及以上时,对人参灰霉病菌的菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率均为100%.结论:2.25%以上浓度的木醋液可作为生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂,为进一步田间药效试验奠定了基础.

  13. Antibacterial Activity Determination of 7 Different Fungicides on Grape Botrytis cinerea Pers%7种杀菌剂对葡萄灰霉病的室内抑菌活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 刘长远; 梁春浩; 臧超群

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究7种不同杀菌剂对葡萄灰霉病的室内抑菌活性。[方法]试验利用PDA培养基,分别加入不同药剂,并将7种药剂设置不同处理浓度,每个处理3次重复,经培养箱培养后测定抑菌率,计算EC50值(半致死浓度)。[结果]50%速克灵WP、60%腈菌唑EC和40%嘧霉胺WP对葡萄灰霉病具有较强的抑菌作用,其中速克灵最强。[结论]该研究筛选出有较好防治效果的杀菌剂,为葡萄灰霉病的防治提供参考。%[Objective] The aim was to study the antibacterial activity of 7 different fungicides on grape Botrytis cinerea Pers.[Method] The PDA medium with different medicament were set 7 treatments.Each treatment had 3 repeats and cultured in incubator.The antibacterial rate and EC50 value were determined.[Result] 50%WP,60%EC and 40%WP had bacteriostatic action and 50%WP was the best.[Conclusion] The better control effect of fungicide was selected.These would provide reference to Botrytis cinerea control.

  14. 6种植物粗提物对海棠花灰霉菌的抑制效果%Bacteriostatic Effect of Extracts from Six Different Plants on Botrytis cinerea of Malus spectabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 陈子牛; 李丹; 侯思明

    2012-01-01

    采用生长速率法测定了6种常见植物的无水乙醇粗提物和水粗提物对海棠花灰霉菌的抑制效果.结果表明,6种植物的水和无水乙醇粗提物对灰霉菌的抑制效果差别较大,其中马褂木和紫茎泽兰的抑菌效果最明显,而其他材料也有一定的抑菌效果.6种植物材料中除紫茎泽兰外无水乙醇粗提物的提取率均低于水粗提物,在不同浓度时6种植物的无水乙醇、水粗提物对灰霉菌的抑制作用均不同,但基本上表现为无水乙醇粗提物大于水粗提物.%The bacteriostatic effects of ethanol and aqueous crude extracts from six common plants on Botrytis cinerea of Malus spectabilis were studied. Results showed that, the control effect of ethanol and aqueous crude extracts from the six plants differed largely from each other, the most obvious control effects were found in the extracts of Liriodendron chinensis ( Hemsl. ) Sarg. And Ageratina adenophora, Apart from Agera-tina adenophora, the extraction yield of ethanol extracts from other five plants was higher than that of aqueous extracts, different concentrations of ethanol and aqueous extracts had different bacteriostatic effects on Botrytis cinerea, the ethanol extracts of the six plants basically had higher bacteriostatic effects than aqueous extracts.

  15. Efeito de variáveis ambientais, épocas e métodos de plantio na intensidade da seca da haste (Botrytis cinerea em Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura (15, 20, 25 e 30ºC, do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12 e 24 h, de épocas (setembro, outubro, novembro e dezembro e métodos de plantio (semeadura direta e transplantio de mudas, na intensidade da seca da haste (Botrytis cinerea do hibisco (Hibiscus sabdariffa. As variáveis ambientais foram avaliadas em condições controladas com inoculação artificial e as épocas e métodos de plantio foram avaliados em condições de infecção natural em campo. Os dados de frequência de infecção analisados, como área abaixo da curva de progresso da frequência de infecção (AACPF e comprimento de lesões relacionados às variáveis ambientais, foram submetidos à análise de variância e regressão e, em seguida, plotadas as superfícies de resposta. Os dados de incidência (AACPI relacionados às épocas e métodos de plantio foram submetidos à análise de variância, utilizando-se o programa estatístico Sisvarâ/UFLA. A interação da temperatura e da duração do período de molhamento foliar influenciou a frequência de infecção e o comprimento de lesões da seca da haste. Houve aumento na frequência de infecção e no comprimento de lesões com o incremento do período de molhamento foliar e redução da temperatura. As lesões apresentaram maior tamanho na temperatura de 15ºC e 24 horas de molhamento foliar. Na ausência de molhamento foliar houve manifestação de sintomas somente a 15ºC. A 30ºC houve dependência de maior período de molhamento foliar para a manifestação de sintomas. Houve interação significativa de métodos e épocas de plantio na incidência da doença. Constatou-se menor incidência da seca da haste em transplantio de mudas comparado à semeadura direta em todas as épocas de plantio. Verificou-se aumento da incidência proporcionado pelo atraso na época de plantio nos dois métodos. Registrou-se uma relação direta entre queda de

  16. 5种杀菌剂对黄瓜灰霉病菌的室内毒力测定%Indoor Toxicity Test of Five Fungicides against Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏萍; 刘幸红; 万平平; 段春华; 王清海

    2014-01-01

    The indoor toxicities of 5 fungicides against Botrytis cinerea were detected by the method of mycelium growth inhibition .The results showed that 25%dimethomorph WP had the best control effect , fol-lowed by 50%boscalid WG and 50%procymidone WP .The control effects of 400 g/L pyrimethanil SC and 500 g/L iprodione SC were relatively low .%采用菌丝生长抑制法测定了啶菌恶唑、啶酰菌胺等5种杀菌剂对黄瓜灰霉病菌( Botrytis cinerea)的室内毒力。结果表明,25%啶菌恶唑乳油防治效果最好,其次为50%啶酰菌胺水分散粒剂和50%腐霉利可湿性粉剂,400 g/L嘧霉胺悬浮剂和500 g/L异菌脲悬浮剂防效较低。

  17. 灰霉病菌抗药位点及其分子检测方法研究进展%Advances of Mutation Sites Associated with Fungicide Resistance in Botrytis cinerea and its Molecular Detection Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 马雪梅

    2014-01-01

    灰霉病由灰葡萄孢侵染所致,化学防治是目前最常用的治理方法,而随着杀菌剂的广泛使用,抗药菌株频繁出现。本文就近年来已研究报道的灰葡萄孢菌的抗药分子位点进行了系统总结,包括六大类杀菌剂,涉及5个基因;对灰霉病菌抗药位点的分子检测方法进行了综述,包括测序法、CAPS、ARMS、Tetra primer ARMS-PCR、AS real-time PCR、ASPPAA PCR和双杂交探针法,通过对不同检测方法进行比较分析,指出现有技术存在的问题并展望未来高通量的检测方法的发展方向。%Grey mould is caused by Botrytis cinerea infection, which is usually controlled by chemical methods. Along with wide usage of fungicides, resistance to fungicides occured frequently among B. cinerea. This paper summarized mutation sites associated with fungicide resistance in B. cinerea, involving 6 kinds of fungicides and 5 genes. This paper also reviewed molecular methods to detect fungicide resistant sites, such as sequencing method,CAPS,ARMS,Tetra primer ARMS-PCR, AS real-time PCR, ASPPAA PCR and LightCycler technology, etc.. Through analyzing and comparing different kinds of methods,problems in using these detection techniques were pointed out and development of high throughtput detection method was prospected in the future.

  18. 灰霉病菌抗药位点及其分子检测方法研究进展%Advances of Mutation Sites Associated with Fungicide Resistance in Botrytis cinerea and its Molecular Detection Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 马雪梅

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould is caused by Botrytis cinerea infection, which is usually controlled by chemical methods. Along with wide usage of fungicides, resistance to fungicides occured frequently among B. cinerea. This paper summarized mutation sites associated with fungicide resistance in B. cinerea, involving 6 kinds of fungicides and 5 genes. This paper also reviewed molecular methods to detect fungicide resistant sites, such as sequencing method,CAPS,ARMS,Tetra primer ARMS-PCR, AS real-time PCR, ASPPAA PCR and LightCycler technology, etc.. Through analyzing and comparing different kinds of methods,problems in using these detection techniques were pointed out and development of high throughtput detection method was prospected in the future.%灰霉病由灰葡萄孢侵染所致,化学防治是目前最常用的治理方法,而随着杀菌剂的广泛使用,抗药菌株频繁出现。本文就近年来已研究报道的灰葡萄孢菌的抗药分子位点进行了系统总结,包括六大类杀菌剂,涉及5个基因;对灰霉病菌抗药位点的分子检测方法进行了综述,包括测序法、CAPS、ARMS、Tetra primer ARMS-PCR、AS real-time PCR、ASPPAA PCR和双杂交探针法,通过对不同检测方法进行比较分析,指出现有技术存在的问题并展望未来高通量的检测方法的发展方向。

  19. 番茄灰霉病菌拮抗放线菌的筛选、鉴定及其活性评价%Screening,Identification and Inhibitory Activity of an Actinomycete Strain and against Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大勇; 李志栋; 李峰; 徐顶泉; 吴旺丽

    2012-01-01

    从安徽省寿县农田土壤中分离筛选到1株对番茄灰霉病菌Botrytis cinerea有强拮抗作用的放线菌菌株HNU-1。根据菌体形态特征、培养特征、细胞壁组分、生理生化特性和16S rRNA基因序列分析,将该菌株鉴定为吸水链霉菌Streptomyces hygroscopicus。菌株HNU-1发酵滤液可抑制灰霉病菌菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发,且浓度越高,抑制能力越强;当发酵滤液稀释6.67倍时则完全抑制灰霉病菌菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发。盆栽试验结果表明,菌株HNU-1发酵滤液6.67倍稀释液对番茄灰霉病的预防与治疗效果分别为87.8%和77.9%,均显著高于50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂500倍稀释液。%An actinomycete strain HNU-1,isolated from a farmland soil in Shou county,Anhui province,exhibited antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea.Based on characteristics,in morphology,physiological,biochemica and 16S rRNA gene sequences,the strain was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus.Culture filtrate of the strain could inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination of B.cinerea,and resulted in more inhibition as the concentration of the culture filtrate increased.Mycelium growth and spore germination of B.cinerea was completely inhibited by 6.67-fold dilution of the culture filtrate.Pot experiments demonstrated that prevention and cure efficiencies of 6.67-fold dilution of the culture filtrate against tomato gray mould were 87.8% and 77.9%,respectively,significantly superior to those of 500-fold dilution of 50% Badistan.

  20. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g., salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and a precursor of ethylene). Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato. PMID:27540389

  1. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g., salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and a precursor of ethylene). Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato. PMID:27540389

  2. 湖北省灰葡萄孢抗药性测定及抗药分子机制研究%Monitoring Fungicide Resistance of Botrytis cinerea from Hubei Province and Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若晨; 张静; 李国庆

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of 96 B.cinerea strains from Hubei Province to four fungicides were studied. Most strains were sensitive to carbendazim,vinclozolin and dimethachlon with the frequency of resistant strains of 5%,2% and 3%, respectively. All B. cinerea strains investigated were susceptible to fenhexamid with the EC50 values ranging from 0.004 μg/mL to 0.2μg/mL.The sensitivity to fenhexamid was proved from the results of analyzing the genotype at the Bc-hch locus. Partial amino acid sequences of β-tubulin and histidine kinase gene showed that point mutation was found to be associated with resistance to these fungicides. The fungicide resistance in populations of B.cinerea in Hubei Province was reported firstly.%评价湖北省灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea)群体抗药性水平,为防治灰霉病提供理论依据,评估了源于湖北省的96个灰葡萄孢菌株对4种杀菌剂的抗性。结果表明,大部分菌株对多菌灵、农利灵和菌核净敏感,抗性菌株出现的频率分别为5%、2%和3%;所有供试菌株均对环酰菌胺敏感,EC50为0.004~0.200μg/mL;对Bc-hc h基因序列扩增和酶解谱带分析结果进一步证实了供试菌株对环酰菌胺敏感。抗性菌株抗药相关基因β-微管蛋白和组氨酸激酶基因的氨基酸序列比对结果显示,部分位点的突变是抗药性形成的可能机制之一,另外也发现了新的突变位点。

  3. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs, and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g., salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and a precursor of ethylene). Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7, and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  4. 江苏草莓灰霉病菌对5种杀菌剂的抗药性%Resistance of Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in Jiangsu to five fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘以楼; 朱桂梅; 郭建

    2013-01-01

    为明确江苏草莓灰霉病菌对5种杀菌剂(嘧霉胺、多菌灵、异菌脲、腐霉利和乙霉威)抗药性现状,2011年和2012年在江苏5个草莓产区分别采集133个和206个草莓灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)菌株,采用菌丝生长速率法测定其对嘧霉胺的敏感性,采用最低抑制浓度法(MIC)测定2012年206个草莓灰霉病菌菌株对多菌灵、腐霉利、异菌脲、乙霉威的抗药性.检测结果显示,201 1年和2012年草莓灰霉病菌抗嘧霉胺的菌株比例分别达到77.4%和66.0%;2012年采集的206个菌株中,抗多菌灵、腐霉利、异菌脲和乙霉威的菌株比例分别达到80.6%、11.2%、64.6%和54.4%;不同地区草莓灰霉病菌对不同药剂的敏感程度不同.根据菌株对5种杀菌剂的抗、感表现,在江苏检测到17种抗性表现型;其中对腐霉利和乙霉威敏感及对多菌灵、异菌脲和嘧霉胺抗药的菌株占30.6%;对腐霉利敏感及对多菌灵、异菌脲、乙霉威和嘧霉胺抗药的菌株占21.8%;其他表现型菌株所占比例均在10.0%以下.表明,江苏草莓灰霉病菌对多菌灵、异菌脲、乙霉威和嘧霉胺均已产生抗药性,迫切需要筛选新的杀菌剂防治草莓灰霉病.%To investigate the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to five fungicides, in 2011 and 2012, 133 and 206 isolates of Botrytis cinerea from strawberry were collected in five regions of Jiangsu province, and the sensibility of isolates to pyrime-thanil were detected by mycelial growth rate method. The resistance of 206 isolates to carbendazim, procymidone, iprodione and diethofencarb were detected by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ) method. The results revealed that the percentages of resistant isolates to pyrimethanil were 77. 4% and 66. 0% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The percentages of resistant isolates to carbendazim, procymidone, iprodione and diethofencarb were 80. 6% , 11. 2% ,64. 6% and 54.4% , respectively. The

  5. Antagonism of Endophyte Bacteria from Kochia scoparia on Botrytis cinerea%地肤内生细菌对番茄灰霉病菌的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈静惠; 康书静; 郝晓娟; 曹挥; 王美琴; 李生才; 高俊明

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to screen anti-microorganism endophytic bacteria for plant disease control. Five strains from the Kochia scoparia exhibited extensive antagonistic activities against Botrytiscinerea. D-29 strain showed strong antagonistic activity against Botrytis cinerea on tomato in vitro. The fermentation solution, suspension of bacteria and sterile filtrate could reduce the expension of leisons on red tomato in vitro and inhibitory rate reached 64.61%, 61. 50% and 44. 10% respectively. Fermentation solution could reduce the expension of leisons on green tomato in vitro and inhibitory rate reached 100% and 67. 11% in the 4d and 6d. The results of observation under microscope illustrated that D-29 could make cell material leaked and the deformity of top mycelium and spores infarction. 100% D-29 sterile filtrate had the most significant inhibitory effect anginst spore germination of Botrytis cinerea and its inhibiting rate reached 80%.%从植物内生细菌中筛选拮抗活性菌株和寻找新的农用活性代谢产物,可为植物病害防治提供新的资源.本研究从地肤中分离筛选得到5株对番茄灰霉病菌具有抑制作用的内生细菌,其中D-29菌株对在离体番茄上对灰霉病菌具有强烈的抑制作用.D-29发酵液、细菌悬浮液、无菌滤液在离体红番茄上对灰霉病抑制率分别为64.61%、61.50%、44.10%.发酵液在离体青番茄上对灰霉病菌的抑制率4d时为100%、6d时为67.11%.D-29菌株可使灰霉病菌部分菌丝顶端生长畸形,胞内物质外泄,产孢梗畸形.用不同浓度的D-29无菌滤液处理病菌孢子,100%D-29无菌滤液抑制效果最明显,抑制率高达80%.

  6. 新杀菌剂对番茄灰霉病菌的室内毒力及田间防效%Fungicidal activity of new fungicides against Botrytis cinerea and their field efficacy against tomato grey mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈治芳; 王文桥; 韩秀英; 张小风; 赵建江; 马志强

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of fludioxonil, imazalil. Thiram. Pyraclostrobin and pyrimethanil to Botrytis cinerea was tested by conidial germination test, mycelial growth rate test and cucumber cotyledons spray inoculation test, respectively. It was found that the inhibitory activity of fludioxonil was the highest both in conidial germination test and in mycelial growth rate test. Their EC50 values were 0.005 2 and 0.087 6 Fg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activity of imazalil was the highest in cucumber cotyledons spray inoculation test, and its EC50 value was 0.675 3 Mg/mL. The results of field efficacy trials showed that field efficacy of fludioxonil 50% WP was above 90% and obviously higher than that of the control fungicides, boscalid 50% WG and pyrimethanil 40% SC, when the treatment concentrations were 90, 300 or 480 g/hm2.%室内采用菌丝生长速率法、孢子萌发法和黄瓜子叶法测定了咯菌腈、抑霉唑、福美双、吡唑醚菌酯和嘧霉胺对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的抑制作用.结果表明,菌丝生长速率法和孢子萌发法的测定均以咯菌腈毒力最高,EC50分别为0.005 2 μg/mL和0.087 6 μg/mL;黄瓜子叶法测定以抑霉唑毒力最高,其EC50为0.675 3 μg/mL.田间药效试验结果表明:50%咯菌腈可湿性粉剂90 g/hm2对番茄灰霉病的田间防效达到90%以上,显著高于对照药剂50%啶酰菌胺水分散粒剂300 g/hm2和40%嘧霉胺悬浮剂480 g/hm2的防效.

  7. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. PMID:27388340

  8. Biocontrol Ability and Action Mechanism of Starmerella bacillaris (Synonym Candida zemplinina) Isolated from Wine Musts against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Grape and Their Effects on Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Wilson J; Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Crosato, Giulia; Carlot, Milena; Favaron, Francesco; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after 5 days, a concentration of 10(6) cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glicerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations. The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process. This work

  9. Fitness and competitive ability of Botrytis cinerea field isolates with dual resistance to SDHI and QoI fungicides, associated with several sdhB and the cytb G143A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloukas, T; Kalogeropoulou, P; Markoglou, A N; Karaoglanidis, G S

    2014-04-01

    Respiration inhibitors such as the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) and the quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) are fungicide classes with increasing relevance in gray mold control. However, recent studies have shown that dual resistance to both fungicide classes is a common trait in Botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts throughout the world. Resistance of B. cinerea to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, and sdhD genes, while resistance to QoIs, in most cases, is associated with the G143A mutation in the cytb gene. The objective of the current study was to investigate the fitness and the competitive ability of B. cinerea field strains possessing one of the H272Y/R/L, N230I, or P225F sdhB substitutions and the G143A mutation of cytb. Fitness parameters measured were (i) mycelial growth and conidia germination in vitro, (ii) aggressiveness and sporulation capacity in vivo, (iii) sclerotia production in vitro and sclerotia viability under different storage conditions, and (iv) sensitivity to oxidative stress imposed by diquat treatments. The competitive ability of the resistant isolates was measured in the absence and presence of the SDHI fungicides boscalid and fluopyram selection pressure. The measurements of individual fitness components showed that the H272R/G143A isolates had the lower differences compared with the sensitive isolates. In contrast, the groups of H272Y/L/G143A, N230I/G143A, and P225F/G143A isolates showed reduced fitness values compared with the sensitive isolates. Isolates possessing only the cytb G143A substitution did not show any fitness cost. The competition experiments showed that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, after four disease cycles on apple fruit, the sensitive isolates dominated in the population in all the mixtures tested. In contrast, when the competition experiment was conducted under the selection pressure of boscalid, a gradual decrease in the frequency of sensitive

  10. Biocontrol Ability and Action Mechanism of Starmerella bacillaris (Synonym Candida zemplinina) Isolated from Wine Musts against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Grape and Their Effects on Alcoholic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson José Fernandes; Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Crosato, Giulia; Carlot, Milena; Favaron, Francesco; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after 5 days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glicerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations. The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process. This work introduces

  11. 木霉菌不同施用方法防治番茄灰霉病效果比较%Comparison of control Effects of Botrytis cinerea by Thichoderma viride T21 through different application methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄敬华; 杨长成; 董梅; 高增贵; 刘限

    2008-01-01

    番茄灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)是番茄生产中的重要病害,尤其是保护地番茄。重茬连作集约栽培,加之常年高湿气候条件,病菌终年大量繁殖,为该病流行创造了有利条件。目前,番茄灰霉病防治主要依靠化学农药,随着用药次数的不断增多.使用浓度越来越高,病菌的抗药群体逐渐增加。同时,频繁施药控制病害,不仅成本高.还面临喷药使棚内湿度进一步加大的难题。寻找新的防治途径以克服农药残留和病菌的抗药性问题。

  12. Control Effect and Mechanism of Strain Bacillus cereus CGMCC4348 to Botrytis cinerea%蜡样芽孢杆菌CGMCC4348菌株防治番茄灰霉病的效果及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐容容; 杨文革; 胡永红; 江心敏; 刘邮洲; 章泳

    2013-01-01

    试验研究蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)CGMCC4348菌株对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的生物防治效果,并初步探讨其抑菌机理,以寻找防治番茄灰霉病的新方法.试验从定量生物测定、室内离体抑菌试验和盆栽试验3个方面考察其抑菌作用效果,并以硫酸铵分级沉淀法提取拮抗蛋白进行检测.结果表明,室内抑菌试验的EC50为6.19 mg/L;盆栽试验中处理3对番茄灰霉病的平均防效达75.80%,与50 mg/L嘧霉胺处理的防效相当.试验证明蜡样芽孢杆菌CGMCC4348对番茄灰霉病菌有较好防治效果.

  13. 蔬菜作物灰葡萄孢菌对不同类型杀菌剂的抗性评价%Evaluation on Resistance ofBotrytis cinerea Isolates from Vegetable Crops to Different Types of Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石延霞; 唐明; 晋知文; 谢学文; 柴阿丽; 李宝聚

    2016-01-01

    为评价灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)的抗药性发展现状,采用菌丝生长速率法测定了自华北地区蔬菜作物上分离得到的85株灰葡萄孢菌对苯并咪唑类(多菌灵)、二甲酰亚胺类(腐霉利)、N-苯氨基甲酸酯类(乙霉威)、苯胺基嘧啶类(嘧霉胺)、酰胺类(啶酰菌胺)以及苯并吡咯类(咯菌腈)等6种不同类型杀菌剂的敏感性。结果表明:华北地区蔬菜作物上的灰葡萄孢菌对6种不同类型杀菌剂均产生了不同程度的抗药性,其中防治灰霉病的常用杀菌剂嘧霉胺、啶酰菌胺以及新型杀菌剂咯菌腈的抗药性发展迅速。灰葡萄孢菌对传统杀菌剂多菌灵、腐霉利、乙霉威的抗性水平较高,总抗性频数分别为72.94%、51.76%、69.41%;多菌灵-乙霉威双抗频数为51.76%,多菌灵-腐霉利-乙霉威三抗频数为34.12%。灰葡萄孢菌对目前防治灰霉病的主要杀菌剂嘧霉胺及啶酰菌胺也已经产生了较高水平的抗性,其抗性频数分别为64.71%和65.88%。而对于新型杀菌剂咯菌腈的抗性频数为36.47%。共发现了40种多重抗药性的类型,且有32种多抗类型未曾报道;1株灰葡萄孢菌对6类杀菌剂均表现敏感,抗性频数为1.18%;5株灰葡萄孢菌对6类杀菌剂均表现抗性,抗性频数为5.88%。实际生产应用中应尽量避免单一杀菌剂的长期重复使用,建议多种药剂配合使用以延长杀菌剂的使用寿命。%For investigating the development situation ofBotrytis cinerea resistance to different types of fungicides,85 isolates obtained from vegetables in North China were tested for their sensitivity to benzimidazoles (carbendazim),dicarboximides(procymidone),N-phenylanilines(diethofencarb),anilinopyrimidines (pyrimethanil),amides (boscalid) and phenylpyrroles(fludioxonil). The results revealed thatBotrytis cinerea in North China have developed different levels of resistance to 6

  14. 钙素对SA诱导番茄幼苗抗灰霉病的调控作用%The Effect of Calcium on Regulation of SA-induced Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳琳; 李天来; 余朝阁; 张抗抗

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of calcium on the SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato(Solanum lycopersicum).Tomato Botrytis cinerea susceptible strain'L402'was pretreated with foliar spraying 8 mmol·L1 CaCl2 and 5 mmol·L-1EGTA,respectively.Then followed by application of exogenous 2 mmol·L-1 SA,3 d before B.cinerea infection.The disease index,ROS accumulation,variations of the activities of main resistance enzymes and their gene expression were analyzed.The results show that the disease index is significantly reduced by 37.27%compared to control in SA treatment 5 d after B.cinerea infection;While in Ca+SA treatment,the disease index reduced by 18%compared to SA treatment.Theproduction rate and H2O2 content reached the highest level at 1 d and 2 d,respectively,there is difference among treatments:production rate ofand H2O2 content in tomatoes treated by Ca+ SA are 33.05%and 29.31%higher than contro(lH2O),however,under EGTA+SA treatment significantly reduced by 32.62%and 46.34%,respectively.The peak of disease defense-related enzymes activity and gene expression also exist,difference obtained among treatments:PAL,chintase andβ-1,3-glucancse treated by Ca+SA are significantly higher than control,whereas EGTA and EGTA+SA significantly suppress PAL,chitinase,β-1,3-glucanase activity.These results indicate that Ca2 +plays a positive regulatory role in the SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato,which is closely related to the PAL,chitinase,β-1,3-glucanase activity and gene expression.%为探索钙对水杨酸(SA)诱导番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)幼苗抗灰霉病的作用,采用‘L402’番茄品种,通过分别喷施8mmol.L-1CaCl2和5mmol.L-1EGTA后再喷施2mmol.L-1SA,3d后接种灰霉病菌孢子的方法,研究了不同处理对番茄幼苗灰霉病病情指数、活性氧积累、主要防御酶活性及其基因表达的影响。结果表明:接种灰霉病菌孢子5d后,SA处理的番

  15. Desarrollo y evaluación de un prototipo de formulación a base de una mezcla de levaduras contra Botrytis cinerea en rosas

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Arévalo, Hugo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Las levaduras poseen mecanismos de acción contra B. cinerea: competencia por espacio y nutrientes, producción de metabolitos secundarios inhibitorios, producción de compuestos orgánicos volátiles, entre otros. Sin embargo, las levaduras requieren ser formuladas para su estabilización y actividad bio-controladora en función del tiempo. Las formulaciones han usado mono-inóculos de antagonistas como principio activo, no obstante, sus mezclas también han sido empleadas, pero relegadas a un segund...

  16. Estudio de la variabilidad genética y organización cromosómica en el hongo fitopatógeno "Botrytis Cinerea"

    OpenAIRE

    Carbú Espinosa de los Monteros, María

    2006-01-01

    La presente memoria de Tesis Doctoral consta de 4 objetivos. En el primero de ellos se determinó las distintas poblaciones de hongos filamentosos presentes en los viñedos del marco vitivinícola de Jerez se estudió la influencia de la inoculación de una cepa de laboratorio de Botritis cinerea, obtenida tras el aislamiento sucesivo de conidios producidos in vitro a partir de un aislado de campo, sobre la micobiota propia de la vid. Los géneros de hongos filamentosos aislados en la viña fueron A...

  17. Colonization and degradation of senescent flowers of zucchini squash by Trichoderma harzianum YC459, a biocontrol agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geun Gon Kim; Young Ryun Chung

    2004-01-01

    @@ In commercial greenhouses, senescent flower petals or flowers of vegetables such as tomato,strawberry, hot pepper and zucchini squash were blighted to be removed from fruits within five days after spraying of Trichoderna harzianun YC459 (TORY() , JGreen Inc.), a biocontrol agent with good and consistent efficacy as chemical fungicides for the control of gray mold rot caused by B.cinerea. The mechanism for selective colonization of senescent floral tissues by T. harzianum YCA59was elucidated using fresh and senescent (4 days and 14 days after pollination, respectively) floral tissues of zucchini squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) . The spores of T. harzianum YCA59were produced much more on water agar and liquid culture media supplemented with 5% dry powder of senescent floral tissues than with fresh tissues during 15 days incubation. Mycelial growth was also much better in the media with senescent tissues than with fresh tissues. Enzyme activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, amylase and polygalacturonase in the liquid media, which might be involved in the colonization and degradation of tissues by T. harzianum YCA59 were compared. The activities of three enzymes were significantly higher in the media with senescent floral tissues than with fresh floral tissues reaching to the maximum during 9 to 12 days of incubation. Especially, the activities of carboxymethyl cellulase and polygalacturonase of T. harzianum YC459 were much higher than those of other Trichoderma species, T. asperellum, T. viride and T. koningii in the liquid media with senescent floral tissues. Based on the results, the selective colonization and degradation of senescent floral tissues, an important habitat for B. cinerea, may be another mechanism for the biocontrol of gray mold rot of vegetables by T. harzianurm YC459.

  18. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in genomes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea%核盘菌和灰葡萄孢基因组中的简单重复序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀谷; 李伟; 张爱香; 陈丽华; 姜伟丽

    2007-01-01

    利用公共的真菌基因组数据库资源,对核盘菌(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)和灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea)基因组中SSRs的结构类型、分布、丰度及最长序列等进行了系统分析,并与已经研究过的禾谷镰孢菌(Fusarium graminearum),稻瘟病菌(Magnaporthe grisea)和黑粉菌(Ustilago maydis)等几种植物病原真菌基因组中的SSRs进行了比较.结果表明:核盘菌和灰葡萄孢基因组中的SSRs非常丰富,分别为6 539和8 627个,并且在结构类型和分布规律上具有一定的相似性;与其他几种病原真菌相比,核盘菌和灰葡萄孢基因组中长重复的四、五、六核苷酸基序更为丰富,从而使得这两种真菌具有更高的变异性.同时,我们发现真菌基因组中SSRs的丰度与基因组的大小及GC含量没有必然的关系.文章对核盘菌和灰葡萄孢基因组中SSRs的丰度、出现频率及最长基序的分析为快速、便捷地设计多态性丰富的SSRs引物提供了有益的信息.

  19. 葡萄灰霉病菌对3种杀菌剂的多重抗药性检测%Multiple fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea from grapevine to three fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红; 燕继晔; 王忠跃; 李亚宁; 金桂华; 李兴红

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] A total of 109 single conidial isolates ofBotrytis cinerea collected from vineyards in 14 regions were detected and characterized for multiple fungicide resistance to benzimidazole (carben- dazim), dicarboximides (procymidone) and N-phenylcarbamate (diethofencarb). [Method] The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was used to determine the multiple fungicide resistance of B. cinereo to the three fungicides. [Result] The isolates showed different resistance to all the three fungicides, with high frequency of 83.5% to carbendazim (BenR), and low frequencies of 14.7% to procymidone (DicsR and 17.4% to diethofencarb (NPC R), respectively. Also, fungicide resistance varied clearly between regions. Among all, 100% resistance to carbendazim was observed in eight regions including Gansu, Henan, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Hebei, Hubei, Ningxia and Guangxi, whereas the resistance to procymidone and diethofencarb was restricted to few regions. The resistance types included BenRDicsNPCs, BenRDicRN- PCS, BenRDicRNPCR and BenSDicSNPC, whose percentages were as follows: 68.8%, 13.8%, 0.9% and 16.5%. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrated that the multiple fungicide resistance of grapevine-infecting B. cinerea to benzimidazole (carbendazim), dicarboximides (procymidone) and N-phenylcarbamate (diethofencarb) was commonly present in vineyards of different regions in China, and the resistance to benzimidazole (carbendazim) was the most severe among all. It suggested that novel fungicides or biofungicides should be introduced for the control of B. cinerea.%【目的】为检测葡萄灰霉病菌对多菌灵、腐霉利和乙霉威3种杀菌剂的多重抗药性,指导生产上葡萄灰霉病的药剂防治。【法】从甘肃、山东、北京等14个省、市、自治区采集葡萄灰霉病样分离纯化得到109个灰葡萄孢(Botrytiscinema)单孢系菌株,采用最低抑制浓度法(MIC)测定了葡萄灰霉病

  20. In vitro and in vivo effects of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus sp. on Fusarium acuminatum, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger infecting cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Zdravković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L is an important member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Production of healthy nursery is necessary for high-quality production of this crop in greenhouses and in fields. With the idea of minimizing the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers to preserve soil quality, we investigated the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB on growth promotion and protection of cucumber plants from phytopathogenic fungi. The effects of Pseudomonas spp. strains with different antifungal activities and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain with PGP activity were tested on cucumber plants. Antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas spp. against the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi isolated from cucumber: F. acuminatum, B. cinerea and A. niger, was observed. The influences of overnight cultures, supernatants and heat-stable antifungal factors were tested on the phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Pseudomonas sp. K35 and K24 strains were more effective than P. chlororaphis Q16 and Pseudomonas sp. K27, showing 70-80% of fungal growth inhibition regardless of culture or fraction applied. The good antagonists that belong to pseudomonads and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain were used as mixtures for estimation of plant growth and health promoting effects on cucumber plants. Growth dynamics differed depending on the applied strain of Pseudomonas sp. The M3 treatment (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and P. chlororaphis Q16 stimulated the initial phase of growth, while M4 (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and Pseudomonas sp. K24 resulted in the maximal height at the final measurement. Significant differences in leaf and plant weight (M4, and leaf weight (M5, containing K35 strain were found after the treatments. No significant differences in chlorophyll and NBI level were observed in any of the tested combinations. The obtained results suggested that M3 was suitable for stimulation of the early phase of cucumber growth, while the mixtures M4 and M5 improved plant

  1. 格氏沙雷菌CNY-04对灰霉病菌作用机制及抑菌物质理化性质研究%Antimicrobial activity of Serratia grimesii CNY-04 against Botrytis cinerea and characteristic analysis of antagonistic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆继臣; 迟乃玉; 张庆芳

    2013-01-01

    Serratia grimesii CNY-04 was screened from the rhizosphere soil of the vegetable.The antibacterial circle method was used for determination of the activity of CNY-04 against Botrytis cinerea.The study was carried out through the inhibition of spore germination and hyphal growth,and the related traits of S.grimesii CNY-04 were determined.The characteristic analysis of antagonistic substances was also studied.The results showed that the strain CNY-04 exhibited genetic stability and strong antagonistic ability.The antibacterial circle diameter was up to 34 mm.The mycelial structure of B.cinerea could be damaged by CNY-04.The strain CNY-04 significantly inhibited the spore germination of B.cinerea,with an inhibition rate of 99%.CNY-04 could not produce pyrrolnitrin,hydrocyanic acid,and hydrolases,but could produce siderophore and proteinase.The antibacterial material had a high thermal stability and acid-based stability.Antibacterial substances were induced by B.cinerea.The bacteriostatic mechanism was completely different from that previously reported.%从蔬菜根际土壤中筛选到一株生防格氏沙雷菌(Serratia grimesii)CNY-04,利用抑菌圈法测定其对灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.ex Fr.)的抑制效果,通过抑制孢子萌发、影响菌丝正常生长试验对CNY-04的作用机制进行研究,并对CNY-04菌株相关性状及抑菌物质的理化性质进行了研究.结果表明,CNY-04菌株对灰霉病菌拮抗能力强且遗传稳定,抑菌圈直径达到34 mm; CNY-04可对灰霉病菌菌丝结构造成破坏;可显著抑制灰霉病菌分生孢子萌发,抑制率为99%;CNY-04菌株不产生硝吡咯菌素、氢氰酸及水解酶类,可产生嗜铁索和蛋白酶;抑菌物质具有较好的热稳定性和酸碱稳定性.抑菌物质由灰霉病菌诱导产生,与已报道的沙雷菌属的作用机理完全不同.

  2. Synthesis of β-Enaminones and Fungicidal Activity to Botrytis cinerea%β-烯胺酮类化合物的合成及对黄瓜灰霉病菌生物活性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪明山; 高云云; 李兴海; 刘欣

    2015-01-01

    Enaminones are a class of compounds with fungicidal activity and have been widely used in pesticide. In order to improve the fungicidal activity of enamines,their structures were optimized by derivation. In this paper, twenty-four compounds (J1-J24) were synthesized by using a mixture of amine and 5, 5-dimethyl-1, 3-cyclohexanedione. The structures of the compounds were verified by 1HNMR and IR. The antifungicidal activity of twenty-four compounds against B. cinerea Pers was evaluated by method of mycelial growth inhibition and spore inoculation method. Bioassay results showed that the target compounds had fungicidal activity and a few of them were better than carbendazim at 50μL•mL-1, and the EC50 values of J17, J21 and J22 were 6.6712, 7.5736 and 9.0672 mg•L-1 respectively, which were close to crocymidone and cyrimethanil. Pot tests indicated that the control efficiency of fifteen compounds were over 80% by method of mycelial growth inhibition and the enaminones with trisubstituted anilino group (J19~J24)have better control efficiency by spore inoculation method.%烯胺酮类化合物是一类具有杀菌活性的物质,在农药领域用途广泛。为了提高烯胺酮类化合物的杀菌活性并对其结构进行优化,本试验以取代苯胺和5,5-二甲基-1,3-环己二酮为原料合成了24个β-烯胺酮类化合物(J1~J24),并通过核磁共振氢谱和红外光谱确证结构。采用菌丝生长速率法和活体盆栽法测定其对黄瓜灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers)的抑菌活性。结果表明:在浓度为50μL•mL-1时,目标化合物对黄瓜灰霉病菌均具有抑菌活性,且抑菌活性均优于对照药剂多菌灵;毒力测定结果显示J17, J21,J22的EC50分别为6.6712,7.5736和9.0672mg•L-1,接近于对照药剂腐霉利和嘧霉胺的EC50;活体盆栽防效测定试验结果显示,菌丝接种法测得其中有15种化合物的防效高于80%,孢子接种法测定结果表明三取代苯

  3. 堆肥放线菌DF02分离及对番茄灰霉病生防作用%Isolation of Actinomycete DF02 from Composting and Its Application in Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪学军; 闵长莉; 杨艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:从堆肥样品中分离具有生防作用的放线菌,并对其进行菌种鉴定及对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的盆栽防治效果进行研究.方法:采用稀释涂布法分离堆肥样品中的放线菌,采用混菌法和牛津杯法研究堆肥样品中放线菌的抑菌活性,根据形态观察、生理生化特性和16S rDNA分析对抗菌活性较强的菌株进行菌种鉴定,并研究该菌株的盆栽防治效果.结果:从堆肥样品中共分离到放线菌31株,有3株放线菌对指示菌株具有抑制作用;其中放线菌DF02菌株对供试菌中的5种植物病原真菌均有拮抗作用,且对番茄灰霉病菌的抑制作用较强;盆栽试验结果显示,DF02菌株发酵液上清对番茄灰霉病的保护效果和治疗效果分别是58.47%和53.83%;分类地位研究表明,DF02菌株与Streptomyces neopeptinius最接近,初步将其鉴定为Streptomyces neopeptinius.结论:DF02是一株具有研究开发潜力的生防放线菌菌株,本研究结果为番茄灰霉病的生物防治提供了实验依据.

  4. EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION ON CONIDIAL GERMINATION ACTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF Botrytis cinerea%电子束辐照对灰葡萄孢菌分生孢子萌发活性及致病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 陈召亮; 乔勇进

    2011-01-01

    以灰葡萄孢病菌(Botrytis cinerea)分生孢子为研究对象,采用0.5、1.0、2.0和3.0kGy剂量电子 束辐照灰葡萄孢分生孢子,分别测定5℃和25℃培养条件下辐照对灰葡萄孢分生孢子的萌发活性及致病力的影响.结果表明:25℃和5℃培养条件下,2.0kGy处理分生孢子完全萌发时间比对照分别延迟了5和9d;24h分生孢子萌发率分别降低了46.57%和33.68%;芽管长度抑制率分别为25.12%和74.29%;分生孢子对草莓的致病力显著降低,25℃培养2d时,经2.0kGy辐照处理后的分生孢子病情指数为4.17;5℃培养15d时,病情指数仅为15.28,显著低于对照.电子束处理可显著抑制灰葡萄孢菌分生孢子的萌发及芽管伸长,延迟其萌发时间,降低其致病力,且剂量越高,效果越明显.%Conidia of Botrytis cinerea were irradiated by electron beam at 0. 5, 1.0, 2. 0 and 3.0kGy. The influence of electron beam on the activities of conidial germination and pathogenicity at the temperatures of 5℃ and 25℃ were tested, respectively. The results showed that the electron beam could inhibit germination of conidia and the length of germ tube of Botrytis cinerea, and delay the germination time. It could also decrease the pathogenicity obviously and higher irradiation dose showed stronger effects. Compared with control, the complete germination time of conidia extended to 5 and 9d at the cultivate temperatures of 25℃ and 5℃, after 2kGy of irradiation, and the germination rate was reduced 46. 57% and 33.68%, respectively. The inhibition rates of germ tube were 25. 12% and 74. 29% when cultured 24h. The pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerae to strawberry was reduced significantly. After 2. 0kGy irradiation and cultivate at 25℃ for 2d, the disease index was 4. 17 and it decreased to 15.28 after cultivation of 5℃ for 15d. Electron beam treatment could inhibit the spore germination and germ tube elongation of Botrytis cinerea significantly, delayed the

  5. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of site-specific fungicides almost 50 years ago has revolutionized chemical plant protection, providing highly efficient, low toxicity compounds for control of fungal diseases. However, it was soon discovered that plant pathogenic fungi can adapt to fungicide treatments by mutations leading to resistance and loss of fungicide efficacy. The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, a major cause of pre- and post-harvest losses in fruit and vegetable production, is notorious as a 'high risk' organism for rapid resistance development. In this review, the mechanisms and the history of fungicide resistance in Botrytis are outlined. The introduction of new fungicide classes for grey mould control was always followed by the appearance of resistance in field populations. In addition to target site resistance, B. cinerea has also developed a resistance mechanism based on drug efflux transport. Excessive spraying programmes have resulted in the selection of multiresistant strains in several countries, in particular in strawberry fields. The rapid erosion of fungicide activity against these strains represents a major challenge for the future of fungicides against Botrytis. To maintain adequate protection of intensive cultures against grey mould, strict implementation of resistance management measures are required as well as alternative strategies with non-chemical products.

  6. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of site-specific fungicides almost 50 years ago has revolutionized chemical plant protection, providing highly efficient, low toxicity compounds for control of fungal diseases. However, it was soon discovered that plant pathogenic fungi can adapt to fungicide treatments by mutations leading to resistance and loss of fungicide efficacy. The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, a major cause of pre- and post-harvest losses in fruit and vegetable production, is notorious as a 'high risk' organism for rapid resistance development. In this review, the mechanisms and the history of fungicide resistance in Botrytis are outlined. The introduction of new fungicide classes for grey mould control was always followed by the appearance of resistance in field populations. In addition to target site resistance, B. cinerea has also developed a resistance mechanism based on drug efflux transport. Excessive spraying programmes have resulted in the selection of multiresistant strains in several countries, in particular in strawberry fields. The rapid erosion of fungicide activity against these strains represents a major challenge for the future of fungicides against Botrytis. To maintain adequate protection of intensive cultures against grey mould, strict implementation of resistance management measures are required as well as alternative strategies with non-chemical products. PMID:25320647

  7. 番茄灰霉病菌对咯菌腈的抗性诱变及抗药突变体的生物学特性%Induced mutation of Botrytis cinerea resistant to fludioxonil and biological characteristics of resistant mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪军建; 张小风; 王文桥

    2012-01-01

    为评估番茄灰霉病菌Botrytis cinerea对咯菌腈的抗性风险,就室内经紫外照射获得抗药突变体的方法及抗性突变体的生物学性状进行了研究.结果表明:番茄灰霉病菌分生孢子的紫外照射亚致死时间为90 ~120 s;经亚致死时间紫外照射后,4个亲本菌株中有2个菌株共产生了6个抗咯菌腈的突变体,其EC50值是亲本菌株的310倍以上,抗性突变频率为3.13×10-7;经紫外照射诱变获得的所有抗性突变体在菌丝生长速率、产孢量、产菌核能力及其在番茄果实上的致病性方面均比其亲本菌株明显降低.相关分析显示,所得抗咯菌腈突变体对氟啶胺、啶菌(噁)唑、啶酰菌胺和嘧霉胺无交互抗性.表明番茄灰霉病菌对咯菌腈的抗药性风险较低.%To assess the resistance risk of Botrytis cinerea to fludioxonil, the method for fludioxonil resistance mutagenesis and the biological characteristics of resistant mutants were studied. The results showed that the sub-lethal UV irradiation time for the conidia of B. Cinerea was 90-120 seconds. Four wild sensitive parental isolates were irradiated for sub-lethal time by UV, and six resistant mutants were obtained from two parental isolates. The ratio of EC50 value of resistant mutants comparing with that of its parental strain was more than 310 times,the frequency of resistance mutation was 3. 13×10-7. The mycelial growth rate, sporulation, sclerotia production and pathogenicity of resistant mutants decreased significantly as compared with their parental isolates. The analysis showed that the mutants had no cross resistance to other fungicides that have different mechanisms. The above results indicated that B. Cinerea on tomato had low risk of resistance to fludioxonil.

  8. Detection and comparison of fungicide resistance in Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea causing broad-bean chocolate spot disease%两种蚕豆赤斑病菌对常用杀菌剂的抗药性检测及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚慧; 戴德江; 沈鑫; 张传清

    2013-01-01

    Disease samples of broad-bean chocolate spot(BBCS)from Zhejiang,Hubei and Anhui provinces were collected to isolate and identify the pathogens.Resistance of Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea which cause BBCS to fungicides was detected through the mycelial growth rate method.And the fungicide resistance risk of B.fabae and B.cinerea was assessed in vitro.Results showed that a total of 153 isolates were collected and 122 of them were B.fabae with the frequency of 79.7%.The rest 31 isolates were B.cinerea with the frequency of 20.3 %.Thirty-seven high-level carbendazim resistance isolates(9 of them were B.fabae)and 42 low-level iprodione resistance isolates(17 of them were B.fabae)were detected.The EC50 values of pyrimethanil ranged from 0.01 to 5.13μg/mL with a mean value of 0.72±0.15μg/mL.These results indicated that BBCS developed resistance to common fungicides and more serious resistance was developed in B.cinerea than in B.fabae.Moreover,results suggested that the resistance risk of B.cinerea was significantly higher than that of B.fabae in vitro.%对采自浙江、湖北和安徽3省的蚕豆赤斑病样品进行了病原菌的分离和鉴定,采用菌丝生长速率法检测了引起赤斑病的2种病原菌——蚕豆葡萄孢Botrytis fabae和灰葡萄孢B.cinerea的抗药性发生情况,并在离体条件下通过抗药性诱导试验比较了二者的抗药性风险.结果共分离得到153个菌株,其中蚕豆葡萄孢122株(占79.7%),灰葡萄孢31株(占20.3%).共检测到37株多菌灵高水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢9株)和42株异菌脲低水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢17株);嘧霉胺对153个菌株的EC50值在0.01~5.13μg/mL之间,平均EC50值为0.72±0.15μg/mL;表明蚕豆赤斑病菌对常见杀菌剂已表现出一定的抗药性,且灰葡萄孢的抗药性问题比蚕豆葡萄孢要严重得多.抗药性诱导试验进一步证实,灰葡萄孢的抗药性风险明显高于蚕豆葡萄孢.

  9. 一氧化氮对果蔬采后灰霉菌生长发育及致病性的影响%Effects of nitric oxide on growth, development and pathogenicity of postharvest Botrytis cinerea on fruits and vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 高丽朴; 杨娜; 王清; 李淼

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on growth,development and pathogenicity of the postharvest pathogen Botrytis cinerea were investigated using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as an exogenous NO donor based on experiment of inoculation of tomato.The activities of antioxidant enzymes,the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of B.cinerea were also tested to evaluate the inhibitory mechanism of exogenous NO.The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of SNP was 4 mmol/L,which decreased the germination ratio by 56%,suppressed germ tube length by 25 μm,and reduced mycelium extension speed by 31% after 5 h.The activities of catalase (CAT),peroxidase (POD),ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR) in SNP-treated B.cinerea spores were decreased by 30%,42%,38%,40%,while the activity of lypoxygenase (LOX)and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased by 48% and 67%,respectively.Compared with control,SNP treatment decreased disease incidence of tomato fruit by 22%,and reduced lesion diameter by 12 mm after 6 d incubation.Additionally,the accumulation of intracellular ROS was 3-fold higher than that of the control group.The results of the present study indicated that exogenous NO could inhibit the growth of B.cinerea,and the inhibitory mechanism was associated with the accumulation of ROS,resulting in oxidative damage to B.cinerea.%为探讨NO的抑菌效果,以硝普钠(sodium nitroprusside,SNP)为NO供体,进行番茄活体接种试验,研究外源NO处理对采后灰霉菌Botrytis cinerea生长发育及致病性的影响,并通过胞内抗氧化相关酶活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量以及活性氧水平的检测,探讨其作用机制.结果显示,SNP的最低抑菌浓度为4 mmol/L;SNP处理灰霉菌5h后,与对照组相比,孢子萌发率、芽管长度分别降低56%和25 μm,菌丝扩展速度下降31%;胞内过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶

  10. 提高拮抗菌WB3对番茄灰霉病菌拮抗能力的He-Ne激光与氯化锂复合诱变技术%Improvement of Antagonistic Activity of Bacteria WB3 Against Botrytis Cinerea by He-Ne Laser and licl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任涛涛; 田永永; 谢云; 陈五岭

    2011-01-01

    利用He-Ne激光(波长632.8 nm,功率12 mW)与氯化锂复合诱变一株番茄灰霉病菌拮抗茵WB3,获得14株拮抗效果突出的菌株,其最大抑菌带宽为15.7 mm.综合单一诱变组里菌株致死率以及拮抗能力的大小,其中辐照时间为30 min,氯化锂浓度为1.2%时为复合诱变最佳条件.经过复合诱变,L8拮抗茵最高抑菌带宽可提高14%以上,而单一He-Ne激光诱变后抑菌带宽提高8.8%,单一氯化锂诱变后抑菌带宽提高9%.L8菌株生长迅速,经传代培养证明其抑菌性能具有稳定遗传性.该实验研究He-Ne激光与氯化锂复合诱变枯草芽孢杆菌WB3的方法可应用于番茄灰霉病的生物防治领域.%He-Ns laser(λ=632.8 nm,P=12 mW) &licl was used to irradiate B. subtilis WB3 which had an antagonistic ability on Botrytis cinerea. 14 strains that have prominent antagonistic effects were obtained, and the maximum inhibitory bandwidth is 15. 7 mm. According to the mortality rates and the size of antagonistic of single mutagenesis group, the optimization condition of irradiation time of 30 min and the density of licl of 1.2% were obtained. After multiplicity mutation,the max inhibiting belt width is L8 that raised more than 14%,however single He-Ne laser and licl irradiation could only raise 8.8 % and 9 %. The strains grew rapidly with stable heredity. The proposed experimental results the He-Ns laser & licl mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilistest WB3 show a broad application prospect for the biological control of botrytis cinerea.

  11. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  12. In vitro tolerance to Botrytis cinerea of grapevine 41B rootstock in transgenic plants expressing the stilbene synthase Vst1 gene under the control of a pathogen‐inducible PR 10 promoterIn vitro tolerance to Botrytis cinerea of grapevine 41B rootstock in transgenic plants expressing the stilbene synthase Vst1 gene under the control of a pathogen‐inducible PR 10 promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Poinssot, Benoît; Bonomelli, A.; Yean, H.; Breda, C; Buffard, D; Esnault, R.; Hain, R; Boulay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin in grapevine but its synthesis in response to phytopathogen attack decreases with grape berry ripening, A chimeric gene combining an alfalfa PR 10 promoter and Vst1 (Vitis stilbene synthase 1) gene was introduced into the genome of 41B rootstock, Transgenic plants were analysed for resveratrol production in leaves infected with Botrytis using an in vitro test. Among the 50 transgenic lines analysed, some exhibited a production lower than the non-transgenic c...

  13. T90-1木霉菌的筛选和对草莓灰霉病菌作用机制的研究%T90-1 Screening Progress and Its Application for Control of Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈海泳; 罗曼; 蒋立科; 岳永德; 魏胜林

    2004-01-01

    木霉菌(Trichoderma)作为一种重要的生防因子,可以产生几丁质酶降解植物的多种病原真菌细胞壁.利用低能离子束注入木霉菌使其产生变异,再通过初筛选和复筛选两个过程,获得T90-1木霉菌株,并用草莓灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)来检验T90-1防治真菌病害的能力.发现该菌株通过侵染、缠绕等多种重寄生方式,并分泌降解病原真菌细胞壁的物质,使病原菌原生质外渗,改变细胞内有序的代谢状况,从而抑制或杀死病原菌.初步揭示该菌株抗真菌的相关机制.

  14. Effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ of Foliar Application and Combined with SA on Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Tomato Seedlings%叶面喷施Ca2+、Mg2+、SA及其组合对番茄抗灰霉病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳琳; 潘晓爱; 郭秋城; 易知利

    2016-01-01

    矿质元素不仅可使植物旺盛、健壮生长,而且多数元素可作为病原物营养需要或毒害作用而影响病原物的侵染扩散和繁殖,增强植物抗病能力. 选用番茄灰霉病敏感型番茄 L402 为试材,叶片施用Ca2+、Mg2+、SA及其组合处理,对番茄五叶幼苗期抗灰霉病的效果进行调查. 结果表明:叶面增施Mg2+不显著改变番茄灰霉病的病情指数,病情指数为78. 25;Mg2+与SA不同顺序复合施用的病情性指数虽低于对照,但均显著高于SA单一处理;Mg2+不仅没有提高番茄抗灰霉病的作用,也没有提高SA诱导番茄抗灰霉病的作用;Ca2+与SA不同顺序配施对番茄幼苗抗灰霉病的影响效果不同. 明确了先施Ca2+再施用SA处理抗病效果最好. 即Ca+SA处理的病情指数比SA降低17. 93 %,比SA+Ca降低13. 34 %,比单纯施Ca2+降低45. 22 %;而SA+Ca处理的病情指数与SA处理无显著差异. 说明先施Ca2+再施SA, Ca2+具有显著增强SA诱导番茄抗灰霉病的作用. 实验结果将有助于了解和提高SA诱导抗性机制,为提高番茄产量和品种提供理论基础和现实依据.%Mineral elements as importance nutrition substance can make the plants grow strong and vigoroust, meanwhile, most elements can be used as nutritional or toxic substance of patho-gens to affect its spread, infection and reproduction, in order to enhance plant disease resist-ance. The cultivated tomato 'L402', which was sensitive to Botrytis cinerea, was employed in this experiment. In the experimet, the treatments of with Ca2+, Mg2+, SA and combinations was performed. The treatments effect on resistance on Botrytis cinerea inoculation in tomato five-leaves-stage seedlings were surveied. It was clear that the disease index was 78. 25, which was not significantly changed by foliar applying Mg2+ compared with CK. The disease index of Mg2+ application combined SA were lower than control, but significantly higher than SA single treatment. The results

  15. Evaluation of fungicide programs for management of Botrytis bunch rot of grapes: 2010 field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Ian S.; Eynard, James; Gubler, W D

    2010-01-01

    Bunch rot of grapes is caused by Botrytis cinerea, a fast-growing pathogen infecting numerous crops of commercial value. Bunch rot can potentially lead to a reduction in the yield and quality of table, raisin, and wine grapes, with high economic losses in some locations or years (Flaherty et al. 1992). Botrytis overwinters as sclerotia in mummified berries on the ground or on canes. The disease can first appear as shoot blight following frequent spring rains; flowers can become infected durin...

  16. Botrytis cinerea Activator Protein Induce Resistance-Related Enzyme Activities and Enhancement of Disease Resistance in Tomato Plants%灰霉菌激活蛋白诱导抗病相关的酶活性提高番茄抗病性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提艾力·热合曼; 海利力·库尔班; 郭立华; 邱德文

    2014-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea hypha has been sonication with HEPES buffer (pH 8.0), and the crude protein solution was heated at 100 ℃ for 30 min, the protein solution filtrate was loaded on RESOURCETMQ 5 mL column at flow rate of 2 mL/min. Two peaks were collected, and the both peaks were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and then the target protein (Botrytis cinerea activator protein) was detected hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco leaves. Tomato seeds were subjected for a period of 45 days to 2.5, 5, 10 and 20μg/mL of Botrytis cinerea activator protein (the molecular weight is16 kD) solution treatments, and 20 mmol/L HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) was used as control. Then inoculated by spray of 105 cfu/mL the gray mold spore suspension and moisture 48 hours in incubator, and observed the morbidity at the 7, 14 and 21th days of inoculation;And sprayed 10μg/mL protein solutions on tomato seedlings, then measured the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of treatment. The results showed that, the linear elution peak showing a single band with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 staining, and this protein could induce the HR in plants. The disease resistance increased by 48%, 55% and 54% in seed treatment tomato respectively, and it showed most resistant at 10μg/mL of the protein concentration. The PAL activity reached the peak value after 24 h of treatment, and it increased by 54%than that of the control. The activities of POD and PPO reached the peak value at 72 h of spray activator protein on tomato seedlings, and it increased by 106%and 122%than that of the control, respectively. Conclusion that, the activator protein involves the improvement disease-resistance by enhancement of the resistance-related enzyme activities in tomato, and the resistant effect was most efficient at the optimal concentration of the protein.%灰霉菌中提取纯化16 kD的激活蛋白。番茄种子以20 mmol

  17. Occurrence regularity of botrytis cinerea and its control about Protected Vegetables in Tibet alpine region%西藏高寒地区设施蔬菜灰霉病发病规律及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代万安

    2014-01-01

    蔬菜灰霉病是由灰葡萄孢Botrytis cinerea侵染所致,是目前西藏设施蔬菜生产上一种普遍而重要的喜湿病害,成为我区设施蔬菜的常发性重要病害.近年来,由于西藏高原气候凉爽,设施环境的改善,复种指数的提高,导致了灰霉病由以前的偶发性次要病害上升为常发性的重要病害,而且发生日趋严重,已严重影响到产量和品质,成为西藏设施蔬菜产业持续发展的制约因素之一.本文从分布、为害症状、生物学特性、发病规律等方面作了大量的调查和研究,针对灰霉病的发病因子及传播途径制定了综合防治技术,旨为西藏高寒地区有效预防和控制灰霉病的发生和流行,提高设施蔬菜的产量和品质,实现高产优质高效.

  18. Screening endophytic bacteria strains of anti-Botrytis cinerea from the garlic bulb and their control effect%大蒜鳞茎中抗番茄灰霉病内生菌的筛选及其防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振山; 马娜娜; 徐文梅; 李军; 韦革宏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria strains of antagonistic to Botrytis cinerea, to investigate the control effect, and to explore the non-pollution control meth ods. [Method] Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the garlic bulb with the antagonism experiment by face-to-face culturing on PDA media method. Under condition in vitro of tomato leaves, fruits,radicles and potted plants, their prevention and control effect to B. cinerea were measured. [Result] The results showed that four strains of them (D6 ,D10,D21 ,Y3) had a striking inhibitory effect, the highest inhibitory rate was up to 77. 5%;The antibiotic effects of tomato in vitro test showed that four antagonistic strains had a strong antagonistic activity against B. cinerea. The highest inhibitory rate of leaves, the fruit and radicle in vitro reached 92% ,71.13% and 70.3% ,respectively. The pot experiment determination of inhibitory rate was up to 96.2%. The antimicrobial spectrum test showed that four strains expressed antibiotic activity on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Curvularia lunata , Alternaria longipes , Fusarium graminearum , Glomerella cingulata ,P yricularia oryzae Car. , Fusarium oxysporun f. sp. vasin fectum, the highest inhibition rate was up to 83.1%. [Conclusion] Endophytic bacteria isolated from the garlic bulb have a striking inhibitory effect to B. cinerea. The research provides a theoretical basis for utilizing microbial control of endophytic bacteria in B. cinerea.%【目的】筛选拮抗番茄灰霉病的内生菌菌株,研究其生防效果,为开发有应用潜力的微生物农药奠定基础。【方法】用平板对峙法从大蒜鳞茎内筛选具有拮抗作用的内生菌,测定拮抗菌株对番茄离体叶片、果实、胚根和盆栽植株灰霉病的防治效果,以及对7种常见病原真菌的抑菌活性。【结果】从分离纯化的63株候选菌株中获得了22株具有一定抑菌活性的内生菌,其中有4

  19. 三重PCR检测草莓灰霉病菌、炭疽病菌和黄萎病菌%Triplex PCR Detection of Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Verticillium dahliae in Infected Strawberry Plant Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王剑; 尹丹韩; 高观朋; 王伟

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探索和优化检测条件,建立同时检测草莓灰霉病菌Botrytis cinarea,炭疽病菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides和黄萎病菌Verticillium dahliae的三重PCR检测体系,为3种病害的早期快速诊断和鉴定提供技术和方法.[方法]选择可以组合的3种病原菌特异引物,研究多重PCR的影响因素,优化PCR退火温度,采用正交试验方法,以3个引物组、Taq DNA聚合酶、dNTP和Mg2+六因素三水平优化多重PCR体系.[结果]建立并验证适合上述草莓主要病原菌的三重PCR最佳检测体系,可分别扩增出729、539和450 bp的特异条带,最适退火温度为50℃,25μL的反应体系中含有0.32 μmol·L-1 C729+/-,0.032 μmol·L-1 DB19/DB22、0.32 μmol·L-1 CgInt/ITS4,1.5 U Taq聚合酶、0.15 mmol·L-1 dNTP、1.6 mmol·L-1 MgCI2.[结论]利用上述引物组合和反应体系进行三重PCR检测,能够快速从田间发病植株和土壤中将草莓灰霉病菌、草莓炭疽病菌和草莓黄萎病菌检测出来,灵敏度可以达到10 Pg菌丝DNA.

  20. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  1. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, M. H.; M. Ashraf Hossain; Kashem, M. A.; Shiv Kumar; Rafii, M. Y.; M. A. Latif

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for...

  2. 灰葡萄孢霉高效拮抗木霉菌株的筛选及其翻译延伸因子序列分析%The Screen of the Antagonism of Trichoderma spp.Against Botrytis cinerea and Sequence Analysis of Translation Elongation Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 王万立; 霍建飞; 刘春艳; 郝永娟

    2012-01-01

    为进一步开发利用木霉菌资源,对从菜田土壤中初步分离纯化获得的12株木霉菌株,采用对峙培养和生长速度测定法进行灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea)高效拮抗木霉菌株的筛选,并通过翻译延伸因子序列同源性比较对其进行分子鉴定.结果表明:菌株Tr9701和Tr1108的生长速度快,对病原菌的抑制率高,且协同应用有一定的增效作用.经对Tr9701和Tr1108翻译延伸因子同源序列分析,并结合其形态特征结果表明,Tr9701为绿色木霉(Trichoderma viride)和Tr1108为深绿木霉(Trichoderma atroviride).绿色木霉和深绿木霉为菜田生境习居菌,2种菌株协同利用对蔬菜灰霉病有较好的协同增效作用,应进一步设计利用多靶位木霉菌来提高防病效果.%The aim was to utilize the biological agents of Trichoderma spp.. There were 12 strains of Trichoderma species separated from vegetable fields, New antagonistic Trichoderma spp. Were screened through the confront culture and growth rate determination, and the sequence homology of translation elongation factor was analyzed. The results showed that, strain Tr 9701 and Tr 1108 had high growth rates and strong inhibitions. With the identification of translation elongation factor of these strains, strain Tr9701 was classified as Trichoderma viride, and Tr1108 was classified as Trichoderma atroviride respectively. Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma atroviride were all inhabitants in vegetable field. The two strains which were used to control vegetable gray mold cooperatively were effective, so it should be studied to utilize Trichoderma spp. With more targets in order to increase control efficiency.

  3. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced by exposure of the strawberry fruit to the volatiles from C. intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. PMID:21323467

  4. Rational control of Botrytis cinerea%葡萄灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea)及其合理防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华

    2003-01-01

    @@ 葡萄灰霉病是一个非常严重的病害,常常引起产量和质量的大幅下降,发病严重时,也会导致颗粒无收.此外,由于病原菌常常出现抗药菌系,所以对它的防治方案也在不断地变化.

  5. Natural and acquired fenhexamid resistance in Botrytis spp :What’s the difference ?

    OpenAIRE

    Billard, Alexis; Azeddine, Saad; Bach, Jocelyne; Lanen, Catherine; Solignac, Pauline; Leroux, Pierre; Lachaise, H.; Beffa, R; Fillinger-David, Sabine, Helma; Debieu, Danièle

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal compounds such as ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors are widely used to control crop diseases. Among them, one of the most recent, the hydroxyanilide fenhexamid, is efficient principally against Botrytis cinerea, the major causal agent of grey mould. Fenhexamid is a new type of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor affecting the sterol C4 demethylation processes due to its specific interaction with one of the four proteins of the enzymatic complex, the 3-ketoreductase. Our regular moni...

  6. Biological control of Botrytis spp. by Ulocladium atrum : an ecological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, G.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi from the genus Botrytis cause economically important diseases in a wide range of crops during the production phase as well as post harvest phase. Control is based on the frequent use of fungicides. Alternative approaches for control are studied because of the development of fungicide resistance in the pathogen and environmental concerns.The fungal saprophytic antagonist Ulocladium atrum is an effective biological control agent of B. cinerea in cyclamen. U. atrum may als...

  7. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of site-specific fungicides almost 50 years ago has revolutionized chemical plant protection, providing highly efficient, low toxicity compounds for control of fungal diseases. However, it was soon discovered that plant pathogenic fungi can adapt to fungicide treatments by mutations leading to resistance and loss of fungicide efficacy. The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, a major cause of pre- and post-harvest losses in fruit and vegetable production, is notorious as a ‘hi...

  8. DNA sequence analysis of herbarium specimens facilitates the revival of Botrytis mali, a postharvest pathogen of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Daniel T; Sholberg, Peter L; Stokes, Sarah C; Ginns, J

    2008-01-01

    The fungus Botrytis cinerea has been widely accepted as the species responsible for causing gray mold decay of apple, although a second species causing apple decay, B. mali, was reported in 1931. Botrytis mali was validly published in 1931, nevertheless it has always been considered a doubtful species. To study the relationship of Botrytis isolates causing gray mold on apple, DNA sequence analysis was employed. Twenty-eight Botrytis isolates consisting of 10 species were sampled, including two B. mali herbarium specimens from apple originally deposited in 1932. The DNA sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) genes placed the isolates into groupings with defined species boundaries that generally reflected the morphologically based model for Botrytis classification. The B. cinerea isolates from apple and other host plants were placed in a single clade. The B. mali herbarium specimens however always fell well outside that clade. The DNA sequence analysis reported in this study support the initial work by Ruehle (1931) describing the apple pathogen B. mali as a unique species.

  9. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATOZINCATE(II SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS22], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a, PPh3C2H5 (2b, PPh3C4H9 (2c, and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d and NBu4 (2e, were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II acetate dihydrate with the appropriate counter cations (A halides. The new compounds were characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. All these salts inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea, with compounds 2c and 2d showing greater antifungal activity than zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate, the active principle of the fungicide Ziram. The bis(dithiocarbimatezincate(II salts are also active against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Real-time RT-PCR expression analysis of chitinase and endoglucanase genes in the three-way interaction between the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726, Botrytis cinera and strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Søren Dan Funck;

    2008-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two endoglucan......Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two...... endoglucanase genes from C. rosea strain IK726 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR in vitro and in strawberry leaves during interaction with B. cinerea. Specific primers were designed for ß-tubulin genes from C. rosea and B. cinerea, respectively, and a gene encoding a DNA-binding protein (DBP) from strawberry......, allowing in situ activity assessment of each fungus in vitro and during their interaction on strawberry leaves. Growth of B. cinerea was inhibited in all pathogen-antagonist interactions while the activity of IK726 was slightly increased. In all in vitro interactions, four of the six genes were upregulated...

  11. 灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)生物防治研究进展%Research Progress of Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥东; 傅俊范; 严雪瑞; 滕学灵

    2003-01-01

    综述了国内外利用相关拮抗微生物防治作物灰霉病菌的研究历史与现状,介绍了国内外用于防治灰霉病菌的几类主要微生物;阐述了灰霉病生物防治的主要机理;讨论了目前生物防治中存在的主要问题,并就应用前景作了评述,认为生物防治在未来作物灰霉病的防治和人类安全问题中将发挥重要的作用.

  12. Diversity and environmental relations of cryptic, systemic Botrytis infections in symptomless hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Shaw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis species are generally considered to be aggressive, necrotrophic plant pathogens. By contrast to this general perception, however, Botrytis species could frequently be isolated from the interior of multiple tissues in apparently healthy hosts of many species. Infection frequencies reached 50% of samples or more, but were commonly less, and cryptic infections were rare or absent in some plant species. Prevalence varied substantially from year to year and from tissue to tissue, but some host species routinely had high prevalence. The same genotype was found to occur throughout a host, representing mycelial spread. B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea are the species that most commonly occur as cryptic infections, but phylogenetically distant isolates of Botrytis were also detected, one of which does not correspond to previously described species. Sporulation and visible damage occurred only when infected tissues were stressed, or became mature or senescent. There was no evidence of cryptic infection having a deleterious effect on growth of the host, and prevalence was probably greater in plants grown in high light conditions. Isolates from cryptic infections were often capable of causing disease (to varying extents when spore suspensions were inoculated onto their own host as well as on distinct host species, arguing against co-adaptation between cryptic isolates and their hosts. These data collectively suggest that several Botrytis species, including the most notorious pathogenic species, exist frequently in cryptic form to an extent that has thus far largely been neglected, and do not need to cause disease on healthy hosts in order to complete their life-cycles.

  13. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  14. Identification and functional analysis of Botrytis cinerea genes induced during infection of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Keyword(s): Botryotinia fuckeliana , grey mould, pathogenesis, tomato, differential gene expression, glutathione S-transferase, aspartic protease, ubiquitin  In the past decade many new methods have been developed that improved the unbiased search for differentially e

  15. Identification and functional analysis of Botrytis cinerea genes induced during infection of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Keyword(s): Botryotinia fuckeliana , grey mould, pathogenesis, tomato, differential gene expression, glutathione S-transferase, aspartic protease, ubiquitin  In the past decade many new methods have been developed that improved the unbiased search for differentially expressed genes. The fine-tuning towards high throughput analysis with increased sensitivity for genes that are expressed at a low level makes these new methods very powerful.This thesis focuses on the isolation and characterisati...

  16. Biological Traits of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Isolates Differently Sensitive to Dicarboximides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of biological characteristics of both field and laboratory isolates revealed that highly resistant isolates were morphologically different from their original wild types. The majority of them were less pathogenic and produced less sclerotia than the original ones.Significant negative correlation between osmotic sensitivity and the degree of resistance was recorded. The correlation between micelium growth rate and resistance to dicarboximides was also significant and negative. Growth medium, acidity and growth temperature had less effect on the micelium growth rate of the highly resistant isolates than on the sensitive ones.

  17. Aspartic Acid Protease from Botrytis cinerea Removes Haze-Forming Proteins during White Winemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, Van S.C.; Warnock, N.I.; Schmidt, S.; Anderson, P.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Bacic, A.; Waters, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    White wines suffer from heat-induced protein hazes during transport and storage unless the proteins are removed prior to bottling. Bentonite fining is by far the most commonly used method, but it is inefficient and creates several other process challenges. An alternative to bentonite is the enzymati

  18. Conferred resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Lilium by overexpression of the RCH10 chitinase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez de Cáceres González, Francisco; Davey, Michael R.; Cancho Sánchez, Ester; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-01-01

    The production of ornamentals is an important global industry, with Lilium being one of the six major bulb crops in the world. The international trade in ornamentals is in the order of £60-75 billion and is expected to increase worldwide by 2-4 % per annum. The continued success of the floriculture industry depends on the introduction of new species/cultivars with major alterations in key agronomic characteristics, such as resistance to pathogens. Fungal diseases are the cause of reduced yiel...

  19. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M.; Pozo, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antif...

  20. Optimizing chemically induced resistance in tomato against Botrytis cinerea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Estrella; Beardon, Emily G; Ravnskov, Sabine;

    2016-01-01

    repressed plant growth at higher concentrations of the chemicals, which was particularly pronounced in hydroponically grown plants after BABA treatment. Both seed coating with BABA, and seedling treatments with BABA or JA, did not affect AMF root colonization in soil-grown tomato. Our study has identified...

  1. Application of Bordeaux mixture for Botrytis control in passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss) cultivated under organic farming in the Andean region

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vega; Escobar, B.; Velázquez Martí, Borja

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this research was the determination of the best conditions for applying Bordeaux mixture for the control of gray mold or rot (Botrytis cinerea) in passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss) grown in organic farming in the Andes. This disease is responsible for nearly 30% loss of production in the province of Tungurahua (Ecuador). To do this, three doses and four frequencies of application in two locations were evaluated. The locations were in the sectors El Galpón and Runtun wh...

  2. Botrytis pyriformis sp. nov., a novel and likely saprophytic species of Botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Yang, H; Yu, Q Y; Wu, M D; Yang, L; Zhuang, W Y; Chen, W D; Li, G Q

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of Botrytis from Sedum sarmentosum was described based on morphology and analyses of DNA sequences of nuc rDNA ITS regions and three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Meanwhile pathogenicity in 32 plant species, response to temperature for growth and conidial germination for the species were determined. The Botrytis species was named Botrytis pyriformis sp. nov. It was characterized by formation of grayish mycelia, brownish conidia and melanized sclerotia on PDA. The conidia are pear-shaped, melanized and covered with abundant villiform appendages on the conidial surface. Comparison of the ITS sequences confirmed its placement in the genus Botrytis Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences of G3PDH, HSP60 and RPB2 genes indicated that B. pyriformis and other 30 Botrytis species form a monophyletic clade, which was further divided into three subclades. Subclade I comprised B. pyriformis alone, whereas subclades II and III comprised six and 24 Botrytis species, respectively. Botrytis pyriformis could not infect 32 plant species including S. sarmentosum, possibly due to deficiency in formation of infection cushions. This study presents a formal description and illustrations for B. pyriformis and provides experimental evidence, indicating that B. pyriformis might be a saprophytic species. PMID:27153884

  3. Differences in epicuticular wax layer in tulip can influence resistance to Botrytis tulipae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Reyes, A.; Prins, T.W.; Empel, van J.P.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis tulipae is one of the major diseases of tulip. The pathogen is a necrotroph and infection normally results in host cell death, resulting in serious damage to plant tissues and culminating in rotten plants. Several defense strategies are required to counter attack this aggressive invader. Tw

  4. The Cladosporium fulvum virulence protein Avr2 inhibits host proteases required for basal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esse, H Peter; Van't Klooster, John W; Bolton, Melvin D; Yadeta, Koste A; van Baarlen, Peter; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2008-07-01

    Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) is a biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes leaf mold of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). During growth in the apoplast, the fungus establishes disease by secreting effector proteins, 10 of which have been characterized. We have previously shown that the Avr2 effector interacts with the apoplastic tomato Cys protease Rcr3, which is required for Cf-2-mediated immunity. We now show that Avr2 is a genuine virulence factor of C. fulvum. Heterologous expression of Avr2 in Arabidopsis thaliana causes enhanced susceptibility toward extracellular fungal pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea and Verticillium dahliae, and microarray analysis showed that Avr2 expression triggers a global transcriptome reflecting pathogen challenge. Cys protease activity profiling showed that Avr2 inhibits multiple extracellular Arabidopsis Cys proteases. In tomato, Avr2 expression caused enhanced susceptibility toward Avr2-defective C. fulvum strains and also toward B. cinerea and V. dahliae. Cys protease activity profiling in tomato revealed that, in this plant also, Avr2 inhibits multiple extracellular Cys proteases, including Rcr3 and its close relative Pip1. Finally, silencing of Avr2 significantly compromised C. fulvum virulence on tomato. We conclude that Avr2 is a genuine virulence factor of C. fulvum that inhibits several Cys proteases required for plant basal defense.

  5. 保护地茄果类蔬菜灰霉病防控技术%Agrotechnical Control on Botrytis cinereaofSolanaceous Vegetable in Protected Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉全

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis einerea was an important disease in solanaceous vegetable production in proteeted field, and create a large number of loss on production each year. Symptoms in the fields, source of pathogen bacteria, relationship between temperature and humidity and occurrence of disease on Botrytis cinerea of pepper,eggplant and tomato were described. The prevention and control technology on Botlytis cinerea were put forward. Scientific basis for disease diagnosis and prevention on were provided%灰霉病是目前保护地茄果类蔬菜生产上的重要病害,每年造成的产量损失极大。该文主要阐述了辣椒、茄子和番茄灰霉病田间症状、病菌菌源、温湿度与病害发生关系,提出灰霉病防控技术,为生产上病害诊断与防治提供科学依据。

  6. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NGUYEN THI VUONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botrytis cinerea was represented by three isolates: JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf. Callus tissue were cultured in a nutrient medium containing the pathogen exometabolites, which concentration was at 5, 10, 15, 20 %. Toxicity of culture filtrate was evaluated in terms of the growth of callus tissue. For this purpose callus tissue was weighed at the beginning and then at the end of the passage.We found in this study that the presence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea isolates JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf in low concentration (5 % in a nutrient medium does not lead to a substantial reduction in the growth of the callus tissue of all three genotypes studied. In this case, the growth of the callus tissue is decreased by 15-20 % compared with control. Consequently, this concentration of culture filtrate does not create the toxic effect on the growth of callus cells. When the concentration of the fungus’ culture filtrate in the culture medium is increased, the growth of the callus tissue is reduced by an average of 23 - 49 % compared with the control depended on the genotype. Maximum reduction in growth of callus tissue noted for hybrid Nika F1, for which the index was reduced 60 % (at 20% culture filtrate in compare with the control. It was also shown that the most non-aggressive isolate is JC/f, and the most aggressive - isolate KM/Hrf.

  7. Efficacy of combined formulations of fungicides with different modes of action in controlling botrytis gray mold disease in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M H; Hossain, M Ashraf; Kashem, M A; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1-9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  8. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  9. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: timsmith2@btopenworld.com; Mlambo, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, P.O. Luvengo (Swaziland); Sikosana, J.L.N.; Maphosa, V. [Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe); Mueller-Harvey, I.; Owen, E. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  10. Cladosporium én Botrytis belangrijkste oorzaken bladvlekken in pioenroos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Slootweg, G.

    2010-01-01

    De schimmels Cladosporium paeoniae en Botrytis spp. veroorzaken verschillende soorten bladvlekken in pioenroos. PPO zocht uit welke schimmels of bacteriën in de bladvlekken aanwezig waren. Met deze kennis is het mogelijk om bladvlekkenziekten gerichter aan te pakken.

  11. Cladosporium én Botrytis veroorzaken bladvlekken pioen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Slootweg, G.

    2010-01-01

    De schimmels Cladosporium paeoniae en Botrytis spp. veroorzaken verschillende soorten bladvlekken in pioenroos. Dit blijkt uit een onderzoek op basis van ingestuurde bladeren van pioenroos met bladvlekken. Met deze kennis is het mogelijk bladvlekkenziekten gerichter aan te pakken.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Motacilla cinerea (Passeriformes: Motacillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Qian, Lifu; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-09-01

    Motacilla cinerea is a species of small- and medium-sized songbird in the Family Motacillidae, which is widely distributed. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of M. cinerea. The result showed that the total length of the mitogenome was 16 825 bp and contained two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region. All the genes in M. cinerea were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the L-strand. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using Bayesian analysis methods, and containing two clades: Motacilla and Anthus. The first lineage is Motacilla including M. cinerea and other nine species. The genus Anthus makes up the second group, which containing 17 species. PMID:26328907

  13. A new and reliable method for live imaging and quantification of reactive oxygen species in Botrytis cinerea: technological advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Robert; Tudzynski, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in conserved cellular processes either as by-products of the cellular respiration in mitochondria, or purposefully for defense mechanisms, signaling cascades or cell homeostasis. ROS have two diametrically opposed attributes due to their highly damaging potential for DNA, lipids and other molecules and due to their indispensability for signaling and developmental processes. In filamentous fungi, the role of ROS in growth and development has been studied in detail, but these analyses were often hampered by the lack of reliable and specific techniques to monitor different activities of ROS in living cells. Here, we present a new method for live cell imaging of ROS in filamentous fungi. We demonstrate that by use of a mixture of two fluorescent dyes it is possible to monitor H2O2 and superoxide specifically and simultaneously in distinct cellular structures during various hyphal differentiation processes. In addition, the method allows for reliable fluorometric quantification of ROS. We demonstrate that this can be used to characterize different mutants with respect to their ROS production/scavenging potential.

  14. Novel aspinolide production by Trichoderma arundinaceum with a potential role in Botrytis cinerea antagonistic activity and plant defense priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzianum A (HA), a trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum, has recently been described to have antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens and to induce plant defence genes. In the present work, we have shown that a tri5 genedisrupted mutant that lacks HA production overproduce...

  15. Regulation of Botrytis cinerea virulence genes in interaction with Trichoderma arundinaceum is mediated by the sesquiterpene harzianum A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma includes a great diversity of species, some of them with the ability to control the growth of fungal phytopathogens. Many of these strains produce secondary metabolites that are able to inhibit the growth of their fungal preys. However, pathogens can also produce metabolites that in some...

  16. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate; Estefania eVincenti; Powell, Ann L. T.; Dario eCantu

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interactio...

  17. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interactio...

  18. Botrytis cinerea control on strawberry in greenhouse%大棚草莓灰霉病的综合防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳

    2004-01-01

    草莓灰霉病是大棚草莓的重要病害,尤其在低温高湿的条件下发生更重,损失更大.本文阐述了此病的病状、发病条件及原因并提出了一套行之有效的综合防治措施.

  19. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes.

  20. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  1. In vitro action of plant extracts on Botrytis gladiolorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effect of extacts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus was studied against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus isolated from Gladiolus spp. We evaluated in vitro the effect of total extracts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus on sporulation, and sclerotia formation. Plant extracts from Berberis vulgaris, containing 1% alkaloids, and Chelidonium majus, 0,25% alkaloids, were added to PDA at alkaloid concentrations of 25 to 250 micrograme/ml. Extract from both plants had increasing inhibitory activity against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus with increasing alkaloid concentration.

  2. Beheersing van Botrytis in cyclaam : effectiviteit van biologische producten, plantversterkende meststoffen en voedingsbehandelingen tegen Botrytis in cyclaam bij verschillende teelttemperaturen

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; De, Vries; Wensveen, van, W.

    2012-01-01

    Referaat Door Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw is onderzoek gedaan naar de ontwikkeling van beheersstrategiën voor niet-chemische beheersing van Botrytis in cyclaam en is de invloed bepaald van lagere teelttemperaturen. Dit project is gefinancierd door Productschap Tuinbouw. De kennisinventarisatie geeft een overzicht van alternatieve beheersingsmethoden. Aansluitend is in een kasproef de effectiviteit bepaald van biologische producten, plantversterkende meststoffen en voedingsbehandelingen (calciu...

  3. Production of UC-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.

  4. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  5. In vitro action of plant extracts on Botrytis gladiolorum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel PARVU

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro effect of extacts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus was studied against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus isolated from Gladiolus spp. We evaluated in vitro the effect of total extracts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus on sporulation, and sclerotia formation. Plant extracts from Berberis vulgaris, containing 1% alkaloids, and Chelidonium majus, 0,25% alkaloids, were added to PDA at alkaloid concentrations of 25 to 250 micrograme/ml. Extract from both plants had i...

  6. A greenhouse screening assay for Botrytis tulipae resistance in tulips

    OpenAIRE

    Straathof, T.P.; Mes, J.J.; Eikelboom, W; Tuyl, van, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    As a leaf pathogen, Botrytis tulipae severely affects tulip bulb production. Chemical control is not desired for environmental reasons. Thus, resistant cultivars can play an important role in the control of this disease. To select genotypes resistant to B. tulipae, a reliable screening assay is needed. A greenhouse test was developed to establish resistance at clonal level. Removal of the wax layer by soft rubbing of the leaves was essential to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the spore s...

  7. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering—a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organ...

  8. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  9. Multiple endosymbionts in populations of the ant Formica cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamilo Pekka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many insects, including ants, are infected by maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria though other secondary endosymbionts have not been reported in ants. It has been suggested that the ability of Wolbachia to invade and remain in an ant population depends on the number of coexisting queens in a colony. We study the genetic and social structure of populations in the ant Formica cinerea which is known to have populations with either monogynous or polygynous colonies. We screen populations for several endosymbiotic bacteria to evaluate the presence of different endosymbionts, possible association between their prevalence and the social structure, and the association between endosymbiont prevalence and genetic differentiation of ant populations. Results We found three endosymbiotic bacteria; 19% of the nests were infected by Wolbachia, 3.8% by Cardinium and 33% by Serratia. There was significant variation among the populations regarding the proportion of nests infected by Serratia, Wolbachia and the pooled set of all the endosymbionts. Some individuals and colonies carried two of the bacteria, the frequency of double infections agreeing with the random expectation. The proportion of infected ants (individuals or colonies did not correlate significantly with the population level relatedness values. The difference in the prevalence of Wolbachia between population pairs correlated significantly with the genetic distance (microsatellites of the populations. Conclusions The discovery of several endosymbionts and co-infections by Wolbachia and Cardinium demonstrate the importance of screening several endosymbionts when evaluating their possible effects on social life and queen-worker conflicts over sex allocation. The low prevalence of Wolbachia in F. cinerea departs from the pattern observed in many other Formica ants in which all workers have been infected. It is likely that the strain of Wolbachia in F. cinerea

  10. Winter Injury and Cool Temperatures Create Ideal Conditions for Botrytis in Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Discusses how winter weather and cool temperatures can lead to development of Botrytis in strawberry plants, and notes ways to help control this disease including removal of dead and damaged leaves, and in some cases use of fungicides.

  11. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo; Roberto Haveroth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P

  12. Identification and characterization of antagonistie strain biocontrol of cucumber Botrytis cinere and inhbition properties%黄瓜灰霉病拮抗菌的筛选鉴定及其抑菌特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师宝忠; 仇艳肖; 马金亮; 周竞; 麻耀华

    2012-01-01

    从石家庄地区多个蔬菜大棚的根际土壤分离筛选到一株高效生防菌F1-2,对黄瓜灰霉病菌的抑菌圈直径高达33mm。根据菌株F1-2的形态特征、生理生化特性以及16SrDNA序列对其进行鉴定,初步确定为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。采用生长速率法对拮抗菌的抑菌谱进行测定,其对所选的16种病原菌均有很好的抑制作用。实验还对拮抗菌F1-2的抑菌特性进行了研究,菌株连续传代至10代抑菌性能保持不变,菌株的发酵液对热和酸碱都比较稳定。该菌株的代谢产物具有广谱抑菌活性和较强的稳定性,具有开发成为灰霉病生防制剂的潜力。%An effective fungal strain F1--2 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of several greenhouses in Shiji- azhuang. The strain suppressed the growth of botrytis cinerea which was isolated from cucumber with the inhibition zone diameter of 33mm. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of the strain F1--2 and the identity of the 16SrDNA point out that this organism is Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial spectrum of the strain ,which could restrain the growth of 16 pathogens,was determined by growth rate method. The inhi- bition properties of strain F1--2 was researched in the experiment. After 10 generations,the antagonistic activity of the strain kept stable. Fermentation liquid of the strains have stability to heat, acid and base Metabolite of the strains was able to inhibit many kinds of pathogens and have high stability,which laid the foundation of development as botrytis cinerea suppressing Bio--control preparations.

  13. The role of abscisic acid in the defence response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Erwinia chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Asselbergh, B.

    2007-01-01

    In order to cope with the constant threat of a wide range of potentially harmful micro-organisms, plants have developed an impressive constitutive and inducible defensive machinery of enormous complexity to combat pathogen invasion. Plant hormones are not only important for controlling plant development, but are also essential to regulate plant responses to the environment. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) are classically associated with plant pathogen ...

  14. Progresso da seca da haste (Botrytis cinerea do hibisco (Hibiscus sabdariffa em quatro épocas e dois métodos de plantio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O progresso da seca da haste em hibisco foi estudado em quatro épocas e dois métodos de plantio. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e os oito tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 (épocas de plantio x 2 (métodos de plantio, sendo: semeadura direta em 05/02/03, 06/03/03, 05/04/03 e 15/05/03; transplantio de mudas em 24/12/02, 25/01/03, 24/02/03 e 25/03/03. Imediatamente após o surgimento dos sintomas, avaliou-se a doença a cada 10 dias até o final do ciclo, aos 205 dias, calculando-se a porcentagem de hastes infectadas por planta. Calculou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso para a incidência (AACPI. As curvas de progresso da doença dos tratamentos foram submetidas ao ajuste dos modelos linear, exponencial, monomolecular, logístico e Gompertz. Houve interação significativa de métodos e épocas de plantio na incidência da doença. Constatou-se menor incidência da seca da haste em transplantio de mudas comparado à semeadura direta em todas as épocas de plantio. Verificou-se aumento da incidência proporcionado pelo atraso na época de plantio nos dois métodos. O modelo exponencial foi o que melhor descreveu o comportamento da doença em todos os tratamentos. As diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos, considerando a taxa de progresso, não refletiram a intensidade da doença no campo. Na mesma época de plantio, as quantidades inicial e máxima da doença, observadas na semeadura direta, foram superiores aos tratamentos referentes ao transplantio de mudas, coerentes com os valores da AACPI. Registrou-se uma relação direta entre queda de temperatura e aumento da incidência da seca da haste.

  15. Recent Advance on Fungicides for the Control of Botrytis cinerea%防治灰霉病用杀菌剂的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长令; 翟煜翥; 张运晓; 黄兆信

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍防治灰霉病用杀菌剂的研究与开发.文中涉及到防治灰霉病用杀菌剂如三唑类、吡咯类、嘧啶胺类、吡啶胺类、甲氧基丙烯酸酯类、吲哚羧酸酯类等的作用机理、化学结构、生物活性及合成方法等.

  16. Research progress on microbial control of botrytis cinerea%灰霉病的微生物防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健健

    2012-01-01

    本文阐述了灰霉病病原菌的生物学特性;介绍了国内外用于灰霉病生物防治的微生物种类及其生防机制的研究进展;同时讨论了目前灰霉病等植物病害生防工作存在的主要问题及今后研究的重点;并对微生物防治的应用前景进行了展望.

  17. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Eme...

  18. Assessment of the Role of Local Strawberry Rhizosphere—Associated Streptomycetes on the Bacterially—Induced Growth and Botrytis cinerea Infection Resistance of the Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    D. İpek Kurtböke; Karen L. Eccleston; Brooks, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    The future need for sustainable agriculture will be met in part by wider use of biological control of plant pathogens over conventional fungicides hazardous to the environment and to public health. Control strategies involving both (i) direct use of microorganisms antagonistic to the phytopathogen, and (ii) use of bioactive compounds (secondary metabolites/antibiotic compounds) from microorganisms on the phytopathogen were both adapted in order to investigate the ability of streptomycetes iso...

  19. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm. PMID:9872015

  20. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  1. The synthetic cationic lipid diC14 activates a sector of the Arabidopsis defence network requiring endogenous signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiagno, Damián Alejandro; Lonez, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, María Elena

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic elicitors have contributed significantly to the study of plant immunity. Pathogen-derived proteins and carbohydrates that bind to immune receptors, allow the fine dissection of certain defence pathways. Lipids of a different nature that act as defence elicitors, have also been studied, but their specific effects have been less well characterized, and their receptors have not been identified. In animal cells, nanoliposomes of the synthetic cationic lipid 3-tetradecylamino-tert-butyl-N-tetradecylpropionamidine (diC14) activate the TLR4-dependent immune cascade. Here, we have investigated whether this lipid induces Arabidopsis defence responses. At the local level, diC14 activated early and late defence gene markers (FRK1, WRKY29, ICS1 and PR1), acting in a dose-dependent manner. This lipid induced the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, but not jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent, pathway and protected plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), but not Botrytis cinerea. diC14 was not toxic to plant or pathogen, and potentiated pathogen-induced callose deposition. At the systemic level, diC14 induced PR1 expression and conferred resistance against Pst. diC14-induced defence responses required the signalling protein EDS1, but not NDR1. Curiously, the lipid-induced defence gene expression was lower in the fls2/efr/cerk1 triple mutant, but still unchanged in the single mutants. The amidine headgroup and chain length were important for its activity. Given the robustness of the responses triggered by diC14, its specific action on a defence pathway and the requirement for well-known defence components, this synthetic lipid is emerging as a useful tool to investigate the initial events involved in plant innate immunity.

  2. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering--a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organism using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. The results show that the amounts of BaLac produced with the GAP system (517 mgL(-1)) and the AOX1 system (495 mgL(-1)) are comparable. The constitutive expression is, however, faster, and the specific activity of BaLac in the culture supernatant is higher (41.3 Umg(-1) GAP, 14.2 Umg(-1) AOX1). In microtiter plates, the constitutive expression provides a clear advantage due to easy manipulation (simple medium, no methanol feeding) and fast enzyme production (high-throughput screening assays can already be performed after 48 h). PMID:22705842

  3. Bioactive sesquiterpene lactones and other compounds isolated from Vernonia cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ui Joung; Miklossy, Gabriella; Chai, Xingyun; Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Toyama, Onoomar; Songsak, Thanapat; Turkson, James; Chang, Leng Chee

    2014-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpene lactones, 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (1), 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate (2), 8α-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (3), and 8α-hydroxy-13-O-tigloyl-hirsutinolide (4), along with seven known derivatives (5–11), three norisoprenoids (12–14), a flavonoid (15), and a linoleic acid derivative (16), were isolated from the chloroform partition of a methanol extract from the combined leaves and stems of Vernonia cinerea. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR, UV, and MS analyses. Compounds 1–16 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the viability of U251MG glioblastoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that harbour aberrantly-active STAT3, compared to normal NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts that show no evidence of activated STAT3. Among the isolates, compounds 2 and 7 inhibited the aberrant STAT3 activity in glioblastoma or breast cancer cells. Further, compounds 7 and 8 inhibited viability of all three cell lines, compounds 2, 4, and 9 predominantly inhibited the viability of the U251MG glioblastoma cell line. PMID:24370662

  4. Duurzaam Botrytis beheersen begint bij jou. De buurman in de spotlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Mulder, J.G.; Gooijer, Y.M.; Leendertse, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Hoeveel onderzoeksresultaten en methoden er ook bestaan om Botrytis te beheersen, wanneer de meerderheid van de telers ze niet toepast wordt er geen milieuwinst behaald. De meeste onderzoeksresultaten zijn publiekelijk beschikbaar, maar worden nog niet gebruikt. Van veel resultaten en methoden is bi

  5. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  6. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P <0.05. The disease was most severe at 20°C. Data were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis. Beta generalized function was used to adjust severity and temperature data, while a logistic function was chosen to represent the effect of leaf wetness on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight. The response surface obtained by the product of two functions was expressed as ES = 0.008192 * (((x-51.01089 * ((30-x1.19052 * (0.33859/(1+3.77989 * exp (-0.10923*y, where ES represents the estimated severity value (0.1; x, the temperature (°C; and y, the leaf wetness (in hours. This climate model should be validated under field conditions to verify its use as a computational system for the forecasting of Botrytis leaf blight in onion.

  7. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 39. The correct name for the Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala cinerea (Blyth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The correct scientific name for the Mangrove Whistler is Pachycephala cinerea (Blyth, 1847) and not Pachycephala grisola (Blyth, 1843). The proposal for change by Mukherjee (1970) was based on a purported type specimen of the latter, which cannot qualify as a type.

  8. Differential predation on tadpoles influences the potential effects of hybridization between Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term effects of hybridization and introgression are influenced by performance of hybrids in habitats of parental species. The treefrogs Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa, which typically breed in permanent and temporary habitats, respectively, have occasionally hybridized throughout the Southeastern United States. To predict in which of the parental habitats effects of hybridization might be strongest, I performed experiments to evaluate predation on tadpoles of H. cinerea, H. gratiosa, and F1 hybrids with predators typical of the breeding habitats of the parental species. Hybrid tadpoles had lower survival with sunfish than odonate naiad (dragonfly) predators and tended to increase hiding behavior in response to sunfish predation. Tadpoles of H. gratiosa also had higher survival with odonates than sunfish, but H. cinerea had similar survival with both predator types. These results suggest that hybrids are most likely to survive and return to breed in temporary habitats used by H. gratiosa. Thus, hybridization and introgression might be more likely to have adverse effects on populations of H. gratiosa than H. cinerea. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Evaluation of fungicide programs for management of Botrytis bunch rot of grapes: 2009 field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janousek, Christopher N; Bay, Ian S.; Herche, Ryan W; Gubler, W D

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis bunch rot is an important grapevine disease in California. Twenty eight fungicide programs were evaluated for control of bunch rot in a field experiment in a Chardonnay (clone 4) vineyard in the Carneros region of Napa Valley, California during 2009. Four fungicide applications were made from bloom to harvest with the final application made just prior to heavy rainfall. Disease was rated three weeks following the final application. Disease developed rapidly during the month of Octobe...

  10. Incorporation of copper ions into crystals of T2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada

    OpenAIRE

    Osipov, E. M.; Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Kittl, R.; Dorovatovskii, P.V.; Shleev, S. V.; Popov, V. O.; Ludwig, R

    2015-01-01

    Laccases belong to the class of multicopper oxidases catalyzing the oxidation of phenols accompanied by the reduction of molecular oxygen to water without the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The activity of laccases depends on the number of Cu atoms per enzyme molecule. The structure of type 2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada has been solved previously. With the aim of obtaining the structure of the native form of the enzyme, crystals of the depleted laccase were soaked in Cu+- an...

  11. Phytoconstituents and in vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacities of Cotula Cinerea (Morocco Methanol Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Khallouki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available T he purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of Cotula cinerea to establish principal components which may consolidate its use as a medicinal plant in the southeast of Morocco. The amount of total phenolic compounds as determined by analytical HPLC in methanol extracts was 79.23 ± 2.5 mg/g dry matter. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-ESI-MS were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin-4´-O-glucoside. All compounds displayed very strong antioxidant capacities in the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays . The data indicates that methanol extracts of C. cinerea via their antioxidant capacities, may be effective disease prevention potions in traditional African medicine which is probably related to the significant content of echinoids and flavonoids.

  12. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea (l. Wight & Arn (Fabaceae on herbaceous species in a semi-arid rangeland in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Mudzengi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of an environment and other disturbance regimes may enable the expansion of some native species into new geographical areas, a phenomenon observed with Dichrostachys cinerea. Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. The same attributes were studied in five uninvaded sites adjacent to, and equal in size to each invaded site. Forty herbaceous species were identified in the area. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 noted in species richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper, plant vigour, and species diversities between invaded and uninvaded sites, with uninvaded sites recording higher values than invaded sites. Altitude, erosion and the edaphic variables pH, N, P and K, which were included as explanatory variables, also differed significantly (P<0.05 between invaded and uninvaded sites. Of the 30 D. cinerea invaded plots established for herbaceous species assessments, 26 were positively correlated with altitude, erosion, pH, P, N and K. It is imperative to find ways of managing D. cinerea in order to reduce its adverse effects on herbaceous species.

  13. Field and laboratory studies of the susceptibility of the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Brannelly

    Full Text Available Amphibians worldwide are experiencing devastating declines, some of which are due to the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd. Populations in the southeastern United States, however, have not been noticeably affected by the pathogen. The green treefrog (Hyla cinerea is abundant and widespread in the southeastern United States, but has not been documented to harbor Bd infection. This study examined the susceptibility of H. cinerea to two strains of Bd in the lab and the prevalence of infection in wild populations of this species in southeastern Louisiana. Although we were able to infect H. cinerea with Bd in the lab, we did not observe any clinical signs of chytridiomycosis. Furthermore, infection by Bd does not appear to negatively affect body condition or growth rate of post-metamorphic individuals. We found no evidence of infection in surveys of wild H. cinerea. Our results suggest that H. cinerea is not susceptible to chytridiomycosis post-metamorphosis and probably is not an important carrier of the fungal pathogen Bd in the southeastern United States, although susceptibility at the larval stage remains unknown.

  14. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATO)ZINCATE(II) SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Mayura M. M. Rubinger; Elisa L. Piló; Daniele C. Menezes; Laércio Zambolim

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A)2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS2)2], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a), PPh3C2H5 (2b), PPh3C4H9 (2c), and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d) and NBu4 (2e), were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II) acetate dihydrate with...

  15. The RNA silencing enzyme RNA polymerase v is required for plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1. NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V, which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA-mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA-mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA-related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence

  16. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Grant-Downton

    Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.

  17. The fungal flora of loganberries in relation to storage and spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R P; Dennis, C

    1977-03-01

    Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans, Mucor mucedo, Phoma state of Didymella applanata, Cryptococcus laurentii var. laurentii, C. albidus var. albidus, Candida sake and Sporobolomyces roseus were consistently present on freshly harvested loganberries. Botrytis cinerea was the main spoilage organism with Mucor mucedo of minor importance. The importance of benomyl-resistant strains of B. cinerea is discussed.

  18. Mating type and sexual fruiting body of Botrytis elliptica, the causal agent of fire blight in lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhem, R.B.; Staats, M.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis elliptica is a necrotrophic pathogen that specifically infects Lilium species. Previous records show that B. elliptica collected in the field can successfully develop apothecia in vitro, however, there are no formal descriptions of apothecia of B. elliptica. The aim of this study was to ana

  19. A fungus strain of Botrytis and its crust effect%一株葡萄孢属(Botrytis)真菌结皮效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振山; 赵佳福; 雷超; 李军; 韦革宏

    2012-01-01

    A fungus strain was isolated from the underlayer of biological crusts in Maowusu desert. According to the analysis of morphology,this strain was identified as Botrytis . It could secrete the massive mucopolysaccharide during the growth,the viscosity reached 9 860 mPa·s,and the yield of mucopolysaccharide reached 19.246 g/L,after having been cultivated for 3d in liquid shake flask. Moreover,the components of polysaccharide were assayed by use of TLC . The results showed that mucopolysaccharide released by this fungus consisted of the D-mannose and D-galactose. If a fungal culturing solution was sprinkled on shifting sand surface,a microbiotic crust of 8. 2 mm conglutinating sand could be formed. The crust can not only stabilize moving sand but also can slower the rate of soil moisture evaporation. These show its great application potential in desertification control,restoration and protection of the ecological environment.%从陕北毛乌素沙地生物结皮的下层中筛选得到一株真菌,经鉴定,表明该菌株属于葡萄孢属(Botrytis).它能在生长繁殖过程中分泌出大量胞外黏多糖,室内摇瓶振荡培养3d黏度可达9 860 mPa·s,产量达19.246g/L,通过采用薄层层析法对多糖的组分的测定,初步表明该多糖主要由D-甘露糖和D-半乳糖组成.通过结皮试验,结果表明该株真菌菌剂喷洒于流沙表面后,能够形成约8.2 mm厚的一层具有粘结沙粒、保持水分的生物结皮层,同时具有明显的减缓土壤中水分蒸发的效果.表明该菌株在荒漠化治理、恢复和保护生态环境方面具有重要的应用潜力.

  20. Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Analyses of Fruiting Body Development in Coprinopsis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Muraguchi

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis cinerea is an important model system for multicellular development. Fruiting bodies of C. cinerea are typical mushrooms, which can be produced synchronously on defined media in the laboratory. To investigate the transcriptome in detail during fruiting body development, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed using cDNA libraries strand-specifically constructed from 13 points (stages/tissues with two biological replicates. The reads were aligned to 14,245 predicted transcripts, and counted for forward and reverse transcripts. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between two adjacent points and between vegetative mycelium and each point were detected by Tag Count Comparison (TCC. To validate RNA-seq data, expression levels of selected genes were compared using RPKM values in RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR data, and DEGs detected in microarray data were examined in MA plots of RNA-seq data by TCC. We discuss events deduced from GO analysis of DEGs. In addition, we uncovered both transcription factor candidates and antisense transcripts that are likely to be involved in developmental regulation for fruiting.

  1. Neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in Nauphoeta cinerea following dietary exposure to chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Rosemberg, Denis B; de Souza, Diego; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Aschner, Michael; Souza, Diogo O; Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to increase our understanding about the mode of toxic action of organophosphate pesticides in insects by evaluating the biochemical and neurobehavioral characteristics in Nauphoeta cinerea exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF)-contaminated diet. The insects were exposed for 35 consecutive days to CPF at 0.078, 0.15625, 0.3125 and 0.625μg/g feed. Locomotor behavior was assessed for a 10-min trial in a novel arena and subsequently, biochemical analyses were carried out using the cockroaches' heads. In comparison to control, CPF-exposed cockroaches showed significant decreases in the total distance traveled, body rotation, turn angle and meandering, along with significant increase in the number of falls, time and episodes of immobility. The marked decrease in the exploratory profiles of CPF-exposed cockroaches was confirmed by track plots, whereas occupancy plot analyses showed a progressive dispersion at 0.15625μg/g feed group. Moreover, the heads of CPF-exposed cockroaches showed marked decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status with concomitant significant elevation in dichlorofluorescein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in CPF-treated cockroaches. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analyses revealed bioaccumulation of CPF in cockroaches exposed to concentrations above 0.078μg/g feed. The findings from this investigation showed N. cinerea as a value model organism for the risk assessment of environmental organophosphate contamination in insects. PMID:27155480

  2. Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, David Fernando; Schmieder, Stefanie Sofia; Lipzen, Anna; Lindquist, Erika; Künzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. We showed previously that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A)-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly upregulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity toward the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. These results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responses similar to plants and animals. PMID:26585824

  3. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN THI VUONG; Kalashnikova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botryti...

  4. Incorporation of copper ions into crystals of T2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, E M; Polyakov, K M; Tikhonova, T V; Kittl, R; Dorovatovskii, P V; Shleev, S V; Popov, V O; Ludwig, R

    2015-12-01

    Laccases belong to the class of multicopper oxidases catalyzing the oxidation of phenols accompanied by the reduction of molecular oxygen to water without the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The activity of laccases depends on the number of Cu atoms per enzyme molecule. The structure of type 2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada has been solved previously. With the aim of obtaining the structure of the native form of the enzyme, crystals of the depleted laccase were soaked in Cu(+)- and Cu(2+)-containing solutions. Copper ions were found to be incorporated into the active site only when Cu(+) was used. A comparative analysis of the native and depleted forms of the enzymes was performed.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on behaviour of Botrytis alii in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungus Botrytis alii was irradiated with different dose of gamma radiation (0.8, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 KGy) at different stages (spores and hyphae), the rate of hyphae irradiation. This growth was significantly reduced in the higher doses (43.2% at 3 KGy and 100% at 4 KGy) of the control the hyphae were recultured in unirradiated medium to confirm the result. The germination and growth of the spores were significantly slower of 4, 5, 6 KGy as compared with the doses of (0 to 3 KGy), and when recultured in the unirradiated medium, the inhibitory effect of (4, 5 KGy) and the lethal effect of (6 KGy) were confirmed. (author)

  6. Incorporation of copper ions into crystals of T2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, E M; Polyakov, K M; Tikhonova, T V; Kittl, R; Dorovatovskii, P V; Shleev, S V; Popov, V O; Ludwig, R

    2015-12-01

    Laccases belong to the class of multicopper oxidases catalyzing the oxidation of phenols accompanied by the reduction of molecular oxygen to water without the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The activity of laccases depends on the number of Cu atoms per enzyme molecule. The structure of type 2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada has been solved previously. With the aim of obtaining the structure of the native form of the enzyme, crystals of the depleted laccase were soaked in Cu(+)- and Cu(2+)-containing solutions. Copper ions were found to be incorporated into the active site only when Cu(+) was used. A comparative analysis of the native and depleted forms of the enzymes was performed. PMID:26625287

  7. Life cycle of Arcyria cinerea%灰团网菌的生活史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史立平; 李玉

    2012-01-01

    The life history of myxomycetes is of importance to study diversity of nutritive modes and phylogenesis of these organisms. Until now the reports concered were few. Moist chamber culture method,oat-agar culture method and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the process of the individual development of Arcyria cinerea. The life cycle of spore-to-spore were completed in agar culture in petridish. The result shows that the life cycle of Arcyria cinerea comprises a unicellular amoeboid or swarm cell stage,a multinucleate plasmodium stage and a sporulation stage. The spore of Arcyria cinerea is globular and the spore surface is spiny. The spore germinates by means of a poriform open and releases a single myxamoeba. The myxamoeba can move by amoeboid motion. When free water is available, myxamoebae can transform into swarm cells and swim in the water. Zygote forms into plasmodium. The mature plasmodium is white. The plasmodial type is the phaneroplasmodium which appears as a fan-shaped network of veins. Spores developed on agar are fertile and resemble those on natural substrate.%采用基物培养、燕麦-琼脂培养技术及扫描电镜技术对灰团网菌的个体发育过程进行了研究,在燕麦琼脂培养基上完成了从孢子到孢子的生活史.结果表明:灰团网菌生活史包括单核的黏变形体或游动胞、多核的营养体原质团以及孢子形成阶段.孢子球形,表面具疣突;孢子萌发为孔式,一个孢子可释放一个黏变形体.黏变形体常行变形运动,在有水的条件下,可转变为游动胞并具有游动的特性.合子形成原质团.成熟原质团白色,类型为显型,具有扇形网络状菌脉.琼脂培养基上获得的灰团网菌孢子与野生型相似,并具有可育性.

  8. ANTIDIARRHOEL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA (L. LESS ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panday Ganesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea and Cumin seeds on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishadh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the protective effect of Vernonia cinerea against carbon tetrachloride (1.0ml / kg b.wt / day administered intraperitoneally for 2 days in male albino Wistar rats. The levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, and urea were determined. The activities of glutathione, Vitamin C and the levels of lipid peroxides in 10% w/v liver homogenate were also determined. The CCl4 induction resulted a significant elevation in the levels of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and creatinine with decreased urea. The activities of hepatic glutathione and vitamin C were also significantly depleted with increased lipid peroxides in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The oral administration of herbal drug alone did not show any toxicity in the liver tissue. These results suggest that the herbal drug may probably act as a natural antioxidant against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative stress.

  10. 黄瓜灰霉病菌拮抗菌BBC-3的筛选、鉴定及抑菌特性%Screening, Identification and Antifungal Activity of BBC-3 Against Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇艳肖; 程辉彩; 周竞; 尹淑丽; 张根伟; 张丽萍

    2016-01-01

    以黄瓜根际土壤为分离对象,采用稀释平板法分离到1株对黄瓜灰霉病抑菌作用明显的拮抗茵BBC-3,利用对峙培养法和平板扩散法对其抑茵特性进行鉴定.结果表明:经过形态特征、生理生化及16S rDNA序列分析,BBC-3鉴定为短短芽孢杆菌(Brevibacillus brevis);该茵具有广谱抗菌活性,对所选14种植物病原茵均有较强抑制作用.该茵产生的抗茵物质对高温、酸碱及光照稳定性强,对蛋白不敏感,常温和4℃储存6个月抑菌活性大于80%.

  11. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing-Based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, HuiJuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Tian, Limei; Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalas...

  12. 山西省蔬菜灰霉病菌营养体亲和性及菌丝融合群的初步研究%Study on vegetative compatibility and anastomosis group in Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊明; 刘慧平; 王建明; 闫秀琴; 李新凤; 韩巨才

    2003-01-01

    采用对峙培养和显微观察方法,对采自山西晋中、运城、临汾、长治、大同等5个地区的92个灰霉病菌单孢菌株进行了营养体亲和力测定.结果表明:供试的92个菌株,根据其营养体亲和性初步划分为7个不同的菌丝融合群(AG1、AG2、AG3、AG4、AG5、AG6、AG7),而且不同地区融合菌群的分布存在一定差异.晋中分布有4种类型(AG1、AG2、AG3、AG4),运城3种(AG1、AG2、AG5),临汾4种(AG1、AG2、AG3、AG6),长治4种(AG1、AG2、AG5、AG7),大同3种(AG2、AG3、AG6),其中AG2分布最广、数量最多,为山西境内分布的灰葡萄孢菌的优势菌群.

  13. Studies on Chemical Controll of Botrytis cinerea in Pepper by 50% CHORUS WG%50%CHORUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病药效试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德咏; 陈文勇; 谭新球; 刘勇

    2005-01-01

    对新型苯氨基嘧啶类杀菌剂50%CHORUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病的田间效果进行了试验.结果表明:50%CHO-RUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病的防治效果较好.用量为120g/100L水,喷药液50~70L/667m2,药后7d、10d对叶部病害的防效分别为71.63%、72.83%,对果实病害的防效分别为74.49%、75.337%.50%CHORUS WG是二甲酰亚胺类杀菌剂的良好替代药剂.

  14. Studies on Fermentation Conditions of Antagonistic Actinomyle Fh-chib against Botrytis cinerea%番茄灰霉病菌拮抗基因工程菌株Fh-chib培养条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文霞; 李伟泽; 陈立; 陈五岭

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to identify the pathogen to cause citrus tristeza disease in Anyue County of Sichuan Province.[Method]The complete nucleotide sequence of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) coat protein (CP) was determined by using RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing techniques.[Result]Eighteen CTV isolates (22.2%) were collected in a total of 81 field citrus samples in Anyue, Sichuan province. Se quence comparison and phylogenetic tree of 18 CTV isolates and other CTV isolates indicated that citrus tristeza disease in Anyue was caused by CTV. These diseases belonged to five groups, and the genetic relationship between CTV was complicated.[Conclusion]The research pro vides theoretical basis for the prevention and control of CTV in Anyue area.%[目的]筛选番茄灰霉病菌拮抗基因工程菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养条件.[方法]在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验设计对番茄灰霉病菌拮抗菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养条件(碳源、氮源和无机盐)进行了研究.[结果]工程菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养基配方为0.50%葡萄糖、1.00%蔗糖、1.00%酵母膏、1.50%麸皮、1.00%黄豆饼粉、0.03% MgSO4和0.40% CaCI2.各个因素对发酵液抑菌活性影响的主次顺序为:葡萄糖>蔗糖> CaCI2>黄豆饼粉>酵母膏>麸皮>MgSO4.[结论]为该菌株的工业化生产奠定了基础.

  15. α-茄碱对灰葡萄孢菌的体外抑菌活性研究%Study on Antimicrobial Activities of α-Solanine against Botrytis cinerea in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙培珍; 曹博文; 韩育梅

    2014-01-01

    从马铃薯皮中提取分离出α-茄碱,通过牛津杯法研究α-茄碱对灰葡萄孢菌的体外抑菌活性,并采用平板涂布法测定其最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果表明,α-茄碱对灰葡萄孢菌具有较好的抑菌效果,且抑制强度呈剂量依赖性,当α-茄碱浓度为50 μmol/L时,对灰葡萄孢菌表现出高度敏感性;α-茄碱对灰葡萄孢菌的最低抑菌浓度为15%.以灰葡萄孢菌为指示菌研究其稳定性,表明α-茄碱在中性(pH=7)条件下对灰葡萄孢菌的抑菌效力最强.当加热温度低于80℃时,α-茄碱的抑菌活性比较稳定,而当温度升高到121℃时,随着加热时间的增加,抑菌效果减弱.

  16. 灰葡萄孢BC7-3菌株固体发酵条件的优化%Optimization of Solid Fermentation of Botrytis cinerea BC7-3 Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利辉; 冯江兰; 董金皋

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] In order to enhance the production of the herbicidal substances and to furthermore separate the crude toxin, the solid fermenting conditions of BC7-3 were researched in an experiment. [Method] BC7-3 was fermented with solid media by using a method of orthogonal combination and different factors affecting toxin-producing was researched. The crude toxin was obtained by extracting with acetone and the herbicidal activity of crude toxin to Flanueria bidentis was bioassayed by using the method of growth inhibition. [Result] The medium containing millet at 5 g, sorghum at 5 g, wheat bran at 5 g and corn straw at 2.5 g were found to be the most optimum. The herbicidal activity of the crude toxin reached the strongest when BC7-3 was inoculated with the inoculum concentration of 8% in the optimum medium containing 1% sucrose, 1% ammonium mitrate and 80% water and fermented in the darkness for 15 days under the condition of 20°C. [ Conclusion ] It is suggested that solid fermentation is suitable for the production of the herbicidal substances of BC7-3.%[目的] 探讨灰葡萄孢BC7-3菌株固体发酵的基本条件以提高其除草活性物质的产量.[方法] 通过正交试验设计确定最优化的培养基组合,并结合生长抑制法测定外加碳源、氮源等因素对除草活性物质产生的影响,以确定最佳的发酵条件.[结果] 确定了小米5g、高粱5g、麦麸5g、玉米秸秆2.5g为最佳复合培养基质;明确了该菌株在加入1%硝酸铵、1%蔗糖的培养基中,20℃黑暗条件下,接种量8%、含水量80%、静置培养15d,得到的除草活性物质活性最强.[结论] 固体发酵适合于灰葡萄孢代谢产物中除草活性物质的产生.

  17. 水杨酸诱导番茄对灰霉病的抗性研究%Induced Resistance of Tomato against Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) by Salicylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳

    2012-01-01

    compound structure were proposed to realize the prospect of sustainable development with the support of science and technology.%[目的]探讨水杨酸(SA)对番茄抗灰霉病的诱导作用.[方法]以SA作为诱抗剂处理番茄幼苗,研究了SA对番茄灰霉病病原菌菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发的影响,并测定了其诱导抗性产生过程中番茄植株体内过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)4种防御酶活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量的变化.[结果]SA在其浓度范围内对番茄灰霉病病原菌的孢子萌发和菌丝生长无抑制作用,而相对诱导效果在处理后也有不同程度的提高,其中用150 mg/L SA处理番茄植株后间隔3d挑战接种灰霉病病原菌产生的诱导效果最好,且抗性持续期在10~15 d.经SA处理后,CAT、POD、PPO、PAL在番茄灰霉病系统诱导抗性中均呈先上升后下降的趋势,且明显高于对照,同时MDA含量以波浪线形式呈上升趋势.[结论]SA在一定浓度范围内使用是安全的;CAT、POD、PPO、PAL活性与番茄对灰霉病的诱导抗性呈正相关,MDA含量的增加与抗病性的提高也密切相关.

  18. 安徽省番茄灰霉菌抗药性测定和治理%Detection and management of the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to fungicides in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从宇; 张子学; 崔广荣

    2006-01-01

    测定了安徽省番茄灰霉病菌对多菌灵、腐霉利、乙霉威的抗性.结果表明,田间有BsDsNs、BsDsNLR、BsDsNHR、BHRDsNs、BMRDLRNs、BHRDLRNs、BHRDLRNLR 7种抗性类型,对多菌灵、腐霉利、乙霉威具有抗性的菌株分别占试验总菌株数的28.3%、20%和73.3%.

  19. 高海拔地区葡萄灰霉病综合防治技术%Integrated control measure for grape grey mould ( Botrytis cinerea Pers)in high altitude area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占仕发

    2015-01-01

    The grape grey mould deVelops quickly and damages seVerely,especially in the high altitude areas,the control of this disease is Very difficult. In this paper,the symptom and reason for the grape grey mould were introduced,and the inte-grated control measure was summarized.%葡萄灰霉病发病速度快,对葡萄生产危害很大,在高海拔地区防治难度更大.该文介绍了葡萄灰霉病的发病症状、发病原因,并总结其综合防治技术.

  20. Field trials on controlling Botrytis cinerea with a pesticide, 50% ‘ Nongliling’%50%农利灵防治葡萄灰霉病的田间药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏东; 姚雪龙

    2003-01-01

    葡萄开花前10天至开花末期,对花穗喷布3次50%农利灵干悬浮剂750倍和1200倍液,药后5天对葡萄灰霉病的防效分别达89.36%和83.06%,且无药害发生.50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂800倍液的防效为60.05%.药后10天,各处理的防效均有所下降.

  1. 番茄灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea Pers)预测与防治软件系统的开发%Development of Prediction and Control Software System of Tomato Grey Mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡银杰; 曹钧尧; 崔苏; 周小林; 杨献娟; 冒锦富

    2007-01-01

    通过对单栋、联栋大棚栽培番茄的灰霉病发生与番茄生育期、环境温度、湿度间的关系进行系统调查和分析,掌握了番茄灰霉病的发生规律.在此基础上,成功运用VB技术开发了番茄灰霉病预测与防治软件系统.

  2. The losses of Botrytis cinerea caused by grub and its control techniques%黄姜主要害虫--蛴螬的发生为害及防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高斌; 廖德莲

    2003-01-01

    @@ 黄姜俗称"火头根",属盾叶薯蓣,是我国特有种.黄姜浑身是宝,我国利用黄姜根茎中皂甙元(皂素),可合成3大类(皮质激素、性激素、孕激素),近200个产品系列,是生产甾体激素类药物最理想的物质,世界上90%的激素是利用其合成的,因此,被国家医药界誉为"药用黄金".

  3. Assessment of the Role of Local Strawberry Rhizosphere—Associated Streptomycetes on the Bacterially—Induced Growth and Botrytis cinerea Infection Resistance of the Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Karen L. Eccleston; Brooks, Peter R.; D. İpek Kurtböke

    2010-01-01

    The future need for sustainable agriculture will be met in part by wider use of biological control of plant pathogens over conventional fungicides hazardous to the environment and to public health. Control strategies involving both (i) direct use of microorganisms antagonistic to the phytopathogen, and (ii) use of bioactive compounds (secondary metabolites/antibiotic compounds) from microorganisms on the phytopathogen were both adapted in order to investigate the ability of streptomycetes iso...

  4. In-Vitro Antioxidant and Phytochemical screening of various extracts of Vernonia cinerea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishadh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The free radical scavenging potential of the leaves of Vernonia cinerea was studied by using different solvents i.e. Methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether, benzene, acetone, ethylaceteate chloroform and Aqueous extracts. Preliminary phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and phenolic constituents. In vitro antioxidant potential of leaves were evaluated by DPPH reduction and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The extracts exhibited IC50 values of 25.14 ± 1.23, 31.18 ± 1.08, 212.60 ± 3.03, 92.46 ± 2.79, 45.20 ± 3.92, 79.17 ± 1.05, 98.54 ± 2.87, and 128.38 ± 1.65 μg/ml, Ascorbic acid, which was used as a standard, showed an IC50 of 74.12μg/ml respectively in DPPH. 32.25 ± 01.12, 31.87 ± 01.04, 89.26 ± 04.62, 65.45 ± 03.20, 61.82 ± 01.23, 78.10 ± 03.08, 67.40 ± 01.33 and 71.18 ± 02.86 μg/ml, ascorbic acid, the standard, showed an IC50 of 28.41μg/ml, respectively in nitric oxide inhibition assays. These observations confirm that different extract of Vernonia cinerea leaves have quantitatively different constituent and outline its importance toward antioxidant activity.

  5. Molecular characterization of Botrytis ourmia-like virus, a mycovirus close to the plant pathogenic genus Ourmiavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Livia; Rozas, Julio; Ayllón, María A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus, obtained by next generation sequencing using Illumina platform, in a field grapevine isolate of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis, is reported in this work. The sequence comparison of this virus against the NCBI database showed a strong identity with RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of plant pathogenic viruses belonging to the genus Ourmiavirus, therefore, this novel virus was named Botrytis ourmia-like virus (BOLV). BOLV has one open reading frame of 2169 nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 722 amino acids showing conserved domains of plant RNA viruses RdRps such as the most conserved GDD active domain. Our analyses showed that BOLV is phylogenetically closer to the fungal Narnavirus and the plant Ourmiavirus than to Mitovirus of the family Narnaviridae. Hence, we proposed that BOLV might represent the link between fungal viruses of the family Narnaviridae and the plant ourmiaviruses.

  6. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  7. Influence of Some Plant Extracts and Microbioagents on Some Physiological Traits of Faba Bean Infected with Botrytis fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Yehia A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Cuminum cyminum L., Allium sativum L. and Hyoscyamus muticus L. leaf extracts, and of Streptomyces exfoliatus (Waksman & Curtis) Waksman & Henrici (S) and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (T) in controlling Botrytis fabae, which causes chocolate spot disease in the faba bean. Laboratory studies supported the use of leaf extracts of E. citriodora (Ex. 1) and I....

  8. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; Djellouli; Houcine; Benmehdi; Siham; Mammeri; Abdellah; Moussaoui; Laid; Ziane; Noureddine; Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea(Del.)(Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria.Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were(E)-citral(24.01%), limonene epoxide cis-(18.26%), thymol methyl ether(15.04%), carvacrol(15.03%), trans-carveol(13.79%), carvone(3.06%) and trans-piperitol(2.54%).Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  9. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plantCotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil ofCotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plantCotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara fromsouthwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  10. Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Szu-Ying; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Kou, Rong

    2007-08-01

    On any given day, about 35% of 80- to 85-day-old socially naïve male (SNM) lobster cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) spontaneously adopted an aggressive posture (AP) without encountering another male [spontaneous AP (SAP)]. Although SAP SNMs showed significantly higher release of the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) than non-SAP SNMs, there was no significant difference in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) III titer. When different body parts were tested for induction of the attack behavior, the antenna was found to be the most effective. After 1 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 76.2% of non-SAP SNMs, and the JH III titer was significantly increased in all responders. Among the non-SAP SNMs, the JH III titer before antenna contact was significantly lower in the non-responders than in the responders, and, although the JH III increase induced by 1 min antenna contact was similar between responders and non-responders, the final JH III titer of the non-responders was significantly lower. A similar attack response, JH III titer change, and 3H-2B release were seen when the individual's own antenna was used. After 5 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 82% of non-SAP SNMs; in the former, 3H-2B release was similar before and after antenna contact, but the JH III titer was significantly increased after antenna contact, while, in the latter, both 3H-2B release and JH III titer were significantly increased after antenna contact. Among the non-SAP SNMs, JH III titer in the non-responders was not elevated after 5 min antenna contact, and was significantly lower than that in the responders. A pentane-washed antenna did not induce attack behavior or increase the hemolymph JH III titer, and a pentane-washed antenna coated with 3H-2B also failed to induce attack behavior. These results indicate that N. cinerea male-male agonistic interactions, to

  11. Incorporation of copper ions into crystals of T2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, E. M., E-mail: e.m.osipov@gmail.com [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Polyakov, K. M. [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Vavilova str. 32, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, T. V. [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Kittl, R. [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Dorovatovskii, P.V. [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Shleev, S. V.; Popov, V. O. [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ludwig, R. [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria)

    2015-11-18

    The restoration of the native form of laccase from B. aclada from the type 2 copper-depleted form of the enzyme was investigated. Copper ions were found to be incorporated into the active site after soaking the depleted enzyme in a Cu{sup +}-containing solution. Laccases belong to the class of multicopper oxidases catalyzing the oxidation of phenols accompanied by the reduction of molecular oxygen to water without the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The activity of laccases depends on the number of Cu atoms per enzyme molecule. The structure of type 2 copper-depleted laccase from Botrytis aclada has been solved previously. With the aim of obtaining the structure of the native form of the enzyme, crystals of the depleted laccase were soaked in Cu{sup +}- and Cu{sup 2+}-containing solutions. Copper ions were found to be incorporated into the active site only when Cu{sup +} was used. A comparative analysis of the native and depleted forms of the enzymes was performed.

  12. Subsocial Cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea Mate Indiscriminately with Kin Despite High Costs of Inbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchebti, Sofia; Durier, Virginie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Rivault, Colette; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition. PMID:27655156

  13. Effects and mechanism of aloe vera extracts on control of botrytis in postharvest apples%芦荟粗提物对苹果采后灰霉病的防治效果与机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲玉; 周会玲; 田蓉; 张晓晓; 潘钰雪

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in the use of Aloe Vera in the food industry, with it being used as a source of functional foods in drinks, beverages, and ice creams. In addition, there are several reports about the antifungal activity of Aloe Vera on human mycological diseases. However, little evidence exists on the effect of Aloe extracts on fruit postharvest diseases caused by fungi, either ex-vivo or in vitro. In recent years, there have been some reports on the effect of Aloe extracts applied at postharvest in controlling fruit spoilage by fungi. However, no in-depth information has been reported on the role of Aloe extracts in decay development in fruits previously inoculated with fungi responsible for postharvest diseases or defense-related enzyme activities and modulation of antioxidant system activities. Thus, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of Aloe extracts on Red Fuji apple fruit decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, as well as the effect of Aloe extracts on the disease resistance ability in Red Fuji apple fruit. In order to search for an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the control of the postharvest decay of Red Fuji apple fruits, the potential of using Aloe extract flavonoid for the control of postharvest gray mold incidence of Red Fuji apple fruits was investigated. Red Fuji apple fruits were disinfected with 75%(v/v) ethanol for 2 min., rinsed with tap water, air-dried, and then divided randomly into four treatment groups, with 140 fruit in each group. Three groups were dipped into 0.020, 0.035 and 0.050 g/mL Aloe extract flavonoid solutions for 5 min. at room temperature (23±1)℃. Another group (the control) was treated with distilled water. A uniform wound (4mm deep×3 mm wide) was made at the equator of each fruit using a sterile dissecting needle, followed by the inoculation of a20μL conidial suspension of B.cinerea (1×108spores/mL) into each wound site. Inoculated fruit were placed in

  14. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens. PMID:22968829

  15. Superação da profundidade de semeadura e densidades de palha para Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna deeringiana e Mucuna cinerea Overcoming depth sowing and mulch density in Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna deeringiana and Mucuna cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    G.B.F. Silva; C.A.M. Azania; M.C.S.S. NOVO; WUTKE E.B.; F.S Zera; A.A.P.M. Azania

    2013-01-01

    O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade das sementes de Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna cinerea e Mucuna deeringiana para superar diferentes profundidades do solo acrescido de densidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado; os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os fatores foram constituídos por camada de palha (0, 5 e 10 cm), espécies de Mucuna (M. at...

  16. Validation of the effects of a single one second hypochlorite floral dip on Bortytis cinerea incidence following long-term shipment of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Mensink, M.G.J.; Harkema, H.; Macnish, A.J.; Reid, M.S.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a pre-shipment hypochlorite treatment on botrytis incidence was evaluated in a large number of rose cultivars and under different long-term storage conditions. Application parameters, stability and sources of hypochlorite were investigated. Irrespective of the type of packaging and shi

  17. Enkele opmerkingen over de vondst van Erica cinerea L. op terschelling I.V.M het voorkomen van E. scoparia L. en E. ciliaris L. Aldaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van C.G.; Westhoff, V.

    1961-01-01

    Op 8 okt 1960 vond de heer J.C. Tanis, custos van het Biologisch Station “Schellingerland” op Terschelling, in de nabijheid van dit Station een bloeiend exemplaar van Erica cinerea L. Na opzending van een bloeiende tak via ondergetekenden naar het Rijksherbarium werd deze determinatie bevestigd. Dez

  18. Trophic ecology of the Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea before and during the breeding season in the region of Bejaia (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaham, Abdelazize Franck; Moulaï, Riadh; O'Halloran, John

    2014-01-01

    The diet composition of the Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea of the Babor Range is followed by analysis of faecal samples (90 faeces) before and during the breeding season 2010. The Grey Wagtail's diet varies depending on the stage of the breeding cycle at the southern edge of their breeding area in North Africa (Bejaia). The diet consists predominantly of aquatic preys (51.79%), with Coleoptera being the most frequent constituent (n=331, 45.5%). During the pre-laying period (February-March), the diet was variable (91 prey-taxa and H'=3,36 bits) and preys of medium size (5 to 8mm) were most common. During the incubation period (April-May), preys were mainly aquatic (60%) and larger (20 to 32mm). At the end of the breeding season (June-July), there was a greater occurrence of terrestrial preys (31 aquatic versus 30 terrestrial taxa).

  19. Effects of amphetamine on conditioned place preference and locomotion in the male green tree frog, Hyla cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Gina M; Lonergan, William; Chu, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Neural systems mediating motivation and reward have been well described in mammalian model systems, especially with reference to reward properties of drugs of abuse. Far less is known of the neural mechanisms underlying motivation and reward in non-mammals. The behavioral procedure conditioned place preference (CPP) is often used to quantify reward properties of psychoactive drugs. The indirect dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (AMPH) is known for its properties for inducing CPP in mammals and for inducing dose-related stereotypic movements. We used the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea, to examine whether AMPH could induce both CPP and a dose response change in motor behaviors. We demonstrated that H. cinerea can show place conditioning to AMPH following 14 days of training and that AMPH can cause reversal of a strong baseline place preference. Amphetamine-treated animals (20 mg/kg b.w.) received the drug paired with the previously non-preferred context, and vehicle paired with the preferred context. Control animals received vehicle in both preferred and non-preferred contexts. Amphetamine-treated animals switched context preference following conditioning, whereas control animals did not. We also demonstrated in an open-field experiment that AMPH did not cause any noticeable changes in motor movement or behaviors across a range of doses (0, 10, 20 mg/kg b.w.). This study represents the first examination of the behavioral effects of AMPH in amphibians. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the function and pharmacology of a reward system that may mediate natural behaviors in frogs and other vertebrates.

  20. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Vernonia cinerea attenuate selenite induced cataract formation in Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Radha; Gayathri Devi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of active component isolated from flavonoid fraction of Vernonia cinerea (FVC), lupeol on selenite induced cataract formation. Previous reports suggest that phytochemicals or natural plant products retard the process of cataractogenesis by scavenging free oxygen radicals. Hence, the present study sought to assess the potential of lupeol on in vivo selenite induced cataract models. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea, follows standard chromatographic techniques. Structural elucidation of the compound was carried out using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass spectrometry together with other complementary techniques (UV and IR). From these, the isolated compound was identified as Lupeol (3'-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene). The antioxidant activity was comparatively studied using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Lupeol exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power assay. In this study, cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 μg/g body weight) on rat pups. Lupeol was administered orally from 8th day upto 21st day at a concentration 25 μg/g body weight. Cataract was visualized on 16th day with the help of an ophthalmoscope and later on with the naked eye. On the 30th day, rats were euthanized by sodium pentothal injection, lenses were excised and the biochemical parameters such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Ca(2+) ATPase, glutathione content (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) were estimated and found effective in the treatment of cataract by lupeol.

  1. 黄栌针叶树混交林的景观评价和经营管理模式%Landscape Evaluation and Management Model of Cotinus coggygria var.cinerea and Conifer Mixed Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效文; 贠小琴; 贾黎明; 高云昆; 宋立洲; 蔚金柱; 吴晓辰

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the landscape quality of a mixed forest of Cotinus coggygria var. cinerea and conifers in Beijing lower mountainous area, the forest landscapes were evaluated by the scenic beauty estimation (SBE) method in this paper. The multivariate linear models between beauty degree and scenic factors of the out-forest landscape were established, and then the corresponding management measures were developed. The result showed that the ratio of sky in view had the largest contribution for the beauty degree of the mixed forest landscape, followed in turn by the sensibility of stem, ratio of colorful foliage, ratio of grayness, pattern of colorful foliage and variable hue of colorful foliage. Management measures for the mixed forest of C. coggygria var. cinerea and conifers should be adopted chronically, including cutting shrubs, thinning and filling plant in patches, to reduce the ratio of grayness, adjust the number of C. coggygria var. cinerea and conifers for maintaining the area ratio of red to green at 2: 1, interplant other tree species with colorful leaves to make variability of hue, increase density of the landscape pattern distribution, and lead the landscape to mountain ridge. According to the BHD and CWD data of C. coggygria var. cinerea, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis gained from a survey, the rational management density of pure forest of C. coggygria var. cinerea was found, and the rational number of C. coggygria var. cinerea and conifers was discovered for setting their area ratio of 2∶ 1.

  2. Research on Screening of Fungicides Against Botrytis fabae%防治蚕豆赤斑病的药剂筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾春燕; 葛红; 王学军; 陈满峰; 汪凯华; 缪亚梅

    2013-01-01

      In order to select effective fungicides for controlling Botrytis fabae, the field experiments were carried out in Jiangsu Yanjiang area agricultural science research institute in 2012. The results showed that the control effects of mancozeb 80%WP and pyraclostrobin+metiram 60%WG against Botrytis fabae were 80.88%-89.26%, and the yield increasing rates were 10.85%-41.73%. Mancozeb 80%WP and pyraclostrobin+metiram 60%WG should have beautiful prospect against Botrytis fabae owing to excellent control effect and increase yield.%  为了筛选有效防治蚕豆赤斑病的药剂,2012年在江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所进行了药剂筛选田间试验。结果表明:80%代森锰锌可湿性粉剂、60%唑醚·代森联水分散粒剂对蚕豆赤斑病的防治效果为80.88%~89.26%,增产率为10.85%~41.73%,均优于对照药剂50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂,具有明显的防病和增产效果,应用前景良好。

  3. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments. PMID:26085280

  4. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  5. Chemical Composition of Celandine (Chelidonium majus L. Extract and its Effects on Botrytis tulipae (Lib. Lind Fungus and the Tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the content of chelidonine and berberine alkaloids, and sterols and phenols in the Chelidonium majus plant extract were analyzed. Subsequently, the effects of the extract on the germination and growth of Botrytis tulipae fungus on nutritive medium were compared to the effects of fluconazole. The plant extract was used at the minimum inhibitory concentration on B. tulipae developed in tulip leaves and the in vivo effects were investigated. The influence of different concentrations of C. majus extract on the physiological processes of the tulip (gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic light use efficiency, and induced chlorophyll fluorescence were also tested to assess the applicability of the extract for the protection of ornamental plants against fungal infection. Our results demonstrated that 2% celandine extract does not significantly change the gas exchange parameters (transpiration rate, carbon dioxide uptake, and stomatal conductivity of leaves exposed for 2 h, and does not interfere with the photochemical processes in the leaves. However, in higher concentrations, it increases the transpiration rate and net carbon dioxide influx. At concentrations of 15% and 20%, the extract lowers the potential quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II and the vitality index of the photosynthetic apparatus. Therefore we recommend the use of lower concentrations (≤6% of celandine extract for the biological protection of tulips against gray mold.

  6. In-depth analysis of internal control genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X G; Zhao, Z Q; Yu, H F; Wang, J S; Zheng, C F; Gu, H H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a versatile technique for the analysis of gene expression. The selection of stable reference genes is essential for the application of this technique. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is a commonly consumed vegetable that is rich in vitamin, calcium, and iron. Thus far, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on the validation of suitable reference genes for the data normalization of qRT-PCR in cauliflower. In the present study, we analyzed 12 candidate housekeeping genes in cauliflower subjected to different abiotic stresses, hormone treatment conditions, and accessions. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the expression stability of these genes. ACT2 and TIP41 were selected as suitable reference genes across all experimental samples in this study. When different accessions were compared, ACT2 and UNK3 were found to be the most suitable reference genes. In the hormone and abiotic stress treatments, ACT2, TIP41, and UNK2 were the most stably expressed. Our study also provided guidelines for selecting the best reference genes under various experimental conditions. PMID:27525844

  7. An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley P; Litchfield, Carla A

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA (withdrawal) experimental design over a 30-day period (180 hr). The study expected extrinsically reinforcing objects to be more effective than intrinsically reinforcing objects in reducing pattern swimming. The male sea lion spent more than 45% of scans engaged in pattern swimming during the initial baseline, which was reduced by at least 25% when enrichment items were present. However, there was no evidence of stereotypic behavior in the female sea lion, indicating that individual differences may exist. When enrichment was present, the study observed more active behaviors in both nonhuman animals. They spent more time interacting with the non-food-related objects overall. Therefore, introducing simple enrichment devices offers a cheap, practical, and effective method of adding complexity to the environment, which is likely to benefit the animals' welfare and enhance the zoo-visitor experience.

  8. Synthesis of Gold Mediated Biocompatible Nanocomposite of Lactone Enriched Fraction from Sahadevi (Vernonia cinerea Lees): An Assessment of Antimalarial Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Shanker, Karuna; Khare, Puja; Tiwari, Nimisha; Mohanty, Shilpa; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U; Pal, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Metals reduction into submicro/nano size through bhasma preparations for therapeutic use is well established in ancient traditional system of Indian medicines i.e. Ayurveda. Recently, nanotechnology has drawn the attention of researchers to develeope various size and shape nanoparicles / composite for number of applications.In this article, we report the enrichment of lactone enriched fraction (LEF) by liquid-liquid portioning of Vernonia cinerea metabolic extract and sysnthesis of mediated nano-gold composite (LEF-AuNPs) in single step process. The morphological characteristic based on transmission electron microscope (TEM) image analysis showed that LEF-AuNPs were predominantly nanopolygons and nanobots in shapes ranging from 50-200 nm in size. Abundance of phytochemicals in both LEF and LEF-AuNPs was dissimilar. In LEF, montanol- a diterpenoid, while in LEF-AuNPs, neophytadiene- a phytanes was the major compound. HPLC profile of relatively polar compounds also varied drastically. In-vitro biocompatibility, cytotoxicity [MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based assay] and storage stabilitiy of LEF-AuNPs were evaluated. The moderate ability of LEF-AuNPs to restrict parasitaemia, extended mean survival time of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and lack of any evident toxicity provides new opportunities for the safe delivery and applications of such nanocomposites in malaria therapy. PMID:26876516

  9. Signal recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) in naturally fluctuating noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A

    2013-05-01

    This study tested three hypotheses about the ability of female frogs to exploit temporal fluctuations in the level of background noise to overcome the problem of recognizing male advertisement calls in noisy breeding choruses. Phonotaxis tests with green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were used to measure thresholds for recognizing calls in the presence of noise maskers with (a) no level fluctuations, (b) random fluctuations, or level fluctuations characteristic of (c) conspecific choruses and (d) heterospecific choruses. The dip-listening hypothesis predicted lower signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating maskers compared with nonfluctuating maskers. Support for the dip-listening hypothesis was weak; only Cope's gray treefrogs experienced dip listening and only in the presence of randomly fluctuating maskers. The natural soundscapes advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when level fluctuations resembled those of natural soundscapes compared with artificial fluctuations. This hypothesis was rejected. In noise backgrounds with natural fluctuations, the species-specific advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when fluctuations resembled species-specific patterns of conspecific soundscapes. No evidence was found to support this hypothesis. These results corroborate previous findings showing that Cope's gray treefrogs, but not green treefrogs, experience dip listening under some noise conditions. Together, the results suggest level fluctuations in the soundscape of natural breeding choruses may present few dip-listening opportunities. The findings of this study provide little support for the hypothesis that receivers are adapted to exploit level fluctuations of natural soundscapes in recognizing communication signals.

  10. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%). PMID:26982621

  11. Synthesis of Gold Mediated Biocompatible Nanocomposite of Lactone Enriched Fraction from Sahadevi (Vernonia cinerea Lees): An Assessment of Antimalarial Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Shanker, Karuna; Khare, Puja; Tiwari, Nimisha; Mohanty, Shilpa; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U; Pal, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Metals reduction into submicro/nano size through bhasma preparations for therapeutic use is well established in ancient traditional system of Indian medicines i.e. Ayurveda. Recently, nanotechnology has drawn the attention of researchers to develeope various size and shape nanoparicles / composite for number of applications.In this article, we report the enrichment of lactone enriched fraction (LEF) by liquid-liquid portioning of Vernonia cinerea metabolic extract and sysnthesis of mediated nano-gold composite (LEF-AuNPs) in single step process. The morphological characteristic based on transmission electron microscope (TEM) image analysis showed that LEF-AuNPs were predominantly nanopolygons and nanobots in shapes ranging from 50-200 nm in size. Abundance of phytochemicals in both LEF and LEF-AuNPs was dissimilar. In LEF, montanol- a diterpenoid, while in LEF-AuNPs, neophytadiene- a phytanes was the major compound. HPLC profile of relatively polar compounds also varied drastically. In-vitro biocompatibility, cytotoxicity [MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based assay] and storage stabilitiy of LEF-AuNPs were evaluated. The moderate ability of LEF-AuNPs to restrict parasitaemia, extended mean survival time of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and lack of any evident toxicity provides new opportunities for the safe delivery and applications of such nanocomposites in malaria therapy.

  12. Efeito de preparados caseiros no controle da queima-acinzentada, na cultura da cebola Alternative formulations for control of Botrytis squamosa on onion

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Boff; Paulo A. de S. Gonçalves; João F. Debarba

    1999-01-01

    Agricultores do Alto Vale do Itajaí (SC), vem utilizando preparados caseiros no tratamento fitossanitário da cebola, cuja principal doença, durante a fase de muda, é a queima-acinzentada, causada pelo fungo Botrytis squamosa. Neste trabalho, realizado nos anos de 1993, 94 e 95, no período de muda da cebola, durante a fase de canteiro, avaliou-se o efeito de extratos alcóolicos de Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha glacilis, alho e própolis; cinza vegetal e cal; soluções de B+Zn, KMnO4, NaClO, Síli...

  13. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  14. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  15. A chloride tolerant laccase from the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada expressed at high levels in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Mueangtoom, Kitti; Gonaus, Christoph; Khazaneh, Shima Tahvilda; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-20

    Fungal laccases from basidiomycetous fungi are thoroughly investigated in respect of catalytic mechanism and industrial applications, but the number of reported and well characterized ascomycetous laccases is much smaller although they exhibit interesting catalytic properties. We report on a highly chloride tolerant laccase produced by the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada, which was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris with an extremely high yield and purified to homogeneity. In a fed-batch fermentation, 495 mg L(-1) of laccase was measured in the medium, which is the highest concentration obtained for a laccase by a yeast expression system. The recombinant B. aclada laccase has a typical molecular mass of 61,565 Da for the amino acid chain. The pI is approximately 2.4, a very low value for a laccase. Glycosyl residues attached to the recombinant protein make up for approximately 27% of the total protein mass. B. aclada laccase exhibits very low K(M) values and high substrate turnover numbers for phenolic and non-phenolic substrates at acidic and near neutral pH. The enzyme's stability increases in the presence of chloride ions and, even more important, its substrate turnover is only weakly inhibited by chloride ions (I(50)=1.4M), which is in sharp contrast to most other described laccases. This high chloride tolerance is mandatory for some applications such as implantable biofuel cells and laccase catalyzed reactions, which suffer from the presence of chloride ions. The high expression yield permits fast and easy production for further basic and applied research. PMID:22178779

  16. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  17. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and ...

  18. Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight et Arn (Mimosaceae hydro-alcoholic extract action on the contractility of tracheal smooth muscle isolated from guinea-pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datté Jacques Y

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight et Arn. (Mimosaceae is largely used in ethno-medically across Africa, and mainly employed for the treatment of asthma in Ivory Coast and Gabon. The paper analyses the relaxation induced by the methanolic extract of D. cinerea (Edici in the guinea-pig trachea preparations (GPTPs. Purpose: This study aimed to bring out the scientific basis to the use of this plant leading to the validation of this phytomedicine. Method The aorta obtained from guinea-pigs was immediately placed in a Mac Ewen solution. Experiments were performed in preparations suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath containing Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the aorta strips of guinea-pig were recorded by using a strain gauge. The different drugs were directly administered into the organ bath and the magnitude of GPTPs was evaluated. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea (Edici using chemical methods revealed the presence of flavenoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes and polyphenols. Pharmacological studies performed in GPTPs show that of Dichrostachys cinerea (0.1 mg/ml - 2 mg/ml evoked a broncho-constriction in GPTPs. Whereas, at concentration up to 2 mg/ml, Edici induced a significant dose-dependent relaxation in the GPTPs. KCl-, ACh- or histamine-evoked contractions of isolated trachea was significantly inhibited by increasing concentrations of Edici (3.5-10 mg/ml. Edici (10 mg/ml as well as promethazine (0.25 mg/ml significantly inhibited contractions induced by increasing concentrations of histamine (1×10-7-1×10-4mg/ml. In the presence of atropine at a concentration of 10-6mg/ml, contractile response curve (CRC evoked by ACh (1×10-5-1×10-2 mg/ml was significantly abolished in concentration-dependent manner. Edici did not significantly reduced ACh evoked contraction (10-5-10-2mg/ml. Conclusion These observations suggest

  19. Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuner Antonio Jacinto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4 and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1, genistein (2, medicarpin (3, daidzein (5, 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6. An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1, causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

  20. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.