WorldWideScience

Sample records for boto inia geoffrensis

  1. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma. PMID:23272345

  2. As atividades turísticas baseadas na alimentação artificial de botos-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis) e a legislação ambiental brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves; Carlos José Saldanha Machado; Rodrigo Machado Vilani; Marcelo Derzi Vidal; Artur Andriolo; Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Here we evaluate the touristic activity involving the interaction between botos (Inia geoffrensis) and humans based on the conditioning through artificial feeding in the light of the environmental legislation, using the Anavilhanas National Park (ANP) as case study. The Park is located in the Brazilian Amazon, in Novo Airão city, Amazonas State. This activity has significantly increased over the last years, as well as the literature describing its negative effects. By consulting the specializ...

  3. As atividades turísticas baseadas na alimentação artificial de botos-da-Amazônia (Inia geoffrensis e a legislação ambiental brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the touristic activity involving the interaction between botos (Inia geoffrensis and humans based on the conditioning through artificial feeding in the light of the environmental legislation, using the Anavilhanas National Park (ANP as case study. The Park is located in the Brazilian Amazon, in Novo Airão city, Amazonas State. This activity has significantly increased over the last years, as well as the literature describing its negative effects. By consulting the specialized literature, analyzing the legal framework and empirical material, it was verified that i legally speaking this practice presents conflicts to some aspects of the Brazilian environmental legislation, ecotourism concepts and functions of the Conservation Units and, ii administratively speaking, the environmental agencies are now taking appropriate steps to mitigate the negative impacts and gradual actions in order to alter the touristic activities to comply with the current environmental legislation. We conclude that there is still a lot to be done for the botos tourism model that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon to be conducted in a sustainable manner, suggesting that the group of heterogeneous actions proposed here be implemented to achieve that.

  4. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516

  7. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

  8. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin: the Boto, Inia geoffrensis, and the Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis

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    Bonatelli Marina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to supply a bilobed allantoic sac. Small blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles were found within the stroma of the cord. Foci of squamous metaplasia occurred in the allanto-amnion and allantochorion. The interhemal membrane of the placenta was of the epitheliochorial type. Two different types of trophoblastic epithelium were seen. Most was of the simple columnar type and indented by fetal capillaries. However, there were also areolar regions with tall columnar trophoblast and these were more sparsely supplied with capillaries. The endometrium was well vascularised and richly supplied with actively secreting glands. These findings are consistent with the current view that Cetacea are nested within Artiodactyla as sister group to the hippopotamids.

  9. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) use a high-frequency short-range biosonar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; de Freitas, Mafalda;

    2015-01-01

    interpret in acoustically complex habitats, echolocation clicks of wild Amazon river dolphins were recorded using a vertical seven-hydrophone array. We identified 404 on-axis biosonar clicks having a mean SLpp of 190.3±6.1 dB re. 1 μPa, mean SLEFD of 132.1±6.0 dB re. 1 μPa2s, mean Fc of 101.2±10.5 kHz, mean...

  10. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) : Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S.; Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbid...

  11. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) use a high-frequency short-range biosonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; de Freitas, Mafalda; Ferreira da Silva, Vera Maria; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-10-01

    Toothed whales produce echolocation clicks with source parameters related to body size; however, it may be equally important to consider the influence of habitat, as suggested by studies on echolocating bats. A few toothed whale species have fully adapted to river systems, where sonar operation is likely to result in higher clutter and reverberation levels than those experienced by most toothed whales at sea because of the shallow water and dense vegetation. To test the hypothesis that habitat shapes the evolution of toothed whale biosonar parameters by promoting simpler auditory scenes to interpret in acoustically complex habitats, echolocation clicks of wild Amazon river dolphins were recorded using a vertical seven-hydrophone array. We identified 404 on-axis biosonar clicks having a mean SLpp of 190.3 ± 6.1 dB re. 1 µPa, mean SLEFD of 132.1 ± 6.0 dB re. 1 µPa(2)s, mean Fc of 101.2 ± 10.5 kHz, mean BWRMS of 29.3 ± 4.3 kHz and mean ICI of 35.1 ± 17.9 ms. Piston fit modelling resulted in an estimated half-power beamwidth of 10.2 deg (95% CI: 9.6-10.5 deg) and directivity index of 25.2 dB (95% CI: 24.9-25.7 dB). These results support the hypothesis that river-dwelling toothed whales operate their biosonars at lower amplitude and higher sampling rates than similar-sized marine species without sacrificing high directivity, in order to provide high update rates in acoustically complex habitats and simplify auditory scenes through reduced clutter and reverberation levels. We conclude that habitat, along with body size, is an important evolutionary driver of source parameters in toothed whale biosonars. PMID:26447198

  12. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  13. Karu-INIA, nuevo cultivar de papa para Chile Karu-INIA, new potato cultivar for Chile

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    Julio Kalazich B.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karu-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. creado a partir del cruzamiento Yagana-INIA x Fanfare, por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, Osorno, el año 1989. Es una planta semi erecta, de buen vigor, con tubérculos de tamaño medio a grande, uniformes, de forma oval alargada, piel roja y pulpa amarilla clara. Posee altos rendimientos y se adapta bien a la mayoría de las zonas y épocas de cultivo de la papa en Chile. Su uso preferente es para consumo fresco, aunque produce una fritura de calidad altamente aceptable, similar a Yagana-INIA.Karu-INIA is a new potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar, created from a cross between the cultivars Yagana-INIA x Fanfare by the Potato Breeding Program of the National Agricultural Research Institue (INIA, at the Remehue Regional Research Center, Osorno, Chile, in 1989. It is a semi-erect plant, with vigorous growth, a medium to large size, long oval-shaped tuber, red skin and clear yellow flesh. It is a high yielding cultivar and adapts well to the majority of the potato production areas and crop seasons in Chile. It is preferred for fresh consumption, although it has fairly good frying quality, similar to Yagana-INIA.

  14. REDQUELI-INIA, NUEVO CULTIVAR SINTÉTICO DE TRÉBOL ROSADO Redqueli-INIA, new red clover synthetic cultivar

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    Fernando Ortega K.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Redqueli-INIA es un nuevo cultivar diploide de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L. seleccionado para mejorar, en relación al cultivar chileno Quiñequeli-INIA, la sobrevivencia de plantas, rendimiento de forraje y persistencia. Redqueli-INIA es un cultivar sintético generado a partir de siete plantas madres de época de floración intermedia. Se diferencia morfológicamente de Quiñequeli-INIA fundamentalmente por presentar plantas de corona más ancha, un menor porcentaje de plantas con marcas en las hojas, y menor proporción de plantas con flores rosado claro. El cultivar es mantenido por semilla de primera generación almacenada a baja temperatura en los bancos de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA de Chile.Redqueli-INIA is a new diploid red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar selected to improve the survival of plants, forage yield and persistence compared to the Chilean diploid cultivar Quiñequeli-INIA. Redqueli-INIA is a synthetic of seven mother plants with intermediate flowering time. The main morphological differences compared to Quiñequeli-INIA are its wider crowns, a lower percentage of plants with leaf marks, and a lower proportion of plants with light pink flowers. The cultivar is maintained by cold storage of first generation seeds in the genebanks of the Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA of Chile.

  15. DOLLINCO-INIA: TRIGO ALTERNATIVO PARA EL SUR DE CHILE Dollinco-INIA: an alternative wheat for Southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Hewstone M.; Claudio Jobet F.

    2001-01-01

    Dollinco-INIA es un trigo de pan (Triticum aestivum L), semienano, de hábito de desarrollo alternativo, obtenido por el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, Temuco. Es moderadamente susceptible a polvillo estriado, resistente a polvillo de la hoja y moderadamente resistente a septoriosis y oidio. Su rendimiento promedio en ensayos en cuatro temporadas ha fluctuado entre 7,84 y 14,46 t ha-1 en tres loca...

  16. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population. PMID:24346803

  17. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

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    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  18. Rupanco - INIA: Una nueva variedad de trigo alternativoa de pan Rupanco-INIA: a new alternative bread wheat cultivar

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    Cristian Hewstone M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rupanco-INIA es una nueva variedad de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. alternativo creada por el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. La cruza fue: X-101,2 Alt. 94B/ X-104 Alt. 94M. Su pedigrí es TG-688-t-1t-2t y su denominación interna en el Proyecto es Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo alternativo y una caña corta, con un promedio de 93 cm de alto. Posee espiga semicompacta, con barbas, y corrientemente presenta cierto grado de melanosis. El grano es semiduro, rojo, con un promedio de peso de 1000 granos de 39 g, 79,4 kg de peso de hectolitro, 12,7% de proteína y 886 cm³ de volumen de pan, en ensayos efectuados en 2000 y 2001 desde Traiguén hasta Purranque. Es moderadamente resistente al ataque de polvillo estriado (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici y polvillo de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Su rendimiento fue alto, con un promedio de 9,79 t ha-1, en tres años de ensayos en cuatro localidades.Rupanco-INIA is a new alternative bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar released by the Wheat Breeding Project at Carillanca Research Center of the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA. The cross was: X-101,2 Alt.94B/X-104 Alt.94M. The pedigree is TG-688-t-1t-2t, and its internal name in the Project is Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA has a facultative growth habit and short straw, with a mean height of 93 cm. The spike is semi-compact, awned, and usually shows some brown necrosis. The grain is semi-hard, red, with a 1000 grain weight of 39 g, 79.4 kg hectoliter weight, 12.7% protein percentage, and 886 cm³ bread volume. It is moderately resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Its yield was high, with a mean of 9.79 t ha-1 in three years of trials at four locations.

  19. Interactions of Streptococcus iniae with phagocytic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aamri, Fatima; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Acosta, Félix; Real, Fernando; Ramos-Vivas, José; Icardo, José M; Padilla, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus iniae has become one of the most serious aquatic pathogens in the last decade, causing large losses in wild and farmed fish worldwide. There is clear evidence that this pathogen is capable not only of causing serious disease in fish but also of being transferred to and infecting humans. In this study, we investigate the interaction of S. iniae with two murine macrophage cell lines, J774-A1 and RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated significant differences between live and UV-light killed IUSA-1 strains. The burst respiratory activity decreased to baseline after 1 and 4 h of exposure for J774-A1 and RAW 264.7, respectively. Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural study of infected cells confirmed the intracellular localization of bacteria at 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Using qRT-PCR arrays, we investigated the changes in the gene expression of immune relevant genes associated with macrophage activation. In this screening, we identified 11 of 84 genes up-regulated, we observed over-expression of pro-inflammatory response as IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α, without a good anti-inflammatory response. Present findings suggest a capacity of S. iniae to modulate a mammalian macrophages cell lines to their survival and replication intracellular, which makes this cell type as a reservoir for continued infection. PMID:24956597

  20. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  1. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in tilapia following immunization with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

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    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. Research has shown that vaccination is a tool that can be used in the prevention of streptococcal disease. The USDA-ARS patented S. iniae vaccine has been demonstrated to be ef...

  2. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  3. Bath immersion, booster vaccination strategy holds potential for protecting juvenile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 μg/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 μg/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  5. KUMPA-INIA: NUEVA VARIEDAD DE TRIGO INVERNAL PARA EL SUR DE CHILE Kumpa-INIA: New winter wheat variety for Southern Chile

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    Claudio Jobet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kumpa-INIA es una nueva variedad de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. de invierno para pan, introducida por intercambio de germoplasma entre Nordsaat de Alemania y el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA bajo el convenio con la Trigen Seed Services. Es el resultado de cinco temporadas de evaluación bajo las condiciones del sur de Chile. Kumpa-INIA es un trigo semienano de ciclo largo, con buena resistencia al polvillo estriado y oidio, moderadamente resistente al polvillo de la hoja y septoria. Su rendimiento promedio en ensayos en cinco temporadas fluctuó entre 4,74 y 15,26 t ha-1 en tres localidades de la zona sur. Tiene buena calidad panadera, con un buen valor de sedimentación (38,5 y buen volumen de pan (685 cm³.Kumpa-INIA is a new winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety derived from the exchange of germplasm between Nordsaat, Germany, and the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA under the agreement with the Trigen Seed Services. It is the result of five years of evaluation under the conditions of Southern Chile. Kumpa-INIA is a semi dwarf, long period wheat, with good resistance to stripe rust and powdery mildew, moderately resistant to leaf rust and septoria leaf blotch. Its mean yield for five seasons varied between 4.74 and 15.26 t ha-1 in three locations in the southern zone. It has good quality for baking, with a good sedimentation value (38.5 and good bread volume (685 cm³.

  6. Kipa-INIA, new high yield spring bread wheat variety for Chile Kipa-INIA, nueva variedad de trigo harinero de primavera de alto rendimiento para Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Matus; Ricardo Madariaga; Claudio Jobet; Javier Zúñiga; Christian Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Kipa-INIA is a spring wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.) originated from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W) in 1993. It has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 90 and 95 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is ovate, white, and vitreous. It ...

  7. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  8. Growth Response and Acquired Resistance of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Following Infection or Vaccination with Streptococcus iniae

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    Growth performance and acquired resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) that survived Streptococcus iniae infection was determined. Tilapia were challenged with three doses of S. iniae (8.8 x 10 to the 3rd power, 8.8 x 10 to the 4th power and 8.8 x 10 to the 5th power CFU fish-1 for ...

  9. Growth response and acquired resistance of Nile tilapia Orechromis niloticus following infection or vaccination with Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth performance and acquired resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus that survived Streptococcus iniae infection was determined. Tilapia were challenged with three doses of S. iniae (8.8 x 10 to the third power, 8.8 x 10 to the fourth power and 8.8 x 10 to the fifth power CFU fish-1 f...

  10. Development and efficacy of a noviobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae as a novel vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of Streptococcus iniae (ISET0901) through selection for novobiocin resistance (therefore named ISNO). The safety of ISNO was then evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through intraperitoneal (IP) injecti...

  11. Development and efficacy of a novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae as a novel vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of Streptococcus iniae through selection for novobiocin resistance. The safety of the novel vaccine (named ISNO) was then evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through intraperitoneal (IP) injection. When...

  12. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in Nile tilapia following vaccination with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. The USDA-ARS Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit developed a modified (contains concentrated culture supernatant) S. iniae bacterin that has been demonstrated to be efficacious,...

  13. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  14. Genetic Characterization of Streptococcus iniae in Diseased Farmed Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Erfanmanesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic characterization of strains of Streptococcus iniae recovered from morbidity and mortality of farmed rainbow trout in different provinces of Iran were studied. The Gram-positive cocci isolates were obtained from the kidney tissues of diseased rainbow trout on blood agar at 25°C for 72 h. The grown bacteria were then characterized using biochemical and molecular works. The identified 26 isolates of S. iniae producing a 513 bp in PCR procedure were then compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using 9 random primers. The phylogenetic tree of the RAPD product using UPMGA software included these strains in one genetic group but into two clusters. The results of this study show that S. iniae strains from the diseased rainbow trout in the north part of Iran are genetically similar to those strains in the south and west parts of the country.

  15. Fast induction of nisin resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus INIA 463 during growth in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sonia; Avila, Marta; Medina, Margarita; Nuñez, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus INIA 463 became nisin-resistant after exposure in skim milk to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of nisin (1-3 IU/ml) for less than 2 h. Addition of 20 IU/ml caused a 4 log unit decrease in S. thermophilus counts of a culture not exposed previously to nisin, whereas no decrease was observed in the culture exposed to nisin for 2 h. Transfer of immunity genes as responsible for nisin resistance was discarded. The presence of extracellular or intracellular specific nisin-degrading enzymes was not detected in the nisin-resistant variant of S. thermophilus INIA 463. Nisin resistance was caused by the induction of a resistance mechanism. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the nisin-resistant variant of S. thermophilus INIA 463 had a thickened cell wall compared to the wild strain. Resistance to nisin was lost after one transfer (4 h growth) in nisin-free skim milk. PMID:15364470

  16. Boroa-INIA, Primera Variedad de Lupino (Lupinus albus Amargo Exportable Obtenida en Chile Boroa-INIA, First Bitter Lupin (Lupinus albus Cultivar Released in Chile for Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El lupino blanco (Lupinus albus L. amargo es cultivado en el sur de Chile por pequeños agricultores, en su mayoría Mapuches, y se exporta para consumo humano a países europeos y árabes. Ambos mercados ofrecen mejor precio por granos de mayor tamaño, aunque el europeo es más exigente. La variedad Boroa-INIA proviene de una planta individual colectada en la Región de La Araucanía (37º30’-39º30’ S. Es un lupino blanco de hábito de crecimiento indeterminado, perteneciente al tipo conocido como “Local”. Lupinos amargos llamados “alto-calibre”, introducidos en los noventa, son muy interesantes por su tamaño, pero más susceptibles a la antracnosis y de menor rendimiento que el tipo “Local”. La principal característica de la variedad Boroa-INIA es su buen peso medio de grano dentro del tipo “Local”, que con época de siembra oportuna ha sido aproximadamente 636 mg grano-1, 32% superior al testigo que representa el promedio de este tipo. Con el peso medio mencionado, más de 80% del grano alcanza un calibre de 13 mm o superior. Sembrado en época apropiada, Boroa-INIA ha rendido 6,3 t ha-1, y en siembras tardías 4,8 t ha-1. Esta variedad es un aporte del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA al progreso de la agricultura familiar campesina. Los pequeños agricultores habitualmente no invierten en semilla mejorada y por tanto el rubro no despierta el interés de productores de semilla del sector privado. En consecuencia, el mejoramiento del lupino amargo ha debido ser abordado por el sector públicoThe bitter white lupin (Lupinus albus L. is grown by small farmers in southern Chile, mostly from Mapuches ethnic group, and exported to some European and Arabic countries, where it is consumed as a snack. Both markets pay higher prices for bigger grains, although the European market is more demanding. The Boroa-INIA cultivar originated from a single plant collected in the Araucanía Region (37º30’-39º30’ S

  17. Kipa-INIA, new high yield spring bread wheat variety for Chile Kipa-INIA, nueva variedad de trigo harinero de primavera de alto rendimiento para Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kipa-INIA is a spring wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L. originated from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W in 1993. It has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 90 and 95 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is ovate, white, and vitreous. It was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Field, Chillán, head emergence occurred 90 to 95 d after sowing, i.e. is 4 to 6 d before ‘Domo-INIA’. On the mean, ‘Kipa-INIA’ sown under irrigation conditions reached a yield of 11.7% higher than the control var. Domo-INIA, and 18.1% higher in dryland soils.Kipa-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana, y varía entre 90 y 95 cm. La espiga es de color blanco, de barbas largas presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco, aspecto vítreo, y forma ovada. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 90 a 95 días después de la siembra, entre 4 a 6 días antes que ‘Domo-INIA’. En promedio sembrado bajo condiciones de riego, ‘Kipa-INIA’ alcanzó un rendimiento medio 11,7% mayor que la variedad testigo Domo-INIA y en suelos de secano tuvo un rendimiento superior de un 18,1% respecto de ‘Domo-INIA’.

  18. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

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    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  19. Streptococcus iniae SF1: complete genome sequence, proteomic profile, and immunoprotective antigens.

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    Bao-cun Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS, 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control.

  20. Laboratory efficacy of florfenicol against Streptococcus iniae infection in sunshine bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental feeding trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of florfenicol (FF) in controlling Streptococcus iniae infection in sunshine bass (SB). Doses of FF tested were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 mg active ingredient per kilogram of fish body weight (BW) per day. Administration of medicated f...

  1. Laboratory efficacy of oxytetracyline and amoxicillin for the control of Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae infection of tilapia is common in different parts of the world including the United States. The infection has caused devastating economic losses and the closure of many tilapia operations. Proper husbandry and health management practices are essential but when a virulent outbre...

  2. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St.Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings inclu...

  3. Effectiveness of early intervention with florfenicol on a Streptococcus iniae infection in blue tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental feeding trial was performed to assess the efficacy of florfenicol (FFC) in controlling Streptococcus iniae infection in blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. Doses of FFC tested were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 mg active ingredient per kilogram of fish body weight (BW) per day. Administration ...

  4. Effect of parasitism on vaccine efficacy against Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available on vaccine performance in parasitized fish. The objective of this study was to determine if parasitism of fish affected vaccine efficacy. Antibody level, hematology and survival of Nile tilapia vaccinated with a modified S. iniae bacterin were compared among non-para...

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Surface-Localized α-Enolase of Streptococcus iniae, an Effective Protective Antigen in Mice

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    Jun Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen that can also cause human bacteremia, cellulitis and meningitis. Screening for and identification of protective antigens plays an important role in developing therapies against S. iniae infections. In this study, we indicated that the α-enolase of S. iniae was not only distributed in the cytoplasm and associated to cell walls, but was also secreted to the bacterial cell surface. The functional identity of the purified recombinant α-enolase protein was verified by its ability to catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGE to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP, and both the recombinant and native proteins interacted with human plasminogen. The rabbit anti-rENO serum blockade assay shows that α-enolase participates in S. iniae adhesion to and invasion of BHK-21 cells. In addition, the recombinant α-enolase can confer effective protection against S. iniae infection in mice, which suggests that α-enolase has potential as a vaccine candidate in mammals. We conclude that S. iniae α-enolase is a moonlighting protein that also associates with the bacterial outer surface and functions as a protective antigen in mice.

  6. Streptococcus iniae infection in cultured Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in southern Thailand

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    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal infections are becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and have been reported worldwide in avariety of fish species. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of Streptococcus iniae from Asian sea bass (Latescalcarifer and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. cultured in southern Thailand. Conventional and rapid identification systems,as well as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, were used to determine that the isolate was S. iniae. The virulence of thisS. iniae was higher in Asian sea bass than in red tilapia, as shown by the 10 day-LD50 in Asian sea bass and red tilapia, being1.08x104 and 1.14x107 CFU, respectively. Histopathological changes in Asian sea bass are more severe than those observedin red tilapia. The changes can be found in several organs including liver, pancreas, heart, eye and brain. Histopathologicalfindings included cellular necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and granuloma formation in the infected organs.

  7. Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

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    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than ‘Llareta-INIA’ and ‘Corcolén-INIA’. In La Platina, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ yield exceeded ‘Llareta-INIA’ by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%, and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color

  8. CAUQUENES-INIA, NUEVO CULTIVAR DE HUALPUTRA CHILENA (Medicago polymorpha) PARA AREAS DE SECANO MEDITERRANEO. Cauquenes-INIA, a new Chilean cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha) for Mediterranean dryland areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ovalle M; Alejandro del Pozo L.; Julia Avendaño R.; Teresa Aravena; M. Elena Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Cauquenes INIA es el primer cultivar de hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.), liberada por el Centro Experimental Cauquenes del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA). Fue seleccionado desde una colección de germoplasma que obtenida en una expedición a través de la zona Mediterránea de Chile, entre La Serena (29º 55’ lat. S) y Temuco (38º 47’ lat. S), en 1988. Es una leguminosa forrajera anual, para zonas de secano mediterráneo subhúmedo y húmedo, especialmente apropiada para sistema...

  9. Streptococcus iniae M-like protein contributes to virulence in fish and is a target for live attenuated vaccine development.

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    Jeffrey B Locke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA and C5a peptidase (scpI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. iniae possesses a Mga-like locus containing simA and a divergently transcribed putative mga-like regulatory gene, mgx. In contrast to the Mga locus of group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes, scpI is located distally in the chromosome. Comparative sequence analysis of the Mgx locus revealed only one significant variant, a strain with an insertion frameshift mutation in simA and a deletion mutation in a region downstream of mgx, generating an ORF which may encode a second putative mga-like gene, mgx2. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of simA and scpI was employed to investigate the potential role of these genes in S. iniae virulence. Our hybrid striped bass (HSB and zebrafish models of infection revealed that M-like protein contributes significantly to S. iniae pathogenesis whereas C5a peptidase-like protein does not. Further, in vitro cell-based analyses indicate that SiMA, like other M family proteins, contributes to cellular adherence and invasion and provides resistance to phagocytic killing. Attenuation in our virulence models was also observed in the S. iniae isolate possessing a natural simA mutation. Vaccination of HSB with the Delta simA mutant provided 100% protection against subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type (WT S. iniae after 1,400 degree days, and shows promise as a target for live attenuated vaccine development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of M-like protein and C5a peptidase through allelic replacement revealed that M-like protein plays a significant role in S. iniae virulence, and the Mga-like locus, which may regulate expression of this gene, has an

  10. ANÁLISIS DEL IMPACTO ECONÓMICO DEL CONTRATO INIA-CCU PARA MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE CEBADA CERVECERA Economic impact analysis of the INIA-CCU agreement for barley breeding research

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    Arturo Campos M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la producción de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L., se destina principalmente a la fabricación de malta y cerveza. En 1978, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA y la Compañía Cervecerías Unidas (CCU, la más importante empresa productora de cerveza del país, firmaron un convenio de investigación con el propósito de iniciar trabajos de mejoramiento genético para producir variedades de cebada con altos rendimientos y elevada calidad maltera. Las nuevas variedades creadas a través de este convenio han sido entregadas por CCU a los productores bajo un sistema de contrato de producción. Desde 1978 hasta 1999, INIA introdujo la variedad Aramir y creó las variedades Granifén INIA/CCU, Libra INIA/CCU y Acuario INIA/CCU, que han sido cultivadas en el centro y sur del país, demostrando buena adaptación, rendimiento y calidad, comparadas Aramir. De acuerdo a los resultados, la tasa interna de retorno para este convenio alcanzó a 51,98%, cuando las elasticidades precio de la demanda y la oferta calculadas fueron - 0,54 y 1,06 respectivamente. El beneficio social neto calculado alcanzó a 5.359 millones de pesos, en donde el excedente del productor fue equivalente a 64,9% de los beneficios sociales netos de la investigación en mejoramiento genético de la cebada en Chile.In Chile barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is produced mainly for beer production. In 1976, the Chilean Agricultural Research Institute (INIA and the Compañía Cervecerías Unidas (CCU, the most important beer producer in the country, signed an agreement to initiate breeding research to produce both high yield and high quality malting cultivars in order to be distributed under contract to barley producers. The new varieties created under this agreement have been distributed to the producers under a system of contract production. From 1978 to 1999, INIA introduced the Aramir variety and created three new varieties, Granifen INIA/CCU, Acuario INIA/CCU and Libra INIA

  11. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  12. GROWTH RESPONSE AND RESISTANCE TO STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED DIETS CONTAINING DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  13. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococccus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  14. Protection induced by a CpG oligonucelotide in Nile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae infection and identification of upregulated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    At two days post treatment, a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG 120818-9A) offered Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) significant (PStreptococcus iniae infection, with relative percent survival up to 63%. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the protective im...

  15. Variation in the immunoglobulin levels in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) after vaccination with Streptococcus iniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Wenbin; LIU Hongming; XING Jing; SHENG Xiuzhen; TANG Xiaoqian

    2009-01-01

    A pathogenic bacterium (S636), identified as Streptococcus iniae, was isolated from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in 2005. We immunized turbot with formalin-killed S. iniae four times (on days 1, 14, 21, and 28) by intraperitoneal inoculation. After each vaccination, we obtained serum samples and isolated the lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, spleen, pronephros, and mesonephros. We measured surface Ig-positive (sIg+) lymphocytes and serum antibody levels from these organs using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively, using monoclonal antibodies against turbot immunoglobulin. We confirmed that the antibody reacted with both the surface and plasma Ig by confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. The percentage of sIg+ in the lymphocytes increased following each successive vaccination. The mean percentage increased from 31.96% (control) to 37.49%, 38.36%, 42.9%, and 51.63% in the peripheral blood; from 27.09% to 36.63%, 36.81%, 39.28%, and 46.0% in the spleen; from 22.2% to 28.99%, 29.21%, 32.83%, and 41.58% in pronephros; and from 18.12% to 22.17%, 22.45%, 25.69%, and 31.68% in the mesonephros. The ELISA results were consistent with these results. Both the total and specific antibody levels increased with each vaccination. The mean OD value of the specific antibody assay increased from 0.094, to 0.269, 0.283, 0.333, and 0.421; for total antibody the mean OD value increased from 0.133, to 0.292, 0.323, 0.413, and 0.527.

  16. Faraón-INIA, a new Winter Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack for Southern Chile Faraón-INIA, un nuevo Triticale de Inviern o (×Triticosecale Wittmack para el Sur de Chile

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    Claudio Jobet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faraón-INIA is a new winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar released by the National Wheat Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA in Chile. It is derived from an F9 material received from Nordsaat, Germany, under a germplasm exchange agreement signed in 2006 by both institutions. The crossing was Piano/Focus with Nord93.7548 pedigree. Faraón-INIA has a winter growth habit, a short stem (semi-dwarf, with a mean height of 106 cm. The spike is long, compact, decumbent, white, and awned. The grain is soft, yellow, with 1000-grain weight of 36 g, and a mean of hectoliter weight of 76 kg hL-1. It is resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss. as well as moderately resistant to septoria leaf blotch. Its mean yield for four seasons in three different locations: Temuco (38º50´ S, 72º25´ W, Traiguén (38º45´ S, 72º38´ W, and Purranque (36°31’ S, 71°54’ W varied between 8.2 and 15.0 t ha-1 with a general mean of 11.0 t ha-1. Bromatological analysis of the grain showed good protein content (10.6% and a generally better quality than other triticale cultivars. Based on the above information, Faraón-INIA is recommended for use as animal feed in Southern Chile.Faraón-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack liberado por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Chile. Este cultivar deriva de un material F9 recibido de la empresa Nordsaat, Alemania, bajo un convenio formal firmado en el 2006 entre ambas instituciones. La cruza es Piano/Focus, y el pedigrí Nord-93.7548. Faraón-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo invernal y caña corta (semienano, con un promedio de altura de 106 cm. La espiga es larga, compacta, decumbente, blanca y barbada. El grano es blando, amarillo, con un peso de 100 granos de 36 g y un promedio de 76 kg hL-1 de peso del hectolitro. Es resistente a roya

  17. Valinia INIA, a New Early Storage Onion Variety for Central South Chile Valinia INIA, una Nueva Variedad de Cebolla de Guarda Precoz para la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    María Inés González A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Central South Chile, storage onion varieties (Allium cepa L. sold domestically usually begin the maturation process in March, which implies that a large proportion of bulbs do not mature adequately and do not resist prolonged storage. This situation led the Quilamapu vegetable program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA to select an early maturing onion variety. This breeding method involved a recurrent selection with free plant crossing that began in 1994 on a population of 2000 plants of the 'Valenciana' commercial variety. Plants were first selected when they reached physiological maturity (tops down before 28 February, and then for shape, size, storage capacity, and single-centered bulbs. The result of the program was 'Valinia INIA', a type of Valenciana onion variety: early maturing, medium-sized bulb, spherical, yellow, and resistant to sprouting during storage. From the 2001-2002 to the 2008-2009 season, variety assays were carried out to compare 'Valinia INIA' with commercial cultivars, i.e., 'Sintética 14', 'Grano de Oro', and 'Valenciana Cobra'. 'Valinia INIA' precocity exceeded the other varieties in all seasons with a mean of 1.5 wk ahead of 'Sintética 14', which is the earliest commercial variety and more than 2 wk ahead of the other two. Its yield is similar to 'Valenciana Cobra' and higher than the other two varieties. Its storage capacity is similar to 'Grano de Oro' and 'Sintética 14', but greater than 'Valenciana Cobra'.En la zona centro sur de Chile es habitual que las variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L. de guarda que se comercializan en el pais inicien el proceso de maduración preferentemente en marzo, lo que conlleva a que una gran proporción de bulbos no madure adecuadamente, no resistiendo el almacenaje por un tiempo prolongado. Esta situación llevó al programa de hortalizas del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Quilamapu a la selección de una variedad de cebolla de madurez

  18. Descrição do comportamento de superfície do boto cinza, Sotalia guianensis, na Praia de Pipa - RN Description of the surface behaviour of marine tucuxi, Sotalia guianensis, at Pipa Beach - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídio França do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento animal é uma área de pesquisa consolidada, que cresceu e se diversificou em vários países e que deu origem a disciplinas e abordagens de investigação, como a Etologia, a Ecologia Comportamental, a Neuroecologia, a Psicologia e a Psicologia evolucionista. No estudo do comportamento animal, o etograma é a base para estudos comportamentais de espécies pouco conhecidas, como também para comparar comportamentos de populações distintas de uma mesma espécie. Tradicionalmente, um etograma descreve de forma detalhada eventos comportamentais realizados por indivíduos de uma espécie. O presente estudo apresenta um etograma dos eventos comportamentais realizados na superfície por uma espécie de golfinho costeiro, boto cinza, na praia de Pipa - RN.Research in animal behavior is a consolidated area whose development and diversification in several countries have originated some subjects and investigation approaches, such as Ethology, Behavior Ecology, Neuroecology, Psychology and Evolutionist Psychology. In the study of animal behavior, the ethogram is the foundation for studies on behavior patterns of distinct populations of the same species. An ethogram traditionally describes behavioral events performed by individuals of the same species in detail. This study presents an ethogram of behavioral events performed on surface by a costal dolphin known as the gray dolphin (Marine Tucuxi Dolphin, at Pipa Beach, RN.

  19. Ambar - INIA, nuevo cultivar de arroz de grano corto y muy bajo contenido de amilosa Ambar-INIA, a new short grain rice cultivar with very low amylose content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Alvarado A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambar-INIA is the first glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar released in Chile, with low amylose content (5%. Its was originated from germplasm donated by the Rice Millers Association to the Rice Breeding Program, of the National Agriculture Research Institute, Quilamapu Regional Research Center. It is a variety with short, round and opaque grain, a length/width ratio of 1.7; a semi-dwarf plant with erect leaves, later than the varieties currently in use. It has good industrial quality, low gelatinization temperature and good productivity when crop management is good.

  20. CAUQUENES-INIA, NUEVO CULTIVAR DE HUALPUTRA CHILENA (Medicago polymorpha PARA AREAS DE SECANO MEDITERRANEO. Cauquenes-INIA, a new Chilean cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha for Mediterranean dryland areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cauquenes INIA es el primer cultivar de hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L., liberada por el Centro Experimental Cauquenes del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. Fue seleccionado desde una colección de germoplasma que obtenida en una expedición a través de la zona Mediterránea de Chile, entre La Serena (29º 55’ lat. S y Temuco (38º 47’ lat. S, en 1988. Es una leguminosa forrajera anual, para zonas de secano mediterráneo subhúmedo y húmedo, especialmente apropiada para sistemas agrícolas donde la pradera va en rotación con cereales ("ley farming systems". Es un cultivar semiprecoz, de hábito de crecimiento semi-erecto, flores de color amarillo, gloquídeos sin espinas, y alto porcentaje de semillas duras. La producción de materia seca (6570 y 6350 kg MS ha-1 y de semillas (82 y 88 kg ha-1 resultaron ser iguales o superiores a las variedades australianas disponibles en el mercado nacional.Cauquenes-INIA is the first cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha, released by the Cauquenes Experimental Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA. It was selected from a collection of germoplasm obtained from an expedition through the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, between La Serena (29º 55’ S lat. and Temuco (38º 47’ S lat., in 1988. It is an annual forage legume, for subhumid and humid Mediterranean zones, especially appropriate for farming systems where the pasture is rotated with cereals (ley farming systems. It is a semi-precocious cultivar (approximately 100 days from emergence to first flower, with semi-erect growth, yellow flowers, spineless pods and a high percentage of hard seeds. Dry matter production (6570 and 6350 kg DM ha-1 and seed yield (82 and 88 kg ha-1 proved to be similar or superior to Australian cultivars of burr medic available in the national market.

  1. COMBARBALA-INIA, UN CULTIVAR PRECOZ DE HUALPUTRA (Medicago polymorpha L.) PARA AREAS DE SECANO MEDITERRANEO. Combarbalá-INIA, an early flowering cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) for Mediterranean dryland areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro del Pozo L.; Carlos Ovalle M; Julia Avendaño R.; Teresa Aravena; M. Elena Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Combarbalá-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.), seleccionado entre un gran número de accesiones colectadas en Chile, entre La Serena (29º 55’ lat. Sur) y Temuco (38º 47’ lat. Sur). Es una leguminosa forrajera anual, precoz (71 - 83 días desde emergencia a primera flor), apta para áreas de secano de la zona mediterránea árida, semiárida y subhúmeda, es decir, entre la IV y VI Regiones de Chile. Presenta un hábito de crecimiento postrado, flores de color amarillo, y ...

  2. Influencia de tres densidades de siembra y cuatro niveles de fertilización en la variedad de maíz INIA 612-Maselba

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Cubas Pérez; Christian Córdova Díaz

    2013-01-01

    El experimento se realizó el año 2008, en el Campo Experimental San Miguel de la EEA. San Roque del INIA - Loreto, con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra y niveles de fertilización nitrogenada en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad de maíz amarillo duro, INIA 612 – MASELBA; en condiciones de suelos aluviales de restinga inundable. Se evaluaron tres densidades de siembra, 0,80m x 0,50m con 2 plantas por sitio (50 000 plantas/ha), 0,8m x 0,60m con 3 plant...

  3. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang;

    2016-01-01

    CFU g-1 of feed [T1], 108 CFU g-1 of feed [T2], 109 CFU g-1 of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated.Results showed...... resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing...

  4. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental levels of vitamin A (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 IU/kg diet) on the growth performance, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Each diet was fed to Nil...

  5. Growth performance, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia fed diets containing various levels of vitamins C and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of dietary levels of vitamin C (0, 100, 2,000 mg/kg), E (0, 50, 500 mg/kg), and their interaction on growth performance, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Sterptococcus iniae challenge were evaluated. Each diet was fed to Nile tilapia in triplicate a...

  6. Growth Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  7. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  9. Fitness cost, gyrB mutation, and absence of phosphotransferase system fructose specific IIABC component in novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae vaccine strain ISNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the fitness cost of novobiocin-resistance in an attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine strain ISNO compared to its virulent parent strain ISET0901, cell proliferation rate of the two strains were compared to each other. Our results revealed that the cell proliferation rates of ISNO wer...

  10. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  12. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  13. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Matus; Ricardo Madariaga; Claudio Jobet; Javier Zúñiga; Christian Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white...

  14. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  15. COMBARBALA-INIA, UN CULTIVAR PRECOZ DE HUALPUTRA (Medicago polymorpha L. PARA AREAS DE SECANO MEDITERRANEO. Combarbalá-INIA, an early flowering cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. for Mediterranean dryland areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Pozo L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Combarbalá-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L., seleccionado entre un gran número de accesiones colectadas en Chile, entre La Serena (29º 55’ lat. Sur y Temuco (38º 47’ lat. Sur. Es una leguminosa forrajera anual, precoz (71 - 83 días desde emergencia a primera flor, apta para áreas de secano de la zona mediterránea árida, semiárida y subhúmeda, es decir, entre la IV y VI Regiones de Chile. Presenta un hábito de crecimiento postrado, flores de color amarillo, y los gloquídeos no tienen espinas. Se adapta muy bien a sistemas de rotación con cereales ("ley farming system", ya que produce una gran cantidad de semillas duras impermeables al agua. La producción de fitomasa y de semillas es superior a la de cultivares australianos de hualputra, disponibles en el mercadoCombarbalá-INIA is a new cultivar of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L., selected from a great number of accessions collected in Chile, between La Serena (29º 55’ lat. S and Temuco (38º 47’ lat. S. It is an annual forage legume, precocious (71-83 days from emergence to first flowering, adequate for dryland areas of the arid, semiarid and subhumid Mediterranean zones, gbetween the IV and VI Regions of Chile. It has prostrate growth, yellow flowers and spineless pods. It is well adapted to ley farming systems, since it produces a large number of hard seeds. Dry matter production and seed yield was greater than Australian cultivars of burr medic available in the market

  16. O Desenvolvimento do Turismo Náutico e a sua Ligação com a Observação do Boto-Cinza (sotalia guianensis na Região de Cananéia, Litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine de Fátima Filla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O boto-cinza é hoje um grande atrativo e gerador de renda para a região estuarina de Cananéia. O crescimento da infra-estrutura turística desta região parece estar intimamente relacionado com o crescimento do interesse em observar estes animais na natureza. Assim, um levantamento das atuais estruturas de alojamento e capacidade náutica da região foi feito nos meses de verão de 2007, através de visitas aos estabelecimentos e entrevistas com pessoas atuantes no turismo náutico. Ficou evidente que as estruturas de alojamento e o uso das embarcações nas três ilhas do estuário variam de acordo com as diferentes categorias de turistas que freqüentam esta região e com o objetivo de suas viagens. Ainda, foi possível notar que a organização em associações e parcerias garantiu um crescimento maior da atividade de observação do boto-cinza, a qual deve ser acompanhada com cuidado para que seja desenvolvida de forma otimizada, conservando os animais e seu habitat natural. Palavras-chaves: boto-cinza; sotalia guianensis; turismo náutico; Cananéia Abstract The estuarine dolphin (sotalia guianensis is a big attraction and money maker for the Cananéia estuary region. The increased tourist infrastructure of the region seems to be directly related to the growing interest to observe these animals in loco. Therefore, a survey was done to asses the present boarding and nautical capacity of the region during the summer months of 2007, by means of visits to the establishments and interviews with the people working with nautical tourism. It was evident that the boarding structures and the use of ships on the three islands of the estuary vary according to the different type of tourists that visit the area and their reasons for the trip. Even so, it was possible to note that organized associations and partnerships guaranteed a larger growth and activity of estuarine dolphin observation, which must be carefully followed to ensure proper

  17. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, white, and vitreous. The weight of 1000 grains varies between 50 and 59 g. It was sown in mid-August at the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán. Head emergence occurred 88 to 89 d after sowing, which is 2 to 3 d after Ciko-INIA. On average, Millán-INIA reached a yield similar to that of the var. Ciko-INIA. This line stands out for its good resistance to disease, high protein content (11.5% mean, high sedimentation value, and high W value.Millán-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado en 1995 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo de hábito primaveral, de época de espigadura mediana a precoz, con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana a baja, y varía entre 75 y 90 cm, con un promedio de 85 cm. La espiga es de color blanco y de barbas largas y presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco y aspecto vítreo y de tamaño grande, con un peso de los 1000 granos que varía entre 50 y 59 g. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 88 a 89 días después de la siembra, entre 2 y 3 días después que Ciko-INIA. Como

  18. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Tukmechi; Abdolghaffar Ownagh; Ali Mohebbat

    2010-01-01

    The ''in vitro'' antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms....

  19. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tukmechi, Amir; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mohebbat, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The “in vitro” antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. A...

  20. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:26997202

  1. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  2. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Tukmechi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ''in vitro'' antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. Also the chemical composition of propolis was determined by the method of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed Chemical composition of EEIP contained significant amounts of flavonoids, Sesquiterpenes - mainly Eudesmol and Caryophyllene oxide - aromatic acid, and low amounts of aldehydes and triterpens. Furthermore the ethanol extract of propolis inhibited the growth of all examined micro-organisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae. Ethanol did not influence the antimicrobial effect of EEIP. These antibacterial properties would warrant further studies on the clinical applications of propolis in aquaculture field.

  3. Seasonal and daily patterns of group size, cohesion and activity of the estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae, in southern Brazil Padrões sazonais e diários do tamanho de grupo, coesão e atividade do boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae, no sul do Brasil

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    Fábio G. Daura-Jorge

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The resident population of estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, in Norte Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, was studied from 2000 to 2003. Systematic one-day cruises were undertaken aboard a 5 m sail boat equipped with an outboard motor. Applying the focal-group method, information such as geographical position, predominant behavioural patterns, group size, cohesion index and the presence of calves, were registered at every five-minute interval, totalling 198 hours of direct observation of the dolphins. The estuarine dolphin used preferential areas for each behavioural pattern. The mean group size was approximately 29 individuals, and the presence of calves occurred throughout the entire year, but with a significant increase in the warm seasons. The frequency of behavioural patterns and group size varied according to season and time of day, and were strongly associated. The frequency of moving behaviours increased in the cold seasons and along the day. The seasonal variation in the moving behaviours suggest the requirement of a larger area in the cold seasons, probably related to seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of dominant prey items. Higher group sizes were observed while dolphins were foraging. The cohesion index also varied according to the behaviour. Our results showed that group organization and behavioural patterns of this estuarine dolphin population are probably linked to daily and seasonal environment cycles, and also possibly to the condition of being at the furthest southern limit of distribution of the species.A população residente de boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, da Baía Norte, Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil, foi estudada de 2000 a 2003. Foram realizados cruzeiros sistemáticos de um dia, a bordo de um veleiro de 5 m equipado com motor de popa. Utilizando o método de grupo-focal, informações como posição geográfica, padrão comportamental predominante, tamanho

  4. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  5. Blind river dolphin: first side-swimming cetacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, E S; Brownell, R L; Frye, F L; Morris, E J; Evans, W E; Scott, A B

    1969-12-12

    The blind river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), first written about by Pliny the Elder in A.D. 72, was found (10 November 1968) to be the first known side-swimming cetacean. The rudimentary eye lacks the lens, but anatomical evidence suggests that the eye may serve as a light sensor. The underwater sound emissions of this species, although similar to those of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), appear to be produced constantly. PMID:5350341

  6. Identificação e descrição da brincadeira em uma espécie pouco estudada, o boto cinza (Sotalia fluviatilis, em seu ambiente natural Identification and description of play in a scarcely studied species, the tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis in a field site

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    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Comportamentos de brincadeira são fáceis de identificar, mas difíceis de definir. Sua ocorrência é mais freqüente em animais jovens, apresentando algumas características comuns: falta de função aparente, utilização de comportamentos específicos da espécie de forma exagerada em intensidade ou número de repetições. Estudamos a brincadeira em uma espécie pouco conhecida, o boto cinza, durante 18 meses, na Praia de Pipa, RN. Definimos seis categorias de brincadeira: com objeto, de forrageio, locomotora, surf, social e de impulsão. Os comportamentos descritos ocorreram quando havia filhotes nos grupos observados. Sugerimos que alguns tipos de brincadeira possibilitam o exercício da musculatura, enquanto que outras também permitem o desenvolvimento de relações sociais. A brincadeira com objetos e de forrageio treinam o animal para a pesca, habilidade complexa que deve dominar antes de se tornar independente. Nossos dados sugerem que, à semelhança dos mamíferos terrestres, nos mamíferos aquáticos a brincadeira tem função adaptativa, preparando o indivíduo para a vida adulta.Play behavior are easy to identify but difficult to define. It is more frequently displayed by young animals and present some distinguished characteristics: no apparent function and exaggerated repetition or intensity of species-specific behaviors. We studied play behavior in a scarcely studied species, the tucuxi, during 18 months at Pipa, RN, Brazil . We defined six categories: object, foraging, locomotor, social and impulsion play plus surf. The behaviors described occurred only when immatures were present in the observed groups. We suggest that some kinds of play exercise the muscles while others also allow for the development of social interactions. Object and foraging play are opportunities for training of fishing abilities which the animal must master before becoming independent. Our data suggest that, like terrestrial mammals, in marine mammals

  7. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. PMID:25758848

  8. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil Associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 e aves marinhas no estuário do Lagamar, Brasil

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    MCO. Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE (25° 01' S and 47° 55' W from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC (25° 24' S and 48° 24' W from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7% involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2% involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (χ2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi de descrever as características a respeito das associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis, e aves marinhas em duas áreas distintas do estuário do Lagamar, Brasil. Investigações efetuadas a partir de embarcação e direcionadas a estudos de foto-identificação de S. guianensis foram conduzidas no Estuário de Cananéia (EC (25° 01' S e 47° 55' O entre julho de 2004 e março de 2008, bem como no Complexo Estuarino de Paranaguá (CEP (25° 24' S e 48° 24' O entre abril de 2006 e fevereiro de 2008. Em todas as ocasiões em que aves marinhas foram observadas em associações de alimentação multiespecífica com S. guianensis, dados sobre as espécies envolvidas e seus números foram obtidos. Dos 435 grupos de S

  9. Research on Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Streptococcus iniae in Tilapia Cultural Water%拮抗罗非鱼养殖水体中海豚链球菌功能性微生物的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿建宏; 陈辉; 吴伟

    2014-01-01

    Eleven strains of antagonistic bacteria against Streptococcus iniae were isolated from the preserved bacteria with the ability of purification of stimulant aquaculture wastewater isolated from the tilapia cultural water. The most compatible strains were chosen for the growth curves, co-agglutination assay and ability of cleanse effects in the aquaculture wastewater. The result showed:7 isolated strains had more advantages in RI than Streptococcus iniae, and shorter doubling time were found in L09017, C0909 and N0906 indicating the growth advantages in the intestine of Streptococcus iniae;3 (L0914, C0909, N0906) of 7 strains had co-agglutination effects with Streptococcus iniae and their co-agglutination ratios were 3.03%, 4.11%and 1.85%, respectively;all 7 strains had the ability of cleanse effects on the aquaculture wastewater, but C0909, L0914 had fewer advantages in degrading ammonia-nitrogen than N0906. In conclusion, N0906 was more moderate to be used as the bio-control bacterium against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia and had good development and research values.%以罗非鱼链球菌病的病原--海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)为目标菌株,研究了多株分离自罗非鱼养殖水体具有净化水质功能的微生物对其的拮抗作用。结果表明:通过初筛获得了11株对海豚链球菌具有拮抗功能的微生物菌株,其中7株拮抗效果较为显著,分别属于芽孢杆菌(B0903, B0910, B0916)、乳杆菌(L0914, L0917)、假丝酵母(C0909)和诺卡氏菌(N0906)。对这7株菌株从生长优势、共凝集率、净化水质能力等三方面进行进一步的筛选,发现7株菌株的生长系数均大于海豚链球菌,L0917、C0909、N0906的倍增时间显著低于海豚链球菌,且L0914、C0909、N0906能与海豚链球菌产生共凝集作用,共凝集率分别为3.03%、4.11%和1.85%。7株菌都具有一定的净化水质的能力,但C0909、L0914对氨氮的去除率显著低于菌株N0906。研

  10. Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Efecto del Nitrógeno en Productividad, Calidad del Grano y Dosis Óptimas de Nitrógeno en Trigo Invernal cv. Kumpa-INIA en Andisoles del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive winter wheat cropping seasons on a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudands family (Andisol in La Araucania Region, Chile, and subjected to intensive annual crop rotation. Significant effects (P ≤ 0.01 of N rate on grain yield and quality were found. The optimal physical N rate (OPR in both seasons ranged from 290 to 339 kg ha-1, whereas optimal economic N rate (OER ranged from 248 to 274 kg ha-1, with yields between 10.2 and 10.1 t ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency associated to OER was high in both seasons (36.9 and 41.2 kg grain kg-1 N and fluctuated in similar ranges. Nitrogen rate increased hectoliter weight and grain protein, but decreased NUE.El N es uno de los principales insumos del cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Chile. Su manejo eficiente optimiza las dosis, disminuye los riesgos de contaminación y los costos de producción. La respuesta del cultivo y eficiencia de uso de N (NUE, definida como la razón de rendimiento y suministro de N mineral, independientemente de la fuente son importantes para evaluar los requerimientos de N y alcanzar rendimientos máximos y económicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del N en la producción y las dosis que

  11. 卵形鲳鲹感染无乳链球菌与海豚链球菌的研究%Pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae in diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 梁万文; 陈明; 李莉萍; 王瑞; 张彬; 甘西; 罗洪林; 陈福艳; 蔡小辉; 杨传萍

    2014-01-01

    于2011年8月对广西北海疑似链球菌感染的卵形鲳鲹Trachinotus ovatus进行病原分离鉴定,经人工感染试验,确定分离的两株病原菌(编号为TSG002和TSG004)为卵形鲳鲹的致病菌,然后对两株病原菌进行形态学、生理生化特征、16S rRNA基因序列和二重PCR快速检测综合鉴定,构建系统进化树,最后对两株菌进行药敏分析。根据染色形态特征和二重PCR快速检测,初步鉴定菌株TSG002和TSG004分别为无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌,菌株TSG002和TSG004的16S rRNA基因序列(登录号分别为KF826095和KF826094)分别与无乳链球菌 ATCC13813 strain JCM 5671基因(登录号 NR040821.1)和海豚链球菌ATCC29178基因(登录号AF335572.1)的相似性最高,均达99%。药敏试验结果表明,两株菌对头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、头孢哌酮、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、阿莫西林、多粘菌素B、头孢噻吩和头孢他啶均敏感。研究表明,感染无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌的卵形鲳鲹可发病死亡,在病鱼中同时分离到两种链球菌尚属首例。%Two bacterial strains TSG002 and TSG004 were isolated from the diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus collected in Beihai,Guangxi Province,China in August of 2011,and were confirmed to be the pathogens of the diseased ovate pompano by animal challenge test, and by morphology, physiological and biochemical examina-tion and 16S rRNA genetic analysis. In addition,the sensitivity of both strains to twenty-two antibiotics were stud-ied. The results showed that strains TSG002 and TSG004 were similar to bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. in-iae, based on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry examinations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the l6 S rRNA sequence of strains TSG002 ( KF826095 ) and TSG004 ( KF826094 ) has high similarity ( 99%) to S. agalactiae (NR040821. 1) and S. iniae (AF335572. 1) in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus spp. built

  12. Isolation and identification of pathogenetic Streptococcus iniae from Selenotoca multi fasciata%银鼓鱼病原菌(海豚链球菌)的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗璋; 许杰; 韩进刚; 徐赟霞; 马文婷; 冯守明

    2012-01-01

    One strain Ygl was isolated from the kidney of diseased Selenotoca multifasciata. The healthy Selenotoca multifasciata could be infected through artificial infection by these bacteria. The symptoms in artificially infected fish were similar to those infected naturally. The characters of re-isolated strains were the same as the initially isolated strain, which was identified as Streptococcus iniae by the means of ATB system,morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA sequence analyses. The pathogens were sensitive to the following antibiotics: enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, rox-ithromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, levofloxacin.%从患病濒死的银鼓鱼(Selenotoca multi fasciata)肾脏组织中分离到Ygl菌株,用该菌株对健康银鼓鱼进行人工感染,可使其致病,发病症状与自然病鱼症状一致,再分离菌株的各种特性与原分离菌株相同.通过ATB系统和菌体常规形态特征、生理生化反应指标测定以及16S rRNA测序分析等综合鉴定,Yg1菌株为海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae).药敏试验结果表明,Yg1菌株对恩诺沙星、土霉素、罗红霉素、强力霉素、四环素、左氟沙星等抗生素较为敏感.

  13. Studies on antibacterial effects of 10 kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs and four combinations on pathogenic Streptococcus iniae from tilapia in Vitro%10种中草药及4种组方对罗非鱼致病性海豚链球菌体外抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 黄婷; 陈福艳; 陈明; 梁万文

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 10 Chinese herbal medicines including Coptidis rhizome, Rheum qffcinale, Radix scutellariae, Phellodendron chinense, etc. To Streptococcus iniae were detected through disc agar diffusion method ( punch method), and the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of four kind Chinese herbs which had significant inhibitory effects to S. Iniae were measured by microdilution procedure. The results showed that 10 Chinese herbal medicine had inhibitory effects on 5. Iniae to different degree, among which four kinds of Chinese herbs including C. Rhizome, R. Scutellariae, R. Qffcinale and P. Chinense could effectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic S. Iniae, furthermore the inhibitory effect of C. Rhizome was the best, and the average diameter was (25.67 ± 0. 58) mm. Meanwhile , the experiment revealed that when used in combination, the antibacterial actions of 4 kinds of herb medicines were characterized as below: P. Chinense with C. Rhizome, R. Qffcinale with R. Scutellariae had a enhanced effect, R. Qffcinale with C. Rhizome remained unchanged, but P. Chinense with R. Scutellariae, P. Chinense with R. Qffcinale, Radix scutellariae with Coptidis rhizome depressed.%采用琼脂扩散法(打孔法)研究了黄连等10种中草药及4种组方对尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)致病性海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)的抑制作用,并通过二倍稀释法测定抑菌作用较强的中草药对海豚链球菌的抑菌和杀菌浓度.结果显示:10种中草药对海豚链球菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,其中黄连、黄芩、大黄和黄柏的抑菌作用较强,而以黄连的抑菌效果最佳,抑菌圈平均直径达(25.67±0.58) mm.黄柏与黄连、大黄与黄芩联用抗菌作用增强,大黄与黄连联用不变,而黄柏与黄芩、黄柏与大黄、黄芩与黄连联用抑菌能力降低.

  14. Preliminary study on immune effect of Streptococcus iniae inactivated vaccine in Oreochromis niloticus%海豚链球菌灭活疫苗对罗非鱼免疫效果的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 黄木珍; 李安兴

    2011-01-01

    Formalin killed vaccines with/without white oil adjuvant were prepared with TBY-1 strain of Streptococcus iniae isolated from freshwater fish. The efficacy of the vaccines were determined in Oreochromis niloticus by bath immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection successively. The relative percent survival (RPS) of each immune group was statisticsed. Moreover, the length and weight of the tilapias were measured and analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that the RPS of the fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally once with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 50. 50% and 71. 10% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1:4. 8 and 1: 128 respectively. The RPS of fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally twice with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 82. 50% and 58. 80% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1∶6.4 and 1∶27.4 re spectively.%将海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)淡水分离株TBY-1菌株灭活后制备成无佐剂和添加白油佐剂的疫苗,利用浸泡和腹腔注射复合免疫方式对罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)进行免疫,比较其相对保护率及血清中抗体凝集效价,以评价佐剂的存在与否及免疫次数对海豚链球菌灭活疫苗的免疫效果的影响,同时还对实验前后罗非鱼的体长体重进行测量和统计,并用SPSS软件进行分析.结果显示,用无佐剂疫苗进行首次浸泡免疫后,再分别用无佐剂疫苗及白油佐剂疫苗注射免疫1次的相对保护率分别为50.50%和71.10%,血清中抗体凝集效价分别为1∶4.8和1∶128;而注射免疫2次的相对保护率分别为82.50%和58.80%,其血清凝集效价分别为1∶6.4和1∶27.4.

  15. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. PMID:27302864

  16. 环介导等温扩增联合横向流动试纸条可视化检测海豚链球菌方法的建立%Visual Detection of Streptococcus iniae Based on Loop- mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞娜; 周前进; 陈炯

    2014-01-01

    海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)是一种革兰氏阳性球菌,呈β溶血,可感染多种淡水和海洋鱼类。本研究利用环介导等温扩增技术(loop-mediated isothermal amplification, LAMP)进行核酸扩增,通过横向流动试纸条方法(lateral flow dipstick, LFD)实现检测,建立了一种可应用于海豚链球菌快速检测的LAMP-LFD技术。该技术以海豚链球菌促旋酶B亚单位(gyrase subunit B, gyrB)基因为检测靶标,设计3对引物进行由生物素标记的LAMP扩增反应,产物经异硫氰酸荧光素(fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)标记的探针杂交后,在LFD上完成检测。经优化的核酸扩增最适条件为65℃反应30 min,在此条件下,阳性扩增起始时间与模板浓度之间呈典型的线性相关性。从核酸扩增反应开始到LFD显色,整个检测时程只需40 min左右,比常规PCR技术缩短约2 h。LAMP-LFD能特异性地检出海豚链球菌,针对病原纯培养物的检测灵敏度为8.70×101 cfu/mL,是LAMP检测的10倍、常规PCR检测的100倍。以灵敏度浓度(8.70×101 cfu/mL)的海豚链球菌基因组DNA为模板进行的LAMP-LFD结果显示该方法具有良好的重复性。针对人工污染花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)肝组织的检测灵敏度为4.35×103 cfu/mL,同样为常规PCR检测方法的100倍。利用本方法可成功从患病花鲈的组织样品中检测出海豚链球菌,检测结果与常规的细菌分离鉴定方法结果一致。因此,利用LAMP-LFD能特异、准确、高效地检测出海豚链球菌,而且操作简单、费用低、耗时短,有望成为海豚链球菌的常规检测方法。%Streptococcus iniae is a species belonging to Gram-positive coccus and produces beta hemolysis, which can infect a broad range of freshwater and marine fish species and lead to seriously economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Thus, a diagnostic method for rapid and accurate detection of S. iniae was

  17. 海豚链球菌感染对不同品系罗非鱼血液生化指标和肝脏HSP70 mRNA表达的影响%Studies on blood biochemical indices and expression of hepatic HSP70 mRNA of different tilapia strains artificially challenged with Streptococcus iniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强俊; 杨弘; 王辉; 徐跑; 柒壮林; 何杰

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish the superiority, four different tilapia strains (GIFT tilapia, New GIFT tilapia, Egypt Nile tilapia and Red tilapia) were compared in the study. At day 100 tilapias in the treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with Streptococcus iniae suspension (2.95×108/mL) to evaluate disease resistance of four different tilapia strains against S. iniae in terms of the serum biochemical parameters and hepatic HSP70 mRNA expression before and after infection. Another set of twenty fish taken from each tank was challenged with S. iniae using the same method as above, and the cumulative mortality of 4 strains was recorded at different times post infection. The results showed that GIFT tilapia and New GIFT tilapia were more sensitive to S. iniae at 96 h after infection, cumulative mortalities were 36.67% and 38.33% respectively. Egypt Nile tilapia was less sensitive to pathogen and no death occurred during the experiment. The levels of serum cortisol (COR) and glucose (GLU) and expression levels of HSP70 mRNA in GIFT tilapia, New GIFT tilapia and Red tilapia strains were highly significant(P<0.05), and the activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST)and lysozyme (LSZ) also increased, while serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly lower than those prior to infection (P<0.05). By utilizing the energy from resolved hepatin and lipid, the synthesis of hepatic HSP70 mRNA and levels of LSZ and globulin in Egypt Nile tilapia were improved, and thus the non-specific immunity strengthened. It is suggested that in the course of tilapia breeding, effective combination of the disease resistance with growth be conducted so as to guarantee sustainable development of the tilapia industry.%以吉富罗非鱼、新吉富罗非鱼、埃及尼罗罗非鱼和红罗非鱼为研究对象,饲养100 d后,进行海豚链球菌(2.95×108 CFU/mL)感染试验,分析攻毒前后各品

  18. 氨氮胁迫下罗非鱼(GIFT Oreochromis niloticus)机体免疫力的变化及其对海豚链球菌易感性的影响%The immune response of GIFT Oreochromis niloticus and its susceptibility to Streptococcus iniae under stress in different ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家长; 臧学磊; 胡庚东; 瞿建宏; 范立民; 宋超

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同作用时间(0、24、48、96和120 h)下不同质量浓度氨氮(对照组、1、3、5和10 mg·L-1)对罗非鱼(GIFT Oreochromis niloticus)血清SOD、AKP、溶菌酶和补体C3活性的影响,以及不同质量浓度氨氮(对照组、1、3、5和10 mg·L-1)胁迫下罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性.结果显示:在1.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清SOD活性在24 h受到诱导;在3.0、5.0和10.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清SOD活性均受到抑制,最大抑制率分别达18.85%、23.47%和38.46%.在1.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清AKP活性在0~96 h呈先降低后恢复的趋势;5.0和10.0 mg·L-1实验组的血清AKP活性在24~120 h则一直受到抑制.1.0 mg·L-1实验组的罗非鱼血清溶菌酶活性在24~120 h一直无显著变化,3.0、5.0和10.0mg·L-1实验组的血清溶菌酶活性随着氨氮质量浓度的升高而降低.1.0 mg·L-1实验组的罗非鱼血清补体C3活性在各个采样时间下均大于对照组,而5.0和10.0 mg·L-1实验组补体C3活性始终受到抑制.罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性实验研究显示,置于3.0、5.0和10.0 mg-L-1的罗非鱼的累积死亡率分别为43.33%、46.67%和63.33%,显著高于对照组和1.0 mg·L-1实验组,表明氨氮质量浓度超过3.0 mg·L-1能够增加罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性.本实验认为,超过3 mg·L-1的氨氮质量浓度胁迫能够显著降低罗非鱼的免疫力,增加对海豚链球菌的易感性.因此在罗非鱼健康养殖中,调控并降低氨氮质量浓度非常重要.%The experiment, including the susceptible test of tilapia exposed to Streptococcus iniae and the test on effect of immune-related enzymes (superoxide dismutaso, SOD; lysozyme; alkaline phosphates, AKP and supplement C3) to tilapia under different ammonia, was carried out to reveal the relationship between ammonia and its stress effect on the susceptible to tilapia and the immunity to fish exposed to

  19. The evaluation of the risk for floodings on the territory of Botoșani municipal town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Nicoleta VIERU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The county of Botosani is not placed in an area of high risk for flooding, because most of the lands within the build-up area are situated on the ledge. Because of the increase ofthe population, some socio-economical objectives have been located in the high risk area on the basis of the ledge; it’s necessary that the real insurance and that provided by therules could be established, thereby, the following measures need to be established: the achievement of field works against floods, the gad of the buildings exposed to the majorrisk. The real insurance of the buildings located on the four effluents (located at the base of the ledge, varies between 5 – 10 per cent, in comparison to 1 per cent as it is foreseen bythe rules. The dams built up on these valeys, made up of local materials and generally used for fishy needs, have large uploaders calculated under 1 per cent error, which might lead to dangerous waves of flood, in case of river burst. The possible damages have both direct (material and human losses and indirect results (traffic jams, coming up to normal conditions, and the price of the operative measures for preventing human victims The estimation of the damages to certain flood is inconclusive, the most important damage being the one afferent to the main class of the objective, without mentioning the ecological damages, as in case of extreme humidity, epidemic dangers, quick reproduction of mosquitos etc.

  20. Parasitism affects vaccine efficacy against Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia culture worldwide is estimated to be US$ 5 billion and is important to domestic and global food security. Parasites and bacteria co-occur in both extensive and intensive production of tilapia. The effect of parasitism on vaccine performance in fish is little studied. The objective of this ...

  1. Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acre, Brasil The richness of the large and medium-sized mammals of the Serra do Divisor National Park (Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Muniz Calouro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the richness (number of species of large and medium-sized mammals, and the antropic threats in the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD. In 31 days data were collected through direct observations or evidences (bones, hairs, vocalizations and tracks along pre-existing trails distributed in different types of vegetation. Wild mammals captured by local people were also considered. They were found 44 species of terrestrial mammals (with the exception of small mammals and bats and two species of cetaceans, representing 73% of the total predicted, according to the literature and information of local dwellers were registered in PNSD. They exist in the area two species classified by IUCN (1996 as "Endangered" [Cacajao calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy, 1806 and Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792] and five as "Vulnerable" [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Callimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii (Humboldt, 1812, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817]. Given that subsistence and commercial hunting are common in the PNSD, mammals more affected by hunting [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812, Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795] were observed only in the more remote areas such as Serra do Divisor, Rio Moa. In comparison with others areas, the results indicate that PNSD has high richness of the mammals, with special attention to the 14 primates species registered.

  2. VACCINES TO PREVENT Streptococcus iniae AND S. agalactiae DISEASE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity, and to promote optimal growth and feed conversion in sustained culture of warm-water fish in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. The control of diseases has been dependent on the use of therapeutics since the inception of...

  3. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D.; Irisawa, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    OpenAIRE

    Erlong Wang; Jun Wang; Bo Long; Kaiyu Wang; Yang He; Qian Yang; Defang Chen; Yi Geng; Xiaoli Huang; Ping Ouyang; Weimin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine e...

  6. Growth, Immune Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Cottonseed Meal and Supplemental Essential Amino Acid as Substitute for Soybean Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier studies indicate that tilapia utilized cottonseed meal (CSM) poorly relative to soybean meal (SBM) or SBM and peanut meal. It has also been shown that gossypol was not a contributing factor, since these fish can tolerate very high levels of dietary gossypol (1,600-2,000 mg/kg diet). Moreover...

  7. Characterization of the Function and Interaction of Proteins Involved in Exopolysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

    OpenAIRE

    Cefalo, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid residues that are important for metal binding and catalysis in Grampositive phosphotyrosine phosphatases were identified in Streptococcus thermophilus Wzh/EpsB proteins. The Wzh protein from S. thermophilus MR-1C was purified after heterologous expression and tested for phosphatase activity against synthetic phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/threonine peptides. The purified Wzh protein was able to remove phosphate from both phosphotyrosine peptides tested and the phosphatase activi...

  8. Morfologia do sincrânio do boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) Syncranial morphology of the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden) (Cetacea, Delphinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma descrição da morfologia comparada do sincrânio de Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864), incluindo suas variações ontogenéticas e intra-específicas. As descrições foram baseadas em 51 crânios completos ou parciais depositados na coleção do laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, do Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. O sincrânio é bastante homogêneo e manifesta sua assimetria na morfologia dos ossos, passagens nasais e forames. ...

  9. Morfologia do sincrânio do boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae Syncranial morphology of the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma descrição da morfologia comparada do sincrânio de Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, incluindo suas variações ontogenéticas e intra-específicas. As descrições foram baseadas em 51 crânios completos ou parciais depositados na coleção do laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, do Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. O sincrânio é bastante homogêneo e manifesta sua assimetria na morfologia dos ossos, passagens nasais e forames. O rostro é proporcionalmente estreito em relação aos outros Delphinidae do mesmo porte. A região temporal é circular em indivíduos jovens, mas se torna oval nos adultos onde se forma uma crista temporal evidente. O forame elíptico do periótico está presente tanto em indivíduos jovens quanto adultos. Os nasais são bipartidos e podem ocorrer ossos suturais entre os frontais. O processo hamular dos pterigóides é bastante inflado e fenestrado. A sínfise mandibular alcança de 19 de 19-23% do comprimento do dentário. Cada pré-maxilar e maxilar possui de 30-35 dentes e cada dentário de 30-38 dentes.Morphological and comparative description of the syncranium of Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, including ontogenic aspects and intraspecific variations are presented. The descriptions were based on the examination of 51 complete or partial skulls, kept at the Marine Mammals Lab. Collection from the Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, CCB, at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The sincranium is very homogeneous and manifests its asymmetry in the morphology of the bones, nasal passages and foramina. The rostrum is proportionally narrow in relation to other Delphinidae of the same size. The temporal region is circular in young specimens, but it becomes oval in the adults were it forms a well marked temporal crest. The elliptical foramen of the periotic bone is present both in young and adult individuals. The nasals are bipartite and one may find sutural bones between the frontals. The hamular process of the pterygoids is inflated and somewhat fenestrated. The mandibular symphysis covers from 19-23% of the dentary length. Each premaxilla and maxilla has 30-35 teeth and each dentary exhibits 30-38 teeth.

  10. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Simona Cuciureanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The global economy plays an important role in the development of a region or a county/district as it promotes the exploitation of resources and space in a logical and rational manner. The trend of global economic uniformity allows opportunities and risks to Botoșani County since globalization involves economic development and rising living standards, but loss of cultural values, traditions and customs. The area of study currently confronts with socio-economic and demographic changes that may be addressed by globalization, but at the same time spatial development according to global standards will cause the loss of Botoșani County’s authenticity.

  11. Relationship between resolution enhancement and multiphoton absorption rate in quantum lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei

    2007-01-01

    The proposal of quantum lithography [Boto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000)] is studied via a rigorous formalism. It is shown that, contrary to Boto et al.'s heuristic claim, the multiphoton absorption rate of a (|N,0>+|0,N>) quantum state is actually lower than that of a classical state with otherwise identical parameters. The proof-of-concept experiment of quantum lithography [D'Angelo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001)] is also analyzed in terms of the proposed formalism, an...

  12. Quantum interferometric optical lithography towards arbitrary two-dimensional patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, P; Abrams, D S; Williams, C P; Braunstein, S L; Dowling, J P; Kok, Pieter; Boto, Agedi N.; Abrams, Daniel S; Williams, Colin P.; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2001-01-01

    As demonstrated by Boto et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000)], quantum lithography offers an increase in resolution below the diffraction limit. Here, we generalize this procedure in order to create patterns in one and two dimensions. This renders quantum lithography a potentially useful tool in nano-technology.

  13. Comportamento do boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénédén (Cetacea, Delphinidae na presença de barcos de turismo na Praia de Pipa, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Behavior of estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénédén (Cetacea, Delphinidae in the presence of tourist boats in Pipa Beach, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Santos-Jr

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente indústria do turismo tem se estendido ao ambiente aquático, deste modo tornando os mamíferos aquáticos suscetíveis a interações com humanos. O turismo de observação de golfinhos na praia de Pipa litoral sul do Rio Grande do Norte, tem se desenvolvido aumentando o número de barcos de observação de golfinhos operando nesta área. No presente estudo alterações comportamentais do Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénédén, 1864 causado pela presença destes barcos foi verificada. Registros comportamentais de S. guianensis foram compilados de um ponto fixo do alto de uma falésia próxima à área de estudo. As observações foram realizadas quando não havia barcos, na presença de barcos e após a saída dos barcos. Os resultados mostraram que o tipo de aproximação praticado pelos barcos de observação de golfinhos tinha maior influência no comportamento dos animais, especialmente em grupos com filhotes. Os impactos de curto prazo foram mais discretos, no entanto, novos métodos devem ser aplicados no sentido de verificar impactos de longo prazo no comportamento dos golfinhos.The ever-increasing tourist industry has extended to the aquatic environments, thus making the aquatic mammals susceptible to interactions with humans. Dolphin watching tourism has developed to a great extent in the Pipa Beach, Rio Grande do Norte, consequently the number of dolphin-watching boats operating in this area has increased. In the present study the behavioral alterations of Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénédén, 1864 caused by the presence of these boats were verified. Behavioral registers of S. guianensis were compiled from a fixed point on the cliffs close to the study area. The observations were effected when there were no boats, in the presence of boats and after the departure of boats. The results show that type of approach by the dolphin watching boats had a major influence on the behavior of the dolphins, especially so in the groups with calves. The short term impacts were rather discrete, however, new methods should be applied in order to verify the long term impacts on the dolphins.

  14. Review of lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like disease (LLD) in Cetacea from South America. Scientific Committee document SC/60/DW13, International Whaling Commission, June 2008, Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Siciliano, S.; Van Bressem, M.-F.; Moreno, I.B.; Ott, P.H.; Tavares, M.; Flores, P.A.C.; Flach, L.; Reyes, J C; M. Echegaray; Santos, M.C.O.; Viddi, F.; Crespo, E.A.; Klaich, M.J.; Félix, F; Sanino, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Caused by a yeast-like organism known as Lacazia loboi, Lobomycosis (or lacaziosis) naturally affects humans, common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) inhabiting coastal waters from southern Brazil to Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast of Florida, as well as botos-cinza (Sotalia guianensis). These species are usually found in coastal waters, subject to runoff provided by large rivers and a considerable burden of associated contaminants. Histological and morphological studies demonstrate...

  15. Novel method of generating non-human transgenic animals, and transgenic animals thus obtained

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura Oliveira, Pedro Nuno; GUTIÉRREZ-ADÁN, Alfonso; Montoliu, Lluís

    2005-01-01

    Fecha de presentación internacional: 04.04.2005. - Titulares: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)

  16. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  18. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. PMID:27289193

  19. Aspectos histológicos do trato digestivo de Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae: esôfago e estômago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da C. Chaves

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Os esôfagos e estômagos de seis botos tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae foram examinados anatômica e microscopicamente e comparados com os de botos marinhos do mesmo gênero. O esôfago é um simples tubo distensível e macroscopicamente uniforme até sua junção com o estômago. Este boto tem um estômago tricompartimentado: uma parte anterior ou muscular; uma principal, glandular; e uma pilórica. As características anatomo-funcionais de cada compartimento são descritas. Não se achou esfíncter entre o esôfago e o estômago. Em comparação com os delfinídeos marinhos, não há adaptações, por parte de Sotalia, à invasão relativamente recente do ambiente de água doce.The oesophagus and stomachs of six tucuxi dolphins, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae were examined anatomically and microscopically and compared with marine dolphins of the same genus. The oesophagus is a simple distendable tube and is macroscopically uniform to its junctureh with te stomach. This dolphin has a three-compartmented stomach: an anterior or muscular compartment; a principal one, which is glandular; and the pyloric part. The anatomical and functional characteristics of each compartment is described. No sphincter was found between the oesophagus and the stomach. In comparison with marine delphinids there are no adaptations specific to the relatively recent invasion of the fresh-water environment by Sotalia.

  20. Python and AWS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garnaat, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    If you intend to use Amazon Web Services (AWS) for remote computing and storage, Python is an ideal programming language for developing applications and controlling your cloud-based infrastructure. This cookbook gets you started with more than two dozen recipes for using Python with AWS, based on the author's boto library. You'll find detailed recipes for working with the S3 storage service as well as EC2, the service that lets you design and build cloud applications. Each recipe includes a code solution you can use immediately, along with a discussion of why and how the recipe works. You al

  1. New $B^{\\pm}\\to K\\pi$ data explain absence of CP violation Tree-penguin interference canceled by Pauli effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry J

    2011-01-01

    Observation of CP violation in $B^o\\to K^\\pm\\pi^{\\mp}$ decays and its absence in $B^+\\to K^+\\pi^o$ decays are explained in new improved data analysis of more precise $B\\to K\\pi$ data. Success of the "Lipkin Sum Rule" indicates that four $B\\tow K\\pi$ branching ratios are determined by three parameters, the penguin diagram $P$ and two interference terms $P\\cdot T$ and $P\\cdot S$ between the dominant penguin and two tree diagrams; the color-favored and color suppressed diagrams. Previous analyzes confirmed the model with errors leaving values of interference terms less that two standard deviations from zero. The observation CP violation in $B^o\\to K^\\pm\\pi^{\\mp}$ decays indicates a finite value for $P\\cdot T$. New precise data analysis show $P\\cdot T$ and $P\\cdot S$ interference contributions well above errors. Their contributions to $B^\\pm\\to K\\pi$ decays are shown to be nearly equal with opposite phase and cancel within experimental errors. This cancelation unexpected in previous analyzes explains the failure ...

  2. Molecular epidemiology of zoonotic streptococcosis/lactococcosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsidani, S. Haghighi; Soltani, M.; Nikbakhat-Brojeni, G.;

    2010-01-01

    available data."nResults: 49 samples (45.37%) were identified as Streptococcus iniae, 37 samples (35.2%) matched with Lactococcus garvieae; and 22 samples (19.43%) were identified as members of Streptooccus genus by culture-based and biochemical tests of API 50 CH, API 20 STREP and rapid 32 STREP systems...... phylogenetic analysis of the S. iniae isolates resulted in maximal similarity to some strains reported from Taiwan and to all Brazilian strains. Also, one strain showed less sequence similarity values with other tested strains although this strain has high similarity with ATCC 29178 strain, all reported...

  3. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  4. El agua en la agricultura: gestión y uso sostenibles

    OpenAIRE

    Aragüés Lafarga, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    1 fichero .pdf (31 Pags.) copia de la presentación original del autor en el Seminario. Esta Presentación es Síntesis de la conferencia impartida en el VII encuentro del foro de los INIA de Iberoamérica el 30 de junio de 2008 en Huesca.

  5. Parasitism enhances susceptibility to bacterial infection in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrodactylus is a small elongate monogenetic parasite that mainly lives on the skin and gills of freshwater fish. Gyrodactylus causes mechanical injuries on fish epithelium that can lead to fish mortality under crowded conditions. Streptococcus iniae is a severe bacterial pathogen and the economic l...

  6. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  7. Electrodeposición y caracterización de láminas de Cu2C.Aplicación como electrodos de baterías de ión-litio

    OpenAIRE

    Bijani Chiquero, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    El trabajo que se expone en la presente tesis doctoral tiene por objetivo la electrodeposición y posterior caracterización de láminas de Cu2O puro para la obtención de electrodos negativos de baterías de ión-litio de 3 V y capacidades específicas superiores a 300 A·h·kg-1. Esta tesis optimiza electrodos para el diseño de baterías prototipo de ión-litiotipo botón, demostrando que éstas, que son de gran aplicabilidad comercial, pueden ser fabricadas utilizando métodos sencillos y e...

  8. Isolation and characterization of bacteria with antibacterial properties from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemez, Miray; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and screened for antagonistic activity and adherence abilities. Based on in vitro antagonism against two pathogens (Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella piscicida), five isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All antagonistic isolates were affiliated to the genus Bacillus, which showed inhibitory activity against S. iniae. Only the isolate B191 (closely related to Bacillus mojavensis) inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Moreover, isolate B191 adhered significantly better to fish intestinal mucus than other antagonistic isolates. According to our results, these bacterial isolates, particularly isolate B191, should be further studied to explore their probiotic effects under in vivo conditions. PMID:27033910

  9. Papildai, kuriais prekiaujama Lietuvoje - atitiktis teisės aktų nuostatoms, vartotojų nuomonės analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Prazarkevičiūtė, Virginija

    2014-01-01

    Darbo tikslas – įvertinti Lietuvos rinkoje parduodamų maisto papildų ženklinimo atitiktį teisės aktams bei vartotojų nuomonę apie maisto papildus. Rengiant darbą buvo iškelti uždaviniai: 1. Apibendrinti NMVRVI atliekamus maisto papildų tyrimus. 2. Išanalizuoti vartotojų žinias apie maisto papildus. Per darbo rašymo laikotarpį buvo vykdoma anoniminė, internetinė apklausa, kurios pagalba buvo norėta išsiaiškinti vartotojų žinias apie maisto papildus, bei kokią įtaką jų pasirinkimui turi sveikat...

  10. Rajono ligoninės medicinos personalo požiūris į kokybės vadybos sistemą ir jos tobulinimą įstaigoje

    OpenAIRE

    Vincevičienė, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Darbo tikslas: Įvertinti ligoninės medicinos personalo požiūrį į kokybės vadybos sistemą ir jos tobulinimo galimybes įstaigoje. Uždaviniai: 1. Įvertinti ligoninės medicinos personalo žinias apie kokybės vadybos sistemą ir jos tobulinimo galimybes. 2. Nustatyti medicinos personalo požiūrį į dalyvavimą kokybės vadybos dokumentų rengimo procese. 3. Palyginti gydytojų ir slaugytojų žinias apie kokybės vadybos sistemą ir pasirengimą dalyvauti jos sertifikavime. Tyrimo metodika. Tyri...

  11. Estudio de la diversidad de plantas vasculares del sistema agroforestal dehesa y de otros usos del suelo en los municipios de Barcarrota y Olivenza (Badajoz)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Olivera, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Estudio en colaboración con el grupo de trabajo de ecología del paisaje del CIFOR-INIA enmarcado en el proyecto "El sistema agroforestal dehesa como sumidero de carbono: hacia un modelo conjunto de la vegetación y el suelo". Mediante el inventario con marcelas multiescalares, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies de plantas vasculares a las distintas tipologías o usos del suelo proporcionadas por el MFE50, entre otros objetivos.

  12. Evolution of river dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, H; Caballero, S.; Collins, A. G.; Brownell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeog...

  13. Characterization and identification of streptococci from golden pompano in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X H; Peng, Y H; Wang, Z C; Huang, T; Xiong, X Y; Huang, Y C; Wang, B; Xu, L W; Wu, Z H

    2016-05-26

    Streptococcal infections cause significant mortality and high economic losses in the fish farm industry worldwide, including in the culture of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus L., a species gaining popularity in China. A total of 9 streptococcal strains were isolated from cage-cultured diseased golden pompano in Beihai, Zhanjing, and Shenzhen, China, between 2012 and 2014. Conventional and rapid identification systems were used to determine that the isolates were Streptococcus agalactiae, S. iniae, and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. All isolates were gram-positive cocci cells in pairs or short-chain, non-motile, catalase negative, α or β hemolytic cocci. The results of multiplex PCR assays and 16S rRNA BLAST analysis also showed that the β hemolytic strains were S. agalactiae and S. iniae and the α hemolytic strain was S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, respectively. Pathogenicity assays revealed that S. agalactiae (lethal dose [LD50]: 6.38 × 10(4) CFU ml(-1)) was more virulent for golden pompano than S. iniae (LD50: 1.47 × 10(7) CFU ml(-1)) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (LD50: 2.57 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)) when they were challenged by intraperiotoneal (i.p.) injection. The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed that all strains were extremely susceptible to cefradine, erythromycin, and cefotaxime but resistant to gentamicin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, roxithromycin, furazolidone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, kanamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin This is the first report of a phenomenon of golden pompano coinfection with S. agalactiae and S. iniae, which will contribute to the diagnosis and prevention of streptococcicosis. PMID:27225204

  14. Cold tolerance evaluation in Chilean rice genotypes at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Donoso Ñanculao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the most important abiotic stress affecting rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Chile. Rice in Chile is usually planted when the minimum air temperatures are below 12 °C. This temperature is lower than the optimum needed for normal rice germination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cold tolerance in 20 experimental lines from the Rice Breeding Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, at the germination stage. Coleoptile length reduction (CRED, coleoptile length after cold treatment (CLEN, coleoptile length recovery (CREC, and coleoptile regrowth (CREG were evaluated at 13 °C for 4 d using 'Diamante-INIA' as the cold-tolerant control. To find genotypes with cold tolerance (low CRED value and high CLEN, CREC, and CREG values, genotypes were ranked, a biplot of principal components, and cluster analysis were performed. No differences were found among genotypes in the ranking based on CREC value so this trait was not considered. Analysis showed that only three experimental lines had cold tolerance similar to that of 'Diamante-INIA'; all other experimental lines exhibited intermediate to low cold tolerance. These results showed low cold tolerance of some Chilean genotypes at the germination stage, thus confirming the need to evaluate the rest of the germplasm from the Rice Breeding Program.

  15. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis displaying beach hunting behavior in the Cananéia Estuary, Brazil: social context and conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    procura e captura de alimento em praias (“beach hunting” exibido por botos-cinza (Sotalia guianensis no Estuário de Cananéia (EC (25ºS, 48ºW, um estudo baseado na aplicação da técnica de foto-identificação foi conduzido de maio de 2000 a julho de 2003. Três plataformas de observação a foram escolhidas na principal entrada do mencionado estuário, onde os pesquisadores encontram uma oportunidade ímpar de observar os botos a uma pequena distância sem incomodá-los. As observações foram oportunísticas e desigualmente distribuídas ao longo do tempo e do espaço. Adicionadas às observações de identificação individual, uma balestra de 80lbs de pressão foi utilizada para coletar amostras de pele de oito indivíduos monitorados com vistas à determinação do sexo. Em 67 dias de investigação, que renderam aproximadamente 80h de observações diretas dos botos, 4.102 fotografias foram tomadas, das quais 1.098 (26,8% foram consideradas úteis para o propósito de identificação individual. Um total de 103 grupos foi observado (3,7 ± 2,6 indivíduos, variando entre botos solitários e 15 indivíduos. Pares de fêmeas e filhotes foram observados em 92,4% dos grupos investigados. Apresenta-se a primeira notificação de intervalo de nascimento de um filhote para o EC: aproximadamente 3 anos e 9 meses. De 40 indivíduos identificados ao menos uma vez, onze usaram regularmente as praias: fêmeas KN #s 10, 30, 255, 268 e 279; machos KN #s 86 e 257; e quatro indivíduos de sexo desconhecido. As características das associações entre os indivíduos monitorados foram avaliadas através das análises de índices de associação. Um total de 83 associações possíveis entre pares de botos foi analisado utilizando o índice de peso médio e dois critérios de seleção (5+ e 8+ avistamentos/indivíduo. A média dos índices de associação variou entre 0,12 e 0,16 evidenciando laços fracos entre os indivíduos monitorados, cuja maioria foi composta por f

  16. A doctoral thesis about Carol Davila written in Paris in 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozea, Liliana; Dumitrascu, Dinu I; Triff, Dorin; Leasu, Florin; Dumitraşcu, Dan L

    2014-01-01

    Carol Davila, the father of the Romanian modern medicine, made decisive contributions to the development of health sciences in the Romanian Principalities in the last decades of the nineteenth century. The merit of his scientific work was recognized beyond the borders of his country. His life (not devoid of anecdotic instances and unknown episodes) and especially his work have aroused considerable interest among numerous medical historians. This paper presents a historical study elaborated in France, but until recently ignored, dedicated to the biography of Carol Davila. It concerns the medical doctoral thesis (State Diploma) elaborated by Joseph Adler (born 1910 in Botoşani, Romania) under the supervision of professor Maxime Laignel-Lavastine, whose interest in Romania is well-known. Professor Laignel-Lavastine held the office of Secretary General of the International Society of History of Medicine (ISHM), founded in 1921, (replaced in this position by another French professor with links to Romania: Jules Guiart). The thesis comprises 48 pages and an exhaustive bibliography. It represents a token of the appreciation given to Davila's achievements by Europe's medical community. PMID:26527997

  17. Percepţii ale inginerilor silvici asupra vulnerabilităţilor şi riscurilor ecosistemelor forestiere în contextul schimbărilor climatice [Perceptions of forestry engineers on vulnerabilities and risks of forest ecosystems to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mutu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing recent literature argues that the adaptation to the climate change depends on the perceptions that the stakeholders have on potential effects of the climate change and the possibilities to counteract these effects. This study focuses on forestry engineers’ perceptions on climate changes and adapting measures. A number of 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest engineers from three counties in North-Eastern Romania (Suceava, Neamţ and Botoşani. The results show that the forest engineers perceived as climate change-related vulnerabilities: the occurrence of drought, the risk of increased windfall, and the insects attacks. However, the climate change-related risk is ranked only as a fifth threat on forest ecosystems stability, far behind the political control over forest administration and law implementation, incoherence of the legislative frame, un-appropriate legislation for private forests and illegal logging. We conclude that climate change adaptation is not a priority of forest management, which is correlated with the fact that more than half of the respondents estimates the impact of climate change on forests as being small or moderate, while one third of the respondents clearly manifest the preference for non-adapting behavior.

  18. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO EARLY BLIZZARD EVENTS OCCURRED IN ROMANIA DURING THE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIURLĂU DORUȚA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The blizzard is the most complex phenomenon that usually occurs during the winter season, the time period between December and February. But, in some specific synoptic conditions, blizzards can occur in November or even March, Moldovan (2003. An early blizzard episode that occurs in October it is an extreme event with severe consequences over people, environment and agriculture. In Romania, since the first synoptic observations are made, the earliest blizzard phenomenon was recorded on October 21, 1931 at Dorohoi (Botoșani County–North Romania and another one on October 22, 1938 at Sinaia (Prahova County–South-East Romania. At Bucharest the earliest blizzard phenomenon was recorded on October 27, 1912, Bălescu and Beșleagă (1962. In southeastern Romania, the third decade of October 2014 was marked by the Arctic perturbation over Europe and that’s why on October 25 was triggered the winter specific phenomenon - blizzard. The time duration of the phenomenon was only 5 to 8 hours, but its consequences over environment and society were significant-the impact on military aviation that could not operate on that day and also the impact on agriculture (cultures with unfinished cycle of vegetation. In this paper is presented a comparison between two early blizzard events: the one in October 1912 and the one in October 2014, using the synoptic interpretation for both cases.

  19. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  20. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of ‘river dolphins’ in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O’Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called ‘river dolphins’ are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic ‘river dolphin’ lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1–5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  1. Evidence of vertical transmission and tissue tropism of Streptococcosis from naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is a highly problematic disease in the aquaculture of freshwater fishes, especially for tilapia. The possibility of vertical transmission of streptococcosis and the pattern of tissue tropism of this pathogen in various organs was examined in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Healthy broodstock without any clinical signs of Streptococcus spp. were selected from a farm earlier reported to have the disease and a total of 10 pairs were forced spawned to provide samples of gametes and progeny for pathogen testing. A colorimetric LAMP assay was used to confirm whether the bacterial pathogens Streptococcus. agalactiae and Streptococcus. iniae was present in samples of milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, and offspring at various stages of development, as well as internal organs of broodstock (reproductive organs, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain as well as samples of water from culture systems. The majority of samples of milt (9/10 and unfertilized eggs (7/10 collected from the broodstock were infected with S. iniae at the time of spawning and was transmitted to all of their offspring. Nevertheless, when the same samples of gametes were analyzed for S. agalactiae, they were all found to be negative but the pathogen was found to be present in some 10-day-old larval offspring (4/10. However, when the pathogenic presence was analyzed from the reproductive organs of the parents, both S. agalactiae (11/20 and S. iniae (18/20 bacterium were common. Although, all broodstock were asymptomatic, almost all broodstock harboured the bacteria in many organs. Confirmation of vertical transmission of streptococcosis in tilapia means that intergenerational break cannot be used as a reliable and simple means of reducing or eliminating the prevalence of these difficult pathogens in aquaculture stock.

  2. Identificación de Cultivares y Líneas de Mejoramiento de Arroz de Chile Mediante Amplificación de Fragmentos Polimórficos (AFLP) Identification of Chilean Rice Cultivars And Breeding Lines by Means of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Aguirre; Roberto Alvarado; Patricio Hinrichsen

    2005-01-01

    Doce cultivares y líneas de arroz (Oryza sativa L.) desarrollados por el programa de fitomejoramiento del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, fueron caracterizados genéticamente mediante amplificación de fragmentos polimórficos (AFLP). De 21 combinaciones ensayadas, sólo 16 fueron informativas, generando un total de 667 amplicones, 94 de ellos polimórficos (14,4%), con un rango entre 9 y 33% de polimorfismo por combinación. Esto indic...

  3. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Paredes, Javier; Condemayta Condemayta, Zacarias; Calle Charaja, Leoncio

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de ...

  4. Identificación de Cultivares y Líneas de Mejoramiento de Arroz de Chile Mediante Amplificación de Fragmentos Polimórficos (AFLP Identification of Chilean Rice Cultivars And Breeding Lines by Means of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Doce cultivares y líneas de arroz (Oryza sativa L. desarrollados por el programa de fitomejoramiento del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, fueron caracterizados genéticamente mediante amplificación de fragmentos polimórficos (AFLP. De 21 combinaciones ensayadas, sólo 16 fueron informativas, generando un total de 667 amplicones, 94 de ellos polimórficos (14,4%, con un rango entre 9 y 33% de polimorfismo por combinación. Esto indica que el material manejado por el programa de INIA presenta un bajo nivel de diversidad genética comparado tanto con germoplasma silvestre de la especie como con aquel usado por otros programas de fitomejoramiento de la especie. Los amplicones polimórficos detectados se usaron para preparar un dendrograma de distancias genéticas, detectándose cuatro grupos diferenciablesque sólo coinciden parcialmente con la información disponible de sus pedigrís. A pesar de la baja diversidad genética detectada, se determinó que con el uso de tres combinaciones de partidores de AFLP+3 (PE1G/PM1I, PE1H/PM1A y PE1G/PM1H es posible discriminar entre los cultivares estudiados.Twelve rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars and breeding lines developed by the Rice Breeding Program at the National Institute of Agriculture Research (INIA,Quilamapu Regional ResearchCenter, were genetically characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Sixteen of 21 primer combinations evaluated were informative, generating a total of 667 amplicons, 94 of them polymorphic (14.4%, with a range between 9 to 33% of polymorphism per primer combination. This indicates that the material handled by the breeding program at INIA has low genetic diversity in comparison to wild germplasm of the species, or even compared to the material managed by other rice breeding programs. The detected polymorphic amplicons were used to prepare a dendrogram of the genetic distances, detecting four

  5. Ensaios comparativos de cultivares de trigo em diferentes regiões paulistas no biênio 1979/80 Comparative trials of wheat cultivars in southern State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o comportamento de cultivares de trigo recomendados para solos com ou sem alumínio nocivo na camada arável, juntamente com outros cultivares comerciais, foram realizados vários ensaios nas regiões tritícolas paulistas no biênio 1979/80. Nos experimentos em solos com alumínio, somente 'IAC-21' e 'BR-4' apresentaram produções médias superiores à testemunha 'BH-1146', enquanto nos solos sem alumínio os cultivares Tucano, Anahuac, El Pato, Mitacoré, Aracatu, Sema 220, MR 74042 e MR 74501 alcançaram as melhores médias de produção. Entre os cultivares comerciais testados, IAC-13, INIA-66, Itapua-5, PAT-24, IAC-17, IAC-5, BH-1146 e Tobari-66 revelaram as melhores produções, variando de acordo com a região. De maneira geral, em condições de campo, os cultivares PAT-24, IAC-13, INIA-66, CNT-8, Alondra, MR-74044, MR 74501 e Sparrow "S" apresentaram os menores índices de infecção de Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Com relação à ferrugem da folha (P. recondita, os cultivares IAPAR-1 (Mitacoré, IAPAR-3 (Aracatu, Alondra e CNT-8 tiveram os mais baixos índices de infecção.A study was made on the performance of wheat cultivars tolerant, non tolerant to aluminum toxicity and commercial cultivars in several regions of State of São Paulo, during the cropping season of 1979 and 1980. In the trials of cultivars for soils with Al3+ only the cultivars IAC-21 and BR-4 were superior to the control BH-1146 in yield in the studied biennium. In the tests of cultivars for soils without Al3+, Tucano, Anahuac, SEMA 220, El Pato, Mitacoré, Aracatu, MR-74042 and MR-74501 were higher in yield than the control. In 1979/80, the cultivars IAC-13, INIA-66, Itapua-5, PAT-24, IAC-17, IAC-5, BH-1146 and Tobari-66 showed superior performance for yield. In a general way, the cultivars PAT-24, IAC-13, INIA-66, CNT-8, Alondra, MR-74044, MR-74501 and Sparrow "S" showed resistance to prevalent races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

  6. Comunicación y visibilidad institucional: el trabajo comunicativo en los institutos nacionales de investigación agropecuaria de Centro América

    OpenAIRE

    Villeda Izaguirre, Miriam Lizeth

    2015-01-01

    Centro América tiene más de 44.6 millones de habitantes, de estos la mitad es pobre y un poco más de un cuarto (26.8%) vive en extrema pobreza, siendo más afectados los del área rural que básicamente se dedican a la agricultura. El reto de incrementar la productividad agropecuaria y asegurar la alimentación de esta población lo enfrentan los Institutos Nacionales de Investigación Agropecuaria, (INIA), que entre sus dependencias en la estructura organizacional para su intervención cuentan con ...

  7. TOLERANCIA DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) A APLICACIONES POST TRASPLANTE DEL HERBICIDA HALOSULFURON-METIL Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) tolerance to post transplant applications of the herbicide halosulfuron-methyl

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ormeño N; Francisco Fuentes V.; Verónica Soffia C.

    2003-01-01

    Durante la temporada 1998/99 en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) (33º34’ lat. Sur, 70º38’ long. Oeste, 625 m.s.n.m.), en un suelo franco-arcilloso, se realizaron ensayos para determinar la tolerancia de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) de los cultivares industriales H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410 y cultivares de consumo fresco Cal Ace y XPH-12221 a aplicaciones de post trasplante de halosulfurón-metil (Sempra® 75 WG) en ...

  8. Noves tècniques serològiques per detectar anticossos enfront el circovirus porcí

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martín, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Des del Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CRESA), amb la col·laboració del Departament de Biotecnologia de l’INIA, s’han desenvolupat dos nous tests serològics (ELISAs) per detectar anticossos del circovirus, l’agent responsable de moltes de les malalties que pateix l’espècie porcina. Aquestes dues noves tècniques es basen en proteïnes recombinants expressades en larves de l’insecte Trichoplusia ni. Per incrementar el rendiment d’aquestes proteïnes, les larves han estat inoculades amb bacu...

  9. EcoLogic Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Šeikienė, Nijolė

    2008-01-01

    Mokymo priemonė skirta aplinkos apsaugos studijų programos studentams. Ją sudaro abėcėliniai tekstų rinkinėliai, atrinkta ir paryškinta specialybinė leksika bei įvairūs įtvirtinamieji pratimai. Knygos pabaigoje spausdinami testai ir tekstai geresniam žodyno suvokimui bei turtinimui. Medžiaga atspindi šiandienines aktualijas, ji gali būti naudinga kiekvienam, norinčiam pagilinti anglų kalbos žinias ekologine tematika. The EcoLogic Reader is an educational book for students of ecology. It pr...

  10. CLONACIÓN Y FILOGENIA MOLECULAR DE UN SEGMENTO DEL GEN CODANTE DE LA ACTINA DE MYRCIARIA DUBIA “CAMU-CAMU”: UN CANDIDATO PARA GEN DE REFERENCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castro Gómez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Alina Egoavil Reátegui; Roberson Ramírez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa; Pedro Adrianzen Julca; Jorge Marapara del Águila

    2012-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu” es un frutal amazónico caracterizado por su amplia variación de vitamina C. Pero los estudios genético moleculares que puedan explicar esta variación son limitados. Por ello nuestro objetivo fue realizar la clonación y filogenia molecular de un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de la colección de germoplasma del INIA. Luego, el ARN fue purificado y mediante RT-PCR con cebadores degenerados se amplificó un segmento del ...

  11. Potassium and Phosphorus in Muscat Rosada Grape Yield in Elqui Valley Soil Fósforo y Potasio en la Producción de Vid Moscatel Rosada, en Suelo del Valle de Elqui

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sierra B; Rubén Alfaro P

    2008-01-01

    The effects of P and K on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) var. Muscat Rosada were evaluated four years, considering the same levels of N. The experiment was conducted at the Vicuña Experimental Station (30° S; 70°44´ W) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA). The soil is alluvial antropic miscellaneous (Entisols). Three fertilization treatments were established: 1) N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 300; 2) N 160 + P2O5 0 + K2O 300; and 3) N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 0. At the beginning of th...

  12. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang;

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... inclusion level of 1% and higher (2% group compared to the control). Inhibitory activity of the skin mucus against pathogens, particularly Streptococcus iniae and Yersinia ruckeri, was significantly improved following prebiotic feeding. Taken together, dietary inclusion of GroBiotic®-A promoted growth...

  13. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Correa Meléndez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Roberson Ramirez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa; Juan Castro Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, ...

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE Bombus dahlbomii (GUÉR.) COMO AGENTE POLINIZADOR DE FLORES DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum (MILL)), BAJO CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO Evaluation of Bombus dahlbomii (Guér.) as a pollinating agent for tomato flowers under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Estay P.; Adrian Wagner V.; Moisés Escaff G.

    2001-01-01

    Durante el período estival de 1998, en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) (33º 34’ lat. Sur, 70º 38’ long. Oeste), se evaluó el abejorro nativo de Chile Bombus dahlbomii (Guér) como agente polinizador del tomate cultivado Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill). El material entomológico se obtuvo a partir de nidos naturales, los cuales se reinstalaron en colmenas artificiales. Los abejorros fueron liberados en un invernade...

  15. The timing of leaf flush in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robson, T.M.; Ricardo, A.; Bozic, G.; Clark, J.; Forstreuter, M.; Gömöry, D.; Liesebach, M.; Mertens, P.; Raszovits, E.; Zitová, Martina; Wühlisch, G.v.

    Carretera de La Coruña: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, 2011, s. 61-79. (Monografías inia. Serie forestal. 22). ISBN 978-84-7498-532-0. ISSN 1575-6106. [Proceedings of the COST E52 Final Meeting. Burgos (ES), 04.05.2010-06.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : spring phenology * bud-burst * range shift * provenance trials * temperature sum model * clines * glacial refugia Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  16. MEJORAMIENTO DEL PORCENTAJE DE PROTEÍNA EN MAIZ PARA ENSILAJE CON EL AUMENTO Y PARCIALIZACIÓN DE LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA Improvement of protein percentage in corn silage with an increase in and partitioning of nitrogen fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Soto O.; Ernesto Jahn B; Susana Arredondo S

    2004-01-01

    En suelos arcillosos de mal drenaje se realizaron dos ensayos con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de maíz (Zea mays L.) para ensilaje a la aplicación de N en el rendimiento y contenido de proteína del forraje. En el Ensayo 1 los tratamientos correspondieron a dos híbridos de maíz para ensilaje de distinta precocidad, SX-43 e INIA-150, sembrados con una población de 90.000 plantas ha-1 y cuatro dosis de N: 0, 100, 200 y 400 kg N ha-1. En el Ensayo 2, los tratamientos fueron dos dosis de...

  17. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Becerra V; Mario Paredes C.; Carmen Rojo M; Andrés France I

    2007-01-01

    Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel...

  18. Biochemistry Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Streptococcus from Tilapia in Guangxi%广西罗非鱼链球菌病病原的生化鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 陈明; 李莉萍; 陈汉忠; 徐增辉; 李超; 黄维义; 梁万文

    2008-01-01

    从来自南宁、北海等地的十几个暴发疾病的罗非鱼养殖场发病罗非鱼中,分离得到了8株链球菌.通过生化鉴定及药敏试验,结果表明,分离到的8株致病性链球菌,有6株为海豚链球菌(streptococcus iniae),2株为无乳链球菌(streptococcus agalactiae).

  19. 常见病害防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 罗非鱼链球菌病 病原:无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae),海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)也可以引起罗非鱼大量死亡,但危害程度不如无乳链球菌.链球菌是一种革兰氏阳性、非酸性、无运动氧化酶阳性、过氧化氢酶阳性的菌.

  20. Altruizmas ir jaunimo altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksniai

    OpenAIRE

    Lileikis, Saulius

    2004-01-01

    Straipsnyje atskleisti altruizmo koncepcijos ištakų bei raidos momentai ir, remiantis dorovinės pozicijos koncepcija, kuri implikuoja žinias apie dorovines vertybes, dorovinius požiūrius ir su jais susijusius išgyvenimus, siekius realizuoti dorovines vertybes ir konkrečių veiksmų sąveiką, ištirta jaunimo pozicija jų altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksnių atžvilgiu. The present article analyzes the beginning and development of conception of altruism. on the ground of conception of the moral positio...

  1. El CITA estudia la importancia de la alimentación en rumiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Area de Información, Documentación y Cultura Científica. Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón

    2014-01-01

    El Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón, organismo adscrito al Departamento de Industria e Innovación del Gobierno de Aragón, trabaja en el proyecto “Efecto de compuestos fenólicos de la dieta sobre los parámetros productivos, reproductivos y de calidad de la canal y de la carne en la especie ovina”, financiado por el Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA).

  2. Efficiency and environmental indexes to evaluate the sustainability of mineral and organic fertilization in an irrigated melon crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Melon is traditionally cultivated in fertigated farmlands in the center of Spain with high inputs of water and N fertilizer. Excess N can have a negative impact, from the economic point of view, since it can diminish the production and quality of the fruit, from the environmental point of view, since it is a very mobile element in the soil and can contaminate groundwater. From health point of view, nitrate can be accumulated in fruit pulp, and, in addition, groundwater is the fundamental supply source of human populations. Best management practices are particularly necessary in this region as many zones have been declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution (Directive 91/676/CEE) During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers under drip irrigation. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. The present study reviews the most common N efficiency indexes [1] under the different management options with a view to maximizing yield and minimizing N loss. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. [1] Castellanos, M., Tarquis, A., Ribas, F., Cabello, M., Arce, A., & Cartagena, M. (2013). Nitrogen fertigation: An integrated agronomic and environmental study. Agricultural Water Management, 120, 46-55.

  3. Transmission and pathology of Streptococcus inane in monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in aquaculture of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen, recently emergent outbreaks were recorded in commercially cultured monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus result in significant losses termed “streptococcosis”-causes unusual appearances with multi-focal pin-point haemorrhages, abscesses, necrosis and ascites in skin, fin, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, blood, interstitial fluid specially in central nervous system and brain. This disease was more prevalent (>26% at summer when the water temperature was approximately >25oC, percentage of mortality was higher >41% during the overcrowding and improper water chemistry. Raised levels of glucose and ammonium in blood serum causes reduced number of free blood cells released into the haemolymph to stomach and gut, result in refrain from eating in diseased tilapia. Stocking density (200 fish/decimal; class IV had significant effect (P<0.01 on the total production (5,000 to 5,500 kg/ha. S. iniae in the circulating blood cells, extra-tubular haemal spaces containing blood vessels, fixed phagocytes in the hepatopancreas (gastrointestinal tract, bacteria-like particles in the brain tissue, vacuum and necrosis in hepatocytes revealed with histopathology. In vitro study revealed that cohabitation of dead or infected fish with healthy fish resulted infection (horizontal transmission mechanism to the healthy fish.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of TLR2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengqiao; Su, Baofeng; Gao, Chengbin; Zhou, Shun; Song, Lin; Tan, Fenghua; Dong, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yichao; Li, Chao

    2016-08-01

    The pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which can recognize the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the bacteria, play key roles in the mucosal surfaces for pathogen recognition and activation of immune signaling pathways. However, our understanding of the PRRs and their activities in mucosal surfaces in the critical early time points during pathogen infection is still limited. Towards to this end, here, we sought to identify the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in turbot as well as its expression profiles in mucosal barriers following bacterial infection in the early time points. The full-length TLR2 transcript consists of open reading frame (ORF) of 2451 bp encoding the putative peptide of 816 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the turbot TLR2 showed the closest relationship to Paralichthys olivaceus. The TLR2 mRNA expression could be detected in all examined tissues, with the most abundant expression level in liver, and the lowest expression level in skin. In addition, TLR2 showed different expression patterns following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae infection, but was up-regulated following both challenge, especially post S. iniae challenge. Characterization of TLR2 will probably contribute to understanding of a number of infectious diseases and broaden the knowledge of interactions between host and pathogen, which will eventually help in the development of novel intervention strategies for farming turbot. PMID:27368539

  5. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  6. A prebiotic role of Ecklonia cava improves the mortality of Edwardsiella tarda-infected zebrafish models via regulating the growth of lactic acid bacteria and pathogen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Kil-Nam; Ahn, Ginnae; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the beneficial prebiotic roles of Ecklonia cava (E. cava, EC) were evaluated on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pathogen bacteria and the mortality of pathogen-bacteria infected zebrafish model. The result showed that the original E. cava (EC) led to the highest growth effects on three LABs (Lactobacillus brevis, L. brevis; Lactobacillus pentosus, L. pentosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; L. plantarum) and it was dose-dependent manners. Also, EC, its Celluclast enzymatic (ECC) and 100% ethanol extracts (ECE) showed the anti-bacterial activities on the fish pathogenic bacteria such as (Edwardsiella tarda; E. tarda, Streptococcus iniae; S. iniae, and Vibrio harveyi; V. harveyi). Interestingly, EC induced the higher production of the secondary metabolites from L. plantarum in MRS medium. The secondary metabolites produced by EC significantly inhibited the growth of pathogen bacteria. In further in vivo study, the co-treatment of EC and L. plantarum improved the growth and mortality of E. tarda-infected zebrafish as regulating the expression of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS and COX2. Taken together, our present study suggests that the EC plays an important role as a potential prebiotic and has a protective effect against the infection caused by E. tarda injection in zebrafish. Also, our conclusion from this evidence is that EC can be used and applied as a useful prebiotic. PMID:27192145

  7. The influence of seasonality, tide and time of activities on the behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae in Pernambuco, Brazil Influência da sazonalidade, maré e horário de atividades sobre o comportamento de Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina P. Araújo

    2007-12-01

    écie em ocupar ambientes mais protegidos, sendo o porto do Recife o principal ponto de concentração da espécie. Piedade é apenas uma área exploratória, possivelmente pela ocorrência de tubarões. Olinda tem uso ocasional. As áreas de concentração parecem estar destinadas à alimentação, e a incidência de condutas caudais sugere que a maioria das presas dos botos-cinza é demersal. As condições ambientais (sazonalidade, maré e horário não se mostraram significativas quando relacionadas com as condutas realizadas pelos botos-cinza.

  8. Identification of Sand flies of the Subgenus Larroussius based on Molecular and Morphological Characters in North Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Absavaran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adult female sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae of the subgenus Larroussius are important vectors of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae in Meshkinshahr district, Northwest of Iran. Four Phle­boto­mus (Larroussius species are present in this area, i.e. Phlebotomus (Larroussius kandelakii, P. (La. major, P. (La. perfiliewi and P. (La. tobbi. The objective of the present study was to identify and distinguish the females of P. per­filiewi, P. major and P. tobbi, in this district.Methods: Adult sand flies were collected with sticky papers, CDC light traps, and aspirator in 2006. Individual sand flies of this four species from thirty different locations were characterized morphologically and by comparative DNA se­quences analyses of a fragment of mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cyt b and nuclear gene Elongation Factor 1- al­pha (EF-1α. PCR amplification was carried out for all three species P. major, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi in the sub­ge­nus Larroussius.Results: Phylogenetic analyses of P. major populations in this study displayed two different populations and genetic di­ver­sity. Spermathecal segment number, pharyngeal armature and other morphological characters of these three spe­cies were examined and found to present consistent interspecific differences.Conclusion: According to our findings, the phylogeny of Cyt b and EF-1α haplotypes confirms the relationships be­tween P. major, P. tobbi and P. perfiliewi as already defined by their morphological similarities.

  9. Valoración energética de los cultivos de maíz y sorgo, con destino a la producción de biomasa y alimentación animal

    OpenAIRE

    Elorza Sarasola, Ibai

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo está enmarcado dentro del proyecto “Cultivos bioenergéticos en Álava: análisis de la calidad de biomasa y valoración energética de varios cultivos bioenergéticos crecidos en diferentes condiciones agronómicas en Álava”. Financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencias e innovación a través del subprograma de proyectos de investigación fundamental orientada a los recursos y tecnologías agrarias. Convocatoria INIA RTA2010-00041-C02-01 y realizado por el laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal de...

  10. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary)

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  11. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  12. Farmacininkų požiūrio į GMO vertinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Našlėnė, Žilvinė

    2014-01-01

    Tyrimo tikslas – įvertinti vaistinių darbuotojų požiūrį į GMO. Tikslo įgyvendinimui iškelti 3 uždaviniai – įvertinti vaistinių darbuotojų žinias apie GMO, įvertinti vaistinių darbuotojų požiūrį į GMO riziką aplinkai ir žmonių sveikatai bei gautus rezultatus palyginti su 2009 m. ”Spinter“ visuomenės požiūrio į GMO tyrimais. Metodika. Atlikta anoniminė vaistinų darbuotojų anketinė apklausa. Apklausta 150 respondentų: 75 iš Vilniaus miesto ir 75 iš Ukmergės ir Šakių miestų. Duomenų statistinė an...

  13. Analysis of Genetic Variability among thirty accessions of Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet using ISSR molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the genetic variability analysis among thirty accessions of andean lupine (L. mutabilis Sweet belonging to Agrarian Innovation National Institute (INIA Seed Bank. DNA was extracted from 300 plants and we made bulks. We standardized amplification protocol of Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR primers, we chose the most polymorphic primers to run in acrylamide gel. We found 255 ISSR loci with 8 primers. It was found high genetic variability of the samples under study by ISSR markers. Also observed relatively high polymorphism for autogamous species such as andean lupine. Finally phenograms showed a relationship with the geographical location, possibly due to in situ gene flow due to the exchange or sale of seeds in markets near the collection area.

  14. Kognityviojo funkcionavimo subjektyvaus ir objektyvaus įvertinimo rodiklių sąsajos

    OpenAIRE

    Danieliūtė, Eugenija

    2014-01-01

    Žmogaus pažintinių funkcijų įvertinimas yra svarbi psichologo (tiek praktiko, tiek teoretiko-mokslininko) veiklos dalis. Nors pasaulyje egzistuoja didelė įvairovė standartizuotų patikimų ir validžių metodikų, kaip žinia, kol kas Lietuvoje turime vos keletą ir tik vaikams skirtų – intelekto vertinimo priemonės WISC-III ir Raveno spalvotos progresuojančios matricos. Suaugusiųjų pažintiniams gebėjimams tirti dažniausiai naudojamos nestandartizuotos priemonės. Tarp jų ypač populiarios atminčiai t...

  15. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  16. Ekologinio ūkio ūkininkų požiūrio į genetiškai modifikuotus produktus ir jų galimą riziką žmonių sveikatai įvertinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Šimkienė, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Darbo tikslas: buvo ištirti ekologinių ūkių ūkininkų žinias ir požiūrį į genetiškai modifikuotus organizmus, jų produktus bei galimą riziką aplinkai ir žmonių sveikatai. Metodika: tyrime dalyvavo atsitiktinai atrinkti Lietuvoje sertifikuotų ekologinių ūkių ūkininkai, 18 metų ir vyresni nei 70, turintys įvairią ūkininkavimo patirtį. Apklausoje dalyvavo 188 vyrai ir 114 moterų. Vertinome, kaip atsakymai priklausė nuo ūkininkų amžiaus, ūkininkavimo patirties ir lyties. Skirtumą laikėme rei...

  17. Žinių vadybos vaidmuo organizacijos strateginių kompetencijų plėtojimui

    OpenAIRE

    Juškaitė, Judita

    2010-01-01

    Žinių ir kompetencijų svarbos pabrėžimas tapo vienu iš pagrindinių faktorių išskiriančių intelektualią XXI a. organizaciją iš kitų. Norėdamos pagerinti savo veiklos efektyvumą naujojo tūkstantmečio įmonės nepaliaujamai mokosi puoselėti tai, ką turi svarbiausio - informaciją, žinias ir patirtį. Įtempta konkurencija rinkoje tik įrodo, kad konkuravimas materialiaisiais ištekliais jau seniai nebėra pranašumo prieš konkurentus šaltiniu, o konkuravimas produktais, paslaugomis ir kainomis kuria tik ...

  18. Short Term Impact of the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research: A Bibliometric Analysis Impacto de Corto Plazo de Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research: Un Análisis Bibliométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Krauskopf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In January 2007, the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research was indexed by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI. This paper reviews the research that has been published since 2007 by using records extracted from the Web of Science database. The papers published were mostly affiliated to researchers from Chile, and six out of the ten most-contributing countries were from Latin America. The analysis by institutions showed Universidad de Concepcion as the most prolific, although this result is not valid. A lack of standardization in the manner the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA subscribed its address on each paper caused a disaggregation of the information. This was proven by the manual curation of each record that was affiliated to any of the centers belonging to INIA. The journal has a self-citation rate of 19.3%, value that is relatively high if compared to other journals from the same subject category listed on The Journal Citation Reports 2010. Finally, this work should be considered a bibliometric snapshot of the current situation of the journal that will serve as a benchmark when new evaluations are made in a few-years time.En enero 2007, la revista Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research fue indexada por el Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, por lo que este artículo analiza la investigación que ha sido publicada desde el año 2007 utilizando los registros extraídos de la base de datos Web of Science. Los artículos publicados fueron mayormente afiliados a investigadores de Chile, siendo seis de los 10 países que más contribuyeron en artículos de Latinoamérica. Un análisis por institución mostró a la Universidad de Concepción como la más prolífica, aunque este resultado no es válido por una ausencia de estandarización en la manera que el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA suscribe su dirección en cada artículo, lo que provoca disgregación de la información. Esto se verific

  19. Įdėmus žvilgsnis į paslaptingą gandų fenomeną

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bagdanavičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunku įsivaizduoti žmonių gyvenimą ir bendravimą be gandų. Viena vertus, jie suteikia galimybę sužinoti apie asmenį, įvykį ar reiškinį daugiau ir tuo patenkinti mūsų žmogišką smalsumą. Kita vertus, gauta netikėta žinia, lig tol slėpta, nors ir nepatikrinta informacija praplečia mūsų informacijos šaltinių spektrą, palengvina bendravimą ir sukuria savito pasitikėjimo ir naujo netikėto požiūrio į reiškinį galimybę.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  20. Vartotojiškumas kaip technologijomis konstruojama tiesa

    OpenAIRE

    Sabašinskaitė, Jūratė

    2011-01-01

    Visais laikais žinios buvo reikalingos tam, kad atmintyje išsaugotų patirtį bei skatintų pažinimą. Nuo modernybės epochos tiesos ieškojimo tikslai kinta. Masinė medija, kaip priemonė perduoti technologijų dėka gaunamas žinias, pažangos eroje virstančias informacija, visuomenėje yra priimama taip neabejotinos tiesos šaltinis. Tačiau kaip pastebi filosofai J.-F. Lyotard‘as bei J. Baudrillard‘as, visada yra kažkas, kas reguliuoja, kuri informacija gali pasiekti vartotojus, o kokią verta nutylėti...

  1. Maisto reklama ir ženklinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyšova, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Maisto reklamos ir ženklinimo tyrimas buvo atliekamas, tikslu išsiaiškinti ir įvertinti Lietuvos gyventojų žinias apie maisto produktų ženklinimą, jo trūkumus bei apie reklamuojamų maisto produktų pasirinkimą. Darbo uždaviniai: 1. ištirti ir įvertinti vartotojų supratimą apie maisto produktų etiketėse pateiktą ženklinimo informaciją; 2. ištirti ir įvertinti respondentų nuomonę apie maisto produktų etikečių įskaitomumą; 3. ištirti ir įvertinti maisto produktų reklamos įtaką jų pasirinkimui. Ty...

  2. Korporatyvinės įmonės duomenų saugyklos modelio sudarymas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Buškauskaitė, Laima

    2007-01-01

    Šiuolaikinis verslas naudoja didžiulį duomenų kiekį, tačiau įmonėje šie duomenys taip ir liks tik balastas, jeigu nesugebėsime jų išanalizuoti ir tinkamai interpretuoti. Tik duomenų analizė, naudojant specialius programinius įrankius, iš „žalios“ informacijos leis atrinkti naudingus grūdelius ir perdirbti juos į vertingas žinias, kuriuos taps teisingų verslo sprendimų pagrindu. Naudojant OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) priemones, sukuriama duomenų saugykla, kuri leidžia greitai, bei pato...

  3. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  4. Alytaus sporto ir rekreacijos centro darbuotojų lyderystės ir komunikacinės elgsenos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Ušackaitė, Edita

    2010-01-01

    Nuolatinių pokyčių laikotarpiu konkurenciniu pranašumu tampa ne tik disponavimas informacija, bet ir sugebėjimas generuoti žinias. Spartus pasaulio technologinis organizacinis keitimasis, rinkų globalizacija, viena po kitos kylančios finansinės bei socialinės krizės rodo, kad pereinama į naują visuomeninės organizacijos etapą, kurio varomoji jėga bus ne kapitalas, bet žinios. Sistemai keičiantis ir sudetingėjant, greitėjant procesams vis sparčiau kinta sistemos formos, keičiasi turinys. Tokio...

  5. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry.

  7. Specialiųjų poreikių (nežymiai protiškai atsilikusių) VIII klasės moksleivių temos „Žinduoliai“ mokymas

    OpenAIRE

    Tijūnaitytė, Aurelija

    2007-01-01

    Darbe atlikta teorinė specialiosios ir bendrojo lavinimo mokyklos programų, gamtos mokslų mokymo metodų, organizavimo formų, bei vaizdinių gamtos mokymo priemonių analizė. Iškeltos hipotezės: kad gamtos dalyko pamokose panaudojus aktyviuosius mokymo metodus, susietus su grafinėmis užduotimis, mokinių žinios apie žinduolių klasę pagerės; kad temos „Žinduoliai“ turinio įsisavinimas geresnis, kai žinių įtvirtinimo užduotys ne vien tikrina ir įtvirtina žinias, bet ir sudaro galimybę pačiam a...

  8. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, O L M; Evans, J J; Berthe, F

    2013-08-01

    As aquaculture production and the consumption of aquaculture products increase, the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections from either handling or ingesting these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio vulnificus and V. damsela. These pathogens, which are all indigenous to the aquatic environment, have also been associated with disease outbreaks in food fish. Outbreaks are often related to management factors, such as the quality and quantity of nutrients in the water and high stocking density, which can increase bacterial loads on the external surface of the fish. As a result, diseased fish are more likely to transmit infection to humans. This review provides an account of human cases of zoonoses throughout the world from the principal zoonotic pathogens of fish and shellfish. PMID:24547653

  9. Soft tissue infections caused by marine bacterial pathogens: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Renato; Oren, Ilana

    2011-10-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are one of the most common infection syndromes and may be caused by a large number of microorganisms. Some principles of aquatic injuries are different than those of land-based trauma. Wounds sustained in marine environment are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in different settings. These include Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Shewanella spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, and other microbes. Failure to recognize and treat these uncommon pathogens in a timely manner may result in significant morbidity or death. These infections are frequently contracted as a result of recreational swimming, fishing injuries, or seafood handling. The spectrum of manifestations is wide, varying from cases of mild cellulitis, to severe life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis requiring radical surgery, to sepsis and death. This review will focus on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of SSTIs caused by the most important marine pathogens. PMID:21785929

  10. Individual-tree growth and mortality models for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in north-east Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palahí, Marc; Pukkala, Timo; Miina, Jari; Montero, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    Modèles individuels de croissance et de mortalité pour le pin (Pinus sylvestris L.) dans le nord-est de l'Espagne. Un modèle non spatialisé de croissance en diamètre, un modèle statique de hauteur et des modèles de mortalité pour Pinus sylvestris L. en Espagne du Nord ont été développés, à partir de 24 placettes permanentes établies en 1964 par l'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias (INIA). Cet ensemble de modèles permet de simuler le développement du peuplement au niveau de l'arbre...

  11. Paauglių merginų fizinį savivaizdį formuojantys veiksniai

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskaitė, Andželika

    2012-01-01

    Pastaruoju metu mokslininkų tarpe vis labiau domimasi kūno įvaizdžiu. Tai nulėmė visuomenėje įsivyravę aukšti tobulo kūno standartai, kurių siekimas žmonėms tampa vis svarbesnis. Vis didesnį neramumą kelia paauglių požiūris į save ir santykį su išvaizda. Pastebima, kad jie yra linkę save vertinti kritiškai, vis dažniau yra nepatenkinti savo išvaizda. Įvairūs mokslininkai (Druxman, 2003; Grogan, 2008; Pruskus, 2008) pripažįsta neabejotiną socialinių veiksnių (šeimos, draugų, bendraamžių, žinia...

  12. Efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais em solução nutritiva na tolerância de cultivares de trigo à toxicidade de alumínio Influence of salt concentrations in nutrient solution on tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo; Otávio Franco de Oliveira; Arquimedes Lavorenti

    1981-01-01

    Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo três diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico combinados com quatro diferentes concentrações salinas. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanência de 46 horas em solução contendo determinadas concentrações de sais e de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 e INIA-66 foram os mais sensíveis, IAC-15 moderadamente sensível, Alondra S-46 e...

  13. Darbuotojų kaitos problema Vilniaus miesto ikimokyklinio ugdymo įstaigose ir bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnevič, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Ikimokyklinio ugdymo ir bendrojo lavinimo mokyklų įstaigose vyksta pedagogų kaita. Geri specialistai išeina į pensiją, atsiranda poreikis priimti naujus asmenys. Dažniausiai į laisvą vietą yra priimami jauni, neseniai mokslus baigę specialistai, turintys mažai patirties. Pradėjus dirbti paaiškėja, kad neretam trūksta įgūdžių, jie nežino kaip perteikti turimas žinias. Tad pedagogų kaita yra problema, kuri reikalauja atitinkamų sprendimo priemonių. Siekiant pagrįsti problemą, naudota mokslin...

  14. Kaišiadorių apylinkėse tautinėje vaistininkystėje vartojamų (vartotų) augalų etnofarmacinis tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaškevičienė, Miglė

    2014-01-01

    Tyrimo tikslas surinkti ir susisteminti tautinės vaistininkystės žinias Kaišiadorių apylinkėse. Rezultatai: Apklausų - interviu metu apklausti 23 respondentai. Užfiksuotos 155 natūralios vaistingosios medžiagos. Didžiausią jų dalį sudarė augalai, kurių įvairovė siekia 62 augalų šeimas, taip pat užfiksuoti 3 gyvūnai, vartojami kaip gydomoji priemonė. Išvados: 1. Anketavimo – asmeninio interviu metu gauta medžiaga susisteminta pagal vaistingųjų medžiagų kilmę. Vyrauja augalinės kilmės vaistingo...

  15. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on grey water footprint in a fertirrigated crop under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). In semiarid scenarios with low water quality, where the irrigation is necessary to maintain production, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. As well as blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. The major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study is focused in assessment mineral and organic fertilization on grey WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions, which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12

  16. Binding proteins for the regulatory subunit (RII-B) of brain cAMP-dependent protein kinase II: isolation and initial characterization of cDNA clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mammalian brain several proteins bind RII-B with high affinity. An example is P75, which co-purifies with RII-B and also complexes Ca2+-calmodulin. Thus, RII-B binding proteins (RBPs) might play a role in integrating the Ca2+ and cAMP signalling pathways in the CNS. In order to study the structure and function of these polypeptides they have isolated cloned cDNAs for RBPs by screening brain λgt11 expression libraries using a functional assay: the binding of 32P-labeled RII to fusion proteins produced by recombinants expressing RII binding domains. Inserts from rat brain recombinant clones λ7B and λ10B both hybridize to a brain mRNA of 7000 nucleotides. Northern gel analyses indicate that the putative RBP mRNA is also expressed in lung, but not in several other tissues. The λ7B insert was subcloned into the expression plasmid pINIA. A 50 kDa high affinity RII-B binding polypeptide accumulated in E. coli transformed with pINIA-7B. Two RBP cDNAs (λ77, λ100A) have been retrieved from a bovine λgt 11 library using a monoclonal antibody directed against P75 and the binding assay respectively. On Southern blots the insert from λ100A hybridizes to the cDNA insert from clones λ77, suggesting that λ 77 cDNA might contain sequences coding for both an RII binding domain and a P75 epitope. The bovine λ100A insert also hybridizes with the rat λ7B clone indicating that an RII binding domain is conserved in the two species

  17. Application of water footprint in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In recent times, there has been a major increase in the use of water and fertilizers in order to increase agricultural production, while at the same time there has increased evidence that aquifers are reducing their water level, enriched by nutrient and degraded as a result of pollution. So best management practices are needed for much of cropped, irrigated and fertirrigated land, to avoid contamination of fresh water and groundwater. The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). This study is focused in calculating the crops WF using a real case of study in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. This application help us to review the different concepts in which is based WF. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, winery waste, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

  18. Soil solarization of onion nursery beds with different polyethylene thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil solarization means the complete covering of wet soil to field capacity with transparent polyethylene ultraviolet film during a variable period. Due to the solar energy caught soil temperature rises damaging the seed bank of annual weeds. This technique was evaluated in onion seedlings by INIA- DIGEGRA-FAGRO in three locations during 2005-2006. In 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 the effect of solarization on weed population and seedling quality was studied using UV polyethylene films of both 35 and 80 μm thickness as compared to a non solarized control at INIA Las Brujas. Soil was covered on 12/17/06 and 12/3/07 and temperature was recorded 10 cm depth. Seedbeds 5 m long with four rows were sown with onion cv. Pantanoso del Sauce-CRS on 4/30/07 and 04/16/08. Number of weeds/m2, weeds fresh and dry weight, length, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of 10 seedlings, seedling health (leaf blight, Botrytis spp.), and nitrate and ammonium in the soil were evaluated after solarization. Non solarized plots had significantly more weed infestation and dry weight compared to the solarized ones, and lower levels of soil nitrate and ammonium. The non solarized control showed significantly higher infestation and dry weight of weeds compared to the solarized plots, and lower nitrate and ammonia content. Solarized treatments were healthier than the non solarized ones. There were no statistically significant differences on weed control or seedling quality between polyethylene thickness, but there were significant differences with respect to the non solarized treatment

  19. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yong; Awji, Elias Gebru; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2016-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder and its activity against pathogenic bacteria of olive flounder were investigated. 2. Intramuscular administration (12.5 or 125 mg/kg, n = 160) and HPLC analysis of sera were used. 3. Rapid absorption (Tmax 2.6 and 2.2 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 15.52 and 10.42 h; MRT, 18.79 and 14.44 h), and dose-proportional exposure (AUC0-∞, 273.69 and 2755.37 h. μg/ml) were observed after 12.5 and 125 mg/kg doses. 4. The withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium from muscle plus skin of olive flounder (n =40, water temperature, 23 °C) was 12 d (276 degree days). 5. Amoxicillin sodium had small MICs against Streptococcus iniae (0.008-0.06 μg/ml) and Streptococcus parauberis (0.03-1.0 μg/ml), whereas higher concentrations were required to inhibit Edwardsiella tarda isolates (0.06-16 μg/ml). 6. While large AUC0-24 h/MIC90 and Cmax/MIC90 ratios were obtained for S. iniae and S. parauberis, with drug concentrations in serum greater than MICs for the entire dosing interval (T > MIC90 of 100%), the lower dose (12.5 mg/kg) could not achieve target values of the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for E. tarda isolates, suggesting the need for higher doses to combat pathogenic bacteria with large MICs. PMID:26407038

  20. Avances de investigación para la propagación vegetativa por cultivo in vitro de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh “camu camu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinedo Freyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Estación Experimental Agraria San Roque, del INIA Loreto con el objetivo de establecer un protocolo para el cultivo in vitro de segmentos nodales de camu camu" Myrciaria dubia " (H.B.K Mc Vaugh. La fuente de material vegetal, fueron ramas de la parte apical de plantas adultas de la Colección Nacional de camu camu del INIA Loreto, se realizaron ensayos de desinfección, medios de cultivo y diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue Murashige & Skoog, MS 1962; más factores constantes 20 g/L sacarosa, 0,25 g/L carbón activado, 7 g/L agar y pH 5,7. Los tratamientos de desinfección que presentaron los mayores porcentajes (100% de supervivencia de segmentos nodales, fueron: Hipoclorito 0.3%  + Chupadera 1 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB y Hipoclorito 0,5%  + Chupadera 2 g/L en M&S, M&S ½ y M&S + AIB. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de crecimiento in vitro fue M&S + 1,5 mg/L GA3 + 10 mg/L AIA con 72% de supervivencia a los 45 días después de la siembra. El mejor medio de cultivo para la fase de multiplicación fue M&S + 2,5 mg/L BAP + 0,1 mg/L ANA con 80% de supervivencia a los 30 días después del subcultivo.

  1. CURRENT PROBLEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN WASTE IN BOTOSANI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Ionela Gavrilescu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La gestion des déchets est l’une des priorités actuelles en ce qui concerne la solution des problèmes d’environnement au niveau national mais aussi au niveau local; c’est pourquoi le Ministère d’Environnement et du Développement Durable a élaboré des documents stratégiques dans le domaine de la gestion des déchets, c’est-à-dire La Stratégie Nationale de la Gestion des Déchets et le Plan National de la Gestion des Déchets, qui ont pour but la création du cadre nécessaire pour le développement et l’établissement d’un système intégré de gestion de ceux-ci, auxquels on ajoute l’aquice communautaire transposé dans la législation nationale. Les problèmes avec lesquels se confrontent le Departement de Botoşani à ce niveau sont: le manque de la technologie tout aussi comme la technologie ancienne, le manque des personnes qui investissent et des investissement, la faible implication de tous ceux responsables, le manque des anneaux importants du flux de la gestion des déchets (par exemple:des metteurs en valeur, taxe système dépôt. La mise en pratique d’un système durable de gestion des déchets implique des changements majeurs des pratiques actuelles. L’établissement de ces changements va nécessiter la participation de tous les segments de la société: des autorités publiques locales et centrales, des institutions sociaux-économiques, des entreprises, et non dernièrement des personnes individuelles en qualité de consommateurs,et la réussite va dépendre en grande mesure du degré de la culture, de l’histoire et des mœurs de ce pays.

  2. Identification of Sand flies of the Subgenus Larroussius based on Molecular and Morphological Characters in North Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Absavaran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adult female sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae of the subgenus Larroussius are important vectors of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae in Meshkinshahr district, Northwest of Iran. Four Phle­boto­mus (Larroussius species are present in this area, i.e. Phlebotomus (Larroussius kandelakii, P. (La. major, P. (La. perfiliewi and P. (La. tobbi. The objective of the present study was to identify and distinguish the females of P. per­filiewi, P. major and P. tobbi, in this district."nMethods: Adult sand flies were collected with sticky papers, CDC light traps, and aspirator in 2006. Individual sand flies of this four species from thirty different locations were characterized morphologically and by comparative DNA se­quences analyses of a fragment of mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cyt b and nuclear gene Elongation Factor 1- al­pha (EF-1α. PCR amplification was carried out for all three species P. major, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi in the sub­ge­nus Larroussius."nResults: Phylogenetic analyses of P. major populations in this study displayed two different populations and genetic di­ver­sity. Spermathecal segment number, pharyngeal armature and other morphological characters of these three spe­cies were examined and found to present consistent interspecific differences."nConclusion: According to our findings, the phylogeny of Cyt b and EF-1α haplotypes confirms the relationships be­tween P. major, P. tobbi and P. perfiliewi as already defined by their morphological similarities.                                                                                  Keywords: Phlebotomus, Larroussius, Cytochrome b, Elongation Factor-1α, Morphology, Iran                 

  3. MEJORAMIENTO DE TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L. EN LA ZONA CENTRO SUR DE CHILE: CONTENIDO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEINA, Y VOLUMEN DE SEDIMENTACIÓN EN TRIGOS INVERNALES, ALTERNATIVOS Y PRIMAVERALES Genetic improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the South Central zone of Chile: Protein content, production and sedimentation volume of winter, alternative and spring wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron cuatro experimentos de campo con diez variedades de trigos de invierno y hábito alternativo (grupo 1, y cuatro experimentos con once variedades de trigos de primavera (grupo 2, para evaluar el porcentaje y producción de proteína del grano, y el volumen de sedimentación. Los genotipos fueron desarrollados en el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Lilifén fue la primera variedad mejorada en el grupo 1, y Mexifén en el grupo 2; por lo tanto ambas fueron usadas como referencia. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en suelos Andisoles del Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (INIA, Chillán, Chile, desde el año 1995 a 1998. Los porcentajes medios de proteína de las variedades de los grupos 1 y 2 fueron 9,6 %, y 10,8%, respectivamente. El promedio de producción de proteína de las variedades del grupo 1 fue 894,6 kg ha-1 mientras que en el grupo 2 este valor fue 968,4 kg ha-1. Los valores medios para sedimentación fueron 3,4 mL en el grupo 1 y 4,3 mL en el grupo 2. En relación a las variedades, los resultados demostraron que el trabajo de mejoramiento de trigo realizado entre 1968 y 1993 fue más exitoso en mejorar el contenido de proteína del grano que su calidadFour field experiments with ten winter and alternative varieties (group 1 and four experiments with eleven spring wheat varieties (group 2, were carried out to assess grain protein percentage, grain production and sedimentation volume. The tested genotypes were developed at the Quilamapu Wheat Breeding Program, Institute of Agricultural Research, INIA. Lilifen was the first breed variety improved in group 1, and Mexifen in group 2; as such both were used as references. The experiments were carried out in Andisoil soils at the Santa Rosa Experimental Field, Chillán, Chile, from 1995 to 1998. The mean protein percentage of varieties of groups 1 and 2 were 9.6 and 10

  4. Efecto de Herbicidas Aplicados Durante la Madurez del Grano de Trigo en el Rendimiento y Calidad del Grano Effect of Herbicides Applied During Grain Ripening on Quality and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron siete ensayos en trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L., cultivar de primavera Domo-INIA, durante las temporadas 2001-2002 y 2002-2003, para evaluar el efecto de diversos herbicidas aplicados durante la madurez del grano de trigo sobre el rendimiento y calidad del grano. Se usó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. La diferencia entre los ensayos fue el estado de madurez del trigo al momento de aplicar los herbicidas. Los herbicidas usados fueron: 2,4-D, glifosato, glifosato+MCPA, y paraquat, además, se incluyó un tratamiento testigo sin herbicida. Los parámetros evaluados fueron: rendimiento de grano, peso del hectolitro, peso de 1.000 granos, porcentaje de germinación, índice de sedimentación y glúten húmedo. Los ensayos se ubicaron en un suelo Andisol del Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ lat. Sur, 71°54’long. Oeste, perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, Chillán, Chile. Los resultados indicaron que el 2,4-D puede ser aplicado a una sementera en estado de grano lechoso; además, los efectos obtenidos en un año indicaron que el 2,4-D podría ser aplicado cuando el grano tiene consistencia acuosa. Desde el estado de grano semiduro en adelante, cualquiera de los herbicidas usados en estos experimentos se puede aplicar sin afectar el rendimiento de grano y su germinación, así como peso del hectolitro, el índice de sedimentación y el contenido de glúten.Seven trials with spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Domo-INIA were carried out during the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 seasons, to evaluate the effect of diverse herbicides applied during grain ripening on yield and grain quality. A randomized complete block design with five treatments and four replications was used. The difference in the trials was the stage of maturity at the moment the herbicides were sprayed. The used

  5. Optimización de la Fertilización Nitrogenada para Trigo de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento en Andisoles de la Región de La Araucanía, Chile Optimization of Nitrogen Fertilization for High-Yielding Potential Wheat on Andisols at the Araucania Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El uso de altas dosis de N para obtener los potenciales de rendimiento de los cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. actualmente disponibles en el mercado, requiere un manejo cuidadoso y eficiente de la parcialización de este nutriente para minimizar sus pérdidas y mejorar la eficiencia de uso del N (EUN. En un suelo serie Vilcún de la familia de los Pachic Melanudands (Andisol de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, se estudió el efecto de un rango de dosis anuales crecientes de N sobre el cv. Dollinco-INIA, trigo alternativo de alto potencial de rendimiento, con el fin de establecer las dosis de N que optimizan su productividad y calidad de grano. En un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones se evaluaron cinco dosis anuales de N como Nitromag o CAN 27 (0, 150, 200, 250 y 300 kg ha-1 durante dos temporadas sucesivas, en un suelo sometido a rotaciones intensivas de cultivos anuales. Los resultados indicaron efectos significativos (P ≤ 0,01 de la dosis de N sobre la productividad y calidad del grano cosechado. Las dosis óptimas económicas (DOE anuales de N fluctuaron entre 239 y 253 kg ha-1 en siembras de trigo de invierno. Las EUN fertilizante (kg grano producido kg-1 N fueron altas (38,4 y 40,3 y fluctuaron en rangos similares. Los resultados confirman el mayor requerimiento de N del cv. Dollinco-INIA para expresar su potencial de rendimiento de granoThe use of high N doses to enhance the expression of the yield potential in currently marketed wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars requires a careful and efficient fractionating of the total amount in order to minimize nutrient losses and improve nitrogen use efficiency (EUN. The effect of a range of annual N doses on the performance of high-yielding cv. Dollinco-INIA was studied in a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudans (Andisol in the Araucanía Region, Chile. The objective was to determine doses that optimize productivity and grain quality. Five annual N

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE LA MEZCLA ENSILAJE DE MAÍZ CON ENSILAJE DE TRÉBOL ROSADO EN DIFERENTES PROPORCIONES, EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN INVERNAL DE VACAS LECHERAS EN LA ZONA SUR Evaluation of corn silage and red clover silage mixed in different proportions in the winter feed of dairy cows in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Hazard T.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, ubicado en Temuco (38º 41¢ lat. Sur y 72º 25 ¢ long. Oeste, a 200 m.s.n.m. se evaluó ensilaje de maíz solo y mezclado con trébol rosado. Se utilizaron 8 vacas lecheras por tratamiento durante 70 días. Los tratamientos fueron: TI 100% ensilaje de maíz; TII 66% ensilaje de maíz y 33 % ensilaje de trébol rosado; y TIII 33 % ensilaje de maíz y 66 % ensilaje de trébol rosado. Los animales recibieron además 4 kg de heno de alfalfa y 6 kg de concentrado en raciones isoproteicas. El diseño estadístico fue de bloques completamente al azar y el análisis estadístico se realizó como medidas repetidas. Hubo diferencias significativas en la producción diaria de leche por vaca entre el TIII y el resto de los tratamientos (PCorn silage mixed in different proportions with red clover silage was evaluated using dairy cows at the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA, located in Temuco, Chile (38º 41’ South lat., 72º 25’ West long. at 200 m.o.s.l.. Eight autumn calving cows were assigned to each treatment for 70 days. The treatments consisted of three isonitrogenous rations: TI, 100% corn silage; TII, 66% corn silage and 33% red clover silage; and TIII, 33% corn silage and 66% red clover silage. In addition, all cows received 4 kg of alfalfa and 6 kg concentrate. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design and the statistical analysis was performed using repeated means. There was a significant statistical difference (P<0.05 observed in milk production between TIII and the other treatments, which disappeared when corrected to 3.5% milk fat. There were no treatment differences in milk composition. There were significant differences in dry matter intake and live weight between TI and the other treatments. The body condition was significantly different between

  7. Characterization of virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from ready-to-eat meat products and consumers in Cairo, Egypt

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    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of some virulence genes distributed in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and consumers in Cairo province, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 beef luncheon, chicken luncheon and frankfurter beef (40 samples, each were collected from 10 different local shops situated in Al-salam city, Cairo province, Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 40 people who had the habit of consuming RTE meat. The suspected L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rapid speciation and virulence determination using primers specific for inIA, inIC, and inIJ genes. Results: Culture examination of all samples on Oxford media revealed presence of colonies characteristic to L. monocytogenes in 6 beef luncheon (15%, 4 chicken luncheon (10%, 1 frankfurter beef (2.5% and 1 human stool (2.5% samples. Species identity of L. monocytogenes was verified through the amplification of a 800 bp fragment with inIA primers in 2 out of 6 culture isolates from beef luncheon (5%, and 1 out 4 culture isolates from chicken luncheon (2.5% samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in different food samples examined (p>0.05. The virulence of these strains was ascertained by the presence of 517 bp and 238 bp fragments of inIC and inIJ genes, respectively in the isolates that contained the 800 bp fragment. The culture isolates obtained from one frankfurter beef sample, and one human stool sample were found negative by multiplex PCR for the presence of L. monocytogenes and its virulence specific genes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that L. monocytogenes are circulating in beef and chicken luncheon sold in Cairo, Egypt. Multiplex PCR is reliable for confirmation of L. monocytogenes. This study suggests the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from production to consumption

  8. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  9. Evaluation of thirteen lines (M8) of 'May flower' beans selected after gamma irradiation with cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the nutrition of mexican people, cultivation of bean is necessary. The constant increase in population and the low yields in bean crops had bring as a consequence a great demand of beans, for which reason it is necessary to increase the production and productivity in order to satisfy such a demand. In 1986, in the state of Guanajuato the bean harvest was of 80, 119 hectare. In 1964 the harvest was 225458 hectare and began a lowering until reach in 1980 a surface of 64,122 hectare. The average yield estimated for 1960, was 309 kilogram-hectare, in 1975 the yield was 554 kilogram and starting from 1976 the trend was descendent until reach an average of 484 kilogram-hectare in 1980. According to estimations of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agronomicas (INIA) in 1981, the diminishing in harvest surface and the low yields in crops were owing between other factors to: mosaic virus which is common in beans, roya, pest, etc. Utilization of radioinduced mutagenesis in feeding crops, constitute an alternative for the obtention of new genotypes more productive and resistant to diseases which can help to solve the great demand for this crop. The goal of this work is the obtention of mutants resistant to the main diseases in El Bajio zone (Mosaic virus common to bean and roya) in join with higher yields, starting from irradiation of the variety of bean 'May flower' with gamma radiation from cobalt 60. (Author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  10. The effects of vernalization and different photoperiods on the translocation of 14C-assimilates in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation of photosynthetically fixed 14C from individual leaves to the ears of Inia wheat was studied during the period before ear emergence until anthesis. Three weeks before ear emergence 14C assimilated by the flag leaf was distributed throughout the plant; about one week before ear emergence almost all the 14C remained in the flag leaf or was transported to the stem and developing ear. Translocation of 14C under a 16 hour photoperiod was far more effective than that under 12 hours light (with a lightbreak during the dark period) during the period before ear emergence; the reverse was observed during anthesis. In general, vernalization of the seed resulted in a decrease in the amount of 14C-assimilates transported from the leaves to the ears. The export pattern of 14C-assimilates from individual leaves to the ears varied with the stage of development. Prior to ear emergence, assimilates from the first two leaves were transported entirely upwards to the grain and those from the third and fourth leaves towards the roots. During anthesis only the flag leaf exported 14C to the ear

  11. Abstracts of the 40th Symposium on Cuniculture, ASESCU Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 28th-29th May, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abstracts, Conferences, Congresses, Symposiums...

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 40th Congress of the Spanish Association of Cuniculture (ASESCU was held in Santiago de Compostela from 28th to 29th May 2015. This is the 40th edition of the conference, held annually without interruption since 1976. Main papers focused on analysing the current rabbit sector situation in the north-western Iberian Peninsula, genetic improvement of meat rabbit and foundation of new lines. The future of meat rabbit production and the rabbit meat production value chain was discussed, with the results of the partnership between the Spanish Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA and the rabbit marketing board (INTERCUN to support research projects. A round table was also held on coccidiosis in rabbit farms. In addition, a total of 32 communications were presented both in working sessions with oral communications and posters (pathology, nutrition, reproduction, ethology, production and products. The meeting was attended by more than 200 participants, including researchers from Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Ecuador and Egypt, among other countries. Abstracts of the contributions presented are reported below.

  12. Commercial biopreservatives combined with salt and sugar to control Listeria monocytogenes during smoked salmon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Medina, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Three commercial antimicrobials, applied during the salting stage in the preparation of cold-smoked salmon, were investigated for their effect on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Fresh salmon inoculated with L. monocytogenes INIA 2530 was treated with three bacteriocin-based commercial biopreservatives, which were applied in combination with a salt-sugar mix. The product was kept at 8°C for 7 days. L. monocytogenes grew by approximately 3 log CFU/g in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix or biopreservatives). Pathogen levels were reduced by the three biopreservatives investigated. After 7 days at 8°C, L. monocytogenes counts in salmon treated with biopreservatives combined with the salt-sugar mix were significantly lower than those observed in salmon treated with only salt and sugar. At the end of storage, salmon treated with biopreservative derived from Pediococcus acidilactici had pathogen levels 3.6 log CFU/g lower than in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix) and 1.5 log CFU/g lower than in the samples treated with only salt and sugar. The application of commercial biopreservatives to fresh salmon during the dry-salting stage might help control L. monocytogenes growth, thus enhancing the safety of cold-smoked salmon during refrigerated storage. PMID:23905807

  13. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level. PMID:25466575

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014. PMID:25229484

  15. The mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) following bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Shun; Song, Lin; Ren, Yichao; Dong, Xiaoyu; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-07-01

    The mucosal surfaces constitute the first line of host defense against infection, and also serve as the dynamic interfaces that simultaneously mediate a diverse array of critical physiological processes, while in constantly contact with a wide range of pathogens. The lysozymes are considered as key components for innate immune response to pathogen infection with their strong antibacterial activities. But their activities in mucosal immune responses were always overlooked, especially for g-type lysozymes, whose expression patterns in mucosal tissues following bacterial challenge are still limited. Towards to this end, here, we characterized the g-type lysozymes, Lyg1 and Lyg2 in turbot, and determined their expression patterns in mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the turbot g-type lysozyme genes showed the closest relationship to Cynoglossus semilaevis. The two lysozyme genes showed different expression patterns following challenge. Lyg2 was significantly up-regulated in mucosal tissues following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae challenge, while Lyg1 showed a general trend of down-regulation. The significant mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme genes indicated their key roles to prevent pathogen attachment and entry in the first line of host defense system. Further functional studies should be carried out to better characterize the availability of utilization of g-type lysozyme to increase the disease resistance in the mucosal surfaces and facilitate the disease resistant breeding selection. PMID:27189917

  16. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

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    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene, SmPGRP2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linan; Gao, Chengbin; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) of the bacteria cell wall and play an important role in host immune defense against pathogen infection. They are highly structurally conserved through evolution, but with different function in innate immunity between invertebrates and vertebrates. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of PGRPs in mucosal immunity of teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a PGRPs gene (SmPGRP2) of turbot and investigated its expression patterns in mucosal tissues after challenge with Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship of turbot PGRP to halibut, which was consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, SmPGRP2 was ubiquitously expressed in turbot tissues, and constitutive expression levels were higher in classical immune tissues (including liver, spleen, and head-kidney) than mucosal tissues (intestine, gill and skin). After bacterial challenge, the expression of SmPGRP2 was induced and showed a general trend of up-regulation in mucosal tissues, except in intestine following V. anguillarum infection. These different expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting its distinct roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogen. PMID:27461422

  18. 高良姜与大高良姜精油中活性物质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩芝; 蔡明招; 卢志毅

    2006-01-01

    姜科植物是分布于热带和亚热带药材中的重要家族,姜科分为2亚科、3族,约49属、1500种,包括姜黄Curcuma longa L.、小豆寇Elettaria cardamomum(Roxb.)Maton、生姜Zingiber officinale ROSC.、莪术Curcuma zedoaria(Berg.)Rosc.、大高良姜Alpinia galanga(L.)Willd.、益智A珍inia oxyphylla Miq.和山柰Kaempferia galanga Linn.等。姜科植物主产地为亚洲热带,我国有19属,150余种,分布于东南至西南部各省区,是东南亚各国及我国人民日常生活中常用的植物。

  19. Evaluación del rendimiento de grano seco en accesiones promisorias de Plukenetia volubilis “sacha inchi” en Loreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernández-Sandoval

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El sacha inchi es una especie vegetal oleaginosa que se encuentra al estado silvestre en selva alta, baja y ceja de selva del Perú. Es importante por su alto contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados (aceites omegas y proteínas que contienen las semillas que lo hace ideal para mejorar la dieta alimenticia humana. El Gobierno Regional ha priorizado el cultivo de sacha inchi para impulsar el desarrollo económico y social de sus productores. Los trabajos de evaluación de rendimiento de grano seco de sacha inchi bajo condiciones de selva baja, se realizaron en el Campo Experimental El Dorado de la EEA. San Roque- INIA; con 9 accesiones provenientes del banco de germoplasma de la EEA. El Porvenir, Tarapoto. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el rendimiento de grano seco y validar y adaptar la tecnología de producción de esta especie en condiciones de selva baja. Las accesiones que sobresalieron fueron Barranquita y Cumbaza, con rendimientos de 1863 y 1809 kg/ha de grano seco por hectárea. La accesión Tambo Yaguas, obtuvo el rendimiento más bajo con 631 kg/ha de grano seco por hectárea, debido principalmente a su susceptibilidad a Rhizoctonia sp. “Mustia hilachoza”.

  20. Characterization of native strains of Azospirillum spp. and its effect on growth of Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

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    Franklin García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to characterize and determine the effect of native strains of Azospirillum spp. on growth of Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative for the reduction of chemical fertilizers. The bacteria were isolated from roots of rice in Lambayeque. Fragments of previously disinfected roots were planted in Nfb semisolid medium, were nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates with production of 2.69 to 38.02 ppm indoleacetic acid and 7.95 to 29.09 ppm of fixed nitrogen. The four strains with the highest values were inoculated independently and in combination with 50 and 100 % urea in Tinajones INIA508 rice. It used a completely randomized design and including witnesses’ 50 and 100 % urea and absolute control. All native strains increased height and dry matter of shoot and roots, with effectiveness index of up to 21.77, 102.06 and 126.11 % compared to untreated control. Azospirillum sp. GM-86 selected by the highest value of indoleacetic acid, reached the highest level of effectiveness in height and root dry biomass. The application of 50 % úrea with Azospirillum spp. increased rates of effectiveness. It demonstrated the potential of native strains of Azospirillum spp. to increase the growth of rice as well as the possibility to use associate with low doses of urea.

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Fish Pathogens Using a Naked-Eye Readable DNA Microarray

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    King-Jung Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP, resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 103 CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens.

  2. Simultaneous detection of multiple fish pathogens using a naked-eye readable DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-I; Hung, Pei-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Che; Cheng, Ta Chih; Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Lin, King-Jung; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum) commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer) complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP), resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 10(3) CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens. PMID:22736973

  3. Biotechnology-assisted breeding techniques implementation for rice improvement in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment was highly effective in reducing plant height and growth duration in the parent variety EEA-404. Important variation was also observed in grain and leaf pubescence and in grain shape. Several M4 lines with desirable plant type and grain shape were selected for yield testing. Aggregated sheath spot (ASS) - Rhizoctonia oryzae sativae - disease pressure on M3 and M4 lines from INIA Tacuari was not sufficient to allow selection for this character. However, important variability in resistance to the physiological disorder Straighthead was observed among the lines. The regeneration percentage obtained with the methodology of anther culture facilitated application of this technique in a larger number of crosses. Some of the doubled haploid (DH) lines from resistant/susceptible crosses showed good yield potential and milling quality, and low incidence of stem diseases. Sequential Bulked Typing may provide an alternative to individual typing for a large number of markers, improving DNA pooling techniques based on phenotypic evaluations of quantitative traits. (author)

  4. Assessing the Process of Extension Program Development in Iranian Agricultural Extension System

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    Saeid Fe'li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the process ofextension program development in Iranian Agricultural ExtensionSystem (IAES. The research instrument was a structuralquestionnaire with close-ended questions which its validity andreliability was confirmed by using expert panel and Cranach’salpha test, respectively. The target population of this researchincluded all extension managers who were responsible for doingextension activities in Iran’s townships (N=334. According toKrejcie and Morgan’s table, a number of 191 persons selected asstatistical sample in a stratified sampling method, and finally198 questionnaires were gathered and analyzed (n=198. Overall,the use of the process of extension program development inIAES was at less than moderate level. The other results also indicatedthere was the significantly positive relationship betweenselected demographic characteristics of extension managers withtheir viewpoint on the use of the process of extension programdevelopment in IAES. These results highlight the need for thereform of the process of agricultural extension program developmentin IAES.

  5. Anaerobic green fluorescent protein as a marker of Bifidobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José M; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Eva; Margolles, Abelardo; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan L

    2014-04-01

    Some strains of Bifidobacterium are considered as probiotics and are being added as adjunct culture in food products due to their potential in maintaining a healthy intestinal microbial balance. However, despite these benefits, bifidobacteria still remain poorly understood at the genetic level compared with other microorganisms of industrial interest. In this work, we have developed a non-invasive green fluorescent based reporter system for real-time tracking of Bifidobacterium species in vivo. The reporter vector pNZ:Tu-GFPana is based on the pNZ8048 plasmid harboring a bifidobacterial promoter (elongation factor Tu from Bifidobacterium longum CECT 4551) and a fluorescent protein containing a flavin-mono-nucleotide-based cofactor (evoglow-Pp1) which is fluorescent under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. pNZ:Tu-GFPana was constructed and found to stably replicate in B. longum CECT 4551 and in the intestinal strain Bifidobacterium breve INIA P734. The subsequent analysis of these strains allowed us to assess the functionality of this plasmid. Our results demonstrate the potential of pNZ:Tu-GFPana as a real-time reporter system for Bifidobacterium in order to track the behavior of this probiotic species in complex environments like food or intestinal microbiota, and to estimate their competition and colonization potential. PMID:24495586

  6. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L. LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

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    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, from INIA Huaral, and were planted in 22 recipients of 4 L with substrate consisting in a mixing of sand and humus (3:1. Half of them were irrigated monthly and other half only receives water to establish plants and no more after that. We measured transpiration, histological changes in leaves and metabolic changes at protein and starch level. We confirmed transpiration is not affected for air humidity or substrate humidity. But, the effect of drought can be better observed in foliage growth, therefore in histological changes in leaves. No significance in concentration of proteins but significance in carbohydrates concentration shows an osmotic regulation in order to maintain stomata open and also an increase in photosynthetic activity in stressed plants.

  7. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  8. Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor®-medicated feed therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaflor® [50% w w−1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 μg g−1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 μg g−1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL−1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL−1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

  9. Anomalias ósseas congênitas em Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae da costa centro-norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Congenital bone defects in Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae in the northcentral coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Laeta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcaças de botos-cinza Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 foram recuperadas entre 20 de agosto de 2001 e 13 de fevereiro de 2006, na costa centro-norte fluminense. A maior parte delas (85% entre Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W e Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. Foram estudadas as colunas vertebrais dos 20 exemplares que apresentavam mais de 60% das vértebras presentes. A coleção é formada por 75% de animais imaturos, e todos os esqueletos mostram alterações tafonômicas mínimas. Duas categorias de anomalias congênitas foram diagnosticadas, ambas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do mesoderma paraxial. A sétima vértebra cervical (C7 foi a única afetada, as costelas cervicais e o não fechamento do arco neural atingiram 15 (75% dos indivíduos analisados, dos quais três (15% apresentam ambas as anomalias. Nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram costelas cervicais uni ou bilateral, e nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram não fechamento do arco neural; em todos os casos as vértebras contíguas eram normais. A ocorrência de anomalias nesta série do Rio de Janeiro é maior do que as referidas na literatura brasileira para outras séries de Sotalia do Amazonas, Ceará e Santa Catarina. A série de Sotalia descrita vem de uma região do litoral muito limitada e provavelmente representa uma população local. As costelas cervicais são geneticamente determinadas e podem estar concentradas por uma condição de grande proximidade biológica entre os animais; o não fechamento do arco pode ter também um componente ambiental, a ser investigado futuramente.Carcasses of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 were recovered from August 20, 2001 to February 13, 2006 along the north-central coast of Rio de Janeiro state. Most of the animals (85% were found between Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W and Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. We studied the vertebral columns of all the 20 specimens that had more than 60% of the

  10. TOLERANCIA DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. A APLICACIONES POST TRASPLANTE DEL HERBICIDA HALOSULFURON-METIL Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. tolerance to post transplant applications of the herbicide halosulfuron-methyl

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    Juan Ormeño N.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la temporada 1998/99 en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA (33º34’ lat. Sur, 70º38’ long. Oeste, 625 m.s.n.m., en un suelo franco-arcilloso, se realizaron ensayos para determinar la tolerancia de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de los cultivares industriales H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410 y cultivares de consumo fresco Cal Ace y XPH-12221 a aplicaciones de post trasplante de halosulfurón-metil (Sempra® 75 WG en la dosis recomendada 75 g ha-1 y en sobredosis de 150 y 300 g ha-1. En todas las dosis halosulfurón-metil no produjo síntomas adversos importantes sobre el follaje. Los mayores niveles de decoloración foliar se observaron en la sobredosis 300 g ha-1 en el cv. P-76 siete días después de la aplicación (DDA. Esta fitotoxicidad fue temporal, restringida a 7-15 DDA, desapareciendo casi completamente 21 DDA. No hubo reducciones en alto y ancho de las plantas 30 DDA, a excepción del ancho del cv. P-76 a 300 g ha-1. 0El rendimiento individual y total de frutos en los cvs. Cal Ace, XPH-12221, H-993, APT-127 y APT-410 no fueron afectados por las aplicaciones de halosulfurón-metil. Ninguna dosis produjo efectos adversos en el diámetro ecuatorial y polar de los frutos. El híbrido industrial P-76 tuvo una baja significativa en rendimiento y número de frutos planta-1 a 150 y 300 g ha-1, pero no con la dosis de 75 g ha-1. Las plantas de tomate fueron tolerantes a aplicaciones tempranas de post trasplante en la dosis máxima recomendada de halosulfurón-metil.During the 1998/99 season at La Platina Research Regional Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA (33º34’ S lat, 70º38’ W long, altitude 625 m.o.s.l., on a loamy-clay soil, field trials were conducted to determine crop tolerance of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. of the industrial cultivars H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410, and fresh consumption cultivars Cal Ace, and XPH

  11. Elementos de Análisis Cualitativo y Cuantitativo en Proteínas del Gluten de Trigo Qualitative and Quantitative Element Analyses of the Wheat Gluten Protein

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    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La calidad del trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. depende de la calidad y cantidad de las proteínas del gluten -gluteninas y gliadinas- las cuales constituyen 10 a 14% de las proteínas del grano. Varios parámetros cuantitativos, como el contenido total de proteínas de la harina, el contenido de proteínas poliméricas presentes en el grano y la proporción de gluteninas y gliadinas, están relacionados a la calidad panadera. En este trabajo se presenta la caracterización de las gluteninas de alto peso molecular (G-APM en geles de poliacrilamida en SDS (SDS-PAGE de 22 cultivares y líneas de mejoramiento de Uruguay. Fueron observadas 14 subunidades de G-APM correspondientes a 10 combinaciones alélicas. Por otra parte, se propone un método sencillo para agrupar y cuantificar las principales proteínas de reserva de trigo mediante cromatografía líquida de exclusión por tamaño de alta resolución (SE-HPLC. Los cromatogramas obtenidos mostraron una excelente separación de las proteínas del endospermo en tres picos principales correspondientes a proteínas poliméricas, monoméricas y no gluten, respectivamente. El área de integración de los cromatogramas así como la presencia de subunidades de los cultivares fueron analizados. Los genotipos estudiados mostraron diferencias cuantitativas en el contenido de gluteninas/gliadinas solubles en SDS, en la proporción de proteínas poliméricas y monoméricas. El cultivar INIA Gorrión, de buena calidad panadera y que presenta el alelo Glu-D1 5+10, mostró menor porcentaje de proteínas poliméricas solubles en SDS y mayor porcentaje de proteínas poliméricas insolubles en comparación con la línea experimental LE 2265, que tiene el par Glu-D1 2+12.The bread making quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. depends on the quality and quantity of the gluten proteins -glutenins and gliadins- which constitute 10 to 14% of the grain protein content. Various quantitative parameters, such as the

  12. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

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    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  13. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

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    Dalma Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la

  14. Efecto de la adición de materia orgánica sobre la dinámica poblacional bacteriana del suelo en cultivos de papa y maíz Effect of addition of organic matter on bacterial population dynamics of soil in potato and corn crops

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    David García Ventocilla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto de la fertilización orgánica sobre las poblaciones bacterianas del suelo en cultivos de papa y maíz durante la campaña agrícola 2008-2009 en terrenos de cuatro localidades del Valle del Mantaro: INIA Santa Ana (Huancayo, en la EEA El Mantaro (Jauja, Vista Alegre y Huayao (ambos en Chupaca. En estos lugares se instalaron parcelas experimentales de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Var. Canchan y maíz (Zea maíz L. Var. Cusco mejorado bajo abonamiento orgánico (vacuno, ovino, cuy, fertilización química y sin fertilización alguna (testigo. Para dicho efecto se empleó las técnicas de la Electroforesis en Gel de Gradiente Desnaturalizante (DGGE con amplificación de la región 968 – 1401 del rDNA 16S. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la variabilidad de las poblaciones bacterianas en los suelos está afectado directamente por el tipo de cultivo mas no por el tipo de fertilización ya que el efecto de este último resulta variable para cada zona experimental y cultivo encontrándose solo en la zona experimental de Chupaca - Maíz una segregación de los tratamientos con fertilización orgánica de los tratamientos químicos. También se ha encontrado que la variación de las comunidades microbianas no sufre variaciones significativas en los suelos con cultivos de maíz obteniéndose coeficientes de similaridad para todos los tratamientos por encima del 80% mientras que para los tratamientos en los cultivos de papa dicho coeficiente fue de tan solo del 60%.The effect of organic fertilization on soil bacterial populations in potato and corn crops during the crop season 2008-2009 at four sites in the Mantaro Valley locations: INIA Santa Ana (Huancayo, the EEA El Mantaro (Jauja, Vista Alegre and Huayao (both in Chupaca. In these places were set up experimental plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Canchan and corn (Zea maize L. Var. Cusco enhanced under organic manure (cattle, sheep, guinea pig, chemical fertilizer

  15. Preliminary behavioural study of Caballo Fino Chilote stallions with restricted access to space and water during summer Estudio preliminar del comportamiento de potros raza Caballo Fino Chilote con acceso restringido a espacio y agua durante el verano

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    TA Tadich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caballo Fino Chilote (CFCh is the only Chilean pony breed and a unique genetic resource. A group of seven CFCh stallions were observed for 60 hours, during summer, at INIA- Butalcura research station, Chiloé Island, under restricted space and access to water conditions. Scan sampling every five minutes was used to register 5 behavioural states and continuous focal sampling for 19 behavioural events. Inter-male interactions had a low frequency of presentation being avoidance (1.2 average events per stallion per day the most common. Overall stallions spent 55.89% (± 4.3% of their time foraging, 2.5% (± 0.82% in locomotion, 7.26% (± 0.82% standing alert, 32.24% (± 2.7% resting and 1.86% (± 0.64 in other behaviours. Foraging was the main activity, its occurrence was significantly lower (P El Caballo Fino Chilote (CFCh es la única raza de pony chileno y un recurso genético único. Un grupo de 7 potros CFCh fue observado por 60 horas, durante el verano, en la estación experimental del INIA-Butalcura, Isla de Chiloé, bajo condiciones de restricción de espacio y agua. El método de muestreo por escaneo se utilizó cada 5 minutos para evaluar estados conductuales y focal continuo para los eventos. Se registraron 5 estados y 19 eventos conductuales. Las interacciones entre potros tuvieron una frecuencia de presentación baja, siendo la más común “evasión” con un promedio de 1,2 eventos por potro por día. Los equinos utilizaron un 55,89% (± 4,3% del tiempo en forrajear, 2,5% (± 0,82% en locomoción, 7,26% (± 0,82% de pie alerta, 32,24% (± 2,7% descansando y 1,86% (± 0,64 en otras actividades. Forrajeo fue la principal actividad, siendo significativamente más baja (P < 0,05 durante el mediodía, periodo donde el descanso fue significativamente mayor (P < 0,05 comparado con los periodos de mañana y tarde. Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre temperatura y descanso y una correlación negativa significativa

  16. Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down

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    María E Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 m

  17. Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay Adaptation to climatic change and variability: some response options to agricultural production in Uruguay

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    Agustín Giménez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptación al cambio climático y la variabilidad: "algunas opciones de respuesta para la producción agrícola en Uruguay". Como se señala en varios informes del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC, 2007a; IPCC, 2007b, la comunidad científica internacional expresa que el aumento en la concentración de gases de efecto invernadero tiene como resultado cambios en la variabilidad climática diaria, estacional, interanual y a lo largo de decenios. La variabilidad climática y la ocurrencia de eventos extremos (heladas, granizos, sequías resulta en perjuicios muy importantes para el sector agropecuario y frecuentemente el sector requiere de varios años para recuperarse económica y financieramente de los daños ocasionados. La unidad de agroclima y sistemas de información (GRAS del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA de Uruguay en conjunto con el Banco Mundial (BM y la Universidad de Cornell (UC de los Estados Unidos de América, finalizaron en el año 2009 el proyecto "Vulnerabilidad al cambio climático en los sistemas de producción agrícola en América Latina y el Caribe: "desarrollo de respuestas y estrategias", (Giménez y Lanfranco, 2009. El objetivo de la propuesta fue formular un plan de acción con recomendaciones para el desarrollo de respuestas y estrategias con el fin de contribuir a una mejor adaptación a los impactos de la variabilidad climática y la ocurrencia de eventos climáticos extremos en los sistemas de producción agrícola de Uruguay. Como resultado del trabajo, se identificaron y priorizaron 3 opciones de respuesta: sistema de información y soporte para la toma de decisiones; gestión del agua; y seguros y otros instrumentos financieros para la gestión de riesgos.Adaptation to climatic change and variability: "some response options to agricultural production in Uruguay". Like is mentioned in several reports of Intergovernmental Panel about Climatic Change (IPCC, 2007a; IPCC

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE Bombus dahlbomii (GUÉR. COMO AGENTE POLINIZADOR DE FLORES DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum (MILL, BAJO CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO Evaluation of Bombus dahlbomii (Guér. as a pollinating agent for tomato flowers under greenhouse conditions

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    Patricia Estay P.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período estival de 1998, en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA (33º 34’ lat. Sur, 70º 38’ long. Oeste, se evaluó el abejorro nativo de Chile Bombus dahlbomii (Guér como agente polinizador del tomate cultivado Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill. El material entomológico se obtuvo a partir de nidos naturales, los cuales se reinstalaron en colmenas artificiales. Los abejorros fueron liberados en un invernadero de 24 m² con plantas de tomate, y otro invernadero, de igual dimensión, se manejó como testigo sin abejorros. Los resultados mostraron que el 80% de las flores fueron visitadas por los abejorros, producto de lo cual quedaron marcas necróticas en el tubo estamínico de la flor. Por otra parte se logró identificar polen de tomate en las patas de los abejorros y en las tazas de almacenamiento de polen de la colmena, por lo que la acción de forrajeo estaría favoreciendo el desprendimiento del polen desde las anteras de la flor. Se produjo un aumento significativo del número de semillas en el tratamiento con abejorros respecto al testigo, concluyendo que esta especie actúa como agente polinizador de flores de tomate. Características del fruto como cuaja, peso y calibre promedio no fueron afectadas por la actividad de Bombus dahlbomii. Se sugiere estudiar el comportamiento de este insecto en la producción de tomate en invierno-primavera.The native bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii (Guér. was assessed as a pollinating agent of cultivated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill during the summer of 1998 in the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile (33º 34’ S lat, 70º 38’ W long. The bees were obtained from wild hives and moved to artificial hives. They were released into a 24 m² greenhouse containing tomato plants. A similar greenhouse without bumblebees was maintained as

  19. Efecto de Diferente Dosis de Lodo de la Crianza de Salmones en el Cultivo de Papa y su Efecto Residual en Ballica Anual Effect of Different Rates of Cage Salmon Sludge on Potato Crop and its Residual Effect on Annual Ryegrass

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    Nolberto Teuber K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción intensiva de salmones genera residuos orgánicos que tienen un uso potencial en suelos agrícolas, existiendo escasa información publicada de su utilización. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de tres dosis de lodo de salmón en el desarrollo del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum y su efecto residual en ballica anual (Lolium multiflorum. El ensayo se estableció en un suelo Andisol de la serie Osorno (Typic Hapludands, ubicado en Osorno (40º35’S, 73º08’O, Chile. Los tratamientos fueron tres dosis de lodo (50, 100 y 200 t ha-1, un control (sin fertilización orgánica e inorgánica y un tratamiento de fertilización inorgánica. El lodo se incorporó al suelo, posteriormente se plantó papa cv. Yagana-INIA y después de la cosecha se sembró ballica anual cv. Sabalan. El rendimiento de papa con fertilización inorgánica fue 64,3 t ha-1, superior a los resultados obtenidos con las dosis de lodo y el control (P ≤ 0,05. No hubo diferencias estadísticas (P > 0,05 entre las distintas dosis de lodo evaluadas (45,6 a 47,5 t ha-1 y tampoco con el control (39,4 t ha-1. No se observaron diferencias (P > 0,05 en el peso por tubérculo, pero el número de tubérculos por planta fue diferente (P ≤ 0,05. El rendimiento de ballica anual fue significativamente diferente (P ≤ 0,05 en los tratamientos fertilizados comparados con el control. El lodo no afectó la emergencia ni el desarrollo de los cultivos, pero incrementó el contenido de P Olsen y la suma de bases de intercambio en el suelo.Intensive salmon farming generates organic residues which have a potential use in agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three salmon sludge rates on potato (Solanum tuberosum crop development and its residual effect on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. The field experiment was carried out on an Andisoil from Osorno Serie (Hapludands, located in Osorno (40º35’S, 73º08’W, Chile

  20. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

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    Viviana Becerra V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel genético-molecular, para determinar el nivel de diversidad genética de Beauveria bassiana e identificar posibles patrones de bandas que permitan dicriminar entre aislamientos. En este estudio, se analizaron 36 aislamientos de B. bassiana provenientes de diversas regiones geográficas del país. El análisis genético se realizó mediante el ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD y la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos (PCR-RFLP de los espaciadores internos transcritos (ITS de las secuencias ribosomales del ADN (ITS-rDNA. El análisis de RAPD indicó una alta diversidad genética entre los aislamientos, con un promedio de 43% de similitud. Por otro lado, el análisis de los ITS determinó una menor diversidad, con un 83% de similitud entre aislamientos. La región ITS 1 mostró un mayor número de sitios de restricción que la región ITS 2. Los RAPD fueron más eficientes para discriminar (o identificar entre cepas debido al bajo número de haplotipos detectados con los ITS. Para los dos marcadores utilizados en este estudio, la diversidad genética no estuvo asociada con el origen geográfico de los aislamientos.Entomopathogenic fungi are an attractive alternative for the biological control of insects. In Chile, the Quilamapu Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA has collected about 400 isolates of the genus Beauveria along the country. A partial

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE CEBADA SEMBRADA SOLA Y ASOCIADA A ESPECIES FORRAJERAS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ENSILAJE An evaluation of the production and quality of barley sown alone or combined with forage species for the production of silage

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    Adrián Catrileo S.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la temporada 1999/2000, se evaluó la productividad y calidad de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. sembrada sola y en asociación con especies forrajeras para ensilaje. El ensayo se realizó en un suelo Ultisol en el secano de la IX Región, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, 38º41’ lat. Sur, 72º25’long. Oeste, 200 m.s.n.m. Los tratamientos evaluados correspondieron a cebada sembrada sola (T1 y las asociaciones de cebada/trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense (T2, cebada/ballica (Lolium multiflorum de rotación (T3 y cebada/pradera ballica/trébol blanco (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (T4. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones, cortando cada tratamiento en siete estados fenológicos de la cebada. La altura y el contenido de MS de la cebada no presentaron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 por efecto de los distintos tratamientos y estados de corte evaluados. La cebada asociada con las forrajeras no aumentó la producción de materia seca, salvo en los estados de antésis en progreso y grano acuoso-lechoso (P During the 1999/2000 season, the productivity and quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. sown alone or in association with forage species for silage was evaluated. The study was conducted in an Ultisol in the dryland of the IX Region at the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA, 38º41’ S lat, 72º25’W long, 200 m.a.s.l. The treatments evaluated were: barley alone (T1; barley with red clover (Trifolium pratense (T2; barley with rotational ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum (T3; and barley in mixture with perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (T4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with three replicates, cutting each treatment at seven phenological stages of the barley crop. The height and DM content of the barley did not

  2. Avaliação de espécies forrageiras de inverno na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul Evaluation of cool season forage species in Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a produção de forragem de espécies e cultivares forrageiros de inverno provenientes do programa de seleção do Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuária-INIA/Uruguai.Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivares Cetus, Estanzuela 284 e Titan; aveia (Avena byzantina, cultivares RLE 115a e 1095a; trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L., cv. Estanzuela Zapicán; trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Estanzuela 116; e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., cv. São Gabriel. Determinaram-se a produção de MS, o percentual e a produção dos componentes estruturais, a altura do dossel e os percentuais de FDN e PB. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Entre as gramíneas, o azevém cv. Titan apresentou a maior produção de MS, com 7,2 t/ha e elevada proporção de folhas. As produções de cornichão e trevo-vermelho foram semelhantes e superiores às do trevo-branco em produção de MS. As espécies e os cultivares testados mostraram-se adaptados às condições locais, mesmo com o déficit hídrico durante o período experimental.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the herbage production of cool season forage species and cultivars from Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuária- INIA/Uruguay breeding program. The following species and cultivars were evaluated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.: Cetus, Estanzuela 284 and Titan; Oats (Avena byzantina: RLE 115a and 1095a; White clover (Trifolium repens L.: Estanzuela Zapicán; Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: Estanzuela 116 and Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. São Gabriel. Dry matter production, structural components percentage and production, canopy height, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein percentages were determined. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a randomized block design, where the

  3. Adaptación, Crecimiento y Producción de Nuevas Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile: II. Comportamiento de las Especies en Suelos Graníticos del Secano Interior Subhúmmedo Adaptation, Growth and Production of New Annual Forage Legumes in the Mediterranean Zone of Chile: II. Species Performance in Granitic Soils of the Sub-Humid Interior Dryland

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    Carlos Ovalle M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la productividad y persistencia de nuevo germoplasma de leguminosas forrajeras anuales, en suelos graníticos degradados del secano interior mediterráneo sub-húmedo de Chile, se realizó un experimento de campo en el Centro Experimental Cauquenes, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, entre julio de 2000 y marzo de 2002. Las especies estudiadas fueron Biserrula pelecinus (3 cultivares, Ornithopus compressus (7, O. sativus (2, Trifolium michelianum (1, T. resupinatum (1 y T. vesiculosum (1. Se incluyeron como testigo cultivares de Trifolium subterraneum sensu lato (3 y de Medicago polymorpha (1, puesto que ambas especies son de amplia utilización en la zona de estudio. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y el tamaño de las parcelas fue de 2 x 5 m. Los resultados de producción de fitomasa, semilla y dureza seminal indicaron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0,05 entre las especies y cultivares, en los tres años de evaluación. B. pelecinus destacó sobre todo en el tercer año, por una alta producción de fitomasa (7840-8920 kg MS ha-1año-1y de semillas (1290-1603 kg MS ha-1año-1, y alta persistencia. O. compressus cvs. Madeira, Ávila, Santorini y Paros, también presentaron un alto potencial de producción de fitomasa (6650-8720 kg MS ha-1año-1 y de semilla en el tercer año de evaluación. La producción de O. sativus cv. Cádiz, en el tercer año fue superior (P ≤ 0,05 a T. subterraneum y M. polymorpha, pero inferior a los mejores cultivares de B. pelecinus y O. compressus. Por otra parte, T. michelianum cv. Paradana, T. resupinatum cv. Kymbro y T. vesiculosum presentaron una baja productividad y persistencia en este ambienteIn order to evaluate the productivity and persistence of new germplasm of annual forage legumes in degraded granitic soils of the interior dryland of the sub-humid Mediterranean climate region of Chile, a field experiment was carried

  4. MEJORAMIENTO DEL PORCENTAJE DE PROTEÍNA EN MAIZ PARA ENSILAJE CON EL AUMENTO Y PARCIALIZACIÓN DE LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA Improvement of protein percentage in corn silage with an increase in and partitioning of nitrogen fertilization

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    Patricio Soto O.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En suelos arcillosos de mal drenaje se realizaron dos ensayos con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de maíz (Zea mays L. para ensilaje a la aplicación de N en el rendimiento y contenido de proteína del forraje. En el Ensayo 1 los tratamientos correspondieron a dos híbridos de maíz para ensilaje de distinta precocidad, SX-43 e INIA-150, sembrados con una población de 90.000 plantas ha-1 y cuatro dosis de N: 0, 100, 200 y 400 kg N ha-1. En el Ensayo 2, los tratamientos fueron dos dosis de N: 200 y 400 kg N ha-1, y tres formas de aplicación de nitrógeno: a 1/2 a la siembra + 1/2 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas; b 1/3 a la siembra + 1/3 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas + 1/3 a 60 cm de altura de plantas; y c 1/4 a la siembra + 1/4 a 30 cm de altura de las plantas + 1/4 a 60 cm de altura de plantas +1/4 en floración. Además se incluyó un tratamiento sin aplicación de N. En el Ensayo 1, la aplicación de N aumentó el rendimiento de MS (P In clay soils with poor drainage two trials were carried out with the objective of determining the effect of nitrogen application on maize (Zea mays L. for silage on forage yield and protein content. In Trial 1, the treatments were two corn silage hybrids of different growing periods, SX-43 and INIA-150, sown at 90.000 plants ha-1 and four N rates: 0, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1. In Trial 2, the treatments were two N rates: 200 and 400 kg of N ha-1, and three forms of N application: a 1/2 at sowing + 1/2 at 30 cm plant height; b 1/3 at sowing + 1/3 at 30 cm plant height + 1/3 at 60 cm plant height; and c 1/4 at sowing + 1/4 at 30 cm plant height + 1/4 at 60 cm plant height +1/4 at flowering. One treatment was without N. In Trial 1 N application increased DM yield (P < 0.05, but no significant response was observed with N rates between 100 and 400 kg N ha-1, due to soil limitations. Forage production and protein percentage increased significantly with N application. In Trial 2, DM production in corn

  5. Cubiertas Vegetales en Viñedos: Comportamiento de mezclas de Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales y Efectos sobre la Fertilidad del Suelo Cover Crops in Vineyards: Performance of Annual Forage Legume Mixtures and Effects on Soil Fertility

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    Carlos Ovalle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar y seleccionar cubiertas vegetales como cultivos entre hileras, para mejorar el manejo del suelo en un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, se evaluaron cinco cubiertas: a testigo sin vegetación; b testigo con vegetación espontánea; c mezcla de leguminosas de cultivares precoces de trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. con hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.; d mezcla de cultivares tardíos de trébol subterráneo con trébol balansa (T. michelianum Savi; e mezcla de leguminosas tardías con ballica anual (Lolium rigidum Gaud . El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Experimental Cauquenes del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, durante dos temporadas, 2005-2006 y 2006-2007. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las tres mezclas forrajeras se establecieron adecuadamente y lograron altas poblaciones. La producción de biomasa fue significativamente más alta (P ≤ 0,05 en las mezclas de tréboles tardíos y trébol balansa, respecto de la mezcla de tréboles subterráneos precoces y hualputra (2,3 y 4 t MS ha-1 año-1 y 5,3 y 6,2 t MS ha-1 año -1 en el primer y segundo año, respectivamente. Los contenidos de N, P y K en la biomasa de las cubiertas fueron mayores que en las cubiertas de especies espontáneas, lo que incrementó el contenido de N disponible en el suelo. Se encontró un mayor contenido de K y P en el suelo. Las cubiertas ejercieron un efecto detrimental sobre la población de las especies espontáneas o malezas que crecen en la entre hilera del viñedo.With the objective of evaluating and selecting cover crops to improve soil management in vineyards (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, five cover pastures were evaluated: a control without vegetation; b control with spontaneous vegetation; c legume mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.; d legumes

  6. NIVEL Y VARIABILIDAD DEL BENEFICIO ECONÓMICO DE ROTACIONES PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA REGIÓN DEL BÍO-BÍO Level and variability of the economical benefits of rotations for the Andean Foothills of Bío-Bío Region

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    Jorge A. González U.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available En la agricultura de la Precordillera Andina de la VIII Región, por razones económicas y de política agrícola, se ha reducido la superficie cultivada y la diversidad de rubros, se ha deteriorado el suelo y afectado el desarrollo de sectores rurales. Su aptitud hace factible incorporar rotaciones de cultivos como base de planificación predial. Por ello se cuantificaron y analizaron económicamente rotaciones culturales previamente propuestas para la zona, en base a valorización nominal anual, corrección a valores reales, generación de riqueza (margen y determinaciones de indicadores de dispersión (riesgo del beneficio económico. Se utilizó información de un experimento de largo plazo de rotaciones de secano del Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuaria (INIA. El margen bruto real promedio por hectárea de rotación varió de $160.000 ha-1 en la rotación trigo-raps-avena-lenteja (R5 a $250.000 ha-1 con la rotación trigo-avena (R1. R5 además registró el mayor coeficiente de variación, por tanto pareciera ser la rotación menos recomendable. Trigo-pradera sembrada (3 años (R4, alcanzó margen de $230.000 ha-1 y el menor coeficiente de variación (0,27. Alternativas con ganadería a base de pradera natural fertilizada tienen un comportamiento económico intermedio. El análisis complementario por secuencias de cultivo derivadas de cada rotación sugiere que no existe un cultivo especialmente recomendable para iniciar el ciclo de cada rotación.Agricultural activity in the Andean foothills, VIII Region, due to economic and political changes, has reduced the surface area cultivated and the number of crops, and has damaged the soil and affected the development of rural sectors. One possible change that might be of economic benefit is to rely to a greater extent on crop rotations. The cultural rotations previously proposed for the region were quantified and analyzed economically, based on

  7. INTRODUCCIÓN DE CULTIVARES DE CASTAÑO EUROPEO (Castanea sativa Mill., HÍBRIDOS EUROJAPONESES (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa, Y CASTAÑO JAPONÉS (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc. A CHILE. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS Introduction of European chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Mill., Eurojapanese hybrids (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa and Japanese cultivars (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc. to Chile. First results

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    Pablo Grau B.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en su Centro Regional de Investigación (CRI Quilamapu, ubicado en la ciudad de Chillán, como parte del programa de mejoramiento de frutos de nuez, introdujo 18 de los cultivares comerciales más importantes de castaña desde Italia, Francia y Japón, a mediados de la década del 90. La mayoría de los cultivares introducidos pertenecen a la clasificación marrón, siendo ésta la primera vez que cultivares comerciales de fruto de alta calidad de castaño europeo (Castanea sativa Mill. tipo marrón, de castaño japonés (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc., e híbridos eurojaponeses (C. crenata x C. sativa son introducidos al país. Luego de cumplir dos años de cuarentena, el material fue liberado e injertado en portainjertos de semilla en el CRI Quilamapu. La mayoría de los cultivares iniciaron su producción al segundo año de establecidos, el año 2002, y su comportamiento agronómico está siendo evaluado anualmente. La calidad del fruto de la mayoría de los cultivares fue excelente, y cumplen los requisitos para ser clasificados como marrón según el sistema francés o italiano. Los cvs. más promisorios fueron Marrone di Citta di Castello, Marrone di Marradi y Marrone di Val di Susa que expresaron una alta calidad de fruto. La precocidad de los cultivares híbridos eurojaponeses fue superior a la expresada por selecciones locales, iniciándose la cosecha a inicios de marzo. A partir del año 2002 todos los cultivares se encuentran en evaluación en ensayos de adaptación desde la VII a la X Región del país, área con alto potencial para el cultivo de ambas especies. El presente trabajo constituye la primera introducción de cultivares tipo marrón de castaño europeos, híbridos eurojaponeses y cultivares japoneses a Chile.The Agricultural Research Institute (INIA, at its Regional Research Center (CRI Quilamapu at Chillán, as part of a nut fruit improvement program, introduced in the

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of Climatic Change on the Economic Value of Land in Agricultural Systems in Chile Evaluación del Impacto del Cambio Climático sobre el Valor Económico de la Tierra en Sistemas Agrícolas de Chile

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    Jorge González U

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Climatic change will affect crop yields and management. By the year 2050, the mean temperature could increase by 1.5 ºC; and by the year 2100 between 1.0 to 3.5 ºC. There are few studies on this subject in Chile. At the international level, estimated climatic changes in temperate and tropical zones could negatively affect wheat (Triticum vulgare L. and corn (Zea mays L. production, as examples. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between agricultural systems and climatic change by using the Ricardian Method. Specific objectives were to evaluate and quantify the relationship of climatic variables (precipitation and temperature with economic variables under several realities of farms, to simulate the impact of scenarios of climatic change, to propose general orientations of adaptation and to evaluate the Ricardian Method with Chilean data. Economic and productive information from farmers belonging to Technological Transfer Groups (GTT of the Agricultural Research Institute (INIA was collected. The Ricardian Method explained 37.6% of land value variation. The highest values were in areas with moderate temperatures and precipitation. Temperature had a lower relationship to land value than precipitation. Under specific conditions (type of producer, irrigation, extension were detected behaviors that require further analysis. Upon simulating change of temperature and precipitation, the negative impacts on land value tended to be of lower magnitude than in other warmer regions. A tendency was observed for increased temperature to be beneficial, and a neutral to positive effect with less precipitation. The outputs could initially guide specific strategies of adaptation and mitigationEl cambio climático afectará los rendimientos y manejo de los cultivos agrícolas. Se estima que al año 2050 la temperatura media aumentaría 1,5 ºC, y al 2100 entre 1,0 y 3,5 ºC. En Chile existen pocos estudios sobre el tema

  9. Phosphate Fertilization Can Increase Yield of Productive Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Crops in P-Retentive Soils La Fertilización Fosfatada Puede Incrementar el Rendimiento de Cultivos Productivos de Chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L. en Suelos con Retención de Fósforo

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    Adolfo Montenegro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of P fertilization on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. yield and yield components was evaluated on soils with low P availability and high P retention capacity in small-scale farms of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile. Trials were conducted during 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003, in six sites; three sites in Lumaco and three in the Selva Oscura area. Six rates of P (0, 21.8, 43.6, 65.4, 87.2, and 109.0 kg ha-1 were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Grass pea cv. Luanco-INIA was sown at 47 seeds m-2. Mean grain yield for all trials was 2456 kg ha-1. Phosphate fertilization increased grass pea grain yield in both areas during 2000 and 2001. There was no significant effect in 2002. The 2002 cropping season had an unusually high spring-summer rainfall, which may have enhanced the P mineralization rate from organic soil fraction, and thus P availability. According to this study, grass pea crops in soils with La información sobre el requerimiento de fósforo de cultivos de chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L. es muy escasa, particularmente en suelos que retienen este elemento. En consecuencia, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización fosfatada sobre el rendimiento y peso del grano de chícharo (variedad Luanco-INIA en suelos con baja disponibilidad de P y alta capacidad de retención de P, en campos de pequeños agricultores de la Región de La Araucanía, sur de Chile (37°30’-39°30’S. Los ensayos se realizaron durante 2000-2001, 2001-2002 y 2002-2003 en seis sitios; tres en el área de Lumaco y tres en el área de Selva Oscura. Se evaluaron seis dosis de P (0; 21,8; 43,6; 65,4; 87,2 y 109,0 kg ha-1 en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se sembró a razón de 47 semillas m-2. El rendimiento de grano de todos los ensayos promedió 2456 kg ha-1. La fertilización fosfatada incrementó el rendimiento de grano del chícharo durante las temporadas agrícolas 2000-2001 y

  10. VARIACIONES DEL CONTENIDO DE Mn DE DOS SUELOS SOMETIDOS A ESTERILIZACIÓN Y SU EFECTO SOBRE LA PUDRICION RADICAL DEL TRIGO O "MAL DE PIE" Variation on Mn content of sterilized soil and their effect on take-all disease of wheat

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    Ricardo Campillo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó bajo condiciones controladas de invernadero, el efecto de la variación del contenido de Mn de un suelo supresivo y un suelo conducivo, sobre la expresión de la pudrición radical del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. o "mal de pie", causada por el hongo ascomicete Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc. von Arx & Olivier var. tritici Walker (Ggt. Se utilizaron dos suelos de la IX Región previamente determinados como: A naturalmente supresivo (ultisol y B como conducivo (andisol a la pudrición radical del trigo. Se evaluaron ambos suelos sembrados con trigo cv. Dalcahue - INIA durante 40 días, en su condición natural y bajo esterilización con autoclave y microonda, para observar el efecto del contenido de Mn sobre la expresión de la enfermedad. Los valores de Mn del suelo se incrementaron producto de la esterilización, en suelos supresivos desde 98,2 a 293 mg kg-1, y en suelos conducivos de 2,5 a 295 mg kg-1. La MS de las plantas no se vió afectada por las variaciones experimentadas por el Mn en estos suelos. El proceso de infección radical de las plantas de trigo operó en forma totalmente independiente del contenido de Mn disponible del suelo, sea éste supresivo o conducivo; la infección radical llegó a niveles tan altos como un 89%. Lo anterior indica que la inhibición de la infección observada al transferir 1% de suelo supresivo a una base de suelo estéril, no se debe al mayor contenido de Mn del suelo esterilizado, sino a factores bióticos asociados a esos suelos.The variation on Mn content of a suppressive and a conducive soils on the expression of take-all wheat (Triticum aestivum L. disease, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc. von Arx & Olivier var. tritici Walker (Ggt, was evaluated under controlled greenhouse conditions. Two soils of the Ninth Region previously determined to be A naturally suppressive (ultisol and B as conducive (andisol to wheat take-all disease were used. Both soils were seeded with wheat

  11. Effect of irrigation and winery waste compost rates in nitrate leaching in vulnerable zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The winery industry is widespread in Spain (3,610,000 tonnes of wine in 2010 (FAO, 2010)), and generates wastes characterized by a high content of organic matter, a notable content in macronutrients and low heavy-metals. These organic wastes could be used for agricultural purposes after a correct stabilization process (e.g. composting).The addition of these organic wastes requires a correct management, especially on semiarid cropped areas of central Spain where environmental degradation of water supplies with high N loads is observed. An integrated optimization of both applied compost dose and amount of irrigation is important to ensure optimum yields and minimum nitrate leaching losses. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the application of winery waste compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated with different drip irrigation rates. The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. Beside the control treatment (D0), three doses of compost were applied: 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha(D3).Irrigation treatments consisted of applying a 100% ETc and an excess irrigation of 120% ETc. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 m depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Drainage and nitrate concentration on the soil solution were measured weekly to determine N leached during the crop period. Crop yield was also followed by harvesting plots when a significant number of fruits were fully matured. A comparison between nitrate leached and crop production among different treatments and irrigation rates are presented. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  12. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry. PMID:25449382

  13. Bacterial vaccines for fish--an update of the current situation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håstein, T; Gudding, R; Evensen, O

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. According to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Tilapia spp), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), purplish and gold-striped amberjack (Seriola dumereli), striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The range of bacterial infections for which vaccines are commercially available now comprises classical vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii), furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), cold-water vibriosis (Vibrio salmonicida), yersiniosis (Yersinia ruckeri), pasteurellosis (Photobacterium damselae supsp. piscicida), edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella ictaluri), winter ulcer (Moritella viscosa), and streptococcosis/lactococcosis (Streptococcus iniae, Lactococcus garviae). Furthermore, experimental vaccines are used against diseases such as infection with Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damsela subsp. damsela in barramundi, piscirickettsiosis and bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, as well as infection with Flexibacter maritimus (now: Tenacibaculum maritimum) in turbot. There was good agreement between the information received from different sources in the same country. Most vaccines are licensed products, but some non-licensed vaccines are also used in commercial fish farms. Most bacterial vaccines are inactivated products and recombinant vaccine technology has so far been used to a very limited extent. Salmonid fish are usually immunised with multivalent vaccines by intraperitoneal injection. In marine fish species vaccination is generally

  14. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  16. Increasing nitrogen rates in rice and its effect on plant nutrient composition and nitrogen apparent recovery

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    Juan Hirzel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the essential foods of the human diet; advances in agronomic crop management can improve productivity and profitability as well as reduce adverse environmental impacts. Nitrogen rates in Chile are generally based on crop yield without considering other agronomic factors. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing N rates on plant nutrient composition and N apparent recovery in rice cultivated in five different locations in Chile. The five sites located in central Chile belong to one of the following soil orders: Inceptisol, Alfisol, and Vertisol; they were cropped in field conditions with 'Zafiro-INIA' rice fertilized with 0, 80, and 160 kg N ha-1. Whole-plant total DM, macronutrient composition, and N apparent recovery efficiency (NARE were determined at grain harvest. Results indicate that all evaluated parameters, with the exception of K concentration, were affected by the soil used. Nitrogen rates only affected total DM production and P, K, and Mg concentrations in plants. Phosphorus and K response decreased when N was added to some soils, which is associated with its chemical properties. Magnesium concentration exhibited an erratic effect, but it was not affected by the N rate in most soils. Nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency was not affected by the N rate and accounted for approximately 49% and 41% for 80 and 160 kg N ha-1, respectively. Macronutrient composition was 5.1-7.7 g N, 1.3-1.8 g P, 5.4-10.8 g K, 1.68-2.57 g Ca, and 0.81-1.45 g Mg kg-1 of total DM.

  17. Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in improving the response of barramundi to a disease challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne E; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-11-15

    Pathogen infection stimulates the fatty acid (FA) metabolism and the production of pro-inflammatory derivatives of FA. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer, was fed on a diet rich in preformed long-chain (⩾C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil (FO), to compare with diets containing high levels of C18 precursors for LC-PUFA - stearidonic (SDA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) - from Echium plantagineum (EO), or rapeseed oil (RO) rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), but a poor source of LC-PUFA and their precursors. After 6weeks, when growth rates were similar amongst the dietary treatments, a sub-lethal dose of Streptococcus iniae was administered to half of the fish, while the other half were maintained unchallenged and were pair-fed with the infected fish. Under a disease challenge situation, the tissue FA depots depleted at 3days post-infection (DPI) and were then restored to their previous concentrations at 7DPI. During the infection period, EO fish had a higher content of n3 and n6 PUFA in their tissues, higher n3:n6 PUFA ratio and reduced levels of the eicosanoids, TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α, in their plasma compared with RO fish. Fish fed on FO and EO had a longer lasting and enduring response in their FA and eicosanoid concentrations, following a week of bacterial infection, compared with those fed on RO. EO, containing SDA and GLA and with a comparatively higher n3:n6 PUFA ratio, proved more effective than RO in compensating for immunity stress. PMID:23790934

  18. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  19. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shiwei; Zhou, Weiwen; Tian, Lixia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-08-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four practical diets were formulated, control, control +0.2% NAC, control +0.5% glycine, control +0.2% NAC +0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 9.5 g). The weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC and glycine. While they had no effect on feed efficiency feed intake and survival. Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) was increased by NAC and γ-glutamine cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in plasma were increased by glycine. After the feeding trail, fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae, fish fed the diet supplemented with NAC obtained significantly higher survival rate after 72 h challenge test. NAC also decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver, increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma, up-regulated mRNA expression of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPx in liver and headkidney. Dietary supplementation of glycine increased the anti-oxidative ability of tilapia through increase anti-oxidative enzyme activity (SOD, glutathione reductase, myeloperoxidase) and up-regulate anti-oxidative gene expression (SOD). Immune ability only enhanced by the supplementation of NAC through increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression. These results clearly indicated that the supplementation of NAC and glycine can significantly improve the growth performance of tilapia, and NAC also enhance the anti-oxidative and immune capacity of tilapia, glycine could only enhance the anti-oxidative ability. PMID:27235905

  20. Embryogenesis in Oak species. A review

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    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: A review on the propagation methods of four Quercus species, namely Q. suber, Q. robur, Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, through somatic embryogenesis and anther embryogenesis are presented.Area of study: The study comprises both Mediterranean and Atlantic oak species located in Spain.Material and Methods: Somatic embryogenesis was induced on immature zygotic embryos of diverse oak species, permitting the multiplication of half-sib families. Induction of haploid embryos and doubled haploids was assayed in both Q. suber and Q. ilex by temperature stress treatments of anthers containing late vacuolated microspores. The haploid origin of the anther embryos has been evaluated by quantitative nuclear DNA analysis through flow cytometry and by DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic transformation of cork oak has also been performed by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors. Proteomic analysis has been conducted to screen the diverse protein profiles followed by in vitro derived embryos during their development.Research highlights: Successful plant regeneration from both somatic and haploid embryos has been achieved. In the particular case of cork oak, doubled-haploid plants were obtained. Plantlets regenerated from selected parent trees through somatic embryogenesis were acclimated in the greenhouse and in the nursery, and were planted in an experimental plot in the field. Preliminary evaluation of the cork quality of the plants showed a good heritability correlation with the parent trees. This article revises the work of and is dedicated to Dr. M.A. Bueno, who devoted much of her professional life to the research on Biotechnology and Genetics of forest species, leading the Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology at the Spanish Institute of Agronomic Research (INIA.Key words: anther embryogenesis; microspore; pollen; Quercus canariensis; Quercus ilex; Quercus robur; Quercus suber; somatic embryogenesis. 

  1. Fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”

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    Franz Correa Meléndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu camu” es un frutal del trópico amazónico caracterizado por sus frutos con gran contenido de vitamina C, siendo considerado un producto importante del país. Sin embargo, hay pocos reportes sobre el metabolismo y transporte de vitamina C en esta especie. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la fluctuación diurna del contenido de vitamina C en hojas de M. dubia “camu camu”. Las hojas se colectaron de la colección de germoplasma de “camu camu” del INIA a las 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 y 22 horas; de cuatro plantas y en tres fechas diferentes. La vitamina C fue extraída de las hojas con un método estandarizado en el laboratorio y se cuantificó mediante espectrofotometría a 530nm, previa reacción con 2,6-diclorofenolindofenol. Los resultados muestran que el contenido de vitamina C de las hojas de “camu camu” fue en promedio 231±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja. Además, el contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” mostró fluctuación diurna, siendo menor a las 6 horas y mayor a las 2 y 14 horas del día. También, se registraron concentraciones intermedias en horas de menor o ausencia de radiación solar (235±17 y 237±35 mg vitamina C/100g de hoja a las 18 y 22 horas respectivamente. Se concluye que existe alto contenido de vitamina C en las hojas del “camu camu” y que este contenido presenta fluctuación diurna.

  2. Inducción de la biosíntesis local de antocianinas en frutos de Myrciaria dubia mediante lesiones mecánicas

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    Daniel Motta-Santillán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En las plantas las antocianinas cumplen roles fundamentales en sus interacciones con el medio ambiente, son una de las líneas de defensa contra los radicales libres, la radiación ultravioleta y el ataque de patógenos. Observaciones realizadas muestran que los frutos de M. dubia acumulan antocianinas alrededor de lesiones mecánicas probablemente causadas por insectos. Por tanto, hemos probado la hipótesis que produciendo lesiones mecánicas en frutos verdes de M. dubia se induce la biosíntesis local de antocianinas. De tres plantas en fructificación de la colección de germoplasma del INIA se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 40 frutos verdes (25 ± 5 mm de Ø y se causaron lesiones mecánicas con estilete o bisturí al 75% de ellos. Posteriormente, se registró el porcentaje de acumulación de antocianinas por área superficial del fruto a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se observó acumulación de antocianinas en ~10% (24 horas, ~30% (48 horas y ~70% (72 horas del área superficial de los frutos. En conclusión, las lesiones mecánicas causadas en frutos de M. dubia inducen la biosíntesis local de antocianinas, probablemente como un mecanismo de defensa efectivo desarrollado por esta especie. La comprensión de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en esta respuesta fisiológica nos permitirá establecer las bases para la mejora genética de esta especie.

  3. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata. PMID:22458212

  4. Complement factor D homolog involved in the alternative complement pathway of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular and functional characterization and immune responsive mRNA expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-08-01

    The complement system serves conventional role in the innate defense against common invading pathogens. Complement factor D (CfD) is vital to alternative complement pathway activation in cleaving complement factor B. This catalytic reaction forms the alternative C3 convertase that is crucial for complement-mediated pathogenesis. In this study, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) CfD (OfCfD) was characterized and OfCfD mRNA expression was investigated. OfCfD encodes 277 amino acids (aa) for a 30-kDa polypeptide. A domain analysis of the deduced OfCfD aa sequence showed a single serine protease trypsin superfamily domain, a serine active region, three active sites, and three substrate-binding sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons indicated that OfCfD has the highest identity (84.5%) with Oreochromis niloticus CfD. The phylogenetic tree revealed a common ancestral origin of CfD members, with fish CfD distinct from other vertebrate orthologs. The structural arrangement of the OfCfD gene (2451 bp) contained five exons interrupted by four introns. A spatial transcriptional analysis indicated that OfCfD transcripts constitutively expressed in all of the examined rock bream tissues, and that they were highest in the spleen and liver. In addition, OfCfD transcripts were immunologically upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12 h p.i.), Streptococcus iniae (12 h p.i.), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) (6-12 h p.i.), and poly I:C (6 h p.i.) in spleen tissue. OfCfD is a trypsin protease and its recombinant protein showed strong protease activity similar to that of trypsin, indicating its catalytic function in the alternative pathway. Together, our findings suggest that OfCfD might be involved in immune responses in rock bream. PMID:27311435

  5. CLONACIÓN Y FILOGENIA MOLECULAR DE UN SEGMENTO DEL GEN CODANTE DE LA ACTINA DE MYRCIARIA DUBIA “CAMU-CAMU”: UN CANDIDATO PARA GEN DE REFERENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu” es un frutal amazónico caracterizado por su amplia variación de vitamina C. Pero los estudios genético moleculares que puedan explicar esta variación son limitados. Por ello nuestro objetivo fue realizar la clonación y filogenia molecular de un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de la colección de germoplasma del INIA. Luego, el ARN fue purificado y mediante RT-PCR con cebadores degenerados se amplificó un segmento del gen. En base a la secuencia obtenida se diseñaron cebadores específicos para PCR en tiempo real. Los resultados muestran que se ha aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de actina de M. dubia y detectado su expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Así, con el soporte de herramientas bioinformáticas y uso de técnicas de biología molecular hemos aislado, clonado y secuenciado un segmento del gen codante de la actina de M. dubia. Asimismo, los análisis realizados muestran que el gen se expresa y presenta niveles similares de expresión en hojas, pulpa y cáscara de M. dubia. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar más experimentos a fin de verificar su estabilidad de expresión.

  6. Risk of wine-distillery waste compost application in vulnerable zones: nitrogen balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ventas, L.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the nutrient with the greatest impact on yield of horticultural crops. It is extremely dynamic in soil and undergoes changes that include processes of gains, losses and transformations. The melon crop area at Ciudad Real adds the 29% of the national production in Spain. The common agronomic management is representative of semiarid cropped zones of Spain where environmental degradation of water supplies with high N loads is observed. The site of this work is located near of Mancha Occidental aquifer (U.H.04.04, 6.953 km2) and Campo de Montiel aquifer (U.H. 04.06, 3.192 km2) with high contamination problems. The efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation is especially important in these areas designated vulnerables to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. The aim of this study was to assess N losses when applying exhausted grape marc compost to a melon crop as source of nutrients in a vulnerable area. The doses are often excessive because are normally based on the input of organic matter rather than on the potentially mineralizable nitrogen. This N is not only released during the growing season but also in the intercropping period. In this experiment a nitrogen balance was carried out with three different doses of compost: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with a depth of 0.6 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Nitrogen plant absorption and nitrate losses were measured weekly, controlling at the same time N mineralized in soil. Simultaneously, a mineralization experiment was carried out without crop (either in laboratory and field conditions) to compare it with the results obtained with melon crop. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  7. The influence of wine-distillery waste compost on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and uptake by a melon crop in a shallow calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the large quantity of organic wastes generated by the winery industry constitutes a serious environmental concern, due to its low pH and high content of phenolic compounds. This is accompanied by a seasonal production that makes their management difficult. Winery wastes are characterized by high organic matter contents, low electrical conductivity values and notable contents in macronutrients, so their use as organic amendments is a good management option for improving soil fertility. However, a composting treatment is necessary to convert these organic wastes into more stable, hygienic and humic-rich materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of exhausted grape marc compost (composed of dealcoholized pulp, skins and stems) as fertilizer in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). This experiment was carried out from May to September 2011 in Ciudad Real (Spain). This area was designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 7.9), poor in organic matter (0.20%), rich in potassium (407 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (19.4 ppm). The experiment had a randomised complete block design, with four treatments consisted of four compost doses: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3), in order to determine the optimum dose to ensure nutrient demand, maximizing yield and minimizing nutrient losses. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  8. Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor(R)-medicated feed therapy (20 mg/kg BW/d for 10 days)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaflor® [50% w w−1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 μg g−1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 μg g−1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL−1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL−1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

  9. A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Seung Min; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeong, Joon Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic. PMID:26921543

  10. Response of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to artificial shading during the reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentil production in southern Chile is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations in solar radiation received during the reproductive stage, with an average variation ranging from 300 to 650 g cal cm-2 day-1. to quantify the effect of reducing incident light on crop performance, artifical shading experiments were conducted with 80% light reduction during different periods spanning the reprodcutive stage, as well as various degrees of shading (0, 20, 35, 50 and 80%) throughout. shading was achieved by using a black polypropylene net placed at 0.8 m above soil surface. The experiments were carried out during the 1991/92, 1992/93 and 1993/94 cropping seasons at the Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, INIA (38°41' S, 72°25' W). The effect of 80% shading on seed yield was dependent upon the period at which the treatment was imposed. Seed yield reduction was higher when shading occurred during the growth stages R--R5, accounting 35, 48 and 59% yield losses for the 1991/92, 1992/93 and 1993/94 seasons, respectively. No significant diffreences were detected between R1-R3 and R5-R8 periods, with seed yield losses averaging 39 (1991/92), 10 (1992/93) and 25% (1993/94). Variations in seed yield due to shading were explained mainly by a reduction of total pods m-2 and an increase in empty (flat) pods (R3-R5), and a reduction on the average seed weight (R5-R8). As expected, the higher losses occurred on treatments exposed to two (R1-R5, R3-R8) or three (R1-R8) periods of shading. Grain yield under different degrees of shading was significantly reduced, with responses fitted to the functions Y = 2.020-32.5s + 0.18s2 (1992/93) and Y = 2.172-25.6s-0.04s2 (1993/94). Reduction on seed yield was associated to a decrease in total pods m-2 and average seed weight, whereas empty pods increased significantly only at near 80% shading. These results point at R3-R5 as the most sensible growth stage under 80% shading and demonstrate the sensitiveness of lentil to

  11. Impact of climate change on olive crop flowering at southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; de la Rosa, Raúl; León, Lorenzo; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Belaj, Angjelina; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Andalusia region (Southern Spain) is the largest olive oil producer in the world with 40% of the total production (1.1millions tons; FAOSTAT, 2013). Predicting flowering dates of olive under future climate conditions has a critical importance as flowering is a critical stage for olive as heat and water stresses during this period have a significant impact on final olive oil yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the olive flowering dates under future climate conditions. Climate data for the future period was obtained from the ENSEMBLES European Project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) with a bias correction in temperature and precipitation with regard with the SPAIN02 dataset (Herrera et al., 2012) (ENS-SP). Flowering of ten different olive cultivars were evaluated under current and forced (greenhouse) climate conditions, applying the bias in temperatures comparing the current period (1981-2010) with the future period (2071-2100) to the current conditions in Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). These observations allowed obtaining a flowering approach which was applied to the whole Andalusia region. The results showed an average advance in flowering dates about 16 days at the end of the 21st century. With these results different areas within Andalusia region were classified based on the vulnerability caused by the lack of chilling hours accumulation (coastal areas) or by high temperatures during flowering (north and northeast regions). This study has been supported by the project RTA2014-00030-00-00 funded by INIA and FEDER 2014-2020 "Programa Operativo de Crecimiento Inteligente" and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. FAOSTAT (2013) Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QD/E. Accessed 07 January 2016 Herrera S, Gutiérrez JM, Ancell R, Pons MR, Frías MD, Fernández J. 2012. Development and analysis of a 50-year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02

  12. Aplicación del coeficiente de inconsistencia como criterio de comparación entre mediciones Convencionales y Automáticas de lluvia diaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Colotti B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los organismos que administran redes meteorológicas como el Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales (MARN, la Fuerza Aérea Venezolana (FAV, la Armada Venezolana y Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA y Electrificación del Caroní (CVG-Edelca, entre otros, han iniciado la sustitución de los equipos convencionales de medición por mecanismos automáticos. Sin embargo, ésta sustitución instrumental sería procedente una vez que se hayan comparado simultáneamente las dos sucesiones de medidas, dado que, al evaluar la situación descrita, y haberse decidido eliminar el instrumental convencional, se genera un nuevo conjunto de datos que debería acoplarse a los registros antiguos medidos convencionalmente. Así, se propone un criterio para decidir si es necesario hacer ajustes a los nuevos datos automáticos con respecto a los convencionales o, equivalentemente, si es necesario posponer la eliminación del dispositivo convencional hasta que haya certeza en que las mediciones automáticas son fiables. El Error Cuadrático Medio (ECM fue seleccionado como un índice base en la toma de la decisión respectiva, habiéndose demostrado que ECM = V(X +V(X* - 2 C(X,X*, donde ECM = V(X-X* = varianza de las diferencias de mediciones automáticas y convencionales, V(X = varianza de la medición convencional, V(X* = varianza de la medición automática y C(X,X* = covarianza entre mediciones convencional y automática. Bajo la hipótesis de que E(X = E(X*, se concluye en que el cociente V(X-X* [V(X + V(X*], cuantifica el grado de inconsistencia entre los conjuntos muestrales provenientes de mediciones convencional y automática. Este cociente, denominado Coeficiente de Inconsistencia (acrónimo, CI, varía entre valores 0 (inconsistencia nula o consistencia máxima y 1 (inconsistencia máxima o consistencia nula y permitirá medir en el grado en que mediciones simultáneas bajo distintos criterios de medición son

  13. ELEMENTOS ESTRATÉGICOS DE LA GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO ORGANIZACIONAL PARA LA INNOVACIÓN. CASO: RED DE AGROMETEOROLOGÍA

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    Barlin Orlando Olivares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Esta experiencia docente tiene como objetivo proponer un modelo de gestión del conocimiento organizacional para el programa de capacitación desarrollado por el departamento de agrometeorología del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA del estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela. Se utilizó el protocolo de solución de problemas, derivado de la aplicación de ciclos de aprendizaje, denominado TADIR (Traducción, Análisis, Diseño, Implementación y Revisión. Se estableció la diversificación de las formas de promover las actividades, tareas, resultados, productos generados por el proyecto, antes, durante y posterior a su ejecución, de manera fácil y completa, así como la conciencia en la población sobre las bondades de la agrometeorológica y su importancia para el desarrollo agrícola del país. Los resultados de esta investigación pueden estar al servicio de la misma organización de manera directa e indirecta y de otras que quieran asumir el reto de contribuir al proceso de transformación que vive la nación. ABSTRACT This teaching experience seeks to propose an organizational knowledge management model for the training program developed by the Agrometeorology Department of the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INAI, in Spanish of the State of Anzoátegui, Venezuela. The problem solution protocol deriving from the application of learning cycles, TADIR (Translation, Analysis, Design, Implementation and Revision, was used. An array of different ways to promote activities, tasks, results, and products generated by the project was established before, during and after the execution in an easy and complete manner. The population was also made aware of the advantages of agrometeorology and its importance for the agricultural development of the country. The results of this research can be made directly or indirectly available to the same organization or any others who wish to take the challenge of contributing

  14. Molecular characterisation and biological activity of a novel CXC chemokine gene in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shim, Sang Hee; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-05-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues. In mammals, these cytokines can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in the sequence, and include the CXC(α), CC(β), C(γ), and CX3C(δ) classes. We identified CXC chemokine cDNA, designated RbCXC, isolated using expressed sequence tag analysis of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rock bream liver cDNA library. The full-length RbCXC cDNA (742 bp) contained an open reading frame of 342 bp encoding 114 amino acids. Results from phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCXC was strictly separated into a distinct clade compared to other known CXC chemokine subgroups. RbCXC was significantly expressed in the trunk kidney, liver, spleen, gill, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), and head kidney. Rock bream PBLs were stimulated with several mitogens, including LPS and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), which significantly induced the expression of RbCXC mRNA. RbCXC mRNA expression was examined in several tissues under conditions of bacterial and viral challenge. Experimental challenges revealed that all examined tissues from fish infected with Edwardsiella tarda and red sea bream iridovirus showed significant increases in RbCXC expression compared to the control. In the case of Streptococcus iniae infection, RbCXC mRNA expression was markedly upregulated in the kidney, spleen, and liver. In addition, a maltose binding protein fusion recombinant RbCXC (~53 kDa) was produced in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified. Subsequently, the addition of purified recombinant RbCXC (rRbCXC) to kidney leukocytes was examined to investigate the impact of proliferative and chemotactic activity. The rRbCXC induced significant kidney leukocyte proliferation and attraction at concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μg/mL, suggesting that it can be utilised as an immune stimulant and/or molecular adjuvant to

  15. ДИКОРАСТУЩИЕ ВИДЫ МЯТЫ КАК НОСИТЕЛИ ГЕНОВ УСТОЙЧИВОСТИ К НЕБЛАГОПРИЯТНЫМ ФАКТОРАМ ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ

    OpenAIRE

    БУГАЕНКО ЛЮДМИЛА АЛЕКСАНДРОВНА

    2015-01-01

    Показано, что дикорастущие виды мяты могут являться носителями генов морозоустойчивости и устойчивости к ржавчине, которая вызывается грибом Рuссinia menthae Pers. Перспективным для создания устойчивых сортов является метод межвидовой гибридизации с использованием культивируемых видов Mentha piperita L. и Mentha canadensis L., а также дикорастущих видов Mentha aquatica L., Mentha spicata L. и Mentha longifolia (L.) Nathh. Выявлены доноры устойчивости к ржавчине M. canadensis K60 (4п) и M. aqu...

  16. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    . With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic amendment. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  17. Design and synthesis of isoniazide mimetic conjugated with DTPA, potential ligand of novel radiopharmaceutical and contrast agent for medical imaging, Bis (amide) of diethyelene triaminepentaacetic acid: DTPA-Bis(INH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of isonicotinic acid hydrazide was coupled to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) via amide linkage. The Overall yield of three steps synthesis starting from DTPA is above 80%. The new ligand binds with infection site through specific interaction with gene iniA, iniB and iniC under pathological conditions. In particular, complexation of DTPA moiety with 99mTc and Gd+III showed excellent results as metallopharmaceutical for medical imaging. Primary object of the present invention is to propose a novel INH derivative based on DTPA, which form stable complexes with most of lanthanides and transition metals in periodic table. Another object of the present invention is to introduce a chelating group without compromising its biological activity for early diagnosis of infection using nuclear medicine and MR techniques. The DTPA-Bis(INH) was synthesized in high yield using simple synthetic procedure. Radiochemical purity was ascertained chromatographically using different solvent system. Blood kinetics in rabbits and biodistribution in mice was studied. The ability of DTPA-Bis(INH) to target infection site in vivo was assessed in gamma scintigraphic studies of normal rabbit and a rabbit with induced tuberculosis. The DTPA-Bis(INH) was characterized by Mass spectroscopy in ESI positive mode, M+H+ was found to be 632.2.The complex was successfully labeled with 99mTc radionuclide with more than 95% labeling efficiency.It was found stable up to 24h. Blood kinetics showed rapid first pass clearance with biological half life t1/2 (F) = 11 min. Imaging of a normal rabbit and a rabbit with induced tuberculosis was carried out. An appreciable activity was visualized in liver and kidneys. In diseased rabbit similar pattern was observed with the accumulation of activity at the tubercular site at 24 h post injection. Biodistribution revealed major accumulation in liver 6.30±0.58%ID/g at 1 h and 6.25±0.11 at 4h and in kidneys 7.65±0.52%ID/g at 1h and 6.70±0

  18. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  19. Molecular characterization and comparative expression analysis of two teleostean pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8, from Sebastes schlegeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Godahewa, G I; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-01-10

    Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) are two major pro-inflammatory cytokines which play a central role in initiation of inflammatory responses against bacterial- and viral-infections. IL-1β is a member of the interleukin 1 family proteins and IL-8 is classified as a CXC-chemokine. In the current study, putative IL-1β and IL-8 counterparts were identified from a black rockfish transcriptomic database and designated as RfIL-1β and RfIL-8. The RfIL-1β cDNA sequence consists of 1140 nucleotides with a 759bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a 252 amino acid (aa) protein, whereas the RfIL-8 cDNA sequence (898bp) harbors a 300bp ORF encoding a 99 aa protein. Furthermore, the RfIL-1β aa sequence contains an IL-1 super family-like domain and an N-terminal IL-1 super family propeptide, while the amino acid sequence of RfIL-8 consists of a typical chemokine-CXC domain. Analysis of sequenced BAC clones containing RfIL-1β and RfIL-8 showed each gene to contain 4 exons interrupted by 3 introns. Pairwise comparison and phylogeny analysis of these cytokine sequences clearly revealed their closer relationship with other corresponding members of teleosts compared to birds and mammals. Constitutive differences in RfIL-1β and RfIL-8 mRNA expression were detected in a tissue-specific manner with the highest expression of each mRNA in spleen tissue. Two immune challenge experiments were conducted with Streptococcus iniae and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; a viral double stranded RNA mimic), and transcripts were quantified in spleen and peripheral blood cells. Significantly increased RfIL-1β and RfIL8 transcript levels were detected with almost similar profile patterns, further suggesting a putative involvement of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the rockfish immunity. PMID:26449313

  20. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

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    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima. Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Calle San Marcos 351, Pueblo Libre, Lima – Perú. Teléfono 2193600 anexo 8373. Correo electrónico: rafolarosa@yahoo.es ABSTRACT Responses of Chenopodium quinoa Willd “quinoa” under two coast conditions of irrigation and its effects in production and quality of proteins were evaluated. In the current research we used seeds of variety “huancayo”, from Experimental Station “Santa Ana” of INIA (Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias– Huancayo. Irrigation was for drip, obtaining two treatments, i irrigation with 3 m3 of water, weekly, and ii without irrigation, while evaluations were done. Soil humidity, transpiration, relative water content (RWC, anatomy of mesophyll of leaves, quantification of proteins and starch, acid phosphatase activity and amilolytic activity were evaluated. Soil humidity is significant different after a month of irrigation. Transpiration was related with wind strength; hence this is not a good way to measure drought stress. RWC was similar in both treatments, it means that decrease in soil water not affect water level in leaves. Mesophylls were very similar in both conditions. Dry matter in vegetative period show no significant differences, but there were a tendency to accumulate more assimilates in irrigated plants. Therefore there were no difference in photosynthetic activity, so seeds received same quantity of assimilates; this fact means seeds

  1. Nitrogen balance as a tool to assess nitrogen mineralized from winery wastes under different irrigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Grape marc is a by-product coming from the winery industry, composed of skins, seeds and stalks generated during the crushing process. In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,610,000 tonnes in 2010 (FAO, 2010)) with the consequent waste generation. With an adequate composting treatment, this waste can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. Compost N forms added to soil are mostly organic N forms, so organic N can be mineralized during the crop period and thus be taken up by the plants, immobilised, or leached. Compost N mineralization depends on factors such as compost C/N ratio but also on climate conditions. Estimation of N mineralization is necessary to optimise crop yield and minimize the risk of N losses to the environment, especially in zones vulnerable to nitrate pollution. The aim of this work was to assess mineralized N during the crop season when applying grape marc compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated under different drip irrigation rates. A nitrogen balance in field conditions was carried out with three different doses of compost: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha (D3); and two irrigation rates (100% ETc and 120% ETc). The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Nitrogen plant uptake and nitrate losses were measured weekly; mineral N in soil was determined before compost addition and at the end of the crop cycle. An estimation of soil mineralized N during the crop season using nitrogen balance is presented. Results are compared with data obtained in laboratory conditions. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  2. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    early but once they have fulfilled their functions, appearing as a good alternative to PE, especially in organic farming. Project INIA RTA2011-00104-C04-03. References: Kasirajan, S.; Ngouajio, M. 2012. Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32: 501-529. Martín-Closas, L.; Pelacho, A.M. 2011. Agronomic potential of biopolymer films. p. 277-299. In: Biopolymers. New materials for sustainable films and coating. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Moreno, M.M.; Moreno A. 2008. Effect of different biodegradable and polyethylene mulches on productivity and soil thermal and biological properties in a tomato crop. Sci. Hort. 116(3): 256-263.

  3. Potassium and Phosphorus in Muscat Rosada Grape Yield in Elqui Valley Soil Fósforo y Potasio en la Producción de Vid Moscatel Rosada, en Suelo del Valle de Elqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sierra B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and K on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. var. Muscat Rosada were evaluated four years, considering the same levels of N. The experiment was conducted at the Vicuña Experimental Station (30° S; 70°44´ W of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. The soil is alluvial antropic miscellaneous (Entisols. Three fertilization treatments were established: 1 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 300; 2 N 160 + P2O5 0 + K2O 300; and 3 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 0. At the beginning of the experiment, grape vines received all the phosphate fertilizers, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate in Treatments 1 and 3. Nitrogen was applied as urea for four years. The applications were initiated when the vine buds measured 20 cm. The K was applied to the soils of Treatments 1 and 2, at a dosage of 200 kg ha-1 K2O, using potassium sulphate. Between berry set and 30 d before harvest, 100 kg ha-1 K2O were applied as potassium sulphate by fertigation. Significant effects of the P fertilization were observed by the second year, with increased cluster numbers per plant. K also increased grape fruit yield by the third year. This response was obtained with less than 5 mg kg-1 of P available in the soil and less than 145 mg kg-1 of exchangeable K in the soil. The initially low content of available K and P suggests a high probability of response to the application of both elements.En el Campo Experimental del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, ubicado en la localidad de Vicuña (30° S; 70°44´ O, se evaluó durante cuatro años el efecto de la aplicación de P y K, considerando un mismo nivel de aplicación de N en vid (Vitis vinifera L. var. Moscatel Rosada. El suelo corresponde al tipo misceláneo antrópico coluvial (Entisols. Se establecieron tres tratamientos de fertilización: 1 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 300; 2 N 160 + P2O5 0 + K2O 300; y 3 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K(20 0. El parrón recibió toda la fertilización fosfatada aplicada al

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: XXV. Avaliação de genótipos oriundos de populações híbridas introduzidas de Oregon (EUA no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XXV. Evaluation of genotypes obtained from hybrid populations introduced from Oregon, U.S.A.,in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas entre si vinte e duas linhagens e três cultivares (BH-1146, IAC-18 e Alondra-S-46 em seis ensaios, instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Tatuí (1985-87 e Mococa (1984, no Centro Experimental de Campinas (1985 e na Fazenda Nossa Senhora da Penha (1986, município de Florínea, em condições de irrigação por aspersão, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. Em casa de vegetação, efetuaram-se estudos de resistência às misturas de raças prevalecentes dos agentes causais da ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha e, em condições de laboratório, estudos da tolerância ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas. Em solos corrigidos de Tatuí, a linhagem 1 (Novi Sad 738/Bluejay, sensível à toxicidade de Al3+, de porte baixo, ciclo precoce, destacou-se quanto à produção de grãos. Em solo ácido, de Mococa, os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC-18, tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, de porte alto e ciclo precoce, foram os mais produtivos. As linhagens 1,3 (Yaktana 54/Norin 10 - Brevor//Narino 59/3/Hyslop/4/CIANO/Gallo e 19 (Capitole/Bluetit e os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC-18 destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando-se a média dos seis ensaios. As linhagens 2 (Leonardo 23/Bluejay e 10 (Backa/Alondra foram resistentes às duas misturas de raças testadas da ferrugem-do-colmo e às três misturas de raças da ferrugem-da-folha, em estádio de plântula, confirmando esta resistência em condições de infecção natural no estádio de planta adulta. A linhagem 2 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente ao oídio. As linhagens 11 (Backa/Alondra, 15 e 21 (Capitole/Bluetit, 16 (Sava/4/Tezanos Pintos Precoz//IRN 46/ClANO/3/Protor e 17 (Vogel Selection 29/Vogel Selection 59-8881//INIA/CaprocK/3/Cuckoo foram as mais tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, porém num grau menor do que os exibidos pelos cultivares BH-1146 e lAC-18.Twenty two inbred lines and three

  5. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

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    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  6. Transcriptional regulation of multi-drug tolerance and antibiotic-induced responses by the histone-like protein Lsr2 in M. tuberculosis.

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    Roberto Colangeli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug tolerance is a key phenotypic property that complicates the sterilization of mammals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have established that iniBAC, an operon that confers multi-drug tolerance to M. bovis BCG through an associated pump-like activity, is induced by the antibiotics isoniazid (INH and ethambutol (EMB. An improved understanding of the functional role of antibiotic-induced genes and the regulation of drug tolerance may be gained by studying the factors that regulate antibiotic-mediated gene expression. An M. smegmatis strain containing a lacZ gene fused to the promoter of M. tuberculosis iniBAC (PiniBAC was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. Mutants with constitutive expression and increased EMB-mediated induction of PiniBAC::lacZ mapped to the lsr2 gene (MSMEG6065, a small basic protein of unknown function that is highly conserved among mycobacteria. These mutants had a marked change in colony morphology and generated a new polar lipid. Complementation with multi-copy M. tuberculosis lsr2 (Rv3597c returned PiniBAC expression to baseline, reversed the observed morphological and lipid changes, and repressed PiniBAC induction by EMB to below that of the control M. smegmatis strain. Microarray analysis of an lsr2 knockout confirmed upregulation of M. smegmatis iniA and demonstrated upregulation of genes involved in cell wall and metabolic functions. Fully 121 of 584 genes induced by EMB treatment in wild-type M. smegmatis were upregulated ("hyperinduced" to even higher levels by EMB in the M. smegmatis lsr2 knockout. The most highly upregulated genes and gene clusters had adenine-thymine (AT-rich 5-prime untranslated regions. In M. tuberculosis, overexpression of lsr2 repressed INH-mediated induction of all three iniBAC genes, as well as another annotated pump, efpA. The low molecular weight and basic properties of Lsr2 (pI 10.69 suggested that it was a histone-like protein, although it did not

  7. Analysis of the degradation of biodegradable mulches in a pepper crop under organic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; González, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Mimgreen® paper remained practically intact or with little damaged until the end of the crop season, while biopolymers suffered further deterioration, especially Bioflex®. ii) The buried part of the Mimgreen® paper underwent a rapid and complete degradation, while biopolymers presented a variable behavior, from practically intact, similar to polyethylene (Ecovio®), to an important decrease of the soil covered (Mater-Bi® and Sphere 4®). iii) A visual understatement of the functionality of the material (subjective scales) was observed when compared with the numerical value of the percentage of the soil covered by the mulch. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  8. 罗非鱼源无乳链球菌双重PCR快速检测方法的建立%Development of double PCR for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王均; 汪开毓; 肖丹; 黄锦炉; 付希; 王浩丞; 陈德芳; 耿毅; 阳涛

    2011-01-01

    A double PCR method for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae was established. Two pairs of specific primers based on cpsF gene of tilapia S. agalactiae capsular polysaccharides and cfb gene of factor CAMP published in GenBank were designed respectively to perform PCR with optimization of reaction system and reaction condition. In results,two specific bands,cpsF and cfb,were only detected in the S. agalactiae isolates, and none was amplified from Streptococcus iniae ,Staphylococcus aureus , Edwardsiella ictaluri , Aeromonas hydrophila , Aeromonas salmonicida , Aeromonas caviae or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The detection limit of the S. agalactiae genomic DNA was 7. 632 × 10-2 ng/μL. The double PCR detection and the bacterial isolation and identification were performed with bacteria DNA in the tissues of liver and kidney of 30 tilapias challenged with S. agalactiae and the positive results by the double PCR were consistent with the positive results by the bacterial isolation and identification. In conclusion,the established double PCR in the present study was specific,sensitive and rapid for the epidemiological surveillance of S. agalactiae infection in tilapia and other fish.%根据GenBank中罗非鱼源无乳链球菌荚膜多糖的cpsF基因和CAMP因子的cfb基因序列,设计2对特异性引物,通过对反应体系和反应条件优化,并进行特异性试验、敏感性试验及人工感染罗非鱼组织样品检测,建立了快速检测无乳链球菌的双重PCR方法.结果显示,仅无乳链球菌能扩增出cpsF和cfb两条特异性条带,而海豚链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、鲴爱德华氏菌、嗜水气单胞菌、杀鲑气单胞菌、豚鼠气单胞菌、嗜麦芽寡养单胞菌无条带检出;经敏感性试验,最小模板检出量为7.632×10-2ng/μL;同时对30尾人工感染无乳链球菌的罗非鱼肝和肾组织中细菌DNA进行双重PCR检测和细菌分离鉴定,检出的阳性结果一致.证实,所建立的方法

  9. Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Ouda

    2015-03-01

    -M (Penman Monteith; RMSE (root mean square error; WHC (water holding capacity. Citation: Ouda, S.; Noreldin, T.; Abd El-Latif, K. (2015. Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 13, Issue 1, e03-001, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015131-6412. Received: 15 Jun 2014. Accepted: 02 Dec 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015131-6412 Copyright © 2015 INIA. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC by 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Funding: The author(s received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Correspondence should be addressed to Samiha Ouda: samihaouda@yahoo.com

  10. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN PARA MAXIMIZAR EL MÁRGEN BRUTO EN UN SISTEMA TRADICIONAL GANADO-CULTIVO DEL SECANO DE LA IX REGIÓN Production strategies to maximize the gross margin on a traditional crop-livestock system of the dryland of the IX Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Catrileo S.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Basado en un sistema real de producción de ganado y cultivos, se desarrolló un modelo de programación lineal para evaluar y maximizar márgenes brutos del sistema. El sistema real evaluado durante 4 temporadas en INIA-Carillanca (38º 35’ lat. S., 70º 50’ long. O., consideró una superficie total de 15 hectáreas y una rotación de cultivos con avena (Avena sativa, lupino (Lupinus angustifolius, trigo (Triticum aestivum y dos años de praderas de ballica italiana (Lolium multiflorum y trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense. Novillos Hereford de 7-9 meses de edad fueron integrados al sistema con el objeto de terminarlos a pastoreo, con 16-18 meses de edad y 390-400 kg de peso vivo. La matriz del modelo considera 27 variables de decisión y 30 restricciones. La producción de materia seca de la pradera (input representó la base de la alimentación del ganado. La ganancia diaria de peso de los novillos fue simulada a través de ecuaciones que consideran el peso vivo, la disponibilidad de materia seca y el contenido energético de la pradera. Los resultados del modelo permiten examinar diferentes opciones. Para un sistema de 15 ha el máximo margen bruto fue M$ 1.843 con una combinación fija de 3 ha de cada cultivo y 27 novillos. Al considerar una asignación libre de los cultivos, el margen bruto aumentó a M$ 2.672 e incluyó 49 novillos en 10 ha de praderas, 2,7 ha de lupino y 0,88 ha de avena. En ambas situaciones, los animales fueron el principal contribuyente económico del sistema.Based on a real crop-livestock production system, a linear programming model was developed to evaluate and maximize gross margins of the system. The real system evaluated over 4 seasons at the Carillanca Research Center, IX Region, considered a total surface of 15 ha, and a crop rotation with oats (Avena sativa, lupines (Lupinus angustifolius, wheat (Triticum aestivum and two years of pasture with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and red clover (Trifolium

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE \tENSILAJE DE CEBADA EN TRES ESTADOS DE CORTE EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Evaluation of three cuttings periods of whole crop barley silage in winter finishing steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, ubicado en Temuco, durante 84 días de la temporada invernal de 1996, se utilizaron 28 novillos Hereford de 20 meses de edad y 342 kg de peso vivo promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar el ensilaje de cebada (Hordeum vulgare en tres estados de corte en comparación al de maíz (Zea mayz, en raciones de engorda, sobre algunas variables productivas. Los tratamientos estuvieron constituidos por 1 ensilaje de maíz; 2 ensilaje de cebada con grano lechoso; 3 ensilaje de cebada con grano harinoso; y 4 ensilaje de cebada con grano harinoso duro. Los ensilajes se entregaron a discreción, complementándolos con cantidades diarias fijas de concentrados, equivalentes al 0,9% del peso vivo de los animales, base materia seca. Los concentrados se formularon, para cada ensilaje, con grano de avena (Avena sativa, grano de lupino australiano (Lupinus angustifolius y sales minerales comerciales, de forma tal que la oferta de alimentos fuera isoproteica al 13%, asumiéndose un consumo total de materia seca equivalente al 2,5% del peso vivo de los animales. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con 7 repeticiones. Los incrementos de peso vivo fueron de 1,069a; 0,883b; 1,024a y 0,742c kg d-1 (POver a period of 84 days of the winter of 1996, 28 Hereford steers of 20 months of age and 342 kg live weight, were fattened in order to evaluate whole barley silage (Hordeum vulgare at three cutting periods in comparison to maize silage (Zea mayz in the Carillanca Regional Investigation Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA. Treatments were T1: maize silage; T2 : barley silage at the milky state ; T3 : barley silage at the starchy state; and T4 : barley silage at the hard starchy state. The silages were offered ad libitum and supplemented daily with concentrates equivalent to 0.9% of the animal live weight on a dry matter basis. The

  12. The Selection and Determinaton of the Pest-resistant Character in    Transgenic Regenerative Rice Plants and Their Descendances%水稻转基因再生植株及其后代抗虫性筛选测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉学忠; 王立敏; 孙伯铮; 陈方江; 刘春颖

    2001-01-01

    Using gene gun transformation system, we transfered CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor)gene to rice callus tissues;through anti-biotic selection.The transgenic regenerative rice plants were gotten. Indoor feeding corn borer(Ostrinia nubilalis) by these transgenic rice regenaration plants and their descendance’s tiller stem;The corn borer mortality and the worm length were compared to determinate transgenic regenerative rice’s pest resistance. From 1997 to 1999,5 indoor tests had been taken on three generations. 15 better pest resistance plants were selected from 121 plants in F0 generation, 7 strains 40 better single plants from 15 strains in F1 generation,and 37 better plants from 14 strains in F2 generation. We did molecular test(PCR) to 19 plants from the 37 better plants,and asserted that 5 material are homozygous plants, the other 14 material have segregation. All of these stated that the anti-pest gene in transgenic regenerative rice can express and is heritable%采用基因枪转化系统,将CpTI(豇豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂)抗虫基因转入水稻愈伤组织中,经过抗生素筛选得到了再生植株。我们用这些转基因水稻再生植株及其后代的分蘖茎段对玉米螟(Ostrinia nubilalis)进行室内喂养,通过比较虫体死亡率及虫体生长长度,测定转基因水稻再生植株的抗虫性。1997~1999年共进行3个世代5次的室内测定。从121株F0代转基因植株中选出抗虫性较好的植株15株。从F1代的15个株系中,又筛选出7个株系40个单株;在F2代的14个株系中共选出37株抗虫效果表现较好的植株。对37株中的19株进行了分子检测(PCR扩增),从中检测出5份材料为纯合体,14份材料有分离现象。研究结果说明:该室内喂养玉米螟并进行抗虫测定的方法是可行的;抗虫基因在转基因水稻再生植株中已经获得表达并且可以遗传

  13. VACCINATION OF HYBRID STRIPED BASS: GROWTH, IMMUNE REACTION AND GENE EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Westerman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid striped bass (42.6+4.9 g wet wt; 139.3+6.1 mm length, were randomly stocked into one of 6 tanks (n=6 tank-1 of a custom designed, recirculating life support system (RLSS. Water quality was as follows: DO2 (6.50.6 mg l-1, pH (7.70.5, TAN (0.06-1.31 mg l-1, nitrite (0.06-0.60 mg l-1 and nitrate (2.0-32.1 mg l-1, salinity 5 ppt, temperature 28±1 oC. A 12:12 photophase:scotophase was used, with a 30 min. dusk-dawn dimming of lights. Fish were fed at 4% body wt d-1 as two separate feedings (08.00 and 16.00 h. Dietary crude protein and lipid levels were 40% and 10% respectively. Tanks were randomly paired and fish either left untreated, vaccinated, or sham injected. The vaccine employed was an experimental formalin killed Streptococcus iniae oil-in-water adjuvanted bacterin. Fish were weighed and measured bimonthly for 8 wk with group weights being employed to adjust feeding rates. At trial termination, all animals were weighed and measured, and their condition factor (CF and feed conversion ratios (FCR calculated. Visceral somatic (VSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices and intraperitoneal fat (IPF and muscle ratios (MR were also assessed. Blood was taken from anaesthetized fish and hematocrit recorded. Blood was allowed to clot overnight at 5 oC after which serum protein levels were recorded and lysozyme activity measured. Livers were prepared for microarray evaluation using standard techniques using a Danio rerio genechip to assess global changes in gene expression. No differences were observed with respect to final weights, lengths, CF, FCR, or HSI although differences (P < 0.001 were determined for VSI, which was higher in control animals. Packed cell volume and serum protein levels were similar across groups (P > 0.05. Time-course of changes in serum lysozyme activity described an initial reduction in lysozyme activity followed by a rebounding in activity which peaked 25 days post-treatments. Evaluation of lysozyme activity among time

  14. Rapid Detection of Stretococcus agalactiae Isolated from Tilapia with Double PCR%双重 PC R检测罗非鱼源无乳链球菌方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海平; 吴斌; 张新艳; 邓志武; 郑磊; 钟全福; 曾占壮

    2014-01-01

    Two pairs of specific primers were designed and synthesized according to the 16S rRNA and Surface immunogenic protein (sip) gene sequence of tilapia Stretococcus agalactiae ,and a double-PCR method for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia was established through optimization of reaction system and reaction condition ,by which two specific fragments for S .agalactiae of 1 305 bp and 121 bp were producted . Specificity test showed that two specific bands ,16S rRNA and sip ,could only be detected in the S . agalactiae , and none was amplified from Streptococcus inia .The minimum detectable quantity of the S . agalactiae strains 070717LL was 1.05 × 102 CFU . In the tissues from spleen , brain and kidney of tilapias affected by the S . agalactiae strain 070717LL the strains DNA were detected , especially in kidney and spleen tissues . In conclusion ,this double-PCR method was specific ,sensitive rapid ,and applicable for epidemiological investigation of S . agalactiae in tilapia .%根据罗非鱼源无乳链球菌16S rRNA 基因和sip基因序列,设计、合成2对特异性引物,通过对反应体系和反应条件优化,建立快速检测无乳链球菌的双重PCR方法。该方法扩增无乳链球菌可获得1305 bp和121 bp 2个特异性片段;对6株链球菌属的菌株进行特异性分析,仅无乳链球菌能扩增出16S rRNA 基因和sip基因2条特异性条带,而海豚链球菌无条带检出;经灵敏度试验,可检测到无乳链球菌菌株070717LL的最小量为1.05×102 CFU ;同时,双重PCR可以检测出无乳链球菌菌株070717LL人工感染的罗非鱼脾、脑、肾组织中细菌DNA ,特别是脾脏和肾脏组织的样品检测效果好。结果证明所建立的方法具有快速、特异性强、灵敏度高等优点,适用于对罗非鱼源无乳链球菌病的流行病学调查。

  15. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS VARIEDADES FRANCESAS DE TRIGO SEMBRADAS EN CHILE Comparison of two French wheat cultivars sown in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo de campo durante las temporadas 2000/01 y 2001/02 con el objeto de comparar algunas características agronómicas y la calidad de dos variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. harinero de invierno liberadas en Francia en distintos años. Se usó un arreglo de parcelas divididas dispuestas en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, con dos tratamientos de N (58 y 240 kg ha-1 y dos subtratamientos correspondiente a las variedades Capelle Desprez y Baroudeur. Los experimentos se establecieron en un suelo Andisol del Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ lat. Sur, 71°54’ long. Oeste, perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, Chillán, Chile. No hubo interacción entre dosis de N y variedades de trigo. El rendimiento promedio de la variedad Baroudeur fue significativamente mayor en 25% a la variedad Capelle Desprez, lo que se explica fundamentalmente por la mayor cantidad de espigas por superficie (531 vs. 438, y por la superioridad en el índice de cosecha (35 vs. 26%. La altura de planta de Baroudeur fue significativamente más baja que Capelle Desprez (93,7 vs. 107,8 cm. En calidad del grano los valores promedio de Baroudeur y Capelle Desprez fueron: índice de dureza, 33 vs. 42%; volumen de sedimentación, 12,8 vs. 9,2 mL, y en proteína, 9,0 vs. 9,6%, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la variedad Baroudeur, liberada en 1988, fue superior en varias características a la variedad Capelle Desprez, liberada en 1946.A field trial was carried out during 2000/01 and 2001/02 seasons to compare some agronomic and quality traits of two winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars released in France in different years. A split plot arrangement laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates with two N treatments (58 and 240 kg ha-1, and two sub treatments (cultivars Capelle Desprez and Baroudeur was used

  16. Reemplazo de la Cama de Broiler por Granos de Cereales y Leguminosas en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Replacement of Broiler Litter by Vereal and Legume Grains in Winter Steer Finishing Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA ubicado en Temuco, se realizó un estudio durante 86 días de la temporada invernal de 2003, para lo cual se utilizaron 35 novillos Overo Colorado, de 19 a 20 meses de edad y 367 kg de peso vivo inicial, con el objetivo de evaluar el reemplazo de la cama de broiler por fuentes proteicas vegetales en raciones de engorda de novillos. Los tratamientos correspondieron a: T1: ensilaje pradera, cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. molido; T2: ensilaje pradera, granos de avena (Avena sativa L. y de cebada molidos; T3: ensilaje pradera, grano de lupino (Lupinus albus L. entero y avena entera; T4: ensilaje pradera, grano de avena molido y urea; y T5: ensilaje pradera, grano de cebada molido y urea. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con siete repeticiones, usando el factor bloque para peso. Los resultados indicaron ganancias diarias de peso vivo (PV (kg d-1 de 1,0 bc; 0,916 cd; 0,825 d; 1,05 ab y 1,141 a (P ≤ 0,05, para los tratamientos 1 al 5, respectivamente. Los consumos diarios de materia seca (kg d-1 correspondieron a 8,7; 7,2; 7,3; 8,0 y 7,9; la conversión de alimentos (kg alimento kg-1 de incremento de PV-1 fue 8,7; 7,9; 8,8; 7,6 y 6,9 y los costos de las raciones ($ kg-1 PV-1 fueron de 533; 575; 545; 434 y 522 para cada uno de los tratamientos, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la ración con ensilaje de pradera más avena molida y urea y la ración con ensilaje de pradera más cebada molida y urea pueden reemplazar la cama de broiler con ventajas productivas y económicas en raciones de engorda de novillos.In the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute located in Temuco, for 86 days during the 2003 winter season a study, which used 35 Overo Colorado steers, of 19 to 20 months of age and 367 kg initial liveweight, was conducted in order to evaluate the

  17. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% 18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. Histológicamente: durante los primeros días la superficie uterina es irregular y presenta proyecciones endometriales de aspecto fungiforme y esta cubierto por células pavimentosas, estroma con la presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos y fibroblastos, glándulas reducidas en su diámetro. A partir del sexto día, muestra cambio en el regenerativo, el epitelio de hace predominantemente cúbico, Del sexto al doceavo día el epitelio continua irregular con pequeñas áreas con células epiteliales pavimentosas y cúbicas, lo cual coincide con el cambio en el peso del útero en forma significativa

  18. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Analysis of Common Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Cold-water Fish in Three North Areas of China%三北地区冷水鱼常见病原菌的分布及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连浩淼; 李绍戊; 张辉; 卢彤岩

    2015-01-01

    because of high density,bad water quality,poor quality of feed and so on,which could also indirectly affect people’ s health. At present,control of bacterial diseases still depends on antibiotics in China,but the abuse of antibiotics will cause drug residues and multi⁃drug resistance of bacteria,so it is necessary for us to study the characteristics of pathogenic bacteria existing in cold⁃water fish aquaculture. In this study,common pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from farm⁃raised rainbow trout,Atlantic salmon,silver salmon and Siberia sturgeon in the three north areas of China during the period from May to August in 2013.Based on the epidemiology investigation,different kinds of diseases occurred in fish with different clinical signs:gill⁃rot, haemorrhage in diseased rainbow trout from Qinghai Province;exophthalmosis,darkening in color,saprolegnia⁃sis and bleeding spots in internal organs in diseased silver salmon from Liaoning Province;enteritis,gill⁃rot in Atlantic salmon from Heilongjiang Province and haemorrhage on body surface,mouth irritation,etc. in Siberia sturgeon from Beijing City.Samples were collected and streaked on the plate,and isolated bacteria were inocu⁃lated under aseptic conditions. The results indicated that 12 strains of Aeromonas salmonicida and 1 strain of Acinetobacter were isolated from diseased silver salmon cultured in Liaoning;14 strains of Aeromonas salmonici⁃da,6 strains of Aeromonas sobria,2 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila,6 strains of Acinetobacter,2 strains of Fla⁃vobacterium were isolated from diseased Atlantic salmon cultured in Mudanjiang;9 strains of Aeromonas sobria, 6 strains of Aeromonas veronii,6 strains of Acinetobacter,2 strains of Flavobacterium,2 strains of Yersinia ruckeri were isolated from diseased rainbow trout cultured in Qinghai;3 strains of Streptococcus iniae,3 strains of Acine⁃tobacter 10 strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae,2 strains of Aeromonas veronii,2 strains of Aeromonas

  19. 三北地区冷水鱼常见病原菌的分布及药敏试验%Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Analysis of Common Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Cold-water Fish in Three North Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连浩淼; 李绍戊; 张辉; 卢彤岩

    2015-01-01

    because of high density,bad water quality,poor quality of feed and so on,which could also indirectly affect people’ s health. At present,control of bacterial diseases still depends on antibiotics in China,but the abuse of antibiotics will cause drug residues and multi⁃drug resistance of bacteria,so it is necessary for us to study the characteristics of pathogenic bacteria existing in cold⁃water fish aquaculture. In this study,common pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from farm⁃raised rainbow trout,Atlantic salmon,silver salmon and Siberia sturgeon in the three north areas of China during the period from May to August in 2013.Based on the epidemiology investigation,different kinds of diseases occurred in fish with different clinical signs:gill⁃rot, haemorrhage in diseased rainbow trout from Qinghai Province;exophthalmosis,darkening in color,saprolegnia⁃sis and bleeding spots in internal organs in diseased silver salmon from Liaoning Province;enteritis,gill⁃rot in Atlantic salmon from Heilongjiang Province and haemorrhage on body surface,mouth irritation,etc. in Siberia sturgeon from Beijing City.Samples were collected and streaked on the plate,and isolated bacteria were inocu⁃lated under aseptic conditions. The results indicated that 12 strains of Aeromonas salmonicida and 1 strain of Acinetobacter were isolated from diseased silver salmon cultured in Liaoning;14 strains of Aeromonas salmonici⁃da,6 strains of Aeromonas sobria,2 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila,6 strains of Acinetobacter,2 strains of Fla⁃vobacterium were isolated from diseased Atlantic salmon cultured in Mudanjiang;9 strains of Aeromonas sobria, 6 strains of Aeromonas veronii,6 strains of Acinetobacter,2 strains of Flavobacterium,2 strains of Yersinia ruckeri were isolated from diseased rainbow trout cultured in Qinghai;3 strains of Streptococcus iniae,3 strains of Acine⁃tobacter 10 strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae,2 strains of Aeromonas veronii,2 strains of Aeromonas