WorldWideScience

Sample records for botlek rail tunnel

  1. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  2. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  3. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

  4. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million

  5. Evacuation simulation using Hybrid Space Discretisation and Application to Large Underground Rail Tunnel Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooramun, N.; Lawrence, P. J.; Galea, E. R.

    2017-08-01

    In all evacuation simulation tools, the space through which agents navigate and interact is represented by one the following methods, namely Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. Each of the spatial representation methods has its benefits and limitations. For instance, the Coarse approach allows simulations to be processed very rapidly, but is unable to represent the interactions of the agents from an individual perspective; the Continuous approach provides a detailed representation of agent movement and interaction but suffers from relatively poor computational performance. The Fine nodal approach presents a compromise between the Continuous and Coarse approaches such that it allows agent interaction to be modelled while providing good computational performance. Our approach for representing space in an evacuation simulation tool differs such that it allows evacuation simulations to be run using a combination of Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. This approach, which we call Hybrid Spatial Discretisation (HSD), is implemented within the buildingEXODUS evacuation simulation software. The HSD incorporates the benefits of each of the spatial representation methods whilst providing an optimal environment for representing agent movement and interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the HSD through its application to a moderately large case comprising of an underground rail tunnel station with a population of 2,000 agents.

  6. Evaluation of the train signal and rail systems for the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Whittier Access Project was completed in 2000. One phase of the project was to convert the 2.5 mile long Anton Anderson : Memorial Tunnel (Whittier Tunnel) into the worlds only dual-use highway/railroad tunnel with one way reversible highway t...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotive unit-hours in the common yards. (2) Way: Where the tracks at any one location are used in common..., ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged...

  8. 78 FR 46117 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The Fort McHenry Tunnel handles a daily traffic volume of more than... vehicular, transit, and rail tunnels in the New York City metropolitan area. Although it is still too early... congestion along alternative routes, and save users both dollars and fuel. If these tunnels were closed due...

  9. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  10. Enterprise Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Chak, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  11. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process...

  12. Implications of rail electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate possible effects of rail electrodynamics on the performance of railguns. This model describes the oscillatory nature of the rail motion in response to the Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force of material which is behind the rails. In this simple model the rails are found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The rail dynamic behavior induces local electric fields. The authors investigate the significance of these electric fields on stationary particles (lab frame) and on particles moving at the velocity of the plasma/projectile system (projectile frame)

  13. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  14. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  15. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  16. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail... systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR...

  17. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  18. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  19. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  20. Bronze railing from Mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Miloje R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The hoard containing components of bronze railing was discovered in trench 7 during excavations at Mediana in 2000. Railing consists of cancelli and herms with busts of deities between them. Railing was constructed in such a way that it was possible to disassemble and reassemble it. Three cancelli one fragmented semicancellus cast together with herm and herms, one with bust of Aesculapius and other with bust of Luna. It could be concluded that railing consisted of two segments with passage between them. Male deities were represented on the left segment of the railing and female deities on the right segment. Detailed analysis revealed that Aesculapius as well as Luna bear strong mark of classical Greek and Hellenistic art, which experienced some kind of renaissance in the time of Constantine I. It is very probable that we can recognize the portrait of Faustina, Constantine’s wife in the portrait of Luna. According to the historical events the railing could have been produced before 325 AD when Constantine definitively accepted Christianity at Council of Nicaea. It is difficult to say where the railing had been produced. It had been most probably brought to Mediana during the stay of emperor Julian in Niš in 361. The sculptures found in one room of the villa with peristyle had probably been brought at the same time. The apse of triclinium of this villa had most likely been arranged as small shrine with bronze railing at its entrance. The railing was buried in 378 after battle of Adrianople and invasion of Goths in diocese Dacia.

  1. RJS Templates for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Fauser, Cody

    2006-01-01

    RJS templates are an exciting and powerful new type of template added to Rails 1.1. Unlike conventional Rails templates that generate HTML or XML, RJS templates generate JavaScript code that is executed when it is returned to the browser. This JavaScript generation allows you to perform multiple page updates in-place without a page reload using Ajax. All the JavaScript you need is generated from simple templates written in Ruby. This document helps you get acquainted with how RJS templates fit into the Rails framework and gets you started with a few easy-to-follow examples.

  2. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  3. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report

  4. Preliminary study on the transport of hazardous materials through tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubbico, Roberto; Di Cave, Sergio; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Silvetti, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The risk associated to road and rail transportation of some hazardous materials along two routes, one including a significant portion in tunnels, and the other following the same path, but running completely in the open, is assessed. The results show that, for rail transport, no particular risk increase or mitigation is associated to the circulation of the dangerous goods through tunnels; on the contrary, for road transport, a risk increase is generally observed in the presence of tunnels. However, for LPG, the risk curve in the open lies above that in tunnels in the high frequency-low fatality zone, according to the different evolution of the accidental scenarios in the tunnel (assuming no ventilation). The transportation of liquefied nitrogen, not hazardous in the open but potentially asphyxiating in a tunnel, gives rise to a negligible risk when performed by rail, but to a not negligible one, when performed by road. These preliminary results focused on the risk for the exposed population, suggest that it may be unnecessary to limit dangerous goods circulation through rail tunnels, while, at least for some types of dangerous goods, the circulation through road tunnels may be allowed/forbidden based on the results of a specific risk analysis.

  5. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...% of the Class A Common Units of TransRail, giving RailTex a 70% ownership interest in TransRail and control of W&C through TransRail. The MG Principals will retain the Class B Common Units of TransRail... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35605] RailAmerica, Inc...

  6. Critical issues concerning tunnel ventilation in the super conducting super collider ring tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egilsrud, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the problem of designing a ventilation system for the SSC Collider Ring Tunnel. The history of ventilation of tunnels is briefly reviewed and the types of systems used for ventilation of rail, transit and highway tunnels are described in detail. Next, the ventilation system prepared for the Collider Ring Tunnel in the RTK conceptual conventional design report is described. The author questions this design from a safety and practical standpoint. He offers several other solutions which provided a more powerful system for emergencies. One supplies fresh outside air uniformly along the tunnel length. All suggested systems increase costs over the RTK proposed system. The possible problem of troublesome condensation forming on equipment in the tunnel and tunnel walls in hot, humid weather is also a major concern. 5 figs

  7. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  8. Wheel/rail interface optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, wheel/rail interface optimisation, and particularly the problems of wheel and rail profile design are considered. The research task pursued by this thesis engenders investigation of a range of problems. First, geometric properties of contact between wheel and rail are investigated.

  9. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  10. Protecting Critical Rail Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    31. Cathleen A. Berrick, David Alexander, Chan My J Battcher, Seto J. Bagdoyan, J. Michael Bollinger , Lisa Brown, Kevin Copping, Christine Fossett...PASSENGER RAIL SECURITY: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts, 9. 78. Brian Michael Jenkins, Frances

  11. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S f =353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S f =225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S f =210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  13. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  14. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  15. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  16. Railway Tunnel Clearance Inspection Method Based on 3D Point Cloud from Mobile Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mei, Xi; Yin, Wangling; Lin, Chunfeng; Mao, Qingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Railway tunnel clearance is directly related to the safe operation of trains and upgrading of freight capacity. As more and more railway are put into operation and the operation is continuously becoming faster, the railway tunnel clearance inspection should be more precise and efficient. In view of the problems existing in traditional tunnel clearance inspection methods, such as low density, slow speed and a lot of manual operations, this paper proposes a tunnel clearance inspection approach based on 3D point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanning system (MLS). First, a dynamic coordinate system for railway tunnel clearance inspection has been proposed. A rail line extraction algorithm based on 3D linear fitting is implemented from the segmented point cloud to establish a dynamic clearance coordinate system. Second, a method to seamlessly connect all rail segments based on the railway clearance restrictions, and a seamless rail alignment is formed sequentially from the middle tunnel section to both ends. Finally, based on the rail alignment and the track clearance coordinate system, different types of clearance frames are introduced for intrusion operation with the tunnel section to realize the tunnel clearance inspection. By taking the Shuanghekou Tunnel of the Chengdu–Kunming Railway as an example, when the clearance inspection is carried out by the method mentioned herein, its precision can reach 0.03 m, and difference types of clearances can be effectively calculated. This method has a wide application prospects. PMID:28880232

  17. Railway Tunnel Clearance Inspection Method Based on 3D Point Cloud from Mobile Laser Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mei, Xi; Yin, Wangling; Lin, Chunfeng; Hu, Qingwu; Mao, Qingzhou

    2017-09-07

    Railway tunnel clearance is directly related to the safe operation of trains and upgrading of freight capacity. As more and more railway are put into operation and the operation is continuously becoming faster, the railway tunnel clearance inspection should be more precise and efficient. In view of the problems existing in traditional tunnel clearance inspection methods, such as low density, slow speed and a lot of manual operations, this paper proposes a tunnel clearance inspection approach based on 3D point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanning system (MLS). First, a dynamic coordinate system for railway tunnel clearance inspection has been proposed. A rail line extraction algorithm based on 3D linear fitting is implemented from the segmented point cloud to establish a dynamic clearance coordinate system. Second, a method to seamlessly connect all rail segments based on the railway clearance restrictions, and a seamless rail alignment is formed sequentially from the middle tunnel section to both ends. Finally, based on the rail alignment and the track clearance coordinate system, different types of clearance frames are introduced for intrusion operation with the tunnel section to realize the tunnel clearance inspection. By taking the Shuanghekou Tunnel of the Chengdu-Kunming Railway as an example, when the clearance inspection is carried out by the method mentioned herein, its precision can reach 0.03 m, and difference types of clearances can be effectively calculated. This method has a wide application prospects.

  18. The Channel Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The

  19. Rails - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds310

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are the detections of Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), Sora (Porzana carolina), and California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) from 13 survey points...

  20. Friction in wheel - rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, R.I.

    2010-01-01

    In the autumn, railroad traffic is often interrupted due to the occurrence of slippery tracks. The Dutch main operator (NS) and the infrastructure manager (ProRail) struggle with repeated delays. The layer between wheel and rail causing this phenomenon has not yet been identified, but can be

  1. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  2. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  3. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2005-01-01

    On July 23,2002, the President of the United States signed into law a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizes construction of the repository and receipt and possession of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive at Yucca Mountain, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would be responsible for transporting these materials to the Yucca Mountain repository as part of its obligation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part of the site recommendation decision included the analysis of a nation-wide shipping campaign to the proposed repository site. The ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada'' (February 2002) (Repository EIS) evaluated the potential impacts of the transportation of 70,000 Metric Tons of Heavy Metal spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 locations around the nation to the potential repository in Nevada over a 24 year shipping campaign. In the Repository EIS, DOE identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. In December 2003, based on public comments and the environmental analyses in the Repository EIS, DOE identified a preference for the Caliente rail corridor in Nevada. On April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the Mode of Transportation and Nevada Rail Corridor for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. In this ROD, the DOE announced that it had decided to select the mostly rail scenario analyzed in the Repository EIS as the transportation mode both on a national basis and in the State of Nevada. Under the mostly rail

  4. Obstacle Investigation RandstadRail in Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelaar, Robert; van den Bosch, Melinda

    RandstadRail is a light rail project connecting the cities of Rotterdam, The Hague, and Zoetermeer in The Netherlands. Part of the project is the connection of the Rotterdam metro system to an existing railway line. This section is called the Statenwegtracé, 3 km in length of which 2.4 km will be realised by two single track bored tunnels. Halfway a new underground station will be built. Part of the integral design was an extensive underground obstacle investigation programme carried out by the Engineering Department of Rotterdam, Public Works. The goal of the obstacle research was to assess the type and extent of subsurface objects along the alignment in general and more specifically in the bored tunnel sections. This in order to minimize the risks caused by subsurface obstacles and take preliminary actions against such an event. As part of the obstacle investigation a desk study was performed which included historical research in public and private archives. For two locations where foundation remnants were identified, an 18th century steam driven pumping station and an 19th century gas factory, this resulted in additional field-investigation consisting of geophysical techniques and blind cone penetration tests. A tailor made design philosophy was adopted because of the presence of wooden piles in the bored tunnel alignment. Both cases and design solutions are presented in this paper and will be concluded with recommendations of how to deal with obstacle investigation during the design process of large line infrastructure projects.

  5. Human behaviour in tunnels: what further steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail

  6. Ruby on Rails Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Ruby on Rails is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. The first application I built was a web application to manage and authenticate other applications. One of the main requirements for this application was a single sign-on service. This allowed authentication to be built in one location and be implemented in many different applications. For example, users would be able to login using their existing credentials, and be able to access other NASA applications without authenticating again. The second application I worked on was an internal qualification plan app. Previously, the viewing of employee qualifications was managed through Excel spread sheets. I built a database driven application to streamline the process of managing qualifications. Employees would be able to login securely to view, edit and update their personal qualifications.

  7. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  8. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  9. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  10. Recognition tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  11. Recognition tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Sankey, Otto [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 1862 53, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-02

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  12. Dynamic Response of Wheel-Rail Interaction at Rail Weld in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a main part of continuously welded rail track, rail weld widely exists in high-speed railway. However, short-wave irregularities can easily initiate and develop in rail weld due to the limitation of welding technology and thus rail weld has been a main high-frequency excitation and is responsible for deterioration of track components. This work reports a 3D finite element model of wheel-rail rolling contact which can simulate dynamic wheel-rail interaction at arbitrary contact geometry up to 400 km/h. This model is employed to investigate dynamic response of wheel-rail interaction at theoretical and measured rail weld, including wheel-rail force and axle-box acceleration. These simulation results, combined with Quality Index (QI method, are used to develop a quantitative expression, which can be easily applied for evaluating rail weld deterioration based on measured rail profiles and axle-box acceleration.

  13. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in

  14. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant

  15. 75 FR 43611 - U S Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U S Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal On August 7, 2008, U S Rail Corporation (U S Rail), an existing class III short line common carrier in Toledo, OH, filed a petition for...

  16. Fatigue Crack Propagation in Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    In order to establish safe inspection periods of railroad rails, information on fatigue crack growth rates is required. These data should come from a sufficiently large sample of rails presently in service. The reported research consisted of the gene...

  17. Fatigue Crack Growth Properties of Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Fatigue crack propagation properties of rail steels were determined experimentally. The investigation covered 66 rail steels. The effects of the following parameters were studied: stress ratio (ratio of minimum to maximum stress in a cycle), frequenc...

  18. Fatigue Crack Initiation Properties of Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fatigue crack initiation properties of rail-steels were determined experimentally. One new and four used rail steels were investigated. The effects of the following parameters were studied: stress ratio (ratio of minimum to maximum stress in a cycle)...

  19. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail Depreciation...

  20. Environmental impact assessment of rail infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This project resulted in three products: a comprehensive "Sustainable Rail Checklist," a rail planning GIS database, and a web GIS tool that integrates sustainability metrics and facilitates a rapid assessment before a formal NEPA process is implemen...

  1. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  2. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area

  3. Undergraduate Certificate in Rail Transportation/Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    A shift in the U.S. transportation environment has led to a revival in rail transport, especially in : freight rail1. In the meantime, an aging rail employee demographic presents a severe threat to : sufficient level of individuals equipped to handle...

  4. 49 CFR 213.113 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., oriented in or near the transverse plane, due to incomplete penetration of the weld metal between the rail ends, lack of fusion between weld and rail end metal, entrainment of slag or sand, under-bead or other shrinkage cracking, or fatigue cracking. Weld defects may originate in the rail head, web, or base, and in...

  5. 49 CFR 213.337 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., due to incomplete penetration of the weld metal between the rail ends, lack of fusion between weld and... cracking. Weld defects may originate in the rail head, web, or base, and in some cases, cracks may progress... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective rails. 213.337 Section 213.337...

  6. A CMOS rail-to-rail linear VI-converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, P.P.; Vervoort, P.P.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A linear CMOS VI-converter operating in strong inversion with a common-mode input range from the negative to the positive supply rail is presented. The circuit consists of three linear VI-converters based on the difference of squares principle. Two of these perform the actual V to I conversion,

  7. Rail gun of thermonuclear pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryuichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Oda, Yasutsugu.

    1993-01-01

    A rail gun of a thermonuclear pellet injection device using Lorentz force comprises rails constituted with materials of high melting point/low work function and a gas supply system for supplying low ionization/voltage gases into the rails to convert the gases into plasma armature. The low ionization voltage gases are converted into the plasma armature to decrease the resistance of the plasmas and suppress temperature elevation as Joule's heat and lower plasma temperature. Further, on the surface of the rails on the side of the cathode, since the rails are damaged by collision of positive ions due to voltage lowering, the rails on the side of the cathode are constituted with materials of low work function, as the countermeasure therefore, which facilitates emission of heat electrons from the surface of the cathode. With such procedures, thermal damages to the rail can be reduced. (N.H.)

  8. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...

  9. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  10. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  11. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), have decided to establish an advisory committee to advise us on revising and updating our accessibility guidelines for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail).

  12. Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Villecco, R.A.; Graham, F.R.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where βt p is an odd multiple of π, where t p is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where βt p is an even multiple of π. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V

  13. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  14. Light rail implementation: Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not that successful or even failed. In recent years, many light rail plans have been cancelled in The Netherlands, some after many years of planning and some even after the start of the tendering proces...

  15. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    project is crucial when forming the basis for the decisions for the political process and the decisions made later in the implementation and operation stages of the light rail project. Furthermore, a clear concept is necessary to identify the criteria for a successful system and evaluate the outcome...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  16. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  17. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  18. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    OpenAIRE

    Winiar L.; Hariri S.; Flahaut P.; Jezzini-Aouad M.

    2010-01-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerou...

  19. METRO RAIL?... (RAMANUJAM “JOURNEY”)

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani, B.E; V.R.Hema Latha

    2015-01-01

    It is focused that “METRO RAIL” is very much popular across the global nations such as Paris, Singapore, china, etc. London metropolitan railway is the world first underground railway. Besides Paris metro, Metro light rail, US, Metro train, Melbourne, Aurtralia also become popular. Now in India, Metro Rail System also become popular in TAMIL NADU STATE. Various political party leaders also experiencing “Metro Rail Journey” among public. If so…

  20. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION: 30-day...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board... notice the Board is requesting comments on the following information collection: Title: Rail Depreciation...

  1. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the proposed construction is to enable U. S. Rail to serve the BRT as a common carrier and to deliver... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  2. Light rail implementation : Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not

  3. Strategic Mobility 21: Rail Network Capacity Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G; Leachman, Robert C; Fetty, George R

    2006-01-01

    This analysis examined the rail network capacity and average transit times for commercial and surge military deployments through the proposed Victorville - Joint Power Projection Support Platform (JPPSP...

  4. Investigation on CWR longitudinal restraint behavior in winter rail break and summer destressing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results of investigations on the rail anchor/fastener effects on rail movement and the resulting rail force distribution in continuous welded rail (CWR) track during rail breaks and destressing operations. Two types of tests ...

  5. 78 FR 74056 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ...On May 23, 2013, we, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), established the Rail Vehicle Access Advisory Committee (Committee) to advise us on revising and updating our accessibility guidelines issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). The Committee will hold its second meeting on the following dates and times.

  6. 77 FR 12107 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... that crosses the MMRR line to reach CSXT's Wyoming Yard, the point of interchange for cars received... Beach, which directly controls the noncarrier RTC. RailAmerica states that it controls the following... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) at MMRR milepost 2.9. Marquette Rail's line \\1\\ physically ends north of the MMRR...

  7. The Physics of Wheel-Rail Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure

  8. A low-voltage Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  9. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  10. The physics of wheel-rail stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure.

  11. Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    This Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide is not a procurement document in itself. It is intended to be used as a guide by light rail transit operators and purchasers of such equipment in the preparation of technical specifications. Because of ...

  12. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  13. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  14. 49 CFR 213.115 - Rail end mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail end mismatch. 213.115 Section 213.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.115 Rail end mismatch. Any mismatch... mismatch of rails at joints may not be more than the following— On the tread of the rail ends (inch) On the...

  15. 49 CFR 213.349 - Rail end mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail end mismatch. 213.349 Section 213.349... Rail end mismatch. Any mismatch of rails at joints may not be more than that prescribed by the following table— Class of track Any mismatch of rails at joints may not be more than the following— On the...

  16. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  17. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  18. Analysis of minimum rail size in heavy axle load environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of increasing axle loads on rail integrity are examined in this paper. In the present context, rail integrity refers to the prevention and control of rail failures. Rail failures usually occur because cracks or defects develop and grow fr...

  19. Developing course lecture notes on high-speed rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-15

    1. Introduction a. World-wide Development of High-Speed Rail (Japan, Europe, China) b. High-speed Rail in the U.S. 2. High-Speed Rail Infrastructure a. Geometric Design of High Speed Rail i. Horizontal Curve ii. Vertical Curve iii. Grade and Turnout ...

  20. Model for predicting the frequency of broken rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Broken rails can cause train delays, trains cancelations and, unfortunately, they are common causes of accidents. This affects planning of a resources, budget and organization of railway track maintenance. Planning of railway track maintenance cannot be done without an estimation of number of rails that will be replaced due to the broken rail incidents. There are many factors that influence broken rails and the most common are: rail age, annual gross tonnage, degree of curve and temperature in the time of breakage. The fuzzy logic model uses acquired data as input variables to predict the frequency of broken rails for the certain rail types on some Sections.

  1. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which...... of the intermediate rail. The fastening means of the outer rail may thus include one, two or more stop pins, and one or more resilient lock pins. Hereby may be achieved provision of a tool-free assembly method for the sectional rail system and that by screwing on plate covering close to the edge part...

  2. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica); Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach... Acquisition, RailAmerica, Palm Beach, and RTC will indirectly control DTC, because Fortress's noncarrier...

  3. Electrodynamic wear of rails in high current density rail gun discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.T.; Caldwell, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high current, high speed power sources, has in recent years allowed rail guns to produce very high velocity (> 10 km/sec) macroscopic particles (> 1/10 grams). A continuing problem is the structural integrity of the components under these loadings and in particular, the rail wear due to the high current density plasma contacts. In this investigation a small bore rail gun (6x5 mm) was used with a 10.6 kjoule capacitor energy source to examine the modes of rail damage. The rails were constructed of 110 copper base material. These rails were used in an uncoated condition and also with plasma sprayed coatings of W and W/WC. The resulting surface wear was characterized by standard metallurgical techniques and analyzed for the various coatings

  4. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun.

  5. Active current management for four-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a system of auxiliary conductors designed to reduce current density peaks in railgun rails for four-rail, round-bore railguns is described. The effects on rail current density and projectile force are discussed. Railgun cross-sectional designs are presented for round-bore, four-rail railguns which operate at lower peak current densities and develop greater projectile forces than conventional two-rail, round-bore railguns

  6. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun

  7. 78 FR 10581 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), plan to revise and update our accessibility guidelines issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail). We are establishing a Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee (Committee) to make recommendations for revisions and updates to the accessibility guidelines. We request applications from interested organizations for representatives to serve on the Committee.

  8. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  9. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...

  10. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  11. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  12. Development of a very light rail vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Winnett, James; Hoffrichter, Andreas; Iraklis, Athanasios; McGordon, Andrew; Hughes, Darren J.; Ridler, Tony; Mallinson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The collaborative very light rail project involves the development of a novel railcar designed to revolutionise the rail industry: a self-powered, Very Light Rail (VLR) vehicle. Each of the two bogies contains a complete diesel-electric series-hybrid drive system, whilst the whole vehicle has undergone significant lightweighting activity to realise a target weight of less than 18 tonnes, or 1 tonne per linear meter. The target cost is £500,000, which is to be achieved through the use of stand...

  13. 76 FR 22747 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holdings, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... milepost 821.2 near Newton, in Coffee and Dale Counties, Ala. \\3\\ TNRW will also be assigned the selling... financial resources to provide rail freight service to communities and industries who wish to have...

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Velinets

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  15. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  16. Rail weld inspection using phased array ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Girish N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, T.; James, Jerry; Sriharsha

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of rail welds has always been a challenge to the Railways. The conventional ultrasonic methods which are employed now for the detection of defects are not found to be good enough for defects that exist in different parts of the weld. Phased Array Ultrasonics which performs sectorial scanning could be used effectively for detection of defects in rail welds. The analysis of phased array images basically concentrates on defects that are volumetric in rail. The feasibility studies conducted in parts of rail other than welds were promising. Defect indications were seen very much separately from its surroundings. Accurate positioning of the defect is possible. Close lying defects can be seen separately which assures better resolution. Linear normal scans were very much suitable to detect cracks of complex geometries, as it gives a specific indication pattern each time when it is present.

  17. Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program : A Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the background, current activities, and future plans for the Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program. This program, sponsored by the Office of Technology Development and Deployment of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA...

  18. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  19. Electron emission at the rail surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, L.; Battech, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the processes by which current is transferred from the cathode rail to the plasma armature in an arc-driven railgun. Three electron emission mechanisms are considered, namely thermionic emission, field-enhanced thermionic emission (or Schottky emission), and photoemission. The author's calculations show that the dominant electron emission mechanism depends, to a great extent, on the work function of the rail surface, the rail surface temperature, the electric field at the rail surface, and the effective radiation temperature of the plasma. For conditions that are considered to be typical of a railgun armature, Schottky emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism, providing current densities on the order of 10 9 A/m 2

  20. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  1. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  2. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  3. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  4. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  5. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  6. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  7. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of Technology, and consultant at Goudappel Coffeng, explains how big data was utilised to support the business case for a proposed light rail line in Utrecht.

  8. Major SSC tunneling begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project

  9. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  10. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  11. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  12. Effect of Wheel/Rail Loads on Concrete Tie Stresses and Rail Rollover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    As a result of vertical and lateral wheel/rail forces, high contact stresses can develop at the interface between the rail base and tie. Under certain conditions, these stresses can exceed the strength of the concrete tie and result in deterioration ...

  13. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  14. A low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor adapter circuit suitable for input rail-to-rail operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Nikša; Zogović, Milena; Banjević, Mirjana; Zimmermann, Horst

    2010-11-01

    In this article, a low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) input signal adapter (ISA) suitable for input rail-to-rail operation of various types of analogue basic building blocks is presented. The adapter acts as a pre-stage with infinite input resistance and linear transfer characteristics. Its input signal is translated into the region fitting the operating range of the following stage. The generality of the proposed method is proven through the application of the ISA in different types of analogue basic building blocks designed in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. They are the following: below-negative-rail-to-above-positive-rail voltage-controlled transconductor, quasi rail-to-rail voltage-controlled resistor (VCR), rail-to-rail operational amplifier (OA) and quasi rail-to-rail second generation current conveyor. The proposed negative resistance quasi rail-to-rail VCR and rail-to-rail OA have been used in a Sallen and Key band-pass filter. All of these analogue basic building blocks and their applications in the form of the Sallen and Key band-pass filter operate from a single supply of 1.5 V. Simulation results confirm the predictions of the analysis performed.

  15. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...The Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee (Committee) will hold its first meeting. We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), established the Committee to advise us on revising and updating our accessibility guidelines issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). The original first meeting, previously scheduled for October 15 and 16, 2013, did not occur due to the federal government shutdown.

  16. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiar L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A. This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  17. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  18. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  19. Determination of the primary technical parameters of the test bench for controlling the temperature of rails and rail bars of continuous welded rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychnyi Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the reliability and safety of operation of the continuous welded rail track is the temperature of the rails. All conditions of laying, repair and maintenance of the track during the entire cycle of rails operation depend on it. The existing rail temperature monitoring method does not take into account a few significant factors and that leads to significant errors in determining the actual temperature of the rail bar. The authors propose a new rail temperature measurement method on a special test bench which maximally simulates possible environmental operating conditions for the rail bars, the profile of the roadway (embankment or cut, as well as the actual spatial latitude and meridian location of the rail slabs. At the bench, the studied rails are fastened with the help of rail braces on half ties, in the ballast bed, with sizes in accordance with the existing reference documents. At the first stage, the most common KB-65 intermediate fastener for the continuous welded rail in Ukraine will be used, while in subsequent stages KPP-5 fastening will be used.

  20. Improving the Crashworthiness of Aluminium Rail Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangani, Donato; Robinson, Mark; Kotsikos, George

    An experimental and modelling programme of work have been undertaken to predict the performance of aluminium welds in rail vehicles under highly dynamic loading conditions and provide design guidelines to reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of weld unzipping. Modelling of weld unzipping in large rail structures is a challenging task since it requires to deal with material instability, to take into account the uncertainties in material parameters and to address the problem of mesh resolution which together pose severe challenges to computability. The proposed methodology to the prediction of weld failure is based on the validation of the numerical models through correlation with laboratory scale tearing tests. The tearing tests were conducted on samples taken from real rail extrusions with the purpose of obtaining the failure parameters under dynamic loading and understanding the effect of weld material composition on joint behaviour. The validated material models were used to construct a FEA simulation of the collision of an aluminium rail car and investigate the effect of both joint geometry and welding techniques on the failure mechanism. Comparisons of the model with the failures observed in an aluminium rail vehicle that was involved in a high speed collision, have shown that it is possible to model the phenomenon of weld unzipping with good accuracy. The numerical models have also been used as a tool for the optimisation of joint design to improve crashworthiness.

  1. Characterization of deformed pearlitic rail steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Dimitrios; Meyer, Knut Andreas; Ahlström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Pearlitic steels are commonly used for railway rails because they combine good strength and wear properties. During service, the passage of trains results in a large accumulation of shear strains in the surface layer of the rail, leading to crack initiation. Knowledge of the material properties in this region is therefore important for fatigue life prediction. As the strain is limited to a thin surface layer, very large strain gradients can be found. This makes it very difficult to quantify changes in material behavior. In this study hardness measurements were performed close to the surface using the Knoop hardness test method. The orientation of the pearlitic lamellas was measured to give an overview of the deformed microstructure in the surface of the rail. Microstructural characterization of the material was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the changes in the microstructure due to the large deformation. A strong gradient can be observed in the top 50 μm of the rail, while deeper into the rail the microstructure of the base material is preserved.

  2. Structural response of a rail acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The transient response of a 0.4 by 0.6 cm rectangular bore rail accelerator was analyzed by a three dimensional finite element code. The copper rail deflected to a peak value of 0.08 mm in compression and then oscillated at an amplitude of 0.02 mm. Simultaneously the insulating side wall of glass fabric base, epoxy resin laminate (G-10) was compressed to a peak value of 0.13 mm and rebounded to a steady state in extension. Projectile pinch or blowby due to the rail extension or compression, respectively, can be identified by examining the time history of the rail displacement. The effect of blowby was most significant at the side wall characterized by mm size displacement in compression. Dynamic stress calculations indicate that the G-10 supporting material behind the rail is subjected to over 21 MPa at which the G-10 could fail if the laminate was not carefully oriented. Results for a polycarbonate resin (Lexan) side wall show much larger displacements and stresses than for G-10. The tradeoff between the transparency of Lexan and the mechanical strength of G-10 for sidewall material is obvious. Displacement calculations from the modal method are smaller than the results from the direct integration method by almost an order of magnitude, because the high frequency effect is neglected. 12 references

  3. The literature of the California black rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Sanford R.

    1974-01-01

    Few birds have remained so little known as the California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). Although first collected in 1859 or before and reported in 1874 (Ridgway 1874), its life history, distribution, and status have remained so obscure that even a sight record of the bird is deemed worthy of a report in some ornithological publications. Because degradation and loss of freshwater and saltwater marshlands in California may be detrimentally affecting the black rail, both the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (1973) and the California Department of Fish and Game (1972) have classified it as rare and worthy of further study. The 84 papers and notes both summarized in this report and included in its bibliography include essentially all that is currently known about the California black rail. Only 11 of these papers consider the life history of this rail in any detail. The rest are distribution notes and some of the more important papers on the closely related eastern black rail (L. j. jamaicensis). The latter are included for comparative purposes, or because they may lend clues to currently unknown facets of the life history of the western race.

  4. Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth in Rail Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Measures to prevent derailments due to fatigue failures of rails require adequate knowledge of the rate of propagation of fatigue cracks under service loading. The report presents a computational model for the prediction of crack growth in rails. The...

  5. An automated system for rail transit infrastructure inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This project applied commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) : technologies such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), laser, GIS, and GPS to passenger rail : inspections. An integrated rail inspection system that can be mounted on hi...

  6. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail. ...

  7. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  8. Wheel load cycle tag for rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has determined that there is a research need to collect and analyze statistical usage : data to help ascertain the cumulative load-induced fatigue on rail track segments. The estimation of rail segment burden...

  9. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  10. Infrastructure monitoring from an in-service light rail vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presently, rail inspection is performed either visually or with dedicated track geometry cars. The authors examine a more economical approach where rail inspection is performed by analyzing vibration data collected from an operational passenger train...

  11. The North American light rail experience : insights for Hamilton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a high level overview of the North American Light Rail Experience with the goal of : providing insights for Hamilton, Ontario. Light rail transit (LRT) is a term that emerged at the : Transportation Research Boards first confe...

  12. Rail Base Corrosion and Cracking Prevention: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...

  13. Phase I development of an aesthetic, precast concrete bridge rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Precast concrete bridge rail systems offer several advantages over traditional cast-in-place rail designs, including reduced construction : time and costs, installation in a wide range of environmental conditions, easier maintenance and repair, impro...

  14. Probabilistic and sensitivity analysis of Botlek Bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis of the largest movable lift bridge of the world. The bridge system consists of six reinforced concrete pylons and two steel decks 4000 tons weight each connected through ropes with counterweights. The paper focuses the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis as the base of dynamic study in design process of the bridge. The results had a high importance for practical application and design of the bridge. The model and resistance uncertainties were taken into account in LHS simulation method.

  15. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  16. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  17. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  18. A big data analysis approach for rail failure risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by

  19. Fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Kaixia

    2018-02-01

    The condition detection of rails in high-speed railway is one of the important means to ensure the safety of railway transportation. In order to replace the traditional manual inspection, save manpower and material resources, and improve the detection speed and accuracy, it is of great significance to develop a machine vision system for locating and identifying defects on rails automatically. Rail defects exhibit different properties and are divided into various categories related to the type and position of flaws on the rail. Several kinds of interrelated factors cause rail defects such as type of rail, construction conditions, and speed and/or frequency of trains using the rail. Rail corrugation is a particular kind of defects that produce an undulatory deformation on the rail heads. In high speed train, the corrugation induces harmful vibrations on wheels and its components and reduces the lifetime of rails. This type of defects should be detected to avoid rail fractures. In this paper, a novel method for fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering was proposed.

  20. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The... wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect...

  1. 49 CFR 266.15 - Requirements for State Rail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other common carriers; or (E) Other unification and coordination projects. (vi) Rail projects for which... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for State Rail Plan. 266.15 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR LOCAL RAIL SERVICE UNDER SECTION 5 OF THE...

  2. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is causing crack initiation and crack propagation in rails. Some types of RCF cracks are found to be associated with a white etching layer (WEL). A metallurgical investigation was carried out on a worn rail and the amounts of WEL at different positions on the rail were...

  3. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular, and monorail systems. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus..., Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars § 1580.201 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability...

  4. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  5. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Caiyou; Wang, Ping; Xing, Mengting

    2017-01-01

    Laying shock absorber fasteners is one of the effective countermeasures used to reduce the ground vibration induced from urban rail transit. However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the “wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference” mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed. With the finite element method, the simple beam and board model of the rail system is established to study the vertical and lateral dynamic fle...

  6. About tunnelling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, first we critically analyse the main theoretical definitions and calculations of the sub-barrier tunnelling and reflection times. Secondly, we propose a new, physically sensible definition of such durations, on the basis of a recent general formalism (already tested for other types of quantum collisions). At last, we discuss some results regarding temporal evolution of the tunnelling processes, and in particular the ''particle'' speed during tunnelling. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig

  7. ON SURFACE FRACTURE OF RAIL HEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Datsyshyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The formation of crack-like defects in rails of railway tracks is a serious problem for engineering practice because of the danger of creating emergency situations. The purpose of this work is to establish theoretically the characteristic angle of propagation of surface cracks in the rail heads of railway rails, which is basic in the formation of typical surface contact fatigue damages, such as pitting, «checks» and «squat». It is also necessary to find the conditions for determining this angle. Methodology. The investigations were carried out on the basis of the method of singular integral equations. The rail damaged by the surface crack was modeled with a half-plane with an edge cut, and the action of the wheel on the rail by unidirectional repeated translational movement along the edge of the half-plane of the Hertzian contact forces with the tangential component. The problem of determining the stress intensity factors in the vicinity of the crack tip in the rail head was reduced to a system of two real singular integral equations which were solved numerically by the Gauss-Chebyshev mechanical quadrature method. The complexity of the problem consists in the fact that the boundaries of the contact areas and the opening of the crack faces are unknown beforehand and they change when the model contact forces move. These boundaries were determined simultaneously with solving the integral equations of the problem from additional conditions by the iteration method. Findings. The presence of the characteristic angle of propagation of mode II surface cracks in the rail head has been established theoretically and the conditions for its determination have been put down. The results obtained are in good agreement with engineering and experimental data. Originality. For the first time, the values of the characteristic angle were theoretically determined, under which at the initial stage, the surface contact fatigue cracks propagate in the

  8. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  9. 49 CFR 37.83 - Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of remanufactured rail vehicles by public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of remanufactured rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.83 Section 37.83 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of...

  10. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the equity... carriers: Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Rarus Railway Company, Utah Central Railway Company... corporate family; and (3) the transaction does not involve a Class I rail carrier. Therefore, the...

  11. Theoretical Examination Of The Longitudinal Behaviour Of Embedded Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    The longitudinal behaviour of embedded rails significantly differs from that of ballasted or slab tracks with direct rail fastenings. As the ambient temperature rises and falls, rails expand and contract, thereby imposing stress on the channel and embedding compound. In the article the author presents the creation of a method that makes the calculation and the inspection of embedded rails simpler and closer to the everyday engineering mentality. The design process includes an analysis of the displacement and normal forces along a rail axis.

  12. Transit ridership prediction of Changchun light rail line 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Shi, Xingyi; Jiang, Zhixia; Li, Yongxing; Jia, Hongfei

    2015-12-01

    Urban rail transit ridership prediction has some guide meaning to urban rail transit planning and rail transit construction. In this paper, we use four-step method for rail transit ridership prediction. By considering Changchun GDP, land utilization rate, population and other factors, we use regression analysis method to predict trip generation, gravity model to predict trip distribution, logit model for model split and equilibrium model for traffic assignment. Finally, built the bus network model to obtain cross-sectional transit ridership of Changchun light rail line 3.

  13. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  14. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of >2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with <0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used

  15. Immersive visualization of rail simulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The prime objective of this project was to create scientific, immersive visualizations of a Rail-simulation. This project is a part of a larger initiative that consists of three distinct parts. The first step consists of performing a finite element a...

  16. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... planning processes, including promoting consistency with transit asset management plans required under MAP..., benefits, and supportive planning techniques associated with PPPs. Response: Text regarding the value of..., planning, and development efforts, including requiring States to develop FRA-accepted State rail plans in...

  17. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 (PRIIA) requires that the FRA develop a NRP. Prior to... component will also look at projected demographic and traffic trends so an evaluation can be made with... a recommendation of programs, policies, and investments that will be required so the nation can be...

  18. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been ...

  19. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be

  20. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model of the train. Bayraktar et al (2009) have investigated the vertical motions of a light rail vehicle serving in ... time and frequency domains, a fuzzy logic controller is used to actively control vibrations in the simulation ... the front and rear bogie frames, vertical and horizontal motion and yawing angle of the four wheelset.

  1. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of

  2. Microscopic investigation of surface layers on rails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Svoboda, Jiří; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Daves, W.; Fischer, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 239, č. 2 (2005), s. 132-141 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2041105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Mössbauer phase analysis * TEM * rail Subject RIV: JO - Structural Engineering Impact factor: 1.263, year: 2005

  3. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to analyse the behaviour of a suburban train equipped with a pneumatic secondary suspension, Docoquier et al (2007) obtained a complete model of the pneumatic circuit and coupled with a multibody model of the train. Bayraktar et al (2009) have investigated the vertical motions of a light rail vehicle serving in.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  5. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  6. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  7. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  8. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South`s 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government`s transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960`s. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail.

  9. Acces to railway stations and its potential in increasing rail use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2008-01-01

    The propensity to travel by rail, and not, for example by car, can be considered to be a factor of the rail service offered, the access to it and the characteristics of the population served. Efforts to increase rail use usually focus on the rail service itself while the accessibility of the rail

  10. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  11. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  12. Návrh Rail-to-Rail proudového konvejoru v technologii CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hudzik, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zaoberá návrhom rail-to-rail prúdového konvejora druhej generácie v technológii CMOS. Opisuje princípy funkcie jednotlivých generácii prúdových konvejorov a taktiež základný princíp návrhu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie založeného na operačnom zosilňovači. Venuje sa obvodovému riešeniu vstupného rail-to-rail stupňa a koncového stupňa v triede AB. Cieľom tejto práce je navrhnúť, charakterizovať vlastnosti a vytvoriť topológiu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie s rail...

  13. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  14. A novel permanent magnetic rail for HTS levitation propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Halbach Array has a characteristic advantage that the spatial fundamental field is canceled on one side of the array while the field intensity on the other side is enhanced. So this array could be used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent magnetic levitation rail to improve the surface magnetic field and levitation force. This paper compared the surface magnetic field of the Halbach Array rail and two conventional levitation rails at first. Then proposed the potential advantages of Halbach Array applied in permanent magnetic rail system. But the Halbach Array rail is mechanical instability. An novel improved Halbach Array rail is proposed in this paper. The new structure combined the advantages of traditional structure and Halbach Array structure, solved the problem of mechanical instability, and carried on the advantage of Halbach Array on the magnetic field distribution at the same time.

  15. Analysis of Passenger Incident Data from Five Rail Transit Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hunter-Zaworski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study results reported here are part of a larger research project that developed a manual for practitioners to improve safety at rail transit platform/train and platform/guideway interfaces. As part of that effort, passenger injury incident data was collected from five rail transit systems, and interviews were conducted with safety officers at other rail transit systems in the US and Canada. The data collected showed that stairs and escalators and general platform tripping produced more injury incidents than the platform/train and platform/guideway interfaces. Heavy rail transit with platforms that are higher than 24 inches from top of rail had more injury incidents than light rail transit that typically operates on low level platforms. Other causes of injury incidents included intoxication, attempted suicide, and distraction.

  16. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  17. Quantum tunneling with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.

    2017-05-01

    Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.

  18. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  19. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  20. Analysis of a Rail Gun Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    similar, at least superficially, to ball lightning . This observation prompted a review of ball lightning phenomena to determine if the mechanisms...responsible for the propagation of ball lightning might be relevant for rail gun arcs. Unfortunately, due to the rare and unpredictable occurrence...of ball lightning , there is little experimental data available. The "data" which does exist consists of descriptions, or photographs at best, of

  1. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  2. Software Testing using Ruby on Rails framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jurglič, Matic

    2014-01-01

    In the world of modern web applications and open source technologies there is a rising in popularity of using test driven development methodologies in software development. The main advantages of writing tests are easier error discovery, more effective development process, and consequently higher product quality. This thesis describes common testing techniques and focuses on usage in Ruby on Rails framework, which has a vibrant open source community with a culture that strongly emphasizes...

  3. Does light rail transit increase physical activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Hong; Marlon G. Boarnet; Doug Houston

    2013-01-01

    Moderate walking between home and transit stops can be a significant portion of daily physical activity. Yet, we know little about the role of public transit in promoting physical activity at the neighborhood level. Using a pre-post treatment-control research design, we examine whether new Expo light rail transit has any impact on physical activity outcomes among residents of a low-income neighborhood in south Los Angeles. We hypothesize that physical activity gain varies by proximity to tran...

  4. Aluminium in the rail transportation market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, J. [Alcan Alesa Engineering Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland). Alcan Mass Transportation Systems

    2002-07-01

    Rail-transportation is not, as one might expect, a homogeneous market but extremely fragmented and even with huge differences from continent to continent, i.e. in North America freight transport is dominating whereas in Europe passenger transport prevails. A first segmentation splits infrastructure from vehicles. In a second layer of segmentation we distinguish between light rail vehicles, heavy metros, regional trains, intercity trains, high speed trains with and without tilting, maglev trains, freight vehicles and locomotives. Finally, we find aluminium applications in wheels, suspension parts, brake equipment, traction equipment, body structure, hang on parts and interior trim. On the infrastructure side best use of aluminium is in the field of power supply. In order to have the best solution for each application, all forms of products such as castings, forgings, flat rolled products and extrusions are needed and the engineers are using a broad choice or different alloys for all the requirements such as structural strength, decorative aspect, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, weldability, corrosion resistance etc. Innovation cycles in rail transportation are very slow, mainly because the expected life of vehicles is over 30 years and so no fleet owner will run the risk of getting vehicles with non-proven components, i.e. where a safe life of over 30 years cannot be shown. In the following the most important aluminium applications are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  5. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  6. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  7. 76 FR 81011 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Light Rail Project in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... on Proposed Light Rail Project in Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Light Rail Transit Project in King County Washington. These actions grant licenses, permits, and... Light Rail Transit Project, King County, WA. Federal Lead Agency: Federal Transit Administration (FTA...

  8. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  9. A Big Data Analysis Approach for Rail Failure Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ali; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrzad; Hajizadeh, Siamak; Núñez, Alfredo; Babuska, Robert; Dollevoet, Rolf; Li, Zili; De Schutter, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks. We measure the visual length of the squats and use them to model the failure risk. For the assessment of the rail failure risk, we estimate the probability of rail failure based on the growth of squats. Moreover, we perform severity and crack growth analyses to consider the impact of rail traffic loads on defects in three different growth scenarios. The failure risk estimations are provided for several samples of squats with different crack growth lengths on a busy rail track of the Dutch railway network. The results illustrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  11. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  12. Split rail gripper assembly and tool driver therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1993-02-01

    This patent relates to a split rail gripper for a robotic apparatus including a pair of rails which are driven in mutually opposite directions by a rack and pinion gear mechanism. Each rail includes a set of rack gear teeth which engage respective pinion gears and where the top rail engaging one of the pinion gears is driven by a harmonic gear reduction drive and motor unit coupled to a drive screw. The other pinion gear is driven by the top pinion gear engaging a set of rack gear teeth included in the bottom rail. As the top rail is driven in or out, the upper pinion gear is rotated, causing the other pinion gear, in turn, to rotate in the opposite direction. This causes the bottom rail to move in an opposite linear direction relative to the top rail. An outwardly extending gripper finger assembly is attached to respective ends of the rails, with each gripper finger including an arrangement of vertically and horizontally mounted roller members which operate to automatically center and engage an H-plate type interface secured to the object being grasped. The gripper assembly also includes a base plate attached to an interface plate of a robotic tool changer mechanism. A retractable rotary tool driver and tool is also centrally mounted on the base plate.

  13. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  14. PPP in light rail transit systems in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carpintero Lopez, Samuel; Barcham, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light rail systems have proliferated in Spain in the last decade, following a tendency that is common not only in other European countries but also in other parts of the world. This paper reviews the benefits of light rail systems, both related to environmental issues and mobility issues. It analyses the evolution of light rail projects in Spain and shows that light rail systems in this country have evolved towards an extensive use of public-private partnerships. The analysis of the Spanish p...

  15. Metro as an example of an urban rail system. Four case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna FRASZCZYK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground, tube, subway or metro are common expressions used to describe a rapid transit system serving urban areas. Such a system uses dedicated rail corridors, can run underground or overground, and often includes tunnels and viaducts. Although there are 148 cities in the world with metro systems, each system is different, in terms of layout, length, capacity, etc., as it serves different geographical and socio-economical areas. In this context, the paper presents four European metro systems (Sofia, Warsaw, Lisbon, and Tyne and Wear, introduces the systems dimensions, rolling stock and ticketing strategies and compares similarities and differences between the systems. The analyses suggest a number of recommendations and improvements, which if implemented, could benefit other metro systems in Europe and beyond.

  16. Sound Quality Evaluation and Optimization for Interior Noise of Rail Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for sound filed simulation, sound quality (SQ evaluation, and optimization of interior noise of a rail vehicle is investigated in this paper. Firstly, some interior noises are measured on site when the subway is running in tunnel at a speed of 60 km/h. The sound pressure levels (SPLs, loudness, sharpness, and roughness of the measured noise are analyzed. A finite element model for acoustical simulation of the carriage is established by using the Actran software. The accuracy and feasibility of the finite model are verified by comparing the psychoacoustical parameters from the simulations and measurements. By using orthogonal experimental design, finally, the best optimization scheme is put forward, which obtained a sound quality improvement with a 4.81 dB decrease in SPL and a 1.07 sone reduction in loudness. The proposed optimization scheme may be extended to other vehicles for improving interior acoustic environment.

  17. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  18. 3000 bar common rail system; Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem mit 3000 Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yukihiro [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan). Diesel Injection Product Div.; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan). Diesel Injection Engineering Dept. 1; Herrmann, Erik [Denso Automotive Deutschland GmbH, Wegberg (Germany); Laumen, Hermann Josef [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    As a breakthrough technology to reverse the trend of increasingly complex systems, Denso successfully developed the 4{sup th} generation common rail system. This paper describes the potential of the system and discusses the possibility of meeting the future requirements of diesel engines. (orig.)

  19. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... subsidiaries from corporations into limited liability companies: (1) Sacramento Valley Railroad, Inc. (SAVRC..., or changes in the competitive balance with carriers outside the corporate family. Under 49 U.S.C. 10502(g), the Board may not use its exemption authority to relieve a rail carrier of its statutory...

  20. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  1. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  2. Kinematic analysis on rail development into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The vehicle manipulator system for blanket maintenance is used as a main driving mechanism for rail development, and three driving mechanisms d1, d2 (or d2') and d3 are used as cycle sequence of the repeated operations for rail development. This repeated operation can develop the articulated rail into the vacuum vessel. The rail development scenario, kinematic analysis model for rail development without any driving mechanisms in the rail joints, equations defined the angular between two rail links, identification of rail link at repeated operation, numerical analysis results on rail deployment under the forced position control of l i+1 , new rail development scenario using two driving mechanisms d1 and d2''under one cycle sequence of the repeated operations, and rail development test are reported. (S.Y.)

  3. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In these notes the fundamentals of the mechanics of rail/wheel contact and deterministic vehicle dynamics is explained. Chapter 1 describes the kinematics and dynamics of rail/wheel contact. Chapter 2 explains why vehicle dynamics must be treated as a nonlinear dynamic problem and how the model p...

  4. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal | Goo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of parameters such as friction coefficient, wheel/rail contact position, axle load, etc. on the instable vibration was examined. The instability of the vibration system was sensitive to the stiffness of rail support. In lateral creepage when the adhesion coefficient was less than 0.1, instable vibration modes did not occur.

  5. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... a solid waste rail transfer facility, and, if so, why. (c) Environmental impact. The applicant shall... establishments or facilities. (5) Industrial waste means the solid waste generated by manufacturing and...), or waste generated as a result of a railroad accident, incident, or derailment. (10) Solid waste rail...

  6. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years. Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories. Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants. Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia. Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  7. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  8. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  9. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  10. Low Adhesion in the Wheel-Rail Contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion, or adhesion coefficient, is given by the ratio of the longitudinal tangential (i.e., braking or traction) force over the normal force at the wheel-rail contact. The tangential force that a braking or tractive railway wheel can exert on a rail is limited by the friction coefficient

  11. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ..., 2007, the Working Group formed two subcommittees: the Rail Integrity Task Force (RITF) and the Concrete Crosstie Task Force. The RITF was tasked to review the reuse of plug rail and the requirements for internal... its rulemakings on vehicle/track interaction (VTI), concrete crossties, and the proposals contained in...

  12. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  13. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57...

  15. Control Measurements of Crane Rails Performed by Terrestrial Laser Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Klemen; Možina, Jan; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Kogoj, Dušan; Marjetič, Aleš; Štebe, Gašper; Savšek, Simona

    2017-07-20

    This article presents a method for measuring the geometry of crane rails with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Two sets of crane rails were divided into segments, their planes were adjusted, and the characteristic rail lines were defined. We used their profiles to define the positional and altitude deviations of the rails, the span and height difference between the two rails, and we also verified that they complied with the Eurocode 3 standard. We tested the method on crane rails at the hydroelectric power plant in Krško and the thermal power plant in Brestanica. We used two scanning techniques: "pure" TLS (Riegel VZ-400) and "hybrid" TLS (Leica MS50) scanning. This article's original contribution lies in the detailed presentation of the computations used to define the characteristic lines of the rails without using the numeric procedures from existing software packages. We also analysed the influence of segment length and point density on the rail geometry results, and compared the two laser scanning techniques. We also compared the results obtained by terrestrial laser scanning with the results obtained from the classic polar method, which served as a reference point for its precision.

  16. Semi-supervised rail defect detection from imbalanced image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Tax, D.M.J.; Acarman, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    Rail defect detection by video cameras has recently gained much attention in both
    academia and industry. Rail image data has two properties. It is highly imbalanced towards the non-defective class and it has a large number of unlabeled data samples available for semisupervised learning

  17. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  18. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.101 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail security coordinator. 1580.101 Section 1580.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  19. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    the effect of parameters such as friction coefficient, wheel/rail contact position, axle load, etc. on unstable vibration was examined. 2. Squeal Noise Tests. Figure 1 shows ..... static and dynamic behaviour of the wheel/rail depends on the boundary conditions and the constraints by springs. So the analysis was performed for ...

  20. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles. 5 mostly variable and significantly exposed to volatile exogenous core cost drivers, for example, the price of fuel. The externality costs associated with road freight transport are also higher than those attributable to rail freight transport (Hesse & Rodrigue.

  1. Causal analysis of passenger train accidents on freight rail corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of economic, technical and political factors have limited the development of new, dedicated, very-high-speed rail systems in North America. Consequently, most, near-term development of improved or expanded passenger rail service in the U.S. ...

  2. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 670 (Sub-No. 3)] Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice...) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee (RETAC). ADDRESSES: A...

  3. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 670 (Sub-No. 3)] Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION...) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee (RETAC). ADDRESSES: A...

  4. Dynamic Impact Test of the Railing with Dissipative Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Marius Afronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By definition, the railing is a wall or a railing of little height witch serves to delimit the edge of a road, a bridge, aimed at stopping vehicles and restoration mainly on carriageway, pedestrians and conveyance of other road users.

  5. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  6. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  7. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  8. LEP tunnel monorail

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    A monorail from CERN's Large Electron Positron collider (LEP, for short). It ran around the 27km tunnel, transporting equipment and personnel. With its 27-kilometre circumference, LEP was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built and ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel.

  9. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  10. The latest technical solutions in rail vehicles drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and solutions used in the offers of rail vehicles manufacturers. The study is mainly concerned with the technical solutions used in hybrid rail vehicles, whose development has become one of the priorities for the development of rail vehicles in the European Union in recent years. Stricter emissions standards for harmful compounds in the European Union have forced manufacturers to use increasingly sophisticated technology, including hybrid drives and alternative fuels. The products and solutions offered by the major manufacturers on the market, along with their capabilities and future applications are described. The predicted trends in the development of propulsion technology for rail and road-rail vehicles are also indicated in view of the current legislative aspirations among the EU Member States.

  11. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  12. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  13. Gap anisotropy and tunneling currents. [MPS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarides, N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to......The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to...

  14. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred

  15. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  16. A low-offset low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail input and output ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Stroet, Peter; Stroet, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A low voltage CMOS op amp is presented. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been given to the reduction of the op amp's systematic offset voltage. Gain boost amplifiers are connected in a special way to provide

  17. Unstable Semiclassical Trajectories in Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Levkov, D G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2007-01-01

    Some tunneling phenomena are described, in the semiclassical approximation, by unstable complex trajectories. We develop a systematic procedure to stabilize the trajectories and to calculate the tunneling probability, including both the suppression exponent and prefactor. We find that the instability of tunneling solutions modifies the power-law dependence of the prefactor on h as compared to the case of stable solutions.

  18. Tunnelling with wormhole creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoldi, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) (Italy); Tanaka, T., E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. We discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in the literature.

  19. Tunnelling with wormhole creation

    OpenAIRE

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. Here we discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in literature.

  20. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry: Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar Deepthi Jose Ayan Datta. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 160-174 ...

  1. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  2. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry. Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar, Deepthi Jose and Ayan Datta. (left) Sharmistha Karmakar is doing her PhD in the group of. Ayan Datta, IACS,. Kolkata. Her research interests are modelling molecules with strong optical absorbtion and.

  3. New heavy fuel oil injection system; Neues Schweroel-Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senghaas, Clemens; Schneider, Hartmut; Reinhard, Steffen [L' Orange GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Bereich Entwicklung; Jay, Dave; Ehrstroem, Kenneth [Waertsilae, Vaasa (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    In 2001 Waertsilaeand L'Orange launched the first common rail injection system for heavy fuel oil applications on the WaertsilaeW32 engine. This common rail system is very complex and relatively slow, compared to the marine diesel common rail systems. The second generation of heavy fuel oil common rail systems will be improved regarding functionality, costs, lifetime and maintainability. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring bolt tightness of rail joints using axle box acceleration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Carroll, R; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rail joints are a weak component in railway tracks because of the large impact and wheel-rail contact forces. Every train passage contributes to the deterioration of rail joints, causing visible (e.g. battered rails) and invisible (e.g. loose bolts) damages. The invisible damage cannot be detected

  5. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS), upon RSS's becoming a Class III rail carrier. \\1\\ Pioneer states that it owns 100% of the common stock of its 17 Class III rail carrier subsidiaries: West Michigan...--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching Services, Inc. Pioneer Railcorp (Pioneer) and its...

  6. 75 FR 51160 - Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.-Lease and Operation Exemption-BDB Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... truck-rail transfer facility on the property and provide associated rail common carrier services. \\1... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35399] Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.--Lease and Operation Exemption--BDB Company Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P. (SRT), a noncarrier...

  7. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... common carrier providing interstate rail service, primarily for Dura-Bond, without first obtaining... Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek... Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) and to operate approximately 9.8 miles of rail line between milepost 0...

  8. 49 CFR 174.59 - Marking and placarding of rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and placarding of rail cars. 174.59... RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.59 Marking and placarding of rail cars. No person may transport a rail car carrying hazardous materials unless it is marked and placarded as required by...

  9. 75 FR 39326 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Implementation of Rail Passenger Service on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... primary purpose of the Cotton Belt Corridor Regional Rail Project is to provide passenger rail connections that will improve mobility, accessibility and system linkages to major employment, population and... Rail Corridor's primary purpose is to provide passenger rail connections that will improve mobility...

  10. Monolithic three-dimensional tunnel FET-nanoelectromechanical hybrid reconfigurable logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Kyu; Choi, Woo Young

    2017-04-01

    Monolithic three-dimensional (M3D) reconfigurable logic (RL) circuits of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs)-nanoelectromechanical (NEM) memory switches have been proposed, simulated and demonstrated in order to overcome the limitations of CMOS-only RL circuits. A TFET is considered as one of the most promising extremely-low-power logic devices thanks to its abrupt on-off transition as well as low off-current (I off) and a NEM memory switch is a good solution to signal path routing thanks to its nonvolatile storage of data signal paths and stable rail-to-rail voltage swing. In our proposed RL circuits, NEM memory switch routing parts are integrated over complementary TFET logic circuits by using conventional CMOS backend process.

  11. Tunneling features in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The most telling scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) data available on the influence of nonequilibrium tunneling effects and electronic spectra reconstruction are reviewed and theoretically explained by self-consistently accounting for nonequilibrium electron distribution and the change (due to the tunneling current) in the electron density of states near the tunneling junction. The paper discusses the basic ideas of the self-consistent tunneling theory, which forms the basis for experimental research and which allows many effects observed in STM/STS experiments to be explained and new phenomena to be predicted.

  12. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  13. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  14. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  15. Momentum equation for arc-driven rail guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteh, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In several models of arc-driven rail guns, the rails are assumed to be infinitely high to simplify the calculation of the electromagnetic fields which appear in the momentum equation for the arc. This assumption leads to overestimates of the arc pressures and accelerations by approximately a factor of 2 for typical rail-gun geometries. In this paper, we develop a simple method for modifying the momentum equation to account for the effect of finite-height rails on the performance of the rail gun and the properties of the arc. The modification is based on an integration of the Lorentz force across the arc cross section at each axial location in the arc. Application of this technique suggests that, for typical rail-gun geometries and moderately long arcs, the momentum equation appropriate for infinite-height rails can be retained provided that the magnetic pressure term in the equation is scaled by a factor which depends on the effective inductance of the gun. The analysis also indicates that the magnetic pressure gradient actually changes sign near the arc/projectile boundary because of the magnetic fields associated with the arc current

  16. Detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenzhu; Zhang, Wentao; Li, Fang; Du, Yanliang; Sun, Baochen; Ma, Huaixiang

    2013-01-01

    Efficient inspection methods are necessary for detection of rail corrugation to improve the safety and ride quality of railway operations. This paper presents a novel fiber optic technology for detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs), tailored to the measurement of surface damage on rail structures. The principle of detection of rail corrugation using double integration of axle-box acceleration is presented. Then we present the theoretical model and test results of FLAs which are installed on the bogie to detect the vertical axle-box acceleration of the train. Characteristics of high sensitivity and large dynamic range are achieved when using fiber optic interferometric demodulation. A flexible inertial algorithm based on double integration and the wavelet denoising method is proposed to accurately estimate the rail corrugation. A field test is carried out on the Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway in north China. The test results are compared with the results of a rail inspection car, which shows that the fiber laser sensing system has a good performance in monitoring rail corrugation. (paper)

  17. Track dynamic behavior at rail welds at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guangwen; Xiao, Xinbiao; Guo, Jun; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2010-06-01

    As a vehicle passing through a track with different weld irregularities, the dynamic performance of track components is investigated in detail by using a coupled vehicle-track model. In the model, the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom, and a Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. In the track model, the sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies accounting for their vertical, lateral and rolling motions and assumed to move backward at a constant speed to simulate the vehicle running along the track at the same speed. In the study of the coupled vehicle and track dynamics, the Hertizian contact theory and the theory proposed by Shen-Hedrick-Elkins are, respectively, used to calculate normal and creep forces between the wheel and the rails. In the calculation of the normal forces, the coefficient of the normal contact stiffness is determined by transient contact condition of the wheel and rail surface. In the calculation of the creepages, the lateral, roll-over motions of the rail and the fact that the relative velocity between the wheel and rail in their common normal direction is equal to zero are simultaneously taken into account. The motion equations of the vehicle and track are solved by means of an explicit integration method, in which the rail weld irregularities are modeled as local track vertical deviations described by some ideal cosine functions. The effects of the train speed, the axle load, the wavelength and depth of the irregularities, and the weld center position in a sleeper span on the wheel-rail impact loading are analyzed. The numerical results obtained are greatly useful in the tolerance design of welded rail profile irregularity caused by hand-grinding after rail welding and track maintenances.

  18. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  19. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  20. Light rail explained: Better public transport and more than public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Bijl, R.; Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately characteristics and benefits of light rail are frequently underestimated in decision making. On the bases of our own research and state of the art related research this paper addresses the importance of light rail as efficient means of transport, particularly efficient since light rail is synonym with reliable public transport. This paper elaborates light rail as prerequisite for urban (re)development and its economic, environmental and social assets. The benefits of light rail ...

  1. Effects of Light and Commuter Rail Transit on Land Prices: Experiences in San Diego County

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Using hedonic price models, appreciable land-value premiums were found for multiple land uses in different rail corridors of San Diego County. The most appreciable benefits were for condominiums and single-family housing near commuter-rail stations in the north county, multi-family housing near light-rail stations, and commercial properties near downtown commuter-rail stations and light-rail stops in the Mission Valley. Elsewhere, commercial properties accrued small or even negative capitaliz...

  2. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Šamec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.

  3. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  4. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  5. Identification of ballast grading for rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grading has long been recognised to critically influence the mechanical behaviour of ballast. To identify the ballast grading for heavy-haul rail track, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to assess the performances of different gradings. Permanent deformations, aggregates degradation, resilience, shear resistance, maximum and minimum densities are recorded and analysed. The grading is found to affect the behaviour of ballast in that coarser gradings exhibit relatively better strength, resilience and therefore less permanent deformation. However, ballast degradation increases with the overall aggregate size. Therefore, to identify the grading for ballast with different performance objectives, a grey relational theory is used to convert the multi-objective into single-objective, i.e. grey relational grade. A relatively optimal grading that provides the highest grey relational grade is thus suggested for the improved ballast performance.

  6. Rail industry trends related to waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddigan, R.; Owens, M.; Shelton, P.

    1992-01-01

    The rail transportation environment is expected to affect decisions about the way in which the U.S. department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), ships spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW). This paper addresses current and future trends in the railroad industry with an emphasis on the implications of those trends for OCRWM. The paper addresses a number of topics, ranging from deregulation to the economic health of the industry to labor relations. Of particular importance, however, are three major trends that will influence OCRWM's use of the railroads in the future: track abandonments, potential for contract agreements to set service and rates, and growth in the short-line railroads

  7. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  8. Nanowire resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, M. T.; Ohlsson, B. J.; Thelander, C.; Persson, A. I.; Deppert, K.; Wallenberg, L. R.; Samuelson, L.

    2002-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures and their implementation into electronic and photonic devices have had tremendous impact on science and technology. In the development of quantum nanoelectronics, one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure devices are receiving a lot of interest. We report here functional 1D resonant tunneling diodes obtained via bottom-up assembly of designed segments of different semiconductor materials in III/V nanowires. The emitter, collector, and the central quantum dot are made from InAs and the barrier material from InP. Ideal resonant tunneling behavior, with peak-to-valley ratios of up to 50:1 and current densities of 1 nA/μm2 was observed at low temperatures.

  9. Vocalization behavior and response of black rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, M.L.; Eddleman, W.R.; Buckley, P.A.; Kelly, C.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the vocal responses and movements of radio-tagged black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis) (n = 43, 26 males, 17 females) to playback of vocalizations at 2 sites in Florida during the breeding seasons of 1992-95. We used regression coefficients from logistic regression equations to model the probability of a response conditional to the birds' sex, nesting status, distance to playback source, and the time of survey. With a probability of 0.811, non-nesting male black rails were most likely to respond to playback, while nesting females were the least likely to respond (probability = 0.189). Linear regression was used to determine daily, monthly, and annual variation in response from weekly playback surveys along a fixed route during the breeding seasons of 1993-95. Significant sources of variation in the linear regression model were month (F = 3.89, df = 3, p = 0.0140), year (F = 9.37, df = 2, p = 0.0003), temperature (F = 5.44, df=1, p = 0.0236), and month*year (F = 2.69, df = 5, p = 0.0311). The model was highly significant (p account for variation in response behavior, we believe that additional variation in vocal response between sites, with breeding status, and bird density remains in question. Playback surveys along fixed routes providing a simple index of abundance would be useful to monitor populations over large geographic areas, and over time. Considering the limitations of most agency resources for webless waterbirds, index surveys may be more appropriate. Future telemetry studies of this type on other species and at other sites would be useful to calibrate information obtained from playback surveys whether reporting an index of abundance or density estimate.

  10. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  11. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  12. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L

    2013-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  13. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  14. On the study of train-track dynamic interactions caused by rail welds on discrete supported rails

    OpenAIRE

    Correa García, Nekane; García Vadillo, Ernesto; Santamaría Manrique, Javier; Gómez López, Josu

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of rail weld dip on wheel-rail contact dynamics, with particular reference to freight trains where it is important to increase the operating speed and also the load transported. This has produced a very precise model, albeit simple and cost-effective, which has enabled train-track dynamic interactions over rail welds to be studied to make it possible to quantify the influence on dynamic forces and displacements of the welding geometry; of the position of the we...

  15. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  16. Determination of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Properties of Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Motivated by the occurrence of a long-running rail web fracture in service, dynamic fracture mechanics research was undertaken to (1) quantify the crack driving force due to the residual stresses induced by roller straightening operations, (2) determ...

  17. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, L.M.; Kerslake, W.R.; Sturman, J.C.; Wang, S.Y.; Terdan, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  18. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum rail current required. 236.562 Section 236.562 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  20. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  1. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  3. 3D methodology for evaluating rail crossing roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Description of Research Project The overall objective of this project is to investigate develop a quantitative method or measure for determining the need to rehabilitate rail crossings. The scope of the project includes investigation of sensor capabi...

  4. Summer Youth Program in Rail and Intermodal Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-22

    For the past five years, Michigan Technological University has been running a Summer Youth Program (SYP) in Rail and Intermodal Transportation. The program has seen continuous growth along with a diverse group of students, grades 9-11. The structure ...

  5. Experimental dataset for optimising the freight rail operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mahmoud; Kozan, Erhan; Kent, Geoff; Liu, Shi Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The freight rail systems have an essential role to play in transporting the commodities between the delivery and collection points at different locations such as farms, factories and mills. The fright transport system uses a daily schedule of train runs to meet the needs of both the harvesters and the mills (An Integrated Approach to Optimise Cane Rail Operations (M. Masoud, E. Kozan, G. Kent, Liu, Shi Qiang, 2016b) [1]). Producing an efficient daily schedule to optimise the rail operations requires integration of the main elements of harvesting, transporting and milling in the value chain of the Australian agriculture industry. The data utilised in this research involve four main tables: sidings, harvesters, sectional rail network and trains. The utilised data were collected from Australian sugar mills as a real application. Operations Research techniques such as metaheuristic and constraint programming are used to produce the optimised solutions in an analytical way.

  6. In-motion, non-contact rail temperature measurement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Preventing track buckling incidents (Figure 1) is important to the railroad industry. Track materials, rail steel, for example, experience thermal expansion, which refers to the increase in a materials volume as its temperature rises. Thermal expa...

  7. Best practices and strategies for improving rail energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    In support of the FRA Energy, Environment, and Engine (E3) program, this study reviews and evaluates technology development opportunities, equipment upgrades, and best practices (BPs) of international and U.S. passenger and freight rail industry segm...

  8. Mode repulsion of ultrasonic guided waves in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computation of dispersion characteristics of guided waves in rails is important during the development of inspection and monitoring systems. Wavenumber versus frequency curves computed by the semi-analytical finite element method exhibit...

  9. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  10. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  11. Hudson Bergen light rail customer impact and retention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In order to understand the customer impact and ridership retention of the Hudson : Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) extension, NJ TRANSIT and the New Jersey Department of : Transportation (NJDOT) gathered a research team to conduct a study composed of a : pl...

  12. Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time. However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export activity. However, new environmental demands (sign. lower emissions and scarcity of oil are on the way of changing the current modus operandi. As trade of Rail Baltica countries accounts for one third of these two countries, and is constantly growing with surplus (except for Russia, Slovakia and Czech Republic are clearly in need of developing own strategy for Rail Baltica.

  13. 78 FR 36017 - MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-Operation Exemption-Hilco SP Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35725] MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-- Operation Exemption--Hilco SP Rail, LLC MCM Rail Services... under 49 CFR 1150.31 to operate as a common carrier over an approximately 12-mile line of railroad in...

  14. Guidance for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document, part of a series of guides for those concerned with the road or rail transportation of dangerous goods, provides detailed recommendations for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive materials by rail. It covers the relevant legislation and regulations on the carriage of such dangerous goods to assist those involved with compliance. (UK)

  15. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities...

  16. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid or...

  17. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  18. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at 75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

  19. Anticipatory Effects of Rail Upgrades: Auckland's Western Line

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Grimes; Chris Young

    2011-01-01

    We examine effects of urban passenger rail upgrades to Auckland's Western Line, including double tracking, station development, and related urban renewal projects. The results are used to assess anticipated net benefits of the developments. The rail-related upgrades are expected to be completed in late 2010, but have been well publicised and so should already be factored into people's location and pricing decisions. Our analysis compares developments near Western Line stations with developmen...

  20. Fatigue Failure of a Flash Butt Welded Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid, L.B.; Faria, G.L.; Cândido, L.C.; Viana, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Medium carbon steel rails are commonly jointed by means of a flash butt welding procedure. To ensure an adequate service life for the structural component commonly subjected to fatigue loading, a rigorous quality control should be performed, both in welding parameters and in the surface quality of the welded joint. This work investigated the cause of a recurrent failure in a railway, with cracking always initiated in the rail in the region of the welded joint. All standard procedures of failu...

  1. California statewide model for high-speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Outwater, Maren; Tierney, Kevin; Bradley, Mark; Sall, Elizabeth; Kuppam, Arun; Modugala, Vamsee

    2010-01-01

    The California High Speed Rail Authority (CHSRA) and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) have developed a new statewide model to support evaluation of high-speed rail alternatives in the State of California. This statewide model will also support future planning activities of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The approach to this statewide model explicitly recognizes the unique characteristics of intraregional travel demand and interregional travel demand. A...

  2. Analysis of pressure wave dynamics in fuel rail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alzahabi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of an amplified common rail fuel system is simulated in Matlab toanalyze the wave mechanics in the rail. The injectors are modeled as asystem of linear and non-linear ODE’s consisting of masses, a helical spring,compressibility effects from fluid volumes, and hydraulic flow throughorifices. The injector simulation then predicts the rate of oil consumption,which is then input into the rail model.The rail is modeled in three sections which are coupled together. The pointswhere the coupling occurs are the locations where the current firinginjector and the pump supply are connected to the rail. This allows themodel to control the pressure and velocity (as boundary conditions atthese points. The rail model is based on the 1D, undamped wave equation,in a non-dimensional form [1] (in the position variable, x. The Reduction ofOrder method was used to solve the wave equation with the Matlabfunction PDEPE.The model was run with two different sets of initial conditions - nominal(constant pressure and zero velocity, and worst case using a simplifiedrepresentation of the pressure and velocity distribution at start of injection.This was done to determine the effect of rail waves at the start of injection,on the output of the model. The variation in fuel delivery, due to the variationin rail pressure, was then evaluated at three operating conditions - Idle,Peak Torque (PT and High Speed Light Load (HSLL. The simulation outputis then compared to analytical solutions of two forms of simplifiedgeometry, using the product method to solve the system [1.

  3. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  4. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  5. Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in continuously welded rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenqing; Sheng, Fuwei; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Rail defects cause numerous railway accidents. Trains are derailed and serious consequences often occur. Compared to traditional bulk wave testing, ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) can provide larger monitoring ranges and complete coverage of the waveguide cross-section. These advantages are of significant importance for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of the continuously welded rail, and the technique is therefore widely used in high-speed railways. UGWs in continuous welded rail (CWR) and their propagation characteristics have been discussed in this paper. Finite element methods (FEMs) were used to accomplish a vibration modal analysis, which is extended by a subsequent dispersion analysis. Wave structure features were illustrated by displacement profiles. It was concluded that guided waves have the ability to detect defects in the rail via choice of proper mode and frequency. Additionally, thermal conduction that is caused by temperature variation in the rail is added into modeling and simulation. The results indicated that unbalanced thermal distribution may lead to the attenuation of UGWs in the rail.

  6. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  7. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 μm 2 . Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  9. Quantum dissipation, scattering and tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleuterio, S.M.; Vilela Mendes, R.

    1984-01-01

    A quantization technique for dissipative systems is used to discuss one dimensional problems including tunneling with dissipation, capture in dissipative potential wells and quantum coherence. (orig.)

  10. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laying shock absorber fasteners is one of the effective countermeasures used to reduce the ground vibration induced from urban rail transit. However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the “wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference” mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed. With the finite element method, the simple beam and board model of the rail system is established to study the vertical and lateral dynamic flexibility characteristics of rails below 1,200 Hz. Within 5–40 kN/mm, a comparison is made between wheel-rail dynamic flexibility differences corresponding to the vertical stiffness and lateral stiffness of different fasteners. The results show that 20 kN/mm and 10 kN/mm are the least and most suitable vertical stiffness values of fasteners, respectively; 40 kN/mm and 5–10 kN/mm are, respectively, the least and most suitable lateral stiffness values of fasteners. The research and analysis results can be adopted as references for deciding the fastener stiffness of urban track.

  11. Thermovoltages in vacuum tunneling investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, D. H.; Rettenberger, Armin; Grand, Jean Yves; Läuger, K.; Leiderer, Paul; Dransfeld, Klaus; Möller, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    By heating the tunneling tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the thermoelectric properties of a variable vacuum barrier have been investigated. The lateral variation of the observed thermovoltage will be discussed for polycrystalline gold, stepped surfaces of silver, as well as for copper islands on silver.

  12. Reduced resistance drift in tunnel junctions using confined tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Z. S.; Pomeroy, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions with the aluminum oxide tunnel barriers confined between cobalt electrodes exhibit less resistance drift over time than junctions that utilize a thick, unconfined aluminum electrode. The improved long time stability is attributed to better initial oxide quality achieved through confinement (use of a potential energy well for the oxygen) and plasma oxidation. In this work, Co/AlOx/Co and Co/Al/AlOx/Co tunnel junction aging is compared over a period of approximately 9 months using transport measurements and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) based modelling. The Co/AlOx/Co (confined) tunnel junction resistance increased by (32 ± 6) % over 5400 h, while Co/Al/AlOx/Co (unconfined) tunnel junction resistance increased by (85 ± 23) % over 5200 h. Fit parameters for the tunnel barrier width and potential energy barriers were extracted using WKB transport modelling. These values change only a small amount in the confined Co/AlOx/Co tunnel junction but show a significant drift in the unconfined Co/AlOx/Co tunnel junction.

  13. Fundamental visual problems in tunnels : sumposium on tunnel lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2018-01-01

    Tunnels and underpasses are likely to play a greater part in our future road network. Daytime lighting for tunnel entrances represents a considerable proportion of their total running costs and it is important that the right solution should be found. Guidance is given in CIE Publication No. 26

  14. Engineers win award for Swiss tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A Derby engineering consultancy has won the Tunnelling Industry Award 2003 for Excellence in Tunnel Design, offered by the British Tunnelling Society, for its work on the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland (1/2 page).

  15. Mock-up tests of rail-mounted vehicle type in-vessel transporter/manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, K.; Kakaudate, S.; Fukatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    A rail-mounted vehicle system has been developed for remote maintenance of in-vessel components for fusion experimental reactor. In this system, a rail deploying/storing system is installed at outside of the reactor core and used to deploy a rail transporter and vehicle/manipulator for the in-vessel maintenance. A prototype of the rail deploying/storing system has been fabricated for mockup tests. This paper describes structural design of the prototypical rail deploying/storing system and results of the performance tests such as payload capacity, position control and rail deployment/storage performance

  16. Counter Tunnel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    DSP-3000 fiber - optic gyro , MicroStrain 3DM-GX2 IMU, with USB and Ethernet connec- tors. Small enough to fit into all the tunnels that were explored...frame arms were sufficient for de- ployment of the RDC. Gigabit multi-mode fiber - optic communication and 48 VDC power were passed to the RDC through...with AcuAMP ACT050 current sensors. The control box monitoring all of the information, as well as the source of the 48 VDC and fiber - optic cable to

  17. Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennault, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  18. An Investigation of the Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Rock masses: A Case Study in an Excavation of Eskişehir-Köseköy Tunnels, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Sunay; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Ogul, Kenan

    2015-04-01

    With increasing of high-speed rail technology in last decades, Turkey has developed many big engineering projects to connect major cities. Excavations conducted for these projects provide very important contributions in term of understanding the strength and deformation characteristics of weak rock masses belongs to various geological materials. The Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway known as a significant project among these projects was designed in two different phases. To discuss the outcomes, experiences and challenging geological materials during construction of this tunnel, the geotechnical properties of rock masses of a tunnel named as T19 are evaluated and discussed in this study. The T19 tunnel was excavated in stratified and heavily fractured four different geological formations. Rock mass rating (RMR) system, and tunnelling quality index (Q) were utilized for the preliminary design stages of this tunnel. These engineering rock mass classifications were utilized in 135 different locations to find representative RMR and Q values for encountered rock masses during excavation. The RMR and Q values, which range between 18-52 and changing between 0.017 and 1.6 respectively, indicate that the T19 tunnel was mainly constructed in very poor and poor rock masses. Thus, shotcrete immediately was applied after face advance to prevent the fall of loose rock fragments and to minimize excessive deformation in rock, particular in very poor and poor rock masses. In addition, the deformation characteristics of the tunnel were also carefully monitored and measured by 3D-optical measuring system and conventional tape extensometer, and then required further supports were installed. Finally, the rock mass-support interactions of different geological formations were comprehensively evaluated in this study for understanding strength and deformation characteristics of weak and stratified rock masses. Keywords: Convergence, high-speed rail, rock mass, support, tunnel

  19. Finite element analysis of rail-wheel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.; Kharlamov, Y.A.; Islam, S.; Khan, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Damage mechanisms such as surface cracks, plastic deformation and wear can significantly reduce the service life of railway track and rolling stock. They also have a negative impact on the rolling noise as well as: on the riding comfort. A proper understanding of these mechanisms requires a detailed knowledge of physical interaction between wheel and rail. Furthermore, demands for higher train speeds and increased axle loads implies that the consequences of larger contact. forces between wheel and rail must be thoroughly investigated. Two methods have traditionally been used to investigate the rail-wheel contact, that is the Hertz analytical method and simplified numerical method based on the boundary element (BE) method. These methods rely on a half-space assumption and a linear material model. This paper presents that to overcome these limitations, a tool for FE-based quasistatic wheel-rail contact simulations has been developed. The tool is a library of ANSYS macro routines for configuring, meshing and loading of a parametric wheel-rail model. The meshing is based on measured wheel and rail profiles. The wheel and rail materials in the contact region are treated as elastic-plastic with kinematic hardening. By controlling the values of the configuration parameters, representations of various driving cases can be generated. The quasi-static loads are obtained from train motion. Interaction phenomena such as rolling, spinning and sidling can be included. The modeling tool and a methodology are described in the presented paper. Significant differences in the calculated state between the FE solution and the traditional approaches can be observed. These differences are most significant in situations with flange contact. (author)

  20. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  1. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the ...

  2. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español Carpal Tunnel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Kids / Carpal Tunnel Syndrome What's in this article? Where ...

  3. Wireless Communications in Smart Rail Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Briso-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway, subway, airplane, and other transportation systems have drawn an increasing interest on the use of wireless communications for critical and noncritical services to improve performance, reliability, and passengers experience. Smart transportation systems require the use of critical communications for operation and control, and wideband services can be provided using noncritical communications. High speed train (HST is one of the best test cases for the analysis of communication links and specification of the general requirements for train control and supervision, passenger communications, and onboard and infrastructure wireless sensors. In this paper, we analyze in detail critical and noncritical networks mainly using the HST as a test case. First, the different types of links for smart rail transportation are described, specifying the main requirements of the transportation systems, communications, and their applications for different services. Then, we propose a network architecture and requirements of the communication technologies for critical and noncritical data. Finally, an analysis is made for the future technologies, including the fifth-generation (5G communications, millimeter wave (mmWave, terahertz (THz, and satellites for critical and high-capacity communications in transportation.

  4. Security improvements for rail movements of SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.R.; Gronager, J.E.; Shemigon, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise Eleron have teamed to lead a project to enhance the overall security of Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) transportation of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) shipments. The effort is called the Railcar Transportation Security Project and is part of the overall DOE Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program addressing the enhancement of nuclear material control, accounting, and physical protection for Russian SNM. The goal of this MPC and A project is to significantly increase the security of Russian MINATOM highly enriched SNM rail shipments. To accomplish this, the MPC and A Railcar Transportation Security program will provide an enhanced, yet cost effective, railcar transportation security system. The system incorporates a balance between the traditional detection, communications, delay, and response security elements to significantly improve the security of MINATOM SNM shipments. The strategy of this program is to use rapid upgrades to implement mature security technologies as quickly as possible. The rapid upgrades emphasize rapidly deployable delay elements, enhanced radio communications, and intrusion detection and surveillance. Upgraded railcars have begun operation during FY98. Subsequent upgrades will build upon the rapid upgrades and eventually be integrated into a final deployed system configuration. This paper provides an overview of the program, with a summary of performance of the deployed railcars

  5. Research on Miniature Calibre Rail-Guns for the Mechanical Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-gun should not only be used to military applications, but also can be developed as applications in the civilian aspects of the market. With the development of the electromagnetic launch technology, based on the similarity theory, using the existing rail-gun model to guide the construction of more economical miniature calibre rail-guns, and apply it in some machinery and equipment, this idea will open up a wider rail-gun application space. This article will focus on the feasibility of application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm. This paper designs the schematic diagram, then theoretical analyzes force conditions of the armature in the mechanical arm, calculates the possible range of the current amplitude and so on. The existing rail-gun model can be used to guides design the circuit diagram of the miniature calibre rail-gun. Based on the similarity theory and many simulation experiments, designed the experimental parameters of a miniature rail-gun and analyzed the current, Lorentz force, velocity, and location of the existing rail-gun and miniature rail-gun. The results show that the rail-gun launching technology applied to robot arms is feasibility. The application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm will benefit to the further development of rail-guns.

  6. A METHOD FOR THE POSITIONING AND ORIENTATION OF RAIL-BOUND VEHICLES IN GNSS-FREE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping System (MMS are increasingly applied for spatial data collection to support different fields because of their efficiencies and the levels of detail they can provide. The Position and Orientation System (POS, which is conventionally employed for locating and orienting MMS, allows direct georeferencing of spatial data in real-time. Since the performance of a POS depends on both the Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, poor GNSS conditions, such as in long tunnels and underground, introduce the necessity for post-processing. In above-ground railways, mobile mapping technology is employed with high performance sensors for finite usage, which has considerable potential for enhancing railway safety and management in real-time. In contrast, underground railways present a challenge for a conventional POS thus alternative configurations are necessary to maintain data accuracy and alleviate the need for post-processing. This paper introduces a method of rail-bound navigation to replace the role of GNSS for railway applications. The proposed method integrates INS and track alignment data for environment-independent navigation and reduces the demand of post-processing. The principle of rail-bound navigation is presented and its performance is verified by an experiment using a consumer-grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a small-scale railway model. The method produced a substantial improvement in position and orientation for a poorly initialised system in centimetre positional accuracy. The potential improvements indicated by, and limitations of rail-bound navigation are also considered for further development in existing railway systems.

  7. a Method for the Positioning and Orientation of Rail-Bound Vehicles in Gnss-Free Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R.; King, B. A.; Chen, W.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping System (MMS) are increasingly applied for spatial data collection to support different fields because of their efficiencies and the levels of detail they can provide. The Position and Orientation System (POS), which is conventionally employed for locating and orienting MMS, allows direct georeferencing of spatial data in real-time. Since the performance of a POS depends on both the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), poor GNSS conditions, such as in long tunnels and underground, introduce the necessity for post-processing. In above-ground railways, mobile mapping technology is employed with high performance sensors for finite usage, which has considerable potential for enhancing railway safety and management in real-time. In contrast, underground railways present a challenge for a conventional POS thus alternative configurations are necessary to maintain data accuracy and alleviate the need for post-processing. This paper introduces a method of rail-bound navigation to replace the role of GNSS for railway applications. The proposed method integrates INS and track alignment data for environment-independent navigation and reduces the demand of post-processing. The principle of rail-bound navigation is presented and its performance is verified by an experiment using a consumer-grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a small-scale railway model. The method produced a substantial improvement in position and orientation for a poorly initialised system in centimetre positional accuracy. The potential improvements indicated by, and limitations of rail-bound navigation are also considered for further development in existing railway systems.

  8. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.

  9. Tunneling in thin MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserjian, J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent results on tunneling in thin MOS structures are described. Thermally grown SiO2 films in the thickness range of 22-40 A have been shown to be effectively uniform on an atomic scale and exhibit an extremely abrupt oxide-silicon interface. Resonant reflections are observed at this interface for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and are shown to agree with the exact theory for a trapezoidal barrier. Tunneling at lower fields is consistent with elastic tunneling into the silicon direct conduction band and, at still lower fields, inelastic tunneling into the indirect conduction band. Approximate dispersion relations are obtained over portions of the silicon-dioxide energy gap and conduction band.

  10. Long range guided wave defect monitoring in rail track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2014-02-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system was previously developed for monitoring rail track used on heavy duty freight lines. This system operates by transmitting guided waves between permanently installed transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. The system has been proven to reliably detect rail breaks without false alarms. While cracks are sometimes detected there is a trade - off between detecting cracks and the possibility of false alarms. Adding a pulse-echo mode of operation to the system could provide increased functionality by detecting, locating and possibly monitoring cracks. This would require an array of transducers to control the direction and mode of propagation and it would be necessary to detect cracks up to a range of approximately 500 m in either direction along the rail. A four transducer array was designed and full matrix capture was used for field measurements. Post processing of the signals showed that a thermite weld could be detected at a range of 790m from the transducer array. It was concluded that the required range can be achieved in new rail while it would be extremely difficult in very old rail.

  11. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...] Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail... Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating the line for...

  12. Intercity passenger rail : Amtrak faces challenges in improving its financial condition : statement of Phyllis F. Scheinberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-28

    The Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 created Amtrak as the nation's intercity passenger railroad. The act, as amended, gave Amtrak a number of goals, including providing modern, efficient intercity passenger rail service; giving Americans an altern...

  13. High-Speed Rail and Local Land Development : Case Studies in London and Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of a high-speed rail system depends, in part, upon locating rail stations close to urban centers and integrating them into broader transportation networks and the urban realm. In addition, through economies of agglomeration, successful h...

  14. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  15. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 1. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume I defines the general analytical capabilities required for computer programs applicable to single rail vehi...

  16. 76 FR 19914 - Safety Standard for Portable Bed Rails: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... bed after rolling a 30 lb cylinder into the bed rail. The test simulates a child rolling into the bed... conditions. Installation of a portable bed rail onto a bed can require complex or physically demanding...

  17. Real-time optimization of passenger collection for commuter rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Commuter rail systems are being introduced into many urban areas as an alternative mode to automobiles : for commuting trips. The shift from the auto mode to rail mode is anticipated to greatly help alleviate : traffic congestion in urban road networ...

  18. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed steel-wheel-on-steel rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in...

  19. Sustainability and Displacement: Assessing the Spatial Pattern of Residential Moves Near Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rail transits association with gentrification has been a presence in the public discourse for some time and Los Angeles is no different. There is a prevailing public perception that Los Angeles' recent boom in rail transit development causes an in...

  20. Study on improving rail energy efficiency (E2) : best practices and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A recent Volpe Center report [1] for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Rail Energy, Environment, and Engine (E3) Technology research and development program reviewed rail industry best practices (BPs) and strategies for improving energy e...

  1. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  2. THE METALLURGICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND HARDNESS PROFILE OF A RAIL THERMITE WELD

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet MERİÇ; Turgut ENGEZ

    1998-01-01

    The quality of railroad construction is a important factor for comfort and safety in railroad transportation. Thermite welding being known for a long time prevents rail failure and, off road the train. It provides smoothly journey, and long life to rails and wagons. In this study, S 49 type St 70 steel rails have been welded by thermite process, hardness profile of welding zone rails has been obtained and its microstructure has been examined. In this profile maximum hardness values have been ...

  3. Euro-Asian co-operation in rail education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TSYKHMISTRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rail education and research – focused initiatives, approaches, policies and practices are presented. Needs for integrating rail education and research in EU and Asia are identified and discussed. The SWOT-analysis conducted suggested that it would be of interest to set up a Euro-Asia cluster, which shall be focused on rail education and research to promote rail transport between both continents through co-operations, training and knowledge exchange.

  4. Industry Issue Paper: Understanding the Shared Operation of Commuter Rail Transit and Freight Railroads

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rongfang; Yang, Fei; Chen, Mei

    2004-01-01

    Seeking a thorough understanding of shared operation between commuter rail transit and freight railroads, a nationwide survey was conducted of transit and rail freight interaction. This survey contacted and received responses from all 21 commuter rail services in North America. In addition to a general understanding of the shared-use practices, this paper presents the key factors that contribute or impede successful shared-use operations between commuter rail and freight railroads by examinin...

  5. Effects of tunnel and station size on the costs and service of subway transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayman, B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of less spacious, less costly underground rail mass transit system designs is studied. The major cost saving expected from alternative tunnel designs results from using precast concrete segment liners in place of steel. The saying expected for a two-foot decrease in the diameter of twin, single track tunnels is about two million dollars per route mile from 13 million dollars for precast concrete segment liners (a saving of about 16%). The cost per route-mile of a double track tunnel appears to be 15 to 25% higher than for the twin, single track tunnels. The effective cost saving expected from stations with four-car train capability instead of the usual eight-car trains is nearly 25% or seven million dollars per route mile. The saving in station costs can be obtained while improving service to the user (lower transit time and less waiting for trains) up to a capacity of 36,000 riders per hour in each direction.

  6. A RAIL CENTRAL DISPLACEMENT METHOD ABOUT GB-SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to correct rail errors of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR in the discontinue mode. Generally, “light positioning” is performed to mark the GB-SAR position in the dis-continuous observation mode. Usually we assume there is no difference between the marked position and the real installation position. But in fact, it is hard to keep the GB-SAR positions of two campaigns the same, so repositioning errors can’t be neglected. In order to solve this problem, we propose an algorithm to correct the rail error after analyzing the GB-SAR rail error geometry. Results of the simulation experiment and the real experiment of a landslide in Lvliang, Shanxi, China, show the proposed method achieves an mm-level precision, enabling the D-GBSAR mode to be used in engineering projects.

  7. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  8. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  9. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  10. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  11. Home school student visit and introduction to rail transportation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This project consisted of hosting local Champaign-Urbana, Illinois home school students for a visit to : the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana- : Champaign (UIUC). Beyond visiting RailTEC, st...

  12. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles... Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.83 Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight... is necessary to complete the coupling. (f) When transporting a rail car, transport vehicle, or...

  13. Plans for crash-tested wood bridge railings for concrete decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Barry T. Rosson; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    As part of a continuing cooperative research between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF); the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), several crashworthy wood bridge railings and approach railing transitions have been adapted for use on concrete bridge decks. These railings meet testing and...

  14. Plans for crash-tested bridge railings for longitudinal wood decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; R. K. Faller; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; B. T. Rosson; S. R. Duwadi

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, bridge railing design criteria have moved away from static-load design and have focused on full-scale crash testing as a more appropriate and reliable means of evaluating bridge railings. The five bridge railing plans presented reflect the results of a cooperative research project between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of Nebraska...

  15. 49 CFR 213.341 - Initial inspection of new rail and welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial inspection of new rail and welds. 213.341... Higher § 213.341 Initial inspection of new rail and welds. The track owner shall provide for the initial inspection of newly manufactured rail, and for initial inspection of new welds made in either new or used...

  16. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-COG to provide common carrier rail service to multiple shippers on this extended line of railroad.\\1... reminded that once the operator obtains Board authorization to provide common carrier rail service over a... Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail Authority Lycoming Valley Railroad Company (LVRR...

  17. 75 FR 51158 - BDB Company-Acquisition Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Highway 76).\\2\\ The purpose of the acquisition is to develop a common carrier truck-rail transfer facility \\3\\ and associated rail common carrier service. \\1\\ BDB seeks Board approval now for the acquisition...--Acquisition Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation BDB Company (BDB), a noncarrier, has filed a verified...

  18. 77 FR 70206 - Eastside Community Rail, LLC; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; GNP RLY, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Rail, LLC; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; GNP RLY, Inc. Eastside Community Rail, LLC (ECR), a... authority to acquire from BNSF an exclusive freight rail operating easement for operations on the Line in... Line for several years as an agent of GNP. ECR states that it will be a non- operating common carrier...

  19. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-COG to provide common carrier rail service to multiple shippers on this extended line of railroad.\\1... reminded that once the operator obtains Board authorization to provide common carrier rail service over a... Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority Juniata Valley Railroad Company (JVRR...

  20. Investigating the lubricity and electrical insulation caused by sanding in dry wheel–rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.; Li, Z.; Lewis, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion (or available friction) in the wheel–rail contact is the most important parameter for the braking and traction operation of rail vehicles. Since the beginning of railway transportation, sanding from the locomotive has been a common practice to enhance the wheel–rail adhesion. In recent

  1. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-COG to provide common carrier rail service to multiple shippers on this extended line of railroad.\\1... reminded that once the operator obtains Board authorization to provide common carrier rail service over a... Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority North Shore Railroad Company (NSRR), a...

  2. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification number will be a unique number to be assigned by CBP upon the implementation of the Automated... implementation of the Automated Commercial Environment); (8) The place where the rail carrier takes possession of... being shipped by rail; (10) Container numbers (for containerized shipments) or the rail car numbers; and...

  3. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  4. Probabilistic defect-based risk assessment approach for rail failures in railway infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; Acarman, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a defect-based risk analysis methodology for estimating rail failure risk. The methodology relies on an evolution model addressing the severity level of rail surface defect, called squat. The risk of rail failure is assessed by analyzing squat failure probability using a

  5. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from... USITC Publication 4397 (June 2013), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from China, Mexico...

  6. Light rail explained : Better public transport and more than public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Bijl, R.; Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately characteristics and benefits of light rail are frequently underestimated in decision making. On the bases of our own research and state of the art related research this paper addresses the importance of light rail as efficient means of transport, particularly efficient since light rail

  7. MASH Test 3-11 on the T131RC Bridge Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses the TxDOT Type T101RC Bridge Rail, : a steel post and beam bridge rail anchored to the top of concrete curbs. The T101RC Bridge Rail is : 27 inches in height and can be anchored to the top of ...

  8. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  9. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  10. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  11. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large wind tunnels simulating the actual flight conditions as nearly as possible. Often, several wind tunnels ... wind tunnel tests can be 'scaled' to the actual velocity and actual body size using suitable scaling laws. A typical wind tunnel consists ofa test section ... tion and control positions. Some of this instrumentation like six.

  12. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  13. Used fuel rail shock and vibration testing options analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  14. Ultrasonic characterization of transverse defects in rail heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Clark, Robin

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of the sound fields for 70° refracted shear waves and their interaction with defects is important in optimizing ultrasonic rail inspection. In this work, we studied the sound fields for 70° refracted shear waves in four rail specimens having Side-Drilled Holes (SDH) and Electrical Discharge Machined (EDM) notches. The results show that the detection of the artificial defects (SDH and EDM notches) depended on the geometry of the railhead, the lateral positions of the transducers, the size of the SDH, and the orientation and size of the EDM notches.

  15. Information and Telecommunications Technology – Factor of Sustainable Rail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Stelian Balan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among today’s modes of transportation, rail remains of great interest because of its explicit advantages arising from the fact that it is the least polluting and most environmentally friendly. These are just some of the reasons why, in recent years, the European Union strategies seek to develop and implement programs to revive Community’s rail transport. The paper makes a brief analysis of the economic impact of the implementation of information and telecommunication technologies in railway transport, technologies that can contribute significantly to the achievement of sustainable, competitive and reliable transport

  16. Quality Assessment in the Logistics of Rail Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedík Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on analysis and rating of the quality in the passenger railway transport logistics. At first is described the relationships between logistics and transport, logistical demands for transport and functions of logistics in rail transport. In the third chapter is explained quality assessment including the description of the quality indicators in passenger rail transport and making a proposal of the new methodology for this rating. Consequently this methodology is tested for chosen transport route and is concerned with monitoring quality of the transport routes in the railway network.

  17. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  18. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  19. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Southern Nevada Courier Service, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  20. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  1. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  2. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  4. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  5. CEBAF: Injector tunnel in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    On 28 October, a 100 kV DC electron beam was generated in the injector tunnel at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) being constructed at Newport News, Virginia. In this first tunnel operation, the beam was transported from the electron gun via the room-temperature section to the injector's first superconducting section (5 MeV). The gun and beam steering subsystems behaved as designed, under control from the main control centre

  6. Quantum resonances in physical tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  8. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars...

  9. 77 FR 2077 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... information on those who are to respond, including using appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or... ``rail security-sensitive materials,'' to provide location and shipping information on rail cars under... chain of physical custody for rail cars containing rail security-sensitive materials. This collection...

  10. Field homogeneity improvement of maglev NdFeB magnetic rails from joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Dai, Q; Deng, C Y; Sun, R X; Zheng, J; Chen, Z; Sun, Y; Wang, H; Yuan, Z D; Fang, C; Deng, Z G

    2016-01-01

    An ideal magnetic rail should provide a homogeneous magnetic field along the longitudinal direction to guarantee the reliable friction-free operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicles. But in reality, magnetic field inhomogeneity may occur due to lots of reasons; the joint gap is the most direct one. Joint gaps inevitably exist between adjacent segments and influence the longitudinal magnetic field homogeneity above the rail since any magnetic rails are consisting of many permanent magnet segments. To improve the running performance of maglev systems, two new rail joints are proposed based on the normal rail joint, which are named as mitered rail joint and overlapped rail joint. It is found that the overlapped rail joint has a better effect to provide a competitive homogeneous magnetic field. And the further structure optimization has been done to ensure maglev vehicle operation as stable as possible when passing through those joint gaps. The results show that the overlapped rail joint with optimal parameters can significantly reduce the magnetic field inhomogeneity comparing with the other two rail joints. In addition, an appropriate gap was suggested when balancing the thermal expansion of magnets and homogenous magnetic field, which is considered valuable references for the future design of the magnetic rails.

  11. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M; Brown, Barbara B; Tribby, Calvin P; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt

    2016-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the "displacement" measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant ( p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services.

  12. Investigation of rail irregularity effects on wheel/rail dynamic force in slab track: Comparison of two and three dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Javad; Khajehdezfuly, Amin; Esmaeili, Morteza; Poorveis, Davood

    2016-07-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the most significant load amplification factors in railway track systems. In this paper, the capability and effectiveness of the two main railway slab tracks modeling techniques in prediction of the influences of rail irregularities on the Wheel/Rail Dynamic Force (WRDF) were investigated. For this purpose, two 2D and 3D numerical models of vehicle/discontinuous slab track interaction were developed. The validation of the numerical models was made by comparing the results of the models with those obtained from comprehensive field tests carried out in this research. The effects of the harmonic and non-harmonic rail irregularities on the WRDF obtained from 3D and 2D models were investigated. The results indicate that the difference between WRDF obtained from 2D and 3D models is negligible when the irregularities on the right and left rails are the same. However, as the difference between irregularities of the right and left rails increases, the results obtained from 2D and 3D models are considerably different. The results indicate that 2D models have limitations in prediction of WRDF; that is, a 3D modeling technique is required to predict WRDF when there is uneven or non-harmonic irregularity with large amplitudes. The size and extent of the influences of rail irregularities on the wheel/rail forces were discussed leading to provide a better understanding of the rail-wheel contact behavior and the required techniques for predicting WRDF.

  13. Three-dimensional rail cooling analysis for a repetitively fired railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3-D) rail cooling analysis for fabrication and demonstration of a stand-alone repetitive fire compulsator driven 9 MJ gun system which has been performed to assure the entire rail can be maintained below its thermal limit for multiple shots. The 3-D rail thermal model can predict the temperature, pressure, and convective heat transfer coefficient variations of the coolant along the 10 m long copper rail. The 9-MJ projectiles will be fired every 20 s for 3 min. Water cooling was used in the model for its high cooling capacity. Single liquid phase heat transfer was assumed in the cooling analysis. For multiple shots, the temperature difference between the rail and the water was enhanced due to accumulated heat in the rail. As a result, the heat removal by water increased from shot-to-shot. The rail temperature initially increased and finally stabilized after a number of shots

  14. 78 FR 78508 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-inclusive index of railroad input prices ] and the method for computing the rail cost adjustment factor... growth rate of 0.9%. In accordance with Productivity Adjustment--Implementation, 1 S.T.B. at 748-49, the... 2013 PAF-5 of 2.4426 by the fourth root (1.0022) of the 2007-2011 annual average productivity growth...

  15. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  16. 78 FR 58915 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... maps, global positioning systems (GPS), and internet-generated directions often do not include grade... the industry and GPS navigation system service providers, whenever possible. The Agencies worked with... telephone while driving. Industry and GPS navigation system service providers can now use the Rail Crossing...

  17. Kinematic Design Method for Rail-Guided Robotic Arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stegenga, Jan; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    For special purpose robotic arms, such as a rail mounted ballast-water tank inspection arm, specific needs require special designs. Currently, there is no method to efficiently design robotic arms that can handle not quantifiable requirements. In this paper, an efficient method for the design and

  18. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... weakest elements of track structure. The track components at a joint are subject to stresses in vertical... procedures and current internal engineering instructions that address inspecting track to identify stress... accident. On March 18, 2013, an empty Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) passenger train derailed in Forest Hill...

  19. Rail assembly for use in a radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved rail assembly and method of construction thereof is disclosed herein that is particularly adapted for use with a crane trolley in a hot cell environment which is exposed to airborne and liquidborne radioactive contaminants. The rail assembly is generally comprised of a support wall having an elongated, rail-housing recess having a floor, side wall and ceiling. The floor of the recess is defined at least in party by the load-bearing surface of a rail, and is substantially flat, level and crevice-free to facilitate the drainage of liquids out of the recess. The ceiling of the recess overhangs and thereby captures trolley wheels within the recess to prevent them from becoming dislodged from the recess during a seismic disturbance. Finally, the interior of the recess includes a power track having a slot for receiving a sliding electrical connector from the crane trolley. The power track is mounted in an upper corner of the recess with its connector-receiving groove oriented downwardly to facilitate the drainage of liquidborne contaminants and to discourage the collection of airborne contaminants within the track

  20. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.

  1. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from

  2. Potential effects of mercury on threatened California black rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Danika C.; Miles, A. Keith; Takekawa, John Y.; Woo, Isa

    2009-01-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary sediments contain high levels of mercury (Hg), and tidal marsh resident species may be vulnerable to Hg contamination. We examined Hg concentrations in California black rails, a threatened waterbird species that inhabits SFB tidal salt marshes. We captured 127 black rails during the prebreeding and postbreeding seasons and examined the influence of site, sex, and year on Hg, methylmercury (MeHg), and also selenium (Se) concentrations in feathers and blood. Feather Hg concentrations averaged 6.94 ??g/g dry weight (dw) and MeHg and Se concentrations in blood averaged 0.38 and 0.42 ??g/g wet weight (ww). We used Akaike's information criterion model selection process to evaluate the importance of year, site, sex, and age on patterns of MeHg concentrations; sex and year were the most important of these factors. Feather Hg concentrations (dw) were higher in males (8.22 ??g/g) than females (6.63 ??g/g) and higher in adult birds (7.36 ??g/g) than in hatch-year birds (4.61 ??g/g). A substantial portion of SFB black rail populations may be at risk of reproductive effects due to MeHg contamination, as 32-78% of feathers and toxicological effects would further elucidate the effects of MeHg contamination on black rail populations in SFB. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. 49 CFR 236.711 - Bond, rail joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond, rail joint. 236.711 Section 236.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  4. Kortverhale / Short Stories: At the rail station | Habila | Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kortverhale / Short Stories: At the rail station. Helon Habila. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tvl.v41i1.29670 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  5. A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-trail Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter J. Betz; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop a contingent trip model to estimate the recreation demand for and value of a potential rail-trail site in north-east Georgia. The contingent trip model is an alternative to travel cost modelling useful for ex ante evaluation of proposed recreation resources or management alternatives. The authors estimate the empirical demand for trips using a...

  6. Stimulating European rail freight transport : Towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  7. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway or rail fusee. 173.184 Section 173.184 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.184...

  8. Local ontology for a dual-rail qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    We show that quantum predictions for the dual-rail realisation of a qubit can be faithfully simulated with classical stochastic gates and particles which interact entirely in a local manner. In the presented model 'non-locality' appears only on the epistemic level of description. (paper)

  9. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  10. Burkhardt plaanib rajada Rail Balticat / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raudteest loobuma pidanud Edward Burkhardt hakkab arendama Rail Balticat ning otsib võimalust panna Eesti ja Soome vahele käima vagunipraam. Vt. samas: Raudtee müüjad endiselt nördinud. Küsimustele vastab Eesti Raudtee uus juht Kaido Simmermann

  11. Siim Kallas tutvustas nelja riigi presidentidele Rail Balticu kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni transpordivolinik Siim Kallas tutvustas 2. detsembril 2011 Vihula mõisas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele, Läti presidendile Andris Bērziņšile, Leedu presidendile Dalia Grybauskaitėle ja Poola presidendile Bronisław Komorowskile Baltimaid ülejäänud Euroopaga ühendava Rail Balticu projekti

  12. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  13. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, L

    2016-01-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl (paper)

  14. Developing a reliable signal wire attachment method for rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a better attachment method for rail signal wires to improve the reliability of signaling : systems. EWI conducted basic research into the failure mode of current attachment methods and developed and tested a ne...

  15. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from cross...

  16. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  17. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  18. Research notes : high-speed rail survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The survey was conducted from April 2010 to June 2010 using both a print and a web version with identical questions. The print version of the survey was distributed at open house meetings on high-speed rail held in Eugene, Junction City, Albany, Sale...

  19. On the interaction between wheels and rails in railway dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slivsgaard, Eva Charlotte

    for the track: A simple model of the whole track as one rigid body following each wheelset. An elastic model where the rails are modelled as Euler-Bernoulli beams discretely supported by rigid sleepers. The simple model is used to find the influence of a flexible track on the dynamics of the single-axle bogie...

  20. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  1. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  2. Parametric analysis of rail vehicle parameters influencing ride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the influence of rail vehicle parameters on vertical and lateral ride behavior. The analysis considers coupled vertical-lateral 37 degrees of freedom mathematical model of an Indian Railway General Sleeper ICF coach formulated using Largangian dynamics. Both vertical and lateral irregularities of the ...

  3. On the Stress Analysis of Rails and Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    This report covers first the methods presented in the literature for the stress analysis of railroad track components and results of a variety of validation tests. It was found that a formula can yield deflections and bending stresses in the rails of...

  4. Deep convolutional neural networks for detection of rail surface defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Estevez, Pablo A.; Angelov, Plamen P.; Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network solution to the analysis of image data for the detection of rail surface defects. The images are obtained from many hours of automated video recordings. This huge amount of data makes it impossible to manually inspect the images and

  5. Feasibility of Retrofitting Lifts on Commuter and Light Rail Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if lift retrofit applications to rail vehicles are technically feasible, and if so, the extent to which existing bus lift technology can be utilized. This report examines some of the technical issues ass...

  6. Rail transit shared use and control systems study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been growing interest in shared use of general railway system railroad rights-of-way and tracks by transit : vehicles (such as light rail vehicles) that do not fully comply with Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) regulat...

  7. Fracture mechanics approach to estimate rail wear limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a systematic methodology to estimate allowable limits for rail head wear in terms of vertical head-height loss, gage-face side wear, and/or the combination of the two. This methodology is based on the principles of engineering fr...

  8. BIM Interoperability Limitations: Australian and Malaysian Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenley Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM is defined as a process involving the generation and management of digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The purpose of interoperability in integrated or “open” BIM is to facilitate the information exchange between different digital systems, models and tools. There has been effort towards data interoperability with development of open source standards and object-oriented models, such as industry foundation classes (IFC for vertical infrastructure. However, the lack of open data standards for the information exchange for horizontal infrastructure limits the adoption and effectiveness of integrated BIM. The paper outlines two interoperability issues for construction of rail infrastructure. The issues are presented in two case study reports, one from Australia and one from Malaysia. The each case study includes: a description of the project, the application of BIM in the project, a discussion of the promised BIM interoperability solution plus the identification of the unresolved lack of interoperability for horizontal infrastructure project management. The Moreton Bay Rail project in Australia introduces general software interoperability issues. The Light Rail Extension project in Kuala Lumpur outlines an example of the integration problems related to two different location data structures. The paper highlights how the continuing lack of data interoperability limits utilisation of integrated BIM for horizontal infrastructure rail projects.

  9. Rail-car impact tests with steel coil: collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-22

    Two full-scale oblique grade-crossing impact tests were conducted in June 2002 to compare the crashworthiness performance of alternative corner post designs on rail passenger cab cars. On June 4, 2002 a cab car fitted with an end structure built to p...

  10. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  11. Theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    When a tunneling barrier is nearly transparent, the standard tunneling (or transfer) Hamiltonian approximation fails. The author describes the theory which is necessary for calculating the tunneling current in these cases, and illustrate it by comparing theory and experiment on superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) junctions have ultra-thin tunnel barriers. This theory accurately explains the subgap structure which appears in the dynamical resistance of such SIS junctions, including many observed details which no previous theory has reproduced. The expression for the current through an SIS junction with an ultrathin barrier is given by I(t) = Re{Sigma/sub n/ J/sub n/ (omega/sub o/)e/sup in omega/o/sup t/} where omega/sub o/ = 2eV/h is the Josephson frequency, V is the bias voltage, and the J/sub n/ are voltage dependent coefficients, one for each positive or negative integer, n, and n=0. The relative sign of the terms involving cos(n omega/sub o/t) and sin(n omega/sub o/t) agrees with experiment, in contrast to previous theories of Josephson tunneling

  12. Modeling the dynamic behavior of railway track taking into account the occurrence of defects in the system wheel-rail

    OpenAIRE

    Loktev Alexey; Sychev Vyacheslav; Gluzberg Boris; Gridasova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel defects on the development of rail defects up to a state where rail prompt replacement becomes necessary taking into account different models of the dynamic contact between a wheel and a rail. In particular, the quasistatic Hertz model, the linear elastic model and the elastoplastic Aleksandrov-Kadomtsev model. Based on the model of the wheel-rail contact the maximum stresses are determined which take place in the rail in the presence of wheel de...

  13. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  14. Passenger train emergency systems : development of prototype railEXODUS software for U.S. passenger rail car egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), is sponsoring a research program, which includes investigation of the applicability of time-based egress performance requirements to U.S. passenger rail cars. Th...

  15. Material Evaluation of an Elastomer, Epoxy and Lightweight Concrete Rail Attachment System for Direct Fixation Light Rail Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarner, Benjamin R.

    Sound Transit plans to extend its current light rail system, which runs along the I-5 corridor in Seattle, Washington, across the I-90 Homer Hadley floating bridge as part of a project to connect the major city centers in the region. But, no light rail has ever crossed a floating bridge due to several unique engineering challenges. One of these challenges is attaching the rails to the existing bridge deck without drilling into the bridge pontoons. This research program was developed to test and analyze a direct fixation method that uses lightweight concrete plinths and an elastomer-epoxy system to attach the rails to the bridge deck. The elastomer used was a two-part, pourable elastomer with cork particles intermixed to alter the mechanical properties of the material. A lightweight concrete mixture was analyzed for use in the plinths, and system tests investigated the system response under tensile, compressive and shear loading. The shear response of the system was examined further under varying loading conditions including different surface preparations, elastomer thicknesses, strain-rates and after freeze-thaw conditioning. Experimental data was examined for trends based on these parameters to best characterize the system, and the elastomer was evaluated in the context of modern elastomer research.

  16. Návrh Rail-to-Rail operačního zesilovače v technologii CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cvešper, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB v technologii CMOS I3T25. Práce začíná úvodem do CMOS tranzistorů, následuje rozbor struktur operačního zesilovače, jeho návrh a simulace v návrhovém prostředí Cadence, popsány jsou také různé metody pro minimalizaci napěťové symetrie. Hlavním cílem práce je dosažení rail-to-rail vstupního i výstupního rozsahu operačního zesilovače pracujícího ve třídě AB, s minimální napěťovou nesymetrií, včetně návrhu topologie navrženéh...

  17. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  18. Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed. Keywords: Underwater tunnel, Strait-crossing tunnel, Shield-bored tunnel, Immersed tunnel, Drill and blast

  19. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  20. TunnelVision: LHC Tunnel Photogrammetry System for Structural Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Fallas, William

    2014-01-01

    In this document an algorithm to detect deformations in the LHC Tunnel of CERN is presented. It is based on two images, one represents the ideal state of the tunnel and the other one the actual state. To find the differences between both, the algorithm is divided in three steps. First, an image enhancement is applied to make easier the detection. Second, two different approaches to reduce noise are applied to one or both images. And third, it is defined a group of characteristics about the type of deformation desired to detect. Finally, the conclusions show the effectiveness of the algorithm in the experimental results.

  1. The metallurgy of pearlitic rail steel following service in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahdi, F.; Fletcher, DI

    2015-03-01

    To understand wear and rolling contact fatigue failures of rail steel it is vital that the behaviour of the steel under working loads is well characterised. Rail steel almost always fails while under high levels of compression, and its behaviour under these conditions cannot be investigated by standard materials tests at atmospheric pressure. In this work the characteristics of the near-surface region of one new and four used rails are examined using samples from rails which have been in service use in the UK. The shear strain and hardness variation with depth below the worn rail surfaces are presented, along with micrographs of the samples examined. The results presented here indicate that the used rails had a thin (up to 180 microns) deformed layer at the worn surface where the hardness was approximately 1.5 times the original (bulk) hardness. The depth of strained, hardened material was deeper at the gauge corner than on the rail head. A thin white surface layer (known as the white etching layer) with very high hardness (up to 1040HV) was observed on the surface of one of the used rails. These results have application in the modelling of rail failure by wear and in modelling rolling contact fatigue crack initiation, and can therefore be used to improve rail maintenance planning and risk assessments.

  2. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study california ridgway's rail (Rallus obseoletus obsoletus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Wood, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The clapper rail (Rallus longirostris) recently was split into two sister groups (Chesser et al. 2014) on the basis of phylogenetic analyses (Maley and Brumfield 2013). The original grouping is now represented on the East Coast of North America by the Clapper rail (Rallus crepitans) and on the West Coast by the Ridgway’s rail (Rallus obsoletus). The California Ridgeway’s rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter California rail) is the largest of 3 Ridgway’s rail subspecies which also include R. o. levipes (light-footed rail) and R. o. yumanensis (Yuma rail) (Eddleman and Conway 1994). The California rail is also the largest resident terrestrial vertebrate that lives solely in San Francisco Bay salt marshes. Formerly present in salt marsh along the California coast from Morro Bay to Humboldt Bay, by the early 1970s the California rail was breeding only in Elkhorn Slough and San Francisco Bay (Gill 1979). Population declines throughout the 19th and 20th centuries were attributed predominately to land conversion, development, and fragmentation of marshlands (USFWS 2013). However, exotic predators such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) are also implicated in population declines (USFWS 2013).

  3. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  4. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour; Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S{sub f}=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: Implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  6. USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck; Amrit S. Boparai

    2002-01-01

    Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000(trademark) lubrication system for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000(trademark) wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the detected

  7. Probing electronic interactions using electron tunneling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pratap

    The scanning tunneling microscope: Principle d. eI. Tunneling Current. Topography by tracking current: Constant height mode. Tracking the height: Constant current mode. NbSe. 2 single crystal. (Grown by P. Shirage and A. Thamizhavel) ...

  8. Proposal for Marshmallow Tunnel Stemming Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-01-01

    Discussion of findings after the shot in the tunnel and instructions for a deeper drilling below the tunnel using radiation probes to help define the cavity shape and documentary photography of the findings.

  9. Quantum mechanical tunneling in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling plays important roles in a wide range of natural sciences, from nuclear and solid-state physics to proton transfer and chemical reactions in chemistry and biology. Responding to the need for further understanding of multidimensional tunneling, the authors have recently developed practical methods that can be applied to multidimensional systems. Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Chemical Physics presents basic theories, as well as original ones developed by the authors. It also provides methodologies and numerical applications to real molecular systems. The book offers information so readers can understand the basic concepts and dynamics of multidimensional tunneling phenomena and use the described methods for various molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics problems. The text focuses on three tunneling phenomena: (1) energy splitting, or tunneling splitting, in symmetric double well potential, (2) decay of metastable state through tunneling, and (3) tunneling effects in chemical...

  10. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anupam

    2001-02-01

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.

  11. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  12. Watertightness of concrete tunnel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Glerum, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Netherlands are situated in the delta. of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Therefore the ground mainly consists.of sediments, such as sand, clay and silt. In certain regions peat layers of varying thickness are found. The high permeability of some of these materials and the fact that the groundwater table is generally only 1 m below ground level, make an adequate watertightness one of the main features of tunnel engineering in the Netherlands. Tunnels in Holland are both of the immers...

  13. Spin-dependent tunnelling in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Mryasov, Oleg N; LeClair, Patrick R

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of electron tunnelling has been known since the advent of quantum mechanics, but continues to enrich our understanding of many fields of physics, as well as creating sub-fields on its own. Spin-dependent tunnelling (SDT) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) has recently aroused enormous interest and has developed in a vigorous field of research. The large tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) observed in MTJs garnered much attention due to possible applications in non-volatile random-access memories and next-generation magnetic field sensors. This led to a number of fundamental questions regarding the phenomenon of SDT. In this review article we present an overview of this field of research. We discuss various factors that control the spin polarization and magnetoresistance in MTJs. Starting from early experiments on SDT and their interpretation, we consider thereafter recent experiments and models which highlight the role of the electronic structure of the ferromagnets, the insulating layer, and the ferromagnet/insulator interfaces. We also discuss the role of disorder in the barrier and in the ferromagnetic electrodes and their influence on TMR. (topical review)

  14. Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scattering and decay of unstable nuclei via alpha decay, proton emission etc. as evident from refs [14–19]. A detailed procedure exists for the study of such states in ...... for the case of transmission across equispaced multiple barriers generating well-separated QB states. 3. The variation of total tunnelling time Tq shows ...

  15. Tunneling in high-K isomeric decays

    CERN Document Server

    Shizuma, T; Shimizu, Y R

    2002-01-01

    We have systematically investigated highly-K-forbidden transitions observed in the Hf, W and Os region, using the gamma-tunneling model in which low-K and high-k states interact through a process of quantum tunneling. The measured hindrance factors are compared with the values calculated using the gamma-tunneling model. Isotope dependences of gamma-tunneling probabilities particularly for neutron-rich nuclei and the relation to stimulated decays of isomers are discussed. (author)

  16. Singular point analysis during rail deployment into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2007-05-01

    Remote maintenance of the ITER blanket composed of about 400 modules in the vessel is required by a maintenance robot due to high gamma radiation of ∼500Gy/h in the vessel. A concept of rail-mounted vehicle manipulator system has been developed to apply to the maintenance of the ITER blanket. The most critical issue of the vehicle manipulator system is the feasibility of the deployment of the articulated rail composed of eight rail links into the donut-shaped vessel without any driving mechanism in the rail. To solve this issue, a new driving mechanism and procedure for the rail deployment has been proposed, taking account of a repeated operation of the multi-rail links deployed in the same kinematical manner. The new driving mechanism, which is deferent from those of a usual 'articulated arm' equipped with actuator in the every joint for movement, is composed of three mechanisms. To assess the feasibility of the kinematics of the articulated rail for rail deployment, a kinematical model composed of three rail links related to a cycle of the repeated operation for rail deployment was considered. The determinant det J' of the Jacobian matrix J' was solved so as to estimate the existence of a singular point of the transformation during rail deployment. As a result, it is found that there is a singular point due to det J'=0. To avoid the singular point of the rail links, a new location of the second driving mechanism and the related rail deployment procedure are proposed. As a result of the rail deployment test based on the new proposal using a full-scale vehicle manipulator system, the respective rail links have been successfully deployed within 6 h less than the target of 8 h in the same manner of the repeated operation under a synchronized cooperation among the three driving mechanisms. It is therefore concluded that the feasibility of the rail deployment of the articulated rail composed of simple structures without any driving mechanism has been demonstrated

  17. Materials Handling for Urban Tunneling in Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    An examination of prior forecasts of tunnel construction provides an estimate of 2.4 million feet of rock tunnel to be constructed during the 1976-2000 period. Tunnel projects for the near term (1980+) and far term (1990+) periods are defined for stu...

  18. 75 FR 42643 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... title 23 Federal funds that are located on public roads and tunnels on Federal-aid highways. The agency... the fatal July 2006 suspended ceiling collapse in the Central Artery Tunnel in Boston, [[Page 42644... located on public roads and tunnels on Federal-aid highways. The NTIS are needed to ensure that all...

  19. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 grams of plutonium-239. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-foot cargo space are accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gallon drums and up to 44,800 pounds gross weight. This report is a revision of an earlier document and describes improvements to inner packaging. It also reflects current shipping practices

  20. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  1. Do road planners produce more 'honest numbers' than rail planners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Buhl, Søren L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a review of available data from a database on large-scale transport infrastructure projects, this paper investigates the hypothesis that traffic forecasts for road links in Europe are geographically biased with underestimated traffic volumes in metropolitan areas and overestimated traffic...... and provide’ paradigm to ‘predict and prevent’ occurring in some European countries in the 1990s has influenced the accuracy of road traffic forecasts in metropolitan areas....... volumes in remote regions. The present data do not support this hypothesis. Since previous studies have shown a strong tendency to overestimated forecasts of the number of passengers on new rail projects, it could be speculated that road planners are more skilful and/or honest than rail planners. However...

  2. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Cheng

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  3. Rail-Route Planning Using a Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panchal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of geographical information system (GIS in decision making in rail route planning process. The various parameters affecting the alignment of rail route are considered in this study and a feasibility map is prepared considering the cumulative effect of these factors. The factors considered in this study are road network, slope, topographical characteristics and drainage characteristics of study area. Each parameter is given weights according to analytic hierarchy process (AHP in GIS environment. The layers of parameters affecting the feasibility of route are overlaid in GIS environment to find a feasibility map. Feasibility map is divided into five categories i.e. very low, low, moderate, high and extremely feasible on the basis of feasibility index.

  4. Plasma vertical instability in a tokamak with rail limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashob, V.I.; Brevnov, N.N.; Gribov, Yu.V.; Putvinskij, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    An effect of currents between rail limiters on plasma equilibrium in the tokamak is studied theoretically and experimentally. Limiter currents can emerge at fast changes of plasma position along rail limiters for example when compression along major radius takes place and result in additional electrodynamic loadings on to the chamber and limiters. It is shown that at high currents between the limiters, the behaviour of discharge depends on limiter voltage polarity. When the plasma - limiter contact points are asymmetrically located respective to an equatorial plane a radial component of the limiter current emerges. The interaction of the component with the toroidal magnetic field can result in a vertical plasma filament instability. 9 refs.; 10 figs

  5. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 g of 239 Pu. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-ft cargo space is accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-ft steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gal drums and up to 44,800 lb gross weight. Improvements to inner packaging and current shipping practices are discussed

  6. MODELLING CHALLENGES TO FORECAST URBAN GOODS DEMAND FOR RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio COMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the new research challenges for forecasting urban goods demand by rail. In fact, the growing interest to find urban logistics solutions for improving city sustainability and liveability, mainly due to the reduction of urban road accessibility and environmental constraints, has pushed to explore solutions alternative to the road. Multimodal urban logistics, based on the use of railway, seem an interesting alternative solution, but it remained mainly at conceptual level. Few studies have explored the factors, that push actors to find competitive such a system with respect to the road, and modelling framework for forecasting the relative demand. Therefore, paper reviews the current literature, investigates the factors involved in choosing such a mode, and finally, recalls a recent modelling framework and hence proposes some advancements that allow to point out the rail transport alternative.

  7. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  8. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  9. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available propagating in a pipe by measuring the 14 time response at eight different circumferential positions at the same axial distance 15 from the source. The extraction technique exploited the orthogonality of the modes in 16 the circumferential direction... piezoelectric sandwich transducer comprising a back mass, four 12 piezoelectric ceramic rings, a front mass and a centre bolt was used to excite the rail. 13 The transducer, which resembles an ultrasonic cleaning transducer, was attached 14 under the head...

  10. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Barry M.; Cowan, Jr., Maynard

    2002-01-01

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  11. Benefits of urban light rail trains: a perspective from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carpintero Lopez, Samuel; Maraña, V.; Barcham, R.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental issues are currently at the forefront of transport policies within the urban, regional and international contexts. Different modes of transport, and the alternative means of their regulation, have a significant impact on the levels of pollution and on reserves of natural resources, as well as on the health and quality of life of individuals. In this context, light rail transit systems have thrived in cities all over the world as an alternative to fossil fuelled private a...

  12. Optimization Design of Multi-Parameters in Rail Launcher System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the energy storage systems are still encumbering, therefore it is useful to think about the optimization of a railgun system in order to achieve the best performance with the lowest energy input. In this paper, an optimal design method considering 5 parameters is proposed to improve the energy conversion efficiency of a simple railgun. In order to avoid costly trials, the field- circuit method is employed to analyze the operations of different structural railguns with different parameters respectively. And the orthogonal test approach is used to guide the simulation for choosing the better parameter combinations, as well reduce the calculation cost. The research shows that the proposed method gives a better result in the energy efficiency of the system. To improve the energy conversion efficiency of electromagnetic rail launchers, the selection of more parameters must be considered in the design stage, such as the width, height and length of rail, the distance between rail pair, and pulse forming inductance. However, the relationship between these parameters and energy conversion efficiency cannot be directly described by one mathematical expression. So optimization methods must be applied to conduct design. In this paper, a rail launcher with five parameters was optimized by using orthogonal test method. According to the arrangement of orthogonal table, the better parameters’ combination can be obtained through less calculation. Under the condition of different parameters’ value, field and circuit simulation analysis were made. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency of the system is increased by 71.9 % after parameters optimization.

  13. Contrastwaarnemingen in tunnels : een meetmethode.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The entrance to a long road tunnel can present itself to an approaching driver as a 'black hole' during the daytime, with no possibility for observing any details. In contrast to traditional symmetrical lighting, counter beam lighting aims the light in the opposite direction to incoming traffic.

  14. Travelling inside the SPS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The golf cart proved to be a very useful form of transport around the 7 km circumference of the machine. It could carry four passengers and pull light equipment in its trailer. Here Peter Zettwoch is the driver along a mock-up tunnel for installation tests. (see photo 7401011X and Photo Archive 7401018)

  15. Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however...

  16. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sao-Jie Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.

  17. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spin tunnelling; spin path integrals; discrete phase integral method; diabolical points. ... technologies. Our purpose in this article is rather different. The molecular systems have total spin of the order of 10, and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of few tens of Kelvin ...... The point С' is of this new type, and here it may be said to.

  18. Rotational tunnelling spectroscopy with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlile, C.J.; Prager, M.

    1993-04-01

    Neutron tunnelling spectroscopy has been a very fruitful field for almost two decades and is still expanding into new areas, both experimentally and theoretically. The development of the topic is reviewed from the theoretical point of view, highlighting new approaches, and selected examples of more recent experimental work are presented. A brief discussion of instrument performance and experimental requirements is given. (author)

  19. Installation in the SPS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The SPS tunnel is 6910 m in circumference and has a cross section of 4 m inner diameter. It is situated at an elevation of 400 m above sea level at a depth below the surface varying between 23 and 65 m. Its walls are lined with a concrete shell of about 30 cm thickness. See also 7410043X

  20. Time tunnels meet warped passages

    CERN Multimedia

    Kushner, David

    2006-01-01

    "Just in time for its 40th anniversary, the classic sci-fi television show "The time tunnel" is out on DVD. The conceit is something every engineer can relate to: a pulled plug. Scientists in an underground lab are working on a secret government experiment in time travel. (1 page)