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Sample records for bothrops jararaca snake

  1. Acidente ofídico em ovinos causado por Bothrops jararaca Snake bite accident in sheep by Bothrops jararaca

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de um acidente ofídico em um rebanho de ovinos, mestiços da raça Bergamascia, no município de Miguel Pereira, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quatro ovelhas adultas, com cerca 35 kg de peso, foram picados na cabeça por um exemplar de Bothrops jararaca dentro de curto espaço de tempo. Os animais apresentaram a cabeça muito tumefeita, mas o estado geral era bom. Um ovino foi eutanasiado. Verificou-se que a tumefação da cabeça era causada por hemorragia embaixo da pele, que se estendia ao pescoço. Histologicamente foi verificada na face, hemorragia maciça, principalmente no tecido subcutâneo, com infiltração de hemácias no tecido muscular adjacente, que em áreas onde era mais intensa, provocou afastamento entre as fibras musculares, algumas com aspecto hialinizado. Discute-se a causa das diferenças sobre a ocorrência de edema/hemorragia e necrose no envenenamento causado pelas diversas serpentes do gênero Bothrops nas diferentes espécies animais.The occurrence of a snake bite accident in a herd of mixed Bergamascia sheep in the county of Miguel Pereira, State of Rio de Janeiro, is reported. Four adult sheep were bitten in the head by Bothrops jararaca within a short period of time. Their head was severely swollen, but the general state of them was good. One of the sheep was euthanasied. Masssive hemorrhages were found beneath the skin, which extended to the neck. Histologically, the subcutaneous hemorrhages infiltrated the adjacent muscles. In areas where the hemorrhages were more intense they caused separation of muscle fibers, some of which had a hyaline aspect. Differences in the occurrence of edema/hemorraghes and necrosis in snake bite accidents, caused by various snake species in different animal species, are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of antivenoms in the neutralization of hyperalgesia and edema induced by Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops asper snake venoms

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    Picolo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutralization of hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops jararaca and B. asper venoms was studied in rats using bothropic antivenom produced at Instituto Butantan (AVIB, 1 ml neutralizes 5 mg B. jararaca venom and polyvalent antivenom produced at Instituto Clodomiro Picado (AVCP, 1 ml neutralizes 2.5 mg B. aspar venom. The intraplantar injection of B. jararaca and B. asper venoms caused hyperalgesia, which peaked 1 and 2 h after injection, respectively. Both venoms also induced edema with a similar time course. When neutralization assays involving the independent injection of venom and antivenom were performed, the hyperalgesia induced by B. jararaca venom was neutralized only when bothropic antivenom was administered iv 15 min before venom injection, whereas edema was neutralized when antivenom was injected 15 min or immediately before venom injection. On the other hand, polyvalent antivenom did not interfere with hyperalgesia or edema induced by B. asper venom, even when administered prior to envenomation. The lack of neutralization of hyperalgesia and edema induced by B. asper venom is not attributable to the absence of neutralizing antibodies in the antivenom, since neutralization was achieved in assays involving preincubation of venom and antivenom. Cross-neutralization of AVCP or AVIB against B. jararaca and B. asper venoms, respectively, was also evaluated. Only bothropic antivenom partially neutralized hyperalgesia induced by B. asper venom in preincubation experiments. The present data suggest that hyperalgesia and edema induced by Bothrops venoms are poorly neutralized by commercial antivenoms even when antibodies are administered immediately after envenomation.

  3. Assessment of efficacy of bothropic antivenom therapy on microcirculatory effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

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    Battellino, Carolina; Piazza, Roxane; da Silva, Ana M M; Cury, Yara; Farsky, Sandra H P

    2003-04-01

    Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom (BAv) neutralises the systemic effects, but does not efficiently reverse the local symptoms elicited by the Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV). The mechanisms involved in this poor protection have not been clarified. In this work, intravital microscopy studies were carried out to determine the efficacy of different schedules of BAv treatment on local effects evoked by topical application of BjV in the microcirculatory network of the internal spermatic fascia of Wistar rats. Results demonstrated that BAv administration 15 min before, simultaneously with, or 15 min after BjV application did not totally reverse the local symptoms, represented by disturbances of coagulation, development of haemorrhage lesions, vascular permeability increase and increment on leukocyte-endothelium interactions. This lack of effectiveness neither reflects an inadequate amount of specific antibodies in the antivenom against toxins responsible for local effects nor an insufficient dose of circulating BAv during the assays. Administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled-BAv showed the dynamics of distribution of the antivenom in the microcirculatory network. Images obtained from prior and simultaneously treated animals showed that the antivenom remains at luminal side of vessels before venom application, and the latency time to antivenom leakage is coincidental to that for local effects evoked by the venom. In addition, images from posterior treatment demonstrated that the intense alterations in the microcirculatory network impair antivenom distribution at the site of injection. Together, our data show that the lack of effectiveness of antivenom therapy is due to impaired and delayed venom and antivenom interaction at the site of injury.

  4. A prothrombin activator from Bothrops erythromelas (jararaca-da-seca) snake venom: characterization and molecular cloning.

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    Silva, Márcia B; Schattner, Mirta; Ramos, Celso R R; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Lazzari, María A; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Pozner, Roberto G; Ventura, Janaina S; Ho, Paulo L; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    A novel prothrombin activator enzyme, which we have named 'berythractivase', was isolated from Bothrops erythromelas (jararaca-da-seca) snake venom. Berythractivase was purified by a single cation-exchange-chromatography step on a Resource S (Amersham Biosciences) column. The overall purification (31-fold) indicates that berythractivase comprises about 5% of the crude venom. It is a single-chain protein with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. SDS/PAGE of prothrombin after activation by berythractivase showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin, independent of the prothrombinase complex. Chelating agents, such as EDTA and o -phenanthroline, rapidly inhibited the enzymic activity of berythractivase, like a typical metalloproteinase. Human fibrinogen A alpha-chain was slowly digested only after longer incubation with berythractivase, and no effect on the beta- or gamma-chains was observed. Berythractivase was also capable of triggering endothelial proinflammatory and procoagulant cell responses. von Willebrand factor was released, and the surface expression of both intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin was up-regulated by berythractivase in cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. The complete berythractivase cDNA was cloned from a B. erythromelas venom-gland cDNA library. The cDNA sequence possesses 2330 bp and encodes a preproprotein with significant sequence similarity to many other mature metalloproteinases reported from snake venoms. Berythractivase contains metalloproteinase, desintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains. However, berythractivase did not elicit any haemorrhagic response. These results show that, although the primary structure of berythractivase is related to that of snake-venom haemorrhagic metalloproteinases and functionally similar to group A prothrombin activators, it is a prothrombin activator devoid of haemorrhagic activity. This is a feature

  5. Low-intensity laser therapy improves tetanic contractions in mouse anterior tibialis muscle injected with Bothrops jararaca snake venom

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    Vania Maria de Araújo Giaretta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Envenomation by Bothrops snakes can produce local pain, edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis. However, standard antivenom therapy is generally ineffective in neutralizing these effects so that alternative methods of treatment have been investigated. In experimental animals, low-level laser therapy (LLLT attenuates the local effects of Bothrops venoms, but the benefits of LLLT on muscle function after envenomation are unclear. In this study, we examined the influence of LLLT on the contractile activity of mouse skeletal muscle injected with venom from Bothrops jararaca, the principal cause of snakebite in southeastern Brazil. Methods Twenty-seven male mice were used. Mice were injected with venom (40 μg in 50 μl in the right anterior tibialis muscle, after which the muscle tendon was exposed, connected to an isometric transducer and subjected to a resting tension of 1 g. A bipolar electrode was attached to the tibial nerve for electrical stimulation. The mice were randomly allocated to five groups: A – Control (n = 3, B – Venom 3 h (n = 6, C – Venom 9 h (n = 6, D – Venom + Laser 3 h (n = 6, E – Venom + Laser 9 h (n = 6. Results The two groups that received LLLT post-venom showed improved muscle contraction and contracture in relation to muscle treated with venom alone. Conclusion These results indicate that LLLT can improve muscle function after damage induced by B. jararaca venom.

  6. Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops erythromelas Snake Venoms Promote Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Depolarization of Cervical Cancer Cells

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    Emanuelly Bernardes-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops jararaca (BJ and Bothrops erythromelas (BE are viper snakes found in South-Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. Snake venoms are bioactive neurotoxic substances synthesized and stored by venom glands, with different physiological and pharmacological effects, recently suggesting a possible preference for targets in cancer cells; however, mechanisms of snakes have been little studied. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for snake crude venoms toxicity in cultured cervical cancer cells SiHa and HeLa. We show that BJ and BE snake crude venoms exert cytotoxic effects to these cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation were assessed by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine-123, nuclei morphological change, and DNA fragmentation were examined by staining with DAPI. The results showed that both the BJ and BE venoms were capable of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, promoting cytotoxicity and death by apoptosis of target SiHa and HeLa cells when treated with BJ and BE venoms. Furthermore, data revealed that both BJ venoms in SiHa cell promoted nuclear condensation, fragmentation, and formation of apoptotic bodies by DAPI assay, mitochondrial damage by Rhodamine-123, and cell cycle block in the G1-G0 phase. BJ and BE venoms present anticancer potential, suggesting that both Bothrops venoms could be used as prototypes for the development of new therapies.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Jararassin-I,A Thrombin-like Enzyme from Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

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    Débora F. VIEIRA; Leandra WATANABE; Carolina D. SANT'ANA; Silvana MARCUSSI; Suely V. SAMPAIO; Andreimar M. SOARES; Raghuvir K. ARNI

    2004-01-01

    A thrombin-like serine protease, jararassin-I, was isolated from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. The protein was obtained in high yield and purity by a single chromatographic step using the affinity resin Benzamidine-Sepharose CL-6B. SDS-PAGE and dynamic light scattering analyses indicated that the molecular mass of the enzyme was about 30 kD. The enzyme possessed fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activities. The jararassin-I degraded the Bβ chain of fibrinogen while the Aα chain and γ chain were unchanged.Proteases inhibitors, PMSF and benzamidine inhibited the coagulant activity. These results showed jararassinI is a serine protease similar to coagulating thrombin-like snake venom proteases, but it specifically cleaves Bβ chain of bovine fibrinogen. Single crystals of enzyme were obtained (0.2 mm×0.2 mm×0.2 mm) and used for X-ray diffraction experiments.

  8. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

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    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that

  9. Aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae inhibits enzymatic and biological actions of Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

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    Juliana Félix-Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs, including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs, as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2. Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects

  10. Effect of Diterpenes Isolated of the Marine Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against Some Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Bothrops jararaca Snake

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    Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol, previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. jararaca venom. The mixture of diterpenes was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and incubated with venom for 30 min at room temperature, and then several in vivo (hemorrhage, edema and lethality and in vitro (hemolysis, plasma clotting and proteolysis assays were performed. The diterpenes inhibited hemolysis, proteolysis and hemorrhage, but failed to inhibit clotting and edema induced by B. jararaca venom. Moreover, diterpenes partially protected mice from lethality caused by B. jararaca venom. The search for natural inhibitors of B. jararaca venom in C. cervicornis algae is a relevant subject, since seaweeds are a rich and powerful source of active molecules which are as yet but poorly explored. Our results suggest that these diterpenes have the potential to be used against Bothropic envenomation accidents or to improve traditional treatments for snake bites.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extracts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) against Local Effects Induced by Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

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    Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Félix-Silva, Juliana; da Cunha, Lorena Medeiros; Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Gimenes, Luisa Possamai; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, both known popularly as “Saião,” are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for their antiophidic properties. Studies evaluating the anti-venom activity of these species are scarce. This study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the inhibitory effects of hydroethanolic leaf extracts of K. brasiliensis and K. pinnata against local effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) were performed for characterization of chemical markers of the extracts from these species. For antiophidic activity evaluation, B. jararaca venom-induced paw edema and skin hemorrhage in mice were evaluated. In both models, hydroethanolic extracts (125–500 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally in different protocols. Inhibition of phospholipase enzymatic activity of B. jararaca was evaluated. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS chromatographic profile of extracts showed some particularities in the chemical profile of the two species. K. brasileinsis exhibited major peaks that have UV spectra similar to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed UV spectra similar to flavonoids glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. Both extracts significantly reduced the hemorrhagic activity of B. jararaca venom in pre-treatment protocol, reaching about 40% of inhibition, while only K. pinnata was active in post-treatment protocol (about 30% of inhibition). In the antiedematogenic activity, only K. pinnata was active, inhibiting about 66% and 30% in pre and post-treatment protocols, respectively. Both extracts inhibited phospholipase activity; however, K. pinnata was more active. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential antiophidic activity of Kalanchoe species against local effects induced by B. jararaca

  12. Therapeutic possibilities of Bothrops jararaca in high dilution

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    Eduardo Costa Gaia Nazareth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge and use of the venom of Bothrops jararaca in high dilutions is still quite limited. One of the important properties is the use of one of its components, bradykinin, for the development of antihypertensive medication known as captopril. Other situations, such as clinical, local and systemic should receive more depth to the composition of Materia Medica related to various medical actions on the man and mammals in general. The systemic action of the bite of this snake, includes hemostasis disorders, culminating as bleeding gums, in addition to sweating, hypertension, and hypothermia. The action includes local pain and swelling with bruising, bleeding and often blistering and tissue necrosis. The action on the immune system, through action on the complement C3 and other complement components may show its possible use in cases of bacterial infections, including mycobacteria, as presented in the study of 1970 Vanessa Birdsey, "Interactions of poisons toxic with the addition, "the journal of Immunology 1971. Today, this poison has a toxicology published by Anibal Melgarejo, "Venomous Animals of Brazil", 2003, which subsidizes the development of study for its use in high dilutions, and a comprehensive study of the biology of the animal itself. Published studies on biomolecular analysis add more details about the relations of the poison and mammals. All these characteristics suggest the use of poison as a homeopathic remedy. Objective: To investigate the therapeutic possibilities in high dilutions of the venom of the snake Bothrops jararaca, expanding its clinical use. Methodology: Methodological description of this poison in contemporary bases including: Origin, physical description chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and medicine in preparation of high dilution, general action, specific actions on systems or organs, sensations, modalities, concomitants, etiological indications relations main clinics. Results: Defining

  13. Trichomoniasis in Bothrops jararaca (serpentes, viperidae

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    F. C. Vilela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of trichomoniasis in a Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP/UNESP. The animal had diarrhea with great quantity of flagellated protozoa in the feces. Microscopic examination of fecal smears stained with Giemsa revealed the presence of trichomonads, morphologically similar to Trichomonas acosta. Trichomonads were not detected in fecal exams after treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg metronidazole (Flagyl®.

  14. Capacidade reprodutiva de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae Reproductive capacity of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Thélia Rosana Forte Janeiro-Cinquini

    Full Text Available The relationship between female body size and egg number was examined in the snake Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1924. Some authors have demonstrated that the estimated clutch size may be affected by the inclusion or exclusion of dead neonates or non-developed eggs. The reproductive system of 254 mature females newly arrived from nature was examined and 29.55% (n=75 had eggs in the oviducts in different stages of embryonic development. The presence of atresic eggs was observed in 34.5% of those females. A significant difference was observed in the number of eggs in the right and left oviducts (t=9.48, P<0.001, but not in the number of atresic eggs (t=1.110, P=0.278. The correlation of female body size and egg number was greater when all, the normal and atresic eggs were considered (r=0.63, P<0.001. The exclusion of atresic eggs from the clutch size decreased slightly this correlation (r=0.54, P<0.001.

  15. A influência dos ritmos circadianos no metabolismo da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030 The influence of circadian rhythms on the metabolism of the snake Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade termorreguladora conduziu a uma busca extensiva para o entendimento das correlações entre as variáveis fisiológicas, incluindo as funções metabólicas e a temperatura corporal. Frequentes observações mostram que algumas serpentes podem se aquecer, sendo este aumento de temperatura independente da temperatura ambiente, indicando a termorregulação bem sucedida. Bothrops jararaca foram expostas a dois ambientes com diferentes temperaturas (20 e 30oC durante três semanas, sendo mensuradas a temperatura corporal e o consumo de oxigênio. O aumento da temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio de Bothrops jararaca ocorreram na fase de escuro do fotoperíodo, consistente para espécies noturnas. Entretanto, antecedendo a fase de escuro, as serpentes em 20oC apresentaram os níveis mais elevados durante o dia para temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio. Estes resultados indicam pela primeira vez que animais termodependentes podem controlar a temperatura corporal por meio de ritmos fisiológicos circadianos, semelhante aos observados em termoindependentes. Os ritmos circadianos permitem que os animais antecipem as mudanças no ambiente: parâmetros fisiológicos como a temperatura corporal e as reservas de energia ou sua mobilização podem ser ajustadas antes que as mudanças ambientais previstas ocorram realmente.The thermoregulatory activity has led to an extensive search for correlations between physiological variables, including metabolic functions, and the ideal level of body temperature. Snakes were also often seen basking, when their body temperatures were relatively independent of ambient temperature, indicating successful thermoregulation. Bothrops jararaca were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30ºC over a time course of three weeks and oxygen consumption and body temperature were measured. The snakes exhibited a freerunning rhythm of body temperature. Metabolic rate was increased at the same

  16. Interaction of Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases with protein inhibitors.

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    Asega, Amanda F; Oliveira, Ana K; Menezes, Milene C; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Serrano, Solange M T

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play important roles in the local and systemic hemorrhage observed upon envenomation. In a previous study on the structural elements important for the activities of HF3 (highly hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP), bothropasin (hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP) and BJ-PI (non-hemorrhagic, P-I-SVMP), from Bothrops jararaca, it was demonstrated that they differ in their proteolysis profile of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we evaluated the ability of proteins DM43 and α2-macroglobulin to interfere with the proteolytic activity of these SVMPs on fibrinogen and collagen VI and with their ability to induce hemorrhage. DM43 inhibited the proteolytic activity of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not that of HF3, and was not cleaved the three proteinases. On the other hand, α2-macroglobulin did not inhibit any of the proteinases and was rather cleaved by them. In agreement with these findings, binding analysis showed interaction of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not HF3 to DM43 while none of the proteinases bound to α2-macroglobulin. Moreover, DM43 promoted partial inhibition of the hemorrhagic activity of bothropasin but not that of HF3. Our results demonstrate that metalloproteinases of B. jararaca venom showing different domain composition, glycosylation level and hemorrhagic potency show variable susceptibilities to protein inhibitors.

  17. Effect of photobiomodulation on endothelial cell exposed to Bothrops jararaca venom.

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    Franco, Ana Tereza Barufi; Silva, Luciana Miato Gonçalves; Costa, Marcília Silva; Zamuner, Silvia Fernanda; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; de Fatima Pereira Teixeira, Catarina; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-07-01

    Bleeding is a common feature in envenoming caused by Bothrops snake venom due to extensive damage to capillaries and venules, producing alterations in capillary endothelial cell morphology. It has been demonstrated, in vivo, that photobiomodulation (PBM) decreases hemorrhage after venom inoculation; however, the mechanism is unknown. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of PBM on a murine endothelial cell line (tEnd) exposed to Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV). Cells were exposed to BjV and irradiated once with either 660- or 780-nm wavelength laser light at energy densities of 4 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively, and irradiation time of 10 s. Cell integrity was analyzed by crystal violet and cell viability/mitochondrial metabolism by MTT assay. The release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) was quantified as a measure of cell damage. In addition, cytokine IL1-β levels were measured in the supernatant. PBM at 660 and 780 nm wavelength was able to increase cellular viability and decrease the release of LDH and the loss of cellular integrity. In addition, the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-β was reduced after PBM by both wavelengths. The data reported herein indicates that irradiation with red or near-infrared laser resulted in protection on endothelial cells after exposure to Bothrops venom and could be, at least in part, a reasonable explanation by the beneficial effects of PBM inhibiting the local effects induced by Bothrops venoms, in vivo.

  18. Long-term primary culture of secretory cells of Bothrops jararaca venom gland for venom production in vitro.

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    Yamanouye, Norma; Kerchove, Celine Marie; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Markus, Regina P

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details the optimal conditions to establish a long-term primary culture of secretory cells from the venom gland of the Bothrops jararaca snake. Furthermore, these conditions allow the production and secretion of venom into the culture medium. Snake venom is a rich source of active molecules and has been used for bioprospection studies. However, obtaining enough venom from snakes is a major obstacle. Secretory cells of venom glands are capable of producing active toxins. Therefore, a culture of secretory cells is a good in vitro system to acquire the venom of snakes without capturing the animal from the wild. The protocol described here provides a rapid (approximately 4 h) and reproducible means of producing sufficient amounts of snake venom for biological investigations.

  19. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

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    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  20. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

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    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  1. Flora bacteriana da cavidade oral, presas e veneno de Bothrops jararaca: possível fonte de infecção no local da picada Bacterial flora of the oral cavity, fangs and venom of Bothrops jararaca: possible source of infection at the local bite

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    Miguel Tanús Jorge

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Materiais colhidos das presas, das bainhas das presas e do veneno de 15 Bothrops jararaca recém-capturadas, aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a exame bacterioscópico e cultura aeróbia a anaeróbia. As bactérias mais freqüentemente isoladas foram os estreptococos do grupo D (1.2 serpentes, Enterobacter sp. (6, Providencia rettgeri (6, Providencia sp. (4, Escherichia coli (4, Morganella morganii (3 e Clostridium sp. (5. Como estas bactérias são semelhantes às encontradas nos abscessos de pacientes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops, é válido considerar a possibilidade de que bactérias da boca da serpente sejam inoculadas no momento da picada e, encontrando condições favoráveis de multiplicação, causem infecção.Culture of fang, fang sheath and venom of fifteen healthy freshly captured Bothrops jararaca were analised. The bacteria most frequently encountered were group D streptococci (12 snakes, Enterobacter sp. (6, Providencia rettgeri (6, Providencia sp. (4, Escherichia coli (4, Morganella morganii (3 and Clostridium sp. (5. The bacteria observed are similar to those found in the abscesses from Bothrops bitten patients. Since these snake mouth bacteria may be inoculated during the snake bite, bacterial multiplication and infection may occur under favorable conditions.

  2. Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Juliana Marton; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2011-01-01

    Snake bite accidents by Bothrops genus is an important public health issue in Brazil and one of its most serious complications is the acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops jararaca venom (vBj) and the treatments with lipoic acid (LA) and simvastatin (SA) on renal function, aminopeptidase (AP) activities and renal redox status. Primordial events for establishment of AKI by vBj were hyperuricemia, hypercreatinemia, urinary hyperosmolality, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit and protein content in the membrane of renal cortex and medulla and in the plasma. In the renal cortex and medulla the changes caused by vBj in soluble and membrane-bound AP activities had a similar pattern. The beneficial effects of LA and SA on envenomed mice were similar on the hyperuricemia, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit. LA mitigated the hypercreatinemia, but exacerbated the urinary urea and creatinine, whereas SA mitigated the decrease of plasma urea, urinary hyperosmolality and hypercreatinuria induced by vBj. The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation.

  3. Some new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from brazilian snakes, and a re-description of C. jararacae Carini, 1939

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    Ralph Lainson

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The mature ooxysts of six new species of Caryospora are described from the faeces of Brazilian snakes. They are differentiated from other species previously recorded from reptiles, largely on the size and shape of the oocyst and sporocyst, structure of the oocyst wall, and presence or absence of a polar body. C. paraensis n. sp., and C. carajasensis n. sp., are from the "false coral", Oxyrhopus petola digitalis; C. pseustesi n. sp., from the "egg-eater", Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus; C. epicratesi n. sp., from the "red boa", Epicrates cenchria cenchria; and C. micruri n. sp., and C. constancieae n. sp., from the "coral snake", Micrurus spixii spixii. A re-description is given of C. jararacae Carini, 1939, from the "jararaca" Bothrops atrox, embodying some additional morphological features.

  4. Anti-hemorrhagic Activity of Four Brazilian Vegetable Species Against Bothrops jararaca Venom

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemorrhagic effects of Mouriri pusa Gardn. (Melastomataceae, Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae, Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae and Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (Loganiaceae against Bothrops jararaca venom. The methanolic extracts from M. pusa (leaves, B. crassa (leaves and D. elliptica (leaves showed total neutralization capacity against local hemorrhages. The amenthoflavone and quercetin fractions from B. crassa and the flavonoids fractions (quercetin and myricetin from M. pusa and D. elliptica also showed total neutralization capacity. We conclude that flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin and amenthoflavone play an important role in the anti-hemorrhagic potential of these Brazilian vegetables species against B. jararaca venom.

  5. Paper electrophoretic and enzimatic studies on blood serum, venom and liver of "Bothrops jararaca"

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    Luiz P. Ribeiro

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available Fígado, veneno e sôro sanguíneo de "Bothrops jararaca" foram estudados por meio da eletroforese em papel e determinação de atividades enzimáticas. Xantina oxidase e deshidrogenase foram encontradas sòmente no fígado das cobras. A análise espectrográfica do veneno e do sôro confirmam os resultados negativos obtidos para xantina oxidase uma vez que não foi encontrado molibdêneo. L-amino ácido oxidase foi determinada no fígado, sÔro e veneno. A eletroforese em papel do sôro sanguíneo mostrou que existem 7 frações proteicas, sendo que duas apresentam fluorescência característica de flavinas, quando expostas à luz ultra-violeta. Em vista dos resultados obtidos é concluido que as flavinas do sôro e do veneno de Bothrops jararaca estão na maior parte ligadas às proteínas. Estas flavinas combinadas parecem estar sob a forma de FAD (flavina adenina dinucleotídeo fazendo parte do grupo prostético da L-amino ácido oxidase, uma vez que não foi encontrada nenhuma atividade de xantina oxidase.

  6. Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects

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    Ana Paula Aragão

    2010-09-01

    Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administrated subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca or edema (B. jararacussu.

  7. Ocorrência de híbridos não naturais entre Bothrops jararaca e B. neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae Occurrence of non natural hybridism between Bothrops jararaca and B. neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Rafael Lucchesi Balestrin

    Full Text Available In May 1987, a female of Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824, from Carazinho, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, was placed in the same vivarium with a male of Bothrops neuwiedi Wagler, 1824 coming from Guaíba, RS. There, they stayed for aproximately ten months. In March 1988, it was observed a delivery of five live and two still born, among them six presented morphologic characteristics of B. neuwiedi and one of B. jararaca. After the female died, in April 1988, through necropsy, two fetusus were found, one near the cloaca and, both identified as B. neuwiedi. The morphologic analysis and the origin of the progenitors suggest the hypothesis that the litter was resulted of cross-breeding.

  8. Mediação química da hiperagesia induzida pelos venenos de serpentes Bothrops jararaca e Bothrops asper e por uma miotoxina com atividade de fosfolipase A2 isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper

    OpenAIRE

    Marucia Chacur

    2000-01-01

    Os venenos do gênero Bothrops induzem efeitos locais caracterizados por hemorragia, necrose, edema e dor intensa. Apesar da importância clínica do fenômeno de dor, os estudos sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na gênese deste fenômeno são ainda escassos. Além disso, não existem dados sobre a capacidade do antiveneno em neutralizar este fenômeno. Neste trabalho foi investigada, a capacidade dos venenos de Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops asper e da miotoxina III (Fosfolipase A2, variante Asp 49), uma ...

  9. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

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    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  10. Bothrops jararaca peptide with anti-hypertensive action normalizes endothelium dysfunction involved in physiopathology of preeclampsia.

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    Gabriel Benedetti

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Bj-PRO-10c, a proline-rich peptide isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, has been attributed with potent anti-hypertensive effects. Recently, we have shown that Bj-PRO-10c-induced anti-hypertensive actions involved NO production in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Using in vitro studies we now show that Bj-PRO-10c was able to increase NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from hypertensive pregnant women (HUVEC-PE to levels observed in HUVEC of normotensive women. Moreover, in the presence of the peptide, eNOS expression as well as argininosuccinate synthase activity, the key rate-limiting enzyme of the citrulline-NO cycle, were enhanced. In addition, excessive superoxide production due to NO deficiency, one of the major deleterious effects of the disease, was inhibited by Bj-PRO-10c. Bj-PRO-10c induced intracellular calcium fluxes in both, HUVEC-PE and HUVEC, which, however, led to activation of eNOS expression only in HUVEC-PE. Since Bj-PRO-10c promoted biological effects in HUVEC from patients suffering from the disorder and not in normotensive pregnant women, we hypothesize that Bj-PRO-10c induces its anti-hypertensive effect in mothers with preeclampsia. Such properties may initiate the development of novel therapeutics for treating preeclampsia.

  11. Action of polivalent bothropic antivenom on proteolytic activities from peruvian snake venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Yarlequé, Armando; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Vivas, Dan; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Apartado 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú.; Inga, Rosío; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Laboratorio de Reactivos de Diagnóstico, Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo, magister en Biología Molecular.; Rodríguez, Edith; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. biólogo, magíster en Biología Molecular.; Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Pessah, Silvia; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Bonilla, César; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.

    2008-01-01

    Peruvian snake venoms responsible for most of ophidism accidents, contain proteolytic enzymes that can degrade tissue and plasmatic proteins, as well as cause hypotension and blood coagulation. Objectives. The inhibiting capacity of liquid polyvalent bothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), has been evaluated on caseinolytic, coagulant and amidolytic activities on Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Bothrops pictus and Bothrops barnetti venoms. Material and methods....

  12. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on redox status and markers of renal function in mice inoculated with Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Juliana Marton; Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2014-03-01

    Renal dysfunction is an important aggravating factor in accidents caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Bothrops jararaca (Bj) bites. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is well known as a nephroprotective antioxidant with low toxicity. The present study investigated the effects of NAC on redox status and markers of renal function in mice that received vehicle (controls) or venoms (v) of Cdt and Bj. In controls NAC promoted hypercreatinemia, hypouremia, hyperosmolality with decreased urea in urine, hyperproteinuria, decreased protein and increased dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in membrane-bound fraction (MF) from renal cortex (RC) and medulla (RM). NAC ameliorated or normalized altered creatinuria, proteinemia and aminopeptidase (AP) acid in MF, AP basic (APB) in soluble fraction (SF), and neutral AP in SF and MF from RC and RM in vBj envenomation. NAC ameliorated or normalized altered neutral AP in SF from RC and RM, and DPPIV and protein in MF from RC in vCdt envenomation. NAC ameliorated or restored renal redox status respectively in vCdt and vBj, and normalized uricemia in both envenomations. These data are promising perspectives that recommend the clinical evaluation of NAC as potential coadjuvant in the anti venom serotherapy for accidents with these snake's genera.

  13. Proteômica e transcriptômica aplicadas ao estudo da variabilidade do veneno de Bothrops jararaca (serpentes:viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Zelanis Palitot Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Estudos prévios demonstraram que as atividades biológicas do veneno da serpente Bothrops jararaca sofrem significantes modificações ontogenéticas. Neste estudo é apresentada uma análise comparativa do proteoma, peptidoma e transcriptoma da glândula de veneno de filhotes e adultos de B. jararaca, correlacionando os resultados obtidos com algumas características funcionais dos venenos. Venenos de 694 filhotes de até duas semanas de idade e 110 adultos, provenientes do Estado de São Paulo foram ...

  14. Ontogenetic Variation in Biological Activities of Venoms from Hybrids between Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops neuwiedi Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Marcelo Larami; do Carmo, Thaís; Cunha, Bruna Heloísa Lopes; Alves, André Fonseca; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Sant’Anna, Savio Stefanini; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Fernandes, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Lance-headed snakes are found in Central and South America, and they account for most snakebites in Brazil. The phylogeny of South American pitvipers has been reviewed, and the presence of natural and non-natural hybrids between different species of Bothrops snakes demonstrates that reproductive isolation of several species is still incomplete. The present study aimed to analyze the biological features, particularly the thrombin-like activity, of venoms from hybrids born in captivity, from the mating of a female Bothrops erythromelas and a male Bothrops neuwiedi, two species whose venoms are known to display ontogenetic variation. Proteolytic activity on azocoll and amidolytic activity on N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPNA) were lowest when hybrids were 3 months old, and increased over body growth, reaching values similar to those of the father when hybrids were 12 months old. The clotting activity on plasma diminished as hybrids grew; venoms from 3- and 6-months old hybrids showed low clotting activity on fibrinogen (i.e., thrombin-like activity), like the mother venom, and such activity was detected only when hybrids were older than 1 year of age. Altogether, these results point out that venom features in hybrid snakes are genetically controlled during the ontogenetic development. Despite the presence of the thrombin-like enzyme gene(s) in hybrid snakes, they are silenced during the first six months of life. PMID:26714190

  15. Análise do transcriptoma do fígado da serpente Bothrops jararaca utilizando expressed sequences tags (ESTs).

    OpenAIRE

    Cicera Maria Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops jararaca é uma das principais serpentes responsáveis por acidentes ofídicos em São Paulo. O efeito do envenenamento pode ser local ou sistêmico, os quais são mediados por uma variedade de componentes do veneno. Considerando que, em animais vertebrados, o fígado desempenha atividades metabólicas essenciais, além de ser o principal órgão responsável pela síntese de proteínas do plasma, a obtenção do transcriptoma deste é de extrema importância para o estudo destas proteínas. Assim, o o...

  16. Description of a new ascaridoid parasite of Bothrops jararaca Wied (Reptilia, Ophidia in Brazil Descrição de um novo ascarídeo parasito de Bothrops jararaca Wied (Reptilia, Ophidia no Brasil

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    Liege R. Siqueira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Ophidascaris Baylis, 1920 is described on the basis of specimens recovered from the pit viper Bothrops jararaca Wied, 1824 in Brazil. The new species referred here was compared to other of the genus that are the closest. The differentiation was based on reliable morphological characters, mainly on what refers to the spicular length, number and distribution of caudal papillae, location of the vulvar opening, eggs size and aspect of the labial indentations. Moreover, female specimens are the only to possess a most prominent and characteristic post-anal tubercle-like structure and when analyzed together with the males, that show a great number of pre-cloacal papillae, the presence of an unpaired papilla and also of a less conspicuous post-cloacal tubercle-like structure, permit the prompt identification of the new species.Uma nova espécie de Ophidascaris Baylis, 1920 é descrita, com base em exemplares parasitos de jararaca, Bothrops jararaca Wied, 1824 no Brasil. A nova espécie agora descrita foi comparada a outras do gênero que lhe são as mais próximas. A diferenciação foi baseada em caracteres morfológicos consistentes, principalmente nos que dizem respeito ao tamanho dos espículos, número e distribuição de papilas caudais, localização da abertura vulvar, tamanho dos ovos e aspecto das indentações labiais. Além disso, os exemplares fêmeas são os únicos no gênero a apresentarem uma estrutura em forma de tubérculo pós-anal bastante característica e proeminente, quando analisados junto aos exemplares machos, nos quais existe um grande número de papilas pré-cloacais, presença de papila caudal ímpar e, também, da estrutura pós-cloacal em forma de tubérculo, embora menos evidente que nas fêmeas, permitem a pronta identificação da espécie nova.

  17. Hemostatic properties of Venezuelan Bothrops snake venoms with special reference to Bothrops isabelae venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E; Márquez, Adriana; Carvajal, Zoila; Salazar, Ana M; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Gil, Amparo; Guerrero, Belsy

    2010-11-01

    In Venezuela, Bothrops snakes are responsible for more than 80% of all recorded snakebites. This study focuses on the biological and hemostatic characteristics of Bothrops isabelae venom along with its comparative characteristics with two other closely related Bothrops venoms, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops colombiensis. Electrophoretic profiles of crude B. isabelae venom showed protein bands between 14 and 100 kDa with the majority in the range of 14-31 kDa. The molecular exclusion chromatographic profile of this venom contains five fractions (F1-F5). Amidolytic activity evaluation evidenced strong thrombin-like followed by kallikrein-like activities in crude venom and in fractions F1 and F2. The fibrinogenolytic activity of B. isabelae venom at a ratio of 100:1 (fibrinogen/venom) induced a degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 15 min and 2 h, respectively. At a ratio of 100:10, a total degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 5 min and of gamma chains at 24 h was apparent. This current study evidences one of rarely reported for Bothrops venoms, which resembles the physiologic effect of plasmin. B. isabelae venom as well as F2 and F3 fractions, contain fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plate of 36, 23.5 and 9.45 mm(2)/microg, respectively using 25 microg of protein. Crude venom and F1 fraction showed gelatinolytic activity. Comparative analysis amongst Venezuelan bothropoid venoms, evidenced that the LD(50) of B. isabelae (5.9 mg/kg) was similar to B. atrox-Puerto Ayacucho 1 (6.1 mg/kg) and B. colombiensis-Caucagua (5.8 mg/kg). B. isabelae venom showed minor hemorrhagic activity, whereas B. atrox-Parguasa (Bolivar state) was the most hemorrhagic. In this study, a relative high thrombin-like activity was observed in B. colombiensis venoms (502-568 mUA/min/mg), and a relative high factor Xa-like activity was found in B. atrox venoms (126-294 mUA/min/mg). Fibrinolytic activity evaluated with 10 microg protein, showed that B. isabelae venom contained higher

  18. Flora bacteriana da cavidade oral, presas e veneno de Bothrops jararaca: possível fonte de infecção no local da picada

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge,Miguel Tanús; de Mendonça, João Silva; Ribeiro,Lindioneza Adriano; Silva,Maria Lucia Ribeiro da; Kusano,Elisa Junko Ura; Cordeiro,Carmen Lúcia dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    Materiais colhidos das presas, das bainhas das presas e do veneno de 15 Bothrops jararaca recém-capturadas, aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a exame bacterioscópico e cultura aeróbia a anaeróbia. As bactérias mais freqüentemente isoladas foram os estreptococos do grupo D (1.2 serpentes), Enterobacter sp. (6), Providencia rettgeri (6), Providencia sp. (4), Escherichia coli (4), Morganella morganii (3) e Clostridium sp. (5). Como estas bactérias são semelhantes às encontradas nos absce...

  19. Neuroprotective property of low molecular weight fraction from B. jararaca snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querobino, Samyr Machado; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro; Costa, Maricilia Silva; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In central nervous system cells, low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) from snake venoms can inhibit changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, preventing the diffusion of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic factors. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective activity of LMWF from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells. SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF analysis of LMWF (<14 kDa) confirmed the absence of high-molecular-weight proteins in the fraction. LMWF did not present cytotoxicity in all concentrations and time tested by MTT assay. Neuroprotection was evaluated in cells pretreated with LMWF for 4 h prior to the addition of 50 μM H2O2 for 20 h. We demonstrated that LMWF reduced the argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expressions, suggesting that this fraction as an effective neuroprotective compound that could increase the hippocampal cells viability by attenuation of oxidative stress. In addition, LMWF protects against apoptosis induced by H2O2, reducing the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Overall, this study opens new perspectives for the identification of new molecules for the development of drugs applied to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Heparin and commercial bothropic antivenom against the paralyzing effect of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rostelato-Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu is known to induce muscular paralysis in vitro. Many studies have shown that various substances, including heparin, neutralize the damage caused by snake venom. In the present study, the ability of heparin (Hep and commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA to neutralize neuromuscular effects of Bjssu venom, at different time-points, was analyzed. Mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation was used through a conventional myographic technique, following five different protocols: Group 1 was incubated with Bjssu (40 µg/mL without any other treatment; Groups 2 and 3 were pretreated with heparin (1 µL/mL and CBA (120 µL/mL, respectively, for 15 minutes before venom addition; Group 4 after 50% neuromuscular blockade induced by Bjssu crude venom received 1 µL/mL of heparin while Group 5 received a mixture of Hep:CBA:Bjssu. Control preparations (Tyrode were treated with Hep and CBA (mean ± SEM; n = 3-6. After 120 minutes of venom incubation, Group 1 preparations presented twitch-tension of 12 ± 2%. However, in Groups 2 and 3, the neutralizations were 92 ± 1.9% and 81 ± 6%, respectively. The heparin addition, after 50% neuromuscular blockade by Bjssu, produced 40 ± 6% muscular response after 120 minutes of incubation. Hep:CBA:Bjssu mixture displayed a protective effect of 84 ± 10% against venom action. In conclusion, heparin and commercial bothropic antivenom efficiently neutralized the neurotoxic effects caused by B. jararacussu crude venom, even at different incubation time-points.

  1. Flora bacteriana da cavidade oral, presas e veneno de Bothrops jararaca: possível fonte de infecção no local da picada Bacterial flora of the oral cavity, fangs and venom of Bothrops jararaca: possible source of infection at the local bite

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    Miguel Tanús Jorge; João Silva de Mendonça; Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro; Maria Lucia Ribeiro da Silva; Elisa Junko Ura Kusano; Carmen Lúcia dos Santos Cordeiro

    1990-01-01

    Materiais colhidos das presas, das bainhas das presas e do veneno de 15 Bothrops jararaca recém-capturadas, aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a exame bacterioscópico e cultura aeróbia a anaeróbia. As bactérias mais freqüentemente isoladas foram os estreptococos do grupo D (1.2 serpentes), Enterobacter sp. (6), Providencia rettgeri (6), Providencia sp. (4), Escherichia coli (4), Morganella morganii (3) e Clostridium sp. (5). Como estas bactérias são semelhantes às encontradas nos absce...

  2. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

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    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that

  3. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  4. Interação leucócito-endotélio induzida pelo veneno de Bothrops jararaca>: papel de proteases, mediação farmacológica e soroneutralização

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Cestari Zychar

    2008-01-01

    Toxinas classificadas como serinoproteases, metaloproteases e fosfolipases A2, isoladas de venenos botrópicos, podem induzir reações inflamatórias que contribuem na gravidade dos sintomas locais observados nestes envenenamentos. Entretanto, a contribuição efetiva de cada uma destas toxinas no efeito inflamatório induzido pelo veneno não é bem compreendida. Neste estudo, o veneno de Bothrops jararaca (VBj) foi tratado com Fluoreto de fenil-metil-sulfonila (PMSF), 1,10- fenantrolina (OF) ou Bro...

  5. Triple bothropic envenomation in horses caused by a single snake

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    SB Chiacchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, snakebites caused by a single Bothrops pauloensis simultaneously affecting three male adult horses are described. Whereas the first two affected horses were six years old, the third was 16 years old; they weighed respectively 555, 550 and 500 kg. All horses presented swollen muzzles. The first animal received an initial antivenom dose of 19 vials and adjuvant medication, it was also subjected to tracheostomy due to the progression of acute respiratory failure. The second and third horses respectively received 15 vials of antivenom each, in addition to adjuvant medication. Due to continuous changes in blood coagulation observed during hospitalization, the first and the second horses received five more vials of antivenom, respectively, in the second and third days of treatment. The first animal was discharged on 15th day and the other on the 8th day of hospitalization. Several factors including the main actions of Bothrops venom (coagulation, proteolytic and vasculotoxic activities, the importance of early diagnosis based on clinical history and clinical examination suggesting the diagnosis of Bothrops snakebite, the adequate doses of antivenom, and finally the immediate tracheostomy are herein discussed. The tracheostomy, required to save the life of the first horse, should only occur after the administration of antivenom and control measures for changes in blood coagulation.

  6. Effect of polivalent bothropic antivenom on phospholipase A2, L-Amino acid oxidase and hyaluronidase from peruvian snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Julio Cesar; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Lazo, Fanny; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. biólogo, magíster en Biotecnología.; Yarlequé, Liliana; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Obstetriz.; Ruiz, Nora Cecilia; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Yarlequé, Armando; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Pessah, Silvia; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Flores, Vicky; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Bonilla, César; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.

    2008-01-01

    Bothrops sp. snakes causing the largest number of cases of ophidism in Peru, their venom contain several enzymes related to poison spreading, miotoxic and platelet aggregation disturbances. Objectives. The inhibiting capacity of liquid polivalent bothropic antivenom from Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) has been evaluated on phospholipase A2 (PLA2), L amino acid oxidase (LAO) and hyaluronidase activities using B. atrox, B. barnetti, B. brazili and B. pictus venoms. Material and methods. In e...

  7. Biochemicals characteristics and pre-clinical testing of lyophilized bothropic antivenom against bothrops atrox snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    García, Patricia J.; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Yarlequé, Armando; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Bonilla-Ferreyra, Cesar; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Pessah, Silvia; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Vivas, Dan; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo; Lazo, Fanny; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical features and neutralizing capacity of lyophilized bothropic antivenom elaborated by the Peruvian National Health Institute (Lima, Peru). It was found that the antivenom protein contents is 51.4 mg/mL. Lyophilized preparations can be reconstituted in 10 minutes, reaching Abs600nm and pH values reported as 0.091 and 7.0, respectively. Regarding toxicity of the venom for mice, LD50 was 3.33 µg, minimal hemorrhagic dose was 4.10 ± 0.64 µg, minimal myotoxic dose was 30.2 ± 2.5 µg, m...

  8. Occurrence of sulfated fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are essential for the polysaccharide effect preventing muscle damage induced by toxins and crude venom from Bothrops jararacussu snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Strauch, Marcelo A; Cons, Bruno L; Borges, Paula A; Patrão-Neto, Fernando C; Tavares-Henriques, Matheus S; Teixeira-Cruz, Jhonatha M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Cintra, Adélia C O; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Mourão, Paulo A S; Melo, Paulo A

    2015-05-01

    Snake envenoming is an important public health problem around the world, particularly in tropics. Beyond deaths, morbidity induced by snake venoms, such as myotoxicity, is of pivotal consequence to population. Bothrops jararacussu is the main venomous snake in southeast region of Brazil, and particularly presents strong myotoxic effect. The only available therapy, antibothropic antivenom, poorly affects venom-induced myotoxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fucCS), a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, and its derivatives to inhibit toxic activities of B. jararacussu crude venom and its isolated toxins, named bothropstoxins (BthTX-I and BthTX-II). The in vitro myotoxic activities induced by crude venom, by BthTX-I alone and by toxins together were abolished by fucCS. Carboxyl reduction (fucCS-CR) kept this ability whereas defucosilation (defucCS) abrogates myoprotection. We observed the same pattern in the response of these polysaccharides in antagonizing the increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels, the reduction of skeletal muscle CK content and the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by crude venom and isolated toxins. FucCS inhibited edematogenic activity and partially prevented the reduction of total leukocytes in blood when pre-incubated with crude venom. Furthermore, the venom procoagulant effect was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of fucCS, although this polyanion could stop neither the tail bleeding nor the skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. The B. jararacussu phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteolytic and collagenase activities were inhibited in vitro. The results suggest that fucCS could be able to interact with both toxins, and it is able to inhibit BthTX-II phospholipase activity. Light microscopy of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) muscle showed myoprotection by fucCS, once necrotic areas, edema and

  9. Toxicity of Bothrops sp snake venoms from Ecuador and preclinical assessment of the neutralizing efficacy of a polyspecific antivenom from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines, Johana; Segura, Álvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Alvarez, Gladys; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    The toxicological profile of the venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox from Ecuador was investigated, together with the venom of a population of B. asper formerly classified as 'Bothrops xanthogrammus'. The three venoms exerted lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, coagulant and defibrinogenating effects, in agreement with the characteristic toxicological profile of Bothrops sp venoms. A polyspecific antivenom (bothropic-crotalic-lachesic) manufactured in Costa Rica was assessed for its preclinical efficacy against the toxic activities of these Ecuadorian venoms. Antivenom was effective in the neutralization of the five activities tested in the three venoms. These observations are in agreement with previous reports on the extensive cross-reactivity and paraspecific neutralization of antivenoms manufactured in Latin America against the venoms of Bothrops sp snakes.

  10. Nomenclatural instability in the venomous snakes of the Bothrops complex: Implications in toxinology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Paola Andrea; Venegas, Pablo Javier; Chaparro, Juan Carlos; Scrocchi, Gustavo José

    2016-09-01

    Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90´s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the long-standing paraphyly of the group. Here we review the toxinological literature on the Bothrops complex to estimate the impact of recent proposals of classification in non-systematic research. This assessment revealed moderate levels of nomenclatural instability in the last five years, and the recurrence of some practices discussed in previous studies regarding the use of classifications and the information provided about the origin of venom samples. We briefly comment on a few examples and the implications of different proposals of classifications for the Bothrops complex. The aim of this review is to contribute to the reduction of adverse effects of current taxonomic instability in a group of medical importance in the Americas.

  11. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

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    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  12. Avaliação da influência de tensoativos na pele de muda de cobra (Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus) por espectroscopia fatoacústica no infravermelho, calorimetria exploratória diferencial e espectroscopia Raman

    OpenAIRE

    Aurea Cristina Lemos Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    A influência dos tensoativos lauril sulfato de sódio, cloreto de cetil trimetil amônio e álcool láurico etoxilado com 12 moles de óxido de etileno sobre o stratum corneum da pele de muda das cobras Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus foi avaliada através das técnicas biofísicas de PAS-FTIR, FT-Raman e DSC. Foram utilizadas soluções dos tensoativos em concentrações acima e abaixo da cmc e tratamentos por 4 e 8 horas (stratum corneum íntegro) e por 12 horas (stratum corneum após a remoção mec...

  13. A transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in the venom gland of the snake Bothrops alternatus (urutu

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    Menossi Marcelo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Bothrops is widespread throughout Central and South America and is the principal cause of snakebite in these regions. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have examined the venom composition of several species in this genus, but many others remain to be studied. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to examine the venom gland genes of Bothrops alternatus, a clinically important species found in southeastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Results A cDNA library of 5,350 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was produced and assembled into 838 contigs and 4512 singletons. BLAST searches of relevant databases showed 30% hits and 70% no-hits, with toxin-related transcripts accounting for 23% and 78% of the total transcripts and hits, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified non-toxin genes related to general metabolism, transcription and translation, processing and sorting, (polypeptide degradation, structural functions and cell regulation. The major groups of toxin transcripts identified were metalloproteinases (81%, bradykinin-potentiating peptides/C-type natriuretic peptides (8.8%, phospholipases A2 (5.6%, serine proteinases (1.9% and C-type lectins (1.5%. Metalloproteinases were almost exclusively type PIII proteins, with few type PII and no type PI proteins. Phospholipases A2 were essentially acidic; no basic PLA2 were detected. Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. In addition to the above features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, transposable elements and inverted repeats that could contribute to toxin diversity were observed. Conclusions Bothrops alternatus venom gland

  14. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo

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    Miriéle Cristina Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL, but only partial blockade (~30% in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m. after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations. Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite.

  15. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Miriéle Cristina; de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; de Oliveira Junior, Joel Reis; Cogo, José Carlos; dos Santos, Márcio Galdino; Franco, Luiz Madaleno; Puebla, Pilar; Ferraz, Helena Onishi; Ferraz, Humberto Gomes; da Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Hyslop, Stephen; San Feliciano, Arturo; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA) preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL), but only partial blockade (~30%) in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m.) after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA) attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations). Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL) markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom) virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite. PMID:26633987

  16. Variability in expression of Bothrops insularis snake venom proteases: an ontogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanis, André; de Souza Ventura, Janaina; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa; de Fátima Domingues Furtado, Maria

    2007-05-01

    Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in males, females and intersexes (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis) has been reported in this population. The aim of this study was to identify ontogenetic shifts in protease expression of offspring of captive-bred B. insularis. Three neonates from a single litter were maintained at the facilities of Laboratory of Herpetology, Institute Butantan, for 41 months. The snakes were individually milked and venoms were analyzed both by SDS-PAGE, under reducing conditions, and for biochemical activities. The venoms from the mother and from a pool of adult specimens were used as references. In regard to the electrophoretic patterns, common bands were identified mainly between 14 and 50 kDa among snakes. The occurrence of proteolytic activity was noticed predominantly between 27 and 45 kDa in zymograms. Inhibitory assays with 1,10-phenantroline (10 mM) and PMSF (5 mM) showed that venoms possessed both metalloproteases and serine proteases. Venoms of young specimens showed a higher coagulant activity than those of adults, especially upon factors X and II. All venoms presented fibrino(geno)lytic activity, degrading Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen, and lysing fibrin plate. These findings can reflect important individual, ontogenetic and sexual differences on venom composition and are likely correlated with diet habits of this species.

  17. Isolation, functional, and partial biochemical characterization of galatrox, an acidic lectin from Bothrops atrox snake venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine de Paula Mendonca-Franqueiro; Eliane Candiani Arantes; Marcelo Dias-Baruffi; Suely Vilela Sampaio; Raquel de Melo Alves-Paiva; Marco Aurélio Sartim; Daniel Roberto Callejon; Helder Henrique Paiva; Gilmara Ausech Antonucci; José César Rosa; Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra; Jo(a)o José Franco

    2011-01-01

    Snake venom lectins have been studied in regard to their chemical structure and biological functions. However, little is known about lectins isolated from Bothrops atrox snake venom. We report here the isolation and partial functional and biochemical characterization of an acidic glycanbinding protein called galatrox from this venom. This lectin was purified by affinity chromatography using a lactosyl-sepharose column, and its homogeneity and molecular mass were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The purified galatrox was homogeneous and characterized as an acidic protein (pI 5.2) with a monomeric and dimeric molecular mass of 16.2 and 32.5 kDa, respectively. Alignment of N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of galatrox indicated that this protein exhibits high homology to other C-type snake venom lectins. Galatrox showed optimal hemagglutinating activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml and this effect was drastically inhibited by lactose, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and heating, which confirmed galatrox's lectin activity. While galatrox failed to induce the same level of paw edema or mast cell degranulation as B. atrox crude venom, galatrox did alter cellular viability,which suggested that galatrox might contribute to venom toxicity by directly inducing cell death.

  18. TLR4 signaling protects from excessive muscular damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva-Oliveira, Eustaquio Luiz; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Correa Leite, Paulo Emílio; Cogo, José Carlos; Quirico-Santos, Thereza; Lagrota-Candido, Jussara

    2012-12-15

    Immune cells and skeletal muscle express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that participate as sensors of tissue injury triggering signals for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of TLR4 in the process of skeletal muscle repair. Muscular injury was induced by injection of 0.6 mg/kg of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of C3H/HeJ mice that express a non-functional TLR-4 receptor and C3H/HeN mice with functional receptor. TLR4-deficient mice had persistent muscular inflammation with few F4/80 macrophages at onset but increased MMP9 activity and collagen deposition during resolution of injury. Since such effect was not observed in the mouse strain with functional receptor it is concluded that TLR4 signaling exerts a protective role preventing from excessive muscular damage induced by B. jararacussu venom.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacological Properties of an Acidic PLA2 from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

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    Francis Barbosa Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the molecular cloning and pharmacological properties of an acidic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This enzyme, denominated BpPLA2-TXI, was purified by four chromatographic steps and represents 2.4% of the total snake venom protein content. BpPLA2-TXI is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13.6 kDa, as demonstrated by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF analysis and its theoretical isoelectric point was 4.98. BpPLA2-TXI was catalytically active and showed some pharmacological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP and also induced edema and myotoxicity. BpPLA2-TXI displayed low cytotoxicity on TG-180 (CCRF S 180 II and Ovarian Carcinoma (OVCAR-3, whereas no cytotoxicity was found in regard to MEF (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast and Sarcoma 180 (TIB-66. The N-terminal sequence of forty-eight amino acid residues was determined by Edman degradation. In addition, the complete primary structure of 122 amino acids was deduced by cDNA from the total RNA of the venom gland using specific primers, and it was significantly similar to other acidic D49 PLA2s. The phylogenetic analyses showed that BpPLA2-TXI forms a group with other acidic D49 PLA2s from the gender Bothrops, which are characterized by a catalytic activity associated with anti-platelet effects.

  20. Molecular cloning and pharmacological properties of an acidic PLA2 from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Francis Barbosa; Gomes, Mário Sérgio Rocha; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Borges, Márcia Helena; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Brandeburgo, Maria Inês Homsi; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2013-12-04

    In this work, we describe the molecular cloning and pharmacological properties of an acidic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This enzyme, denominated BpPLA(2)-TXI, was purified by four chromatographic steps and represents 2.4% of the total snake venom protein content. BpPLA(2)-TXI is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13.6 kDa, as demonstrated by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis and its theoretical isoelectric point was 4.98. BpPLA(2)-TXI was catalytically active and showed some pharmacological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP and also induced edema and myotoxicity. BpPLA(2)-TXI displayed low cytotoxicity on TG-180 (CCRF S 180 II) and Ovarian Carcinoma (OVCAR-3), whereas no cytotoxicity was found in regard to MEF (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast) and Sarcoma 180 (TIB-66). The N-terminal sequence of forty-eight amino acid residues was determined by Edman degradation. In addition, the complete primary structure of 122 amino acids was deduced by cDNA from the total RNA of the venom gland using specific primers, and it was significantly similar to other acidic D49 PLA(2)s. The phylogenetic analyses showed that BpPLA(2)-TXI forms a group with other acidic D49 PLA(2)s from the gender Bothrops, which are characterized by a catalytic activity associated with anti-platelet effects.

  1. Tumor cytotoxicity of leucurolysin-B, a P-III snake venom metalloproteinase from Bothrops leucurus

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    LM Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that venoms and toxins from some snakes are able to influence the growth of tumor cells, few antitumoral compounds from Bothrops leucurus venom have been characterized. Leucurolysin-B (leuc-B is a metalloproteinase class P-III isolated from B. leucurus which possesses an ECD-disintegrin domain. Both ECD-disentegrin and RGD-disintegrin are able to bind to cell surface integrins and inhibit their adherence to their natural ligands. In the present study, the potential efficacy and the cytotoxic effects of leuc-B on glioblastoma, breast cancer and melanoma cell lines were analyzed. The effect of leuc-B on cancer cell survival was evaluated and its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 was determined. Morphological alterations were monitored by contrast phase and fluorescent microscopy. The results demonstrated that leuc-B has potent cytotoxic effect in a micromolar range against all evaluated cancer cell lines. Morphologically, dying cells showed fragmentation, condensation of their contents concomitant with shrinkage and appearance of vacuoles. This study reports for the first time the cytotoxic effect of leuc-B from B. leucurus snake venom on tumor cells.

  2. Bmoo FIBMP-I: A New Fibrinogenolytic Metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F. S.; Rates, B.; Gomes, M. T. R.; Salas, C. E.; Pimenta, A. M. C.; Oliveira, F.; Santoro, M. M.; de Lima, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A new fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase (Bmoo FIBMP-I) was purified from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. This enzyme was isolated through a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange, molecular exclusion, and affinity chromatography). Analyses by reverse phase chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry, showed the presence of enzyme isoforms with average molecular mass of 22.8 kDa. The SDS-PAGE analyses showed a single chain of 27.6 kDa, in the presence and absence of reducing agent. The protein has a blocked N-terminal. One of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion of a reduced and S-alkylated isoform was completely sequenced by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Bmoo FIBMP-I showed similarity with hemorrhagic factor and several metalloproteinases (MP). This enzyme degraded Aα-chain faster than the Bβ-chain and did not affect the γ-chain of bovine fibrinogen. The absence of proteolytic activity after treatment with EDTA, together with the observed molecular mass, led us to suggest that Bmoo FIBMP-I is a member of the P-I class of the snake venom MP family. Bmoo FIBMP-I showed pH-dependent proteolytic activity on azocasein, but was devoid of coagulant, defibrinating, or hemorrhagic activities. The kinetic parameters of proteolytic activity in azocasein were determined (Vmax = 0.4596 Uh−1nmol−1 ± 0.1031 and Km = 14.59 mg/mL ± 4.610). PMID:23762636

  3. Low-level laser therapy decreases local effects induced by myotoxins isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom

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    AM Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prominent myotoxic effects induced by Bothrops jararacussu crude venom are due, in part, to its polycationic myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Both myotoxins have a phospholipase A2 structure: BthTX-II is an active enzyme Asp-49 PLA2, while BthTX-I is a Lys-49 PLA2 devoid of enzymatic activity. In this study, the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 685 nm laser at a dose of 4.2 J/cm2 on edema formation, leukocyte influx and myonecrosis caused by BthTX-I and BthTX-II, isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, was analyzed. BthTX-I and BthTX-II caused a significant edema formation, a prominent leukocyte infiltrate composed predominantly by neutrophils and myonecrosis in envenomed gastrocnemius muscle. LLLT significantly reduced the edema formation, neutrophil accumulation and myonecrosis induced by both myotoxins 24 hours after the injection. LLLT reduced the myonecrosis caused by BthTX-I and BthTX-II, respectively, by 60 and 43%; the edema formation, by 41 and 60.7%; and the leukocyte influx, by 57.5 and 51.6%. In conclusion, LLLT significantly reduced the effect of these snake toxins on the inflammatory response and myonecrosis. These results suggest that LLLT should be considered a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of local effects of Bothrops species venom.

  4. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Geraldo Amaral, Juliano; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Maria Zucolotto, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. PMID:27847818

  5. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

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    Jacyra Antunes dos Santos Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites.

  6. Pharmacological and partial biochemical characterization of Bmaj-9 isolated from Bothrops marajoensis snake venom

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    C Galbiatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bmaj-9, a basic PLA2 (13679.33 Da, was isolated from Bothrops marajoensis snake venom through only one chromatographic step in reversed phase HPLC on ¼-Bondapak C-18 column. The amino acid composition showed that Bmaj-9 had a high content of Lys, His, and Arg, typical of a basic PLA2. The sequence of Bmaj-9 contains 124 amino acid residues with a pI value of 8.55, such as DLWQWGQMIL KETGKLPFSY YTAYGCYCGW GGRGGKPKAD TDRCCFVHDC, revealing a high homology with Asp49 PLA2 from other snake venoms. It also exhibited a pronounced phospholipase A2 activity when compared with crude venom. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the time for 50% and 100% neuromuscular paralysis was respectively (in minutes: 110 ± 10 (1 µg/mL; 40 ± 6 and 90 ± 2 (5 µg/mL; 30 ± 3 and 70 ± 5 (10 µg/mL; 42 ± 1 and 60 ± 2 (20 µg/mL, with no effect on the contractures elicited by either exogenous ACh (110 µM or KCl (20 mM. Bmaj-9 (10 µg/mL neither interfered with the muscular response to direct electrical stimulation in curarized preparations nor significantly altered the release of CK at 0, 15, 30 and 60 minutes incubations (27.4 ± 5, 74.2 ± 8, 161.0 ± 21 and 353.0 ± 47, respectively. The histological analysis showed that, even causing blockade at the maximum dosage (5 µg/mL, the toxin does not induce significant morphological alterations such as necrosis or infiltration of inflammatory cells. These results identified Bmaj-9 as a new member of the basic Asp49 PLA2 family able to interact with the motor nerve terminal membrane, thereby inducing a presynaptic neuromuscular blockade.

  7. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  8. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae among recently captured Brazilian snakes

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    O'Dwyer L.H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7% were venomous and 103 (43.3% non-venomous snakes. The more numerous venomous species sampled were Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 and Bothrops jararaca (n=17 and non-venomous snakes were Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18, and Waglerophis merremi (n=13. Hepatozoon spp. infection was detected in 39 (16.4% snakes. The prevalence in venomous and non-venomous snakes was 20.0% and 11.7%, respectively. The highest prevalences observed were 38.9% for Boa constrictor amarali, 35.3% for Bothrops jararaca, and 19.4% for Crotalus durissus terrificus.

  9. Bp-13 PLA2: Purification and Neuromuscular Activity of a New Asp49 Toxin Isolated from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

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    Georgina Sucasaca-Monzón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new PLA2 (Bp-13 was purified from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom after a single chromatographic step of RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of hydrophobic and basic amino acids and 14 half-cysteine residues. The N-terminal sequence showed a high degree of homology with basic Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from other Bothrops venoms. Bp-13 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior and maximal activity at pH 8.1, 36°–45°C. Full Bp-13 PLA2 activity required Ca2+; its PLA2 activity was inhibited by Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, and Cd2+ in the presence and absence of 1 mM Ca2+. In the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparation, the time for 50% paralysis was concentration-dependent (P0.05. The main effect of this new Asp49 PLA2 of Bothrops pauloensis venom is on muscle fiber sarcolemma, with avian preparation being less responsive than rodent preparation. The study enhances biochemical and pharmacological characterization of B. pauloensis venom.

  10. Effect of Bothrops alternatus snake venom on macrophage phagocytosis and superoxide production: participation of protein kinase C

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    SS Setubal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations caused by different species of Bothrops snakes result in severe local tissue damage, hemorrhage, pain, myonecrosis, and inflammation with a significant leukocyte accumulation at the bite site. However, the activation state of leukocytes is still unclear. According to clinical cases and experimental work, the local effects observed in envenenomation by Bothrops alternatus are mainly the appearance of edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In this study we investigated the ability of Bothrops alternatus crude venom to induce macrophage activation. At 6 to 100 ¼g/mL, BaV is not toxic to thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; at 3 and 6 ¼g/mL, it did not interfere in macrophage adhesion or detachment. Moreover, at concentrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 ¼g/mL the venom induced an increase in phagocytosis via complement receptor one hour after incubation. Pharmacological treatment of thioglycollate-elicited macrophages with staurosporine, a protein kinase (PKC inhibitor, abolished phagocytosis, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the increase of serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis induced by BaV. Moreover, BaV also induced the production of anion superoxide (O2_ by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages. This BaV stimulated superoxide production was abolished after treating the cells with staurosporine, indicating that PKC is an important signaling pathway for the production of this radical. Based on these results, we suggest that phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage characteristic of Bothrops spp. envenomations.

  11. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells

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    Andréa A. de Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s, one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like, BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like, and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2. The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications.

  12. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase

  13. Evaluation of platelet number and function and fibrinogen level in patients bitten by snakes of the Bothrops genus

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    Fábio Cardoso Luan

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet function and plasma fibrinogen levels were evaluated in 14 patients, 10 males and 4females, aged 13-59years bitten by Bothrops genus snakes. There was a statistical difference (p Foram avaliadas a função plaquetária e os níveis séricos de fibrinogênio em 14 doentes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops, sendo 10 do sexo masculino e 4 do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 13 e 59 anos. Houve diferença estatística (p < 0,05 entre os níveis séricos defibrinogênio avaliados 24 e 48 horas após o acidente. Houve tendência à normalização após 48 horas do tratamento. A plaquetopenia foi evidente nas avaliações de 24 e 48 horas. Houve tendência à nomalização no 8o dia após o tratamento (p <0,05. Os níveis de produtos de degradação defibrina (PDF mostraram-se alterados em 83,33 % dos pacientes avaliados. Os autores sugerem que a hipoagregação esteja relacionada com níveis baixos de fibrinogênio e elevados de PDF.

  14. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili Hoge, 1953 Hoge, 1953 snake venom (Ophidia: Viperidae.

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    Carmen Pantigoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A myotoxin from the venom of the snake Bothrops brazili has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 with 0,05 M ammonium acetate buffer pH 7. The homogeneity was evaluated by PAGE with and without SDS, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The myotoxin is a basic protein with 15,6% of Lys+Arg; it is not a glicoprotein, has not enzymatic activity, and corresponds to 25% of the whole venom protein. The molecular weight of the myotoxin was determined by PAGE-SDS and gel filtration chromatography. The myotoxin has 30 KDa of molecular weight and two polypeptide chains of 15 KDa each. Myotoxin produces a severe necrosis on the gastrocnemius muscle of white mice. The myotoxin does not have hemolytic nor anticoagulant activity. However, produces edema with a DEM of 32,6 mg of protein.

  16. Bothrops asper snake venom and its metalloproteinase BaP–1 activate the complement system. Role in leucocyte recruitment

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    Sandra H. P. Farsky

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins – phospholipases and metalloproteinase – activate the complement system and the contribution of the effect on leucocyte recruitment. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Boyden's chamber model to investigate the ability of serum incubated with venom and its purified toxins to induce neutrophil migration. The complement consumption by the venom was evaluated using an in vitro haemolytic assay. The importance of complement activation by the venom on neutrophil migration was investigated in vivo by injecting the venom into the peritoneal cavity of C5-deficient mice. Data obtained demonstrated that serum incubated with crude venom and its purified metalloproteinase BaP–1 are able to induce rat neutrophil chemotaxis, probably mediated by agent(s derived from the complement system. This hypothesis was corroborated by the capacity of the venom to activate this system in vitro. The involvement of C5a in neutrophil chemotaxis induced by venom-activated serum was demonstrated by abolishing migration when neutrophils were pre-incubated with antirat C5a receptor antibody. The relevance of the complement system in in vivo leucocyte mobilization was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of this response in C5-deficient mice. Pre-incubation of serum with the soluble human recombinant complement receptor type 1 (sCR 1 did not prevent the response induced by the venom, but abolished the migration evoked by metalloproteinase-activated serum. These data show the role of the complement system in bothropic envenomation and the participation of metalloproteinase in the effect. Also, they suggest that the venom may contain other component(s which can cause direct activation

  17. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium coronarium. Methods The essential oils of leaves and rhizomes from H. coronarium were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their potential inhibitory effects on the coagulant and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by the venoms of Lachesis muta, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni were analyzed. Citrated human plasma was used to evaluate the clotting time whereas changes in fibrinogen molecules were visualized by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The experimental design used for testing coagulation inhibition was randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (concentration × essential oils), with three replications. The essential oils were compared since they were extracted from different organs of the same botanical species, H. coronarium. Results The results suggest that the oils interact with venom proteases and plasma constituents, since all oils evaluated, when previously incubated with venoms, were able to inhibit the clotting effect, with less inhibition when oils and plasma were preincubated prior to the addition of venoms. Conclusions Thus, after extensive characterization of their pharmacological and toxicological effects, the essential oils can be used as an alternative to complement serum therapy, especially considering that these plant metabolites generally do not require specific formulations and may be used topically immediately after extraction. PMID:26413083

  18. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

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    Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column. BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

  19. Biology and conservation status of Piraja’s Lancehead Snake Bothrops piraña Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Viperidae, Brazil

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    M.A.D. Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The venomous snake Bothrops pirajai (Amaral, 1923 is endemic to Brazil. Despite being described almost a century ago, very little is known about this species, which has never been studied in situ. Here, we present new data on the biology and natural history of B. pirajai based on a review of existing museum specimens and a field study (1504 man hours carried out throughout the species range. The distribution of B. pirajai was found to be restricted to the eastern Atlantic forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, between Todosos Santos Bay, Itabuna and Ilhéus (12050’S-14050’S, 88-835 m. We recommend the species be uplisted to Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s global Red List of Threatened Species as its estimated extent of occurrence is under 5000km2. The effective conservation of B. pirajai will rely on addressing two key issues: improving our knowledge of the species and successfully mitigating habitat loss and fragmentation.

  20. Estudo comparativo da resposta inflamatoria, em ratos, induzida por venenos de serpentes do genero Bothrops em estagios distintos de desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Elisa Moreno

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: No presente trabalho se estuda a resposta inflamatória induzida por venenos de 3 serpentes de gênero Bothrops (B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi e B. moojeni) em estágios distintos de desenvolvimento, utilizando-se os modelos de peritonite e edema de pata. Os venenos de Bothrops moojeni (VBM), Bothrops jararaca (VBJ), Bothrops neuwiedi (VBN) induzem migração de neutrófilos, de maneira dose-dependente, para a cavidade peritoneal de ratos, com diferentes graus de intensidade, devido, provavelmen...

  1. Estudo comparativo da resposta inflamatoria, em ratos, induzida por venenos de serpentes do genero Bothrops em estagios distintos de desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Elisa Moreno

    1994-01-01

    No presente trabalho se estuda a resposta inflamatória induzida por venenos de 3 serpentes de gênero Bothrops (B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi e B. moojeni) em estágios distintos de desenvolvimento, utilizando-se os modelos de peritonite e edema de pata. Os venenos de Bothrops moojeni (VBM), Bothrops jararaca (VBJ), Bothrops neuwiedi (VBN) induzem migração de neutrófilos, de maneira dose-dependente, para a cavidade peritoneal de ratos, com diferentes graus de intensidade, devido, provavelmente, a va...

  2. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas de Oliveira, P.C.; Madruga, R.A.; Barbosa, N.P.U. [Uberaba School of Veterinary Medicine (UNIUBE), MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrolucaso@uol.com.br; Sakate, M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry

    2007-07-01

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a {sup 60}Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  3. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

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    P. C. Lucas de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from 60Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca venom, natural and irradiated from a 60Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate amino-transferase (AST and alanine amino-transferase (ALT; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom.

  4. Hemorrhagic, coagulant and fibrino(geno)lytic activities of crude venom and fractions from mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, María E; Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Pérez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2008-01-01

    Bothrops colombiensis venom from two similar geographical locations were tested for their hemostatic functions and characterized by gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The snakes were from Caucagua and El Guapo towns of the Venezuelan state of Miranda. Fibrino(geno)lytic, procoagulant, hemorrhagic, lethal activities, gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE profiles were analyzed and compared for both venoms. The highest hemorrhagic activity of 5.3 mug was seen in El Guapo venom while Caucagua venom had the lowest LD(50) of 5.8 mg/kg. Both venoms presented similar thrombin-like activity. El Guapo showed a factor Xa-like activity two times higher than Caucagua. Differences were observed in kallikrein-like and t-PA activities, being highest in El Guapo. Caucagua venom showed the maximum fibrin lysis. Both crude venom runs on Sephadex G-100 chromatography gave fraction SII with the high fibrinolytic activity. Proteases presented in SII fractions and eluted from Benzamidine-Sepharose (not bound to the column) provoked a fast degradation of fibrinogen alpha chains and a slower degradation of beta chains, which could possibly be due to a higher content of alpha fibrinogenases in these venoms. The fibrinogenolytic activity was decreased by metalloprotease inhibitors. The results suggested that metalloproteases in SII fractions were responsible for the fibrinolytic activity. The analysis of samples for fibrin-zymography of SII fractions showed an active band with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. These results reiterate the importance of using pools of venoms for antivenom immunization, to facilitate the neutralization of the maximum potential number of toxins.

  5. Ontogenetic variations in the venom proteome of the Amazonian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Sousa Marcelo V

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Previous studies have demonstrated that the biological and pharmacological activities of B. atrox venom alter with the age of the animal. Here, we present a comparative proteome analysis of B. atrox venom collected from specimens of three different stages of maturation: juveniles, sub-adults and adults. Results Optimized conditions for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of pooled venom samples were achieved using immobilized pH gradient (IPG gels of non-linear 3–10 pH range during the isoelectric focusing step and 10–20% gradient polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Software-assisted analysis of the 2-DE gels images demonstrated differences in the number and intensity of spots in juvenile, sub-adult and adult venoms. Although peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF failed to identify even a minor fraction of spots, it allowed us to group spots that displayed similar peptide maps. The spots were subjected to a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and Mascot and MS BLAST database searches that identified several classes of proteins, including metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, lectins, phospholipases A2, L-amino oxidases, nerve growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and cysteine-rich secretory proteins. Conclusion The analysis of B. atrox samples from specimens of different ages by 2-DE and mass spectrometry suggested that venom proteome alters upon ontogenetic development. We identified stage specific and differentially expressed polypeptides that may be responsible for the activities of the venom in each developmental stage. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of the relation between symptomatology of snakebite accidents in humans and the venom composition. Our findings underscore the importance of the use of venoms from individual specimen at various stages of maturation for

  6. Eficacia experimental de anticuerpos IgY producidos en huevos, contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox Experimental efficacy of IgY antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Julio C. Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Desarrollar un protocolo de inmunización para producir inmunoglobulinas IgY de origen aviar contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox y evaluar la capacidad neutralizante. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron seis gallinas de postura de la raza hy line brown con 500 μg/dosis de veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de dos meses. Cada semana, los huevos fueron colectados para el aislamiento de inmunoglobulinas IgY a partir de la yema, usando dos pasos consecutivos con αcido caprνlico y sulfato de amonio. La detecciσn de anticuerpos se realizσ por inmunodifusiσn doble mientras que el tνtulo y reactividad cruzada se determinaron por las técnicas de ELISA y Western blot. El cálculo de DL50 y de la DE50 del antiveneno IgY producido se realizó utilizando el método de Probits. Resultados. La masa de anticuerpos aislados fue de 8,5 ± 1,35 mg de IgY/mL de yema. Asimismo, la DE50 del antiveneno aviar fue calculada en 575 μL de antiveneno/mg de veneno. Adicionalmente, los ensayos de reactividad cruzada mostraron que el veneno de B. atrox comparte mas epνtopes comunes con el veneno de B. brazili (47% que con otros veneno del mismo género, en tanto que los venenos de Lachesis muta (19% y Crotalus durissus (12% mostraron una baja reactividad cruzada. Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido IgY purificada contra el veneno de B. atrox con capacidad neutralizante y se ha demostrado su utilidad como herramienta inmunoanalítica para evaluar la reactividad cruzada con venenos de otras especies.Objectives. To develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian IgY immunoglobulins against Bothrops atrox Peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity. Materials and methods. Six Hy Line Brown hens were immunized each two weeks using 500μg/doses of B. atrox venom in a period of two months. Each week, eggs were collected for IgY isolation from yolk using two consecutive steps with caprilic acid and ammonium sulfate

  7. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-06

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  8. Comparison of venoms from wild and long-term captive Bothrops atrox snakes and characterization of Batroxrhagin, the predominant class PIII metalloproteinase from the venom of this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Sousa, L A; Amazonas, D R; Sousa, L F; Sant'Anna, S S; Nishiyama, M Y; Serrano, S M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, I L M; Chalkidis, H M; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Mourão, R H V

    2015-11-01

    Comparisons between venoms from snakes kept under captivity or collected at the natural environment are of fundamental importance in order to obtain effective antivenoms to treat human victims of snakebites. In this study, we compared composition and biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom from snakes collected at Tapajós National Forest (Pará State, Brazil) or maintained for more than 10 years under captivity at Instituto Butantan herpetarium after have been collected mostly at Maranhão State, Brazil. Venoms from captive or wild snakes were similar except for small quantitative differences detected in peaks correspondent to phospholipases A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) class PI and serine proteinases (SVSP), which did not correlate with fibrinolytic and coagulant activities (induced by PI-SVMPs and SVSPs). In both pools, the major toxic component corresponded to PIII-SVMPs, which were isolated and characterized. The characterization by mass spectrometry of both samples identified peptides that matched with a single PIII-SVMP cDNA characterized by transcriptomics, named Batroxrhagin. Sequence alignments show a strong similarity between Batroxrhagin and Jararhagin (96%). Batroxrhagin samples isolated from venoms of wild or captive snakes were not pro-coagulant, but inhibited collagen-induced platelet-aggregation, and induced hemorrhage and fibrin lysis with similar doses. Results suggest that in spite of environmental differences, venom variability was detected only among the less abundant components. In opposition, the most abundant toxin, which is a PIII-SVMP related to the key effects of the venom, is structurally conserved in the venoms. This observation is relevant for explaining the efficacy of antivenoms produced with venoms from captive snakes in human accidents inflicted at distinct natural environments.

  9. Neutralization of pharmacological and toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins by Serjania erecta methanolic extract and its fractions

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    RS Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the snakebites recorded in Brazil are caused by the Bothrops genus. Given that the local tissue damage caused by this genus cannot be treated by antivenom therapy, numerous studies are focusing on supplementary alternatives, such as the use of medicinal plants. Serjania erecta has already demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and healing properties. In the current study, the aerial parts of S. erecta were extracted with methanol, then submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a Sephadex LH20 column and eluted with methanol, which resulted in four main fractions. The crude extract and fractions neutralized the toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins (BthTX-I and II. Results showed that phospholipase A2, fibrinogenolytic, myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities were inhibited by the extract. Moreover, the myotoxic and edematous activities induced by BthTX-I, and phospholipase A2 activity induced by BthTX-II, were inhibited by the extract of S. erecta and its fraction. The clotting time on bovine plasma was significantly prolonged by the inhibitory action of fractions SF3 and SF4. This extract is a promising source of natural inhibitors, such as flavonoids and tannins, which act by forming complexes with metal ions and proteins, inhibiting the action of serineproteases, metalloproteases and phospholipases A2.

  10. A comparative analysis of the clotting and fibrinolytic activities of the snake venom (Bothrops atrox) from different geographical areas in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Girón, Maria E; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy

    2007-01-01

    Venom constitution within the same snake species can present considerable geographical variations. Bothrops atrox venoms were obtained from adult snakes captured at different geographical locations: Parguasa (Bolívar state); Puerto Ayacucho 1, Serranía del Cuao and Puerto Ayacucho 2 (Amazon state). The coagulant and fibrinolytic activities of these venoms were compared. Amidolytic activity of crude snake venom was measured by a micromethod designed in our laboratory. Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen due to thrombin-like activity in venoms was also determined. Crude snake venom fibrinolytic activity by the fibrin plate method was assayed. Chromatographic studies were developed on Protein-Pack 300 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out under reduced conditions. After SDS-PAGE of samples, the fibrin-zymography was tested on agarose-fibrin plates. The results demonstrated several differences among B. atrox venoms from different geographical areas. Chromatograms and SDS-PAGE profiles indicated that venoms from the same species presented differences in the molecular mass of their components. The procoagulant activity depended on the utilized method (amidolytic versus clotting). Parguasa and Puerto Ayacucho 2 venoms presented procoagulant activity for both methods. Furthermore, Parguasa venom had also the highest hemorrhagic activity and the lowest LD50. In relation to the fibrinolytic activity, Puerto Ayacucho 1 venom was the most active, equally for fibrin plates as for the amidolytic method (t-PA like). This venom had the lowest coagulant activity, which induced us to think that probably its procoagulant activity was interfered by its fibrinolytic activity.

  11. Bradykinin-potentiating peptides and C-type natriuretic peptides from snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, S; Murayama, N; Saguchi, K; Ohi, H; Fujita, Y; Camargo, A C; Ogawa, T; Deshimaru, M; Ohno, M

    1999-10-15

    Cloning of cDNAs encoding bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs)-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor or its homologue was performed for cDNA libraries of Bothrops jararaca (South American snake), Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Trimeresurus gramineus and Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi (Asian snakes), all belonging to Crotalinae subfamily. Each cDNA library was constructed from the venom glands of a single snake to preclude ambiguity by intraspecies variation in venom components. Thirteen positive clones derived from B. jararaca were divided into two types depending on restriction sites. Differences in the nucleotide sequence arise at three locations and two of them accompanied amino acid conversions. Despite the differences, both types of cDNA clones encode the BPP-CNP precursor of 256 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis demonstrated that cDNA clones from three Asian snakes encode homologues of the BPP-CNP precursor from B. jararaca. In a precursor polypeptide, a signal sequence (approximately 25 aa) at the N-terminus is followed by sequences of BPP or the analogue (5-13 aa) with flanking spacer sequences (indefinite number of aa), an intervening linker sequence (approximately 144 aa) with unidentified function, and a CNP sequence (22 aa) with a preceding processing signal sequence (10 aa). cDNA clones from A. halys blomhoffi encode two distinct peptides in place of BPP, and T. flavoviridis and T. gramineus were shown to have considerably different sequences in the BPP domain from those known as BPP sequences. The present results provide evidence for a wide distribution of the orthologous gene expressing a series of bioactive peptides among Crotalinae subfamily.

  12. Biological characterization of a myotoxin phosphoplipase A2 homologue purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni

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    MR Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A myotoxin phospholipase A2 homologue, BmooMtx, was isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel column and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. SDS-PAGE showed the enzyme to be a monomer with a molecular weight of 16,500. BmooMtx induced release of creatine kinase and morphological analyses indicated that it provoked an intense myonecrosis, with visible leukocyte infiltrate and damaged muscle cells 24 hours after injection. Anti-BmooMTx antibodies partially neutralized the myotoxic activity of BmooMtx and crude B. moojeni venom, as judged by determination of plasma creatine kinase levels and histological evaluation of skeletal muscle in mice. Anti-BmooMTx antibodies were effective in reducing the plasma creatine kinase levels of crude B. alternatus and B. leucurus venoms, evidencing immunological cross-reactivity between BmooMTx and other bothropic venoms. Intraplantar (i.pl. injection of BmooMtx (1 to 15 μg/animal caused a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia and edematogenic responses. Dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg, meloxicam (2 mg/kg and promethazine (5 mg/kg markedly reduced the hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that these drugs may likely serve as complementary therapies in cases of accidents with Bothrops moojeni, provided that such pharmacological treatments are administered immediately after the incident.

  13. Amino acid sequence and crystal structure of BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom that exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandra; Shannon, John D.; Valente, Richard H.; Rucavado, Alexandra; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Kamiguti, Aura S.; Theakston, R. David G.; Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María; Arni, Raghuvir K.

    2003-01-01

    BaP1 is a 22.7-kD P-I-type zinc-dependent metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, a medically relevant species in Central America. This enzyme exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities, including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, blistering, and edema. BaP1 is a single chain of 202 amino acids that shows highest sequence identity with metalloproteinases isolated from the venoms of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. It has six Cys residues involved in three disulfide bridges (Cys 117–Cys 197, Cys 159–Cys 181, Cys 157–Cys 164). It has the consensus sequence H142E143XXH146XXGXXH152, as well as the sequence C164I165M166, which characterize the “metzincin” superfamily of metalloproteinases. The active-site cleft separates a major subdomain (residues 1–152), comprising four α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet, from the minor subdomain, which is formed by a single α-helix and several loops. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated by the Nɛ2 nitrogen atoms of His 142, His 146, and His 152, in addition to a solvent water molecule, which in turn is bound to Glu 143. Several conserved residues contribute to the formation of the hydrophobic pocket, and Met 166 serves as a hydrophobic base for the active-site groups. Sequence and structural comparisons of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic P-I metalloproteinases from snake venoms revealed differences in several regions. In particular, the loop comprising residues 153 to 176 has marked structural differences between metalloproteinases with very different hemorrhagic activities. Because this region lies in close proximity to the active-site microenvironment, it may influence the interaction of these enzymes with physiologically relevant substrates in the extracellular matrix. PMID:14500885

  14. Análisis inmunoenzimático (ELISA para determinar niveles de IgG anti Bothrops atrox en accidente ofídico Immunoenzymatic determination of IgG anti bothrops atrox levels after snake bites

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    John J. Estrada

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de inmunización de conejos con veneno de Bothrops atrox con el fin de preparar antisueros y estandarizar un inmunoanálisis (ELISA para medir niveles de IgG en pacientes con accidente ofídico. La respuesta Inmune de los conejos se siguió por inmunodifusión en doble dimensión (Ouchterlony e inmunoelectroforesis, demostrando la presencia de bandas nítidas desde el día 60 y en todas las sangrias posteriores; se comprobó que hay variabilidad individual en su respuesta inmune. El ELISA para detección de IgG humana anti B. atrox en los indígenas del Chocó fue una prueba simple y sensible (83.3% pero inespecífica por las reacciones cruzadas en individuos que habían sufrido accidentes por B. nasutus. La técnica para detectar IgG equina anti B. atrox en pacientes tratados con antiveneno fue tambIén simple y muy sensible. We developed an immunization method for the production of rabbit antisera against Bothrops atroxvenoms. An enzyme-Ilnked assay (ELISA was standardized in order to measure IgG levels after snake bites. The immune response of rabbits, as determined by Ouchterlony and immunoelectrophoresis techniques, revealed bands of precipitation from the sixtieth day on. Individual variability in the immune response of rabbits was demonstrated. For the measurement of IgG levels In Indians from the Department of Choco (Colombia, ELISA proved to be a sensitive (83.3% and simple but not an specific procedure, since there were cross-reactions in those previously bitten by B. nasutus. ELISA was also simple and sensitive (100% for the determination of equine anti B. atrox IgG antibodies in patients treated with antivenom

  15. Experimental Bothrops atrox envenomation: Efficacy of antivenom therapy and the combination of Bothrops antivenom with dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Isabelle Valle; Chalkidis, Hipocrates de Menezes; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Sano-Martins, Ida Sigueko; Gonçalves, Luis Roberto de Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Bothrops atrox snakes are the leading cause of snake bites in Northern Brazil. The venom of this snake is not included in the antigen pool used to obtain the Bothrops antivenom. There are discrepancies in reports on the effectiveness of this antivenom to treat victims bitten by B. atrox snakes. However, these studies were performed using a pre-incubation of the venom with the antivenom and, thus, did not simulate a true case of envenomation treatment. In addition, the local lesions induced by Bothrops venoms are not well resolved by antivenom therapy. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the Bothrops antivenom in treating the signs and symptoms caused by B. atrox venom in mice and evaluated whether the combination of dexamethasone and antivenom therapy enhanced the healing of local lesions induced by this envenomation. In animals that were administered the antivenom 10 minutes after the envenomation, we observed an important reduction of edema, dermonecrosis, and myonecrosis. When the antivenom was given 45 minutes after the envenomation, the edema and myonecrosis were reduced, and the fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were restored. The groups treated with the combination of antivenom and dexamethasone had an enhanced decrease in edema and a faster recovery of the damaged skeletal muscle. Our results show that Bothrops antivenom effectively treats the envenomation caused by Bothrops atrox and that the use of dexamethasone as an adjunct to the antivenom therapy could be useful to improve the treatment of local symptoms observed in envenomation caused by Bothrops snakes. PMID:28306718

  16. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Se investigó la capacidad de los extractos de las hojas de Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, Satureja viminea y de la raíz de Uncaria tomentosa para inhibir el edema inducido por el veneno de Bothrops asper por métodos pletismométricos. Los grupos de ratas fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con varias dosis de cada extracto y una hora mas tarde se inyectó veneno por vía subcutánea en la pata trasera derecha de la rata. Se evaluó el edema en distintos i...

  17. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on myotoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge on toxin immunogenicity at the molecular level can provide valuable information for the improvement of antivenoms, as well as for understanding toxin structure-function relationships. The aims of this study are two-fold: first, to identify the linear B-cell epitopes of myotoxin II from Bothrops asper snake venom, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue; and second, to use antibodies specifically directed against an epitope having functional relevance in its toxicity, to probe the dimeric assembly mode of this protein in solution. Linear B-cell epitopes were identified using a library of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning its complete sequence. Epitopes recognized by a rabbit antiserum to purified myotoxin II, and by three batches of a polyvalent (Crotalidae) therapeutic antivenom (prepared in horses immunized with a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) were mapped using an enzyme-immunoassay based on the capture of biotinylated peptides by immobilized streptavidin. Some of the epitopes identified were shared between the two species, whereas others were unique. Differences in epitope recognition were observed not only between the two species, but also within the three batches of equine antivenom. Epitope V, located at the C-terminal region of this protein, is known to be relevant for toxicity and neutralization. Affinity-purified rabbit antibodies specific for this site were able to immunoprecipitate myotoxin II, suggesting that the two copies of epitope V are simultaneously available to antibody binding, which would be compatible with the mode of dimerization known as "conventional" dimer.

  18. Purification and partial characterization of phospholipases A2 from Bothrops asper (barba amarilla snake venom from Chiriguaná (Cesar, Colombia

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    J. Ramírez-Avila

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Components with phospholipase A2 activity were isolated by gel filtration and cationic exchange chromatography from the venom of Bothrops asper snakes from Chiriguaná, Colombia (9°22´N; 73°37´W. Five fractions were obtained by the gel filtration, and PLA2 activity was found in fraction 3 (F3. In the cationic exchange chromatography, F3 showed eight components with PLA2 activity. Six of these components appeared as one band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Fractions II and VII exhibited an optimal activity at pH 9 and 52ºC. The optimum calcium concentration for fraction II was 48 mM and for fraction VII, 384 mM. Both fractions showed thermal stability. Fraction II was stable at pH values between 2.5 and 9, and fraction VII, between 2.5 and 8. The Michaelis Menten constant (K M was 3.5x10-3 M for fraction II and 1.6x10-3 M for fraction VII. The molecular weight was 16,000 Dalton for fraction II and 17,000 Dalton for fraction VII. Both isoenzymes did not show any toxic activity (DL50 at 5.3 and 4 µg/g. The two fractions showed different kinetic constant (K M, calcium requirement, and substrate specificity for haemolytic activity.

  19. Do snakes represent the principal predatory threat to callitrichids? Fatal attack of a viper (Bothrops leucurus) on a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone

    2011-07-01

    A juvenile common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was attacked by a whitetail lancehead viper (Bothrops leucurus) while playing with other group members close to the ground at a site in northeastern Brazil. The attack was almost immediately fatal, but the viper was unable to ingest the body of the marmoset. After approximately 10 min, during which it attempted to swallow the marmoset a number of times, the viper moved away, abandoning the body. While raptors are the principal predators of callitrichids, this record reinforces the relative vulnerability of these primates to snakes in comparison with other platyrrhines, although the small number of recorded events precludes a more definitive analysis of the phenomenon.

  20. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  1. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  2. Neutralizing activities of ethanolic extracts of six plants traditionally used in Guatemala as antidotes for the envenomation caused by the snake Bothrops asper

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    Patricia Saravia-Otten

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants are reported to be used in Guatemalan traditional medicine as antidotes against various effects of the snakebite; however, very few attempts have been made to evaluate their neutralizing capacity in controlled experiments. Six plants (Acacia hindsii, Cissampelos pareira; Hamelia patens, Piper peltatum, Sansevieria hyacinthoides and Aristolochia maxima were evaluated in vitro for their ability to neutralize phospholipase A2(PLA2 and proteolytic effects of the venom of Bothrops asper, the snake responsible for approximately half of the snakebite envenomations in Central America. These effects are indicatives of the ability of B. asper venom to produce myotoxicity, hemorrhage and inflammation. Plants were collected, dried and extracted by maceration with ethanol. After pre-incubation of several amounts of each extract with a challenge dose of venom, S. hyacinthoides demonstrated a low neutralizing capacity (< DE 50 of the PLA2 effect (13.90 ± 6.41%; C. pareira (32.98 ± 5.51% and P. peltatum (24.52 ± 7.45% neutralized less than 50% of the proteolytic effect. The results suggest that neither of the tested plants should be used individually to treat the main effects of B. asper envenomation. However, the three low-active extracts might be potentiated when used in mixtures composed of several plants, as prepared by traditional healers. Given the complexity of the venom components and the multiple pathologic effects produced by B. asper envenomation, more tests are required to fully investigate the ability of this plants to neutralize the coagulant, fibrin(ogenolytic, edematizing and myotoxic effects of the venom.

  3. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Cíntia A SF; Cardoso, Maria G; Mansanares, Mariana E; Gomes, Marcos S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium c...

  4. Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, J.A. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1995-11-01

    The injection of pellets into JET sometimes leaves a resonant localised structure commonly known as a snake. Snakes constitute a remarkable phenomenon, having both an intrinsic interest and a relevance to understanding transport. How are snakes formed? What maintains the magnetic island created by the snake? How does the confined density persist? And finally, why don`t such structures arise spontaneously? (Author).

  5. Proteomic and Glycoproteomic Profilings Reveal That Post-translational Modifications of Toxins Contribute to Venom Phenotype in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Reis, Marcelo S; Lopes, Aline S; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-08-05

    Snake venoms are biological weapon systems composed of secreted proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey. Although post-translational modifications are widely investigated because of their importance in many biological phenomena, we currently still have little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation and stability of venom proteomes. To address these issues, here we characterized the venom proteomes of seven Bothrops snakes using a shotgun proteomics strategy. Moreover, we compared the electrophoretic profiles of native and deglycosylated venoms and, in order to assess their subproteomes of glycoproteins, we identified the proteins with affinity for three lectins with different saccharide specificities and their putative glycosylation sites. As proteinases are abundant glycosylated toxins, we examined the effect of N-deglycosylation on their catalytic activities and show that the proteinases of the seven venoms were similarly affected by removal of N-glycans. Moreover, we prospected putative glycosylation sites of transcripts of a B. jararaca venom gland data set and detected toxin family related patterns of glycosylation. Based on our global analysis, we report that Bothrops venom proteomes and glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition, which is conserved upon evolution in parallel to other molecular markers that determine their phylogenetic classification.

  6. Increments in cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle after injection of tissue-damaging toxins from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rucavado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis, blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been hypothesized that inflammatory mediators may contribute to the local pathological alterations described. This study evaluated the local production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs as a consequence of intramuscular injections of an Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipase A2 (myotoxin III (MT-III and a P-I type hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BaP1 isolated from B. asper venom. Both enzymes induced prominent tissue alterations and conspicuous increments in interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and a number of MMPs, especially gelatinase MMP-9, rapidly after injection. In contrast, no increments in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ were detected. In agreement, MT-III and BaP1 did not induce the synthesis of TNF-α by resident peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Despite the conspicuous expression of latent forms of MMPs in muscle, evidenced by zymography, there were no increments in activated MMP-2 and only a small increase in activated MMP-9, as detected by a functional enzymatic assay. This suggests that MMP activity was regulated by a highly controlled activation of latent forms and, probably, by a concomitant synthesis of MMP inhibitors. Since no hemorrhage nor dermonecrosis were observed after injection of MT-III, despite a prominent increase in MMP expression, and since inflammatory exudate did not enhance hemorrhage induced by BaP1, it is suggested that endogenous MMPs released in the tissue are not responsible for the dermonecrosis and hemorrhage characteristic of B. asper envenomation. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with the peptidomimetic MMP inhibitor batimastat did not reduce myotoxic nor

  7. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  8. Acidente por serpentes do gênero Bothrops: série de 3.139 casos

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    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Em avaliação dos prontuários médicos de 3.139 pacientes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops atendidos no Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB, de 1981 a 1990, observou-se maior acometimento do sexo masculino (75,7%. Em 1.412 casos (45,0% a serpente foi identificada, sendo 1.376 B. jararaca, 20 B. jararacussu, 11 B. neuwiedi, 2 B. moojeni, 2 B. alternatus e 1 B. pradoi. As regiões anatômicas mais comumente picadas foram: pé (47,5% e mão (21,3%. O torniquete foi realizado em 38,2% dos casos e sua freqüência diminuiu durante esse período (p Medical records of 3,139 patients bitten by Bothrops snakes and attended at Vital Brazil Hospital (HVB from 1981 to 1990 were reviwed. They were more frequent in males (75.7%. In 1,412 cases (45.0% the snake was classified by species, and 1,376 were B. jararaca, 20 B. jararacussu, 11 B. neuwiedi, 2 B. moojeni, 2 B. alternatus e 1 B. pradoi. The most frequent bitten anatomic regions were: foot (47.5% and hand (21.3%. Tourniquet was used in 38.2% of the cases and its frequency fell down during the study period (p < 0.05. The clinical features at the bite site were: pain (95.6%, swelling (95.4%, echimosis (56.1%, blisters (13.8%, necrosis (16.5%, and abscess (11.0%. Systemic manifestations were: bleeding (12.3%, acute renal failure (1.6%, and shock (0.7%. There were blood coagulation disorders in 1,730 (57.9% of the 2,990 cases. There were 21 amputations (0.7% and 9 deaths (0.3%. The average serum dose that was used in treatment fell down during the study period (p < 0.001.

  9. Isolation of a galactose-binding lectin from the venom of the snake Bothrops godmani (Godmann's pit viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, B; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Ramírez, G

    1990-01-01

    A galactose-binding lectin, isolated from the venom of B. godmani by affinity chromatography, is an acidic protein (pI 4.9) with a subunit mol. wt of about 14,000, occurring mostly as a disulfide-linked dimer of 28,000. A small proportion of lectin appears as a monomer and as a tetramer. The lectin agglutinates erythrocytes from mice, rabbit, cow and human (all ABO types, either Rh positive or negative), but does not agglutinate horse, sheep, goat and snake (Oxybelis aeneus, Colubridae) erythrocytes. The agglutinating activity is inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. The lectin is devoid of lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. It is not mitogenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The only effect observed was a moderate induction of edema in the footpad of mice, with a minimal edema-forming dose of 22 micrograms. This effect developed rapidly, and was significantly inhibited by i.p. administration of cyproheptadine, a histamine and serotonin antagonist, before injection of the lectin. Despite the edema-forming activity observed, the low concentration of lectin in crude venom, together with its relatively low potency, suggest that this lectin is not a key component in the development of edema following envenomations by B. godmani.

  10. Comparison of phylogeny, venom composition and neutralization by antivenom in diverse species of bothrops complex.

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    Leijiane F Sousa

    Full Text Available In Latin America, Bothrops snakes account for most snake bites in humans, and the recommended treatment is administration of multispecific Bothrops antivenom (SAB--soro antibotrópico. However, Bothrops snakes are very diverse with regard to their venom composition, which raises the issue of which venoms should be used as immunizing antigens for the production of pan-specific Bothrops antivenoms. In this study, we simultaneously compared the composition and reactivity with SAB of venoms collected from six species of snakes, distributed in pairs from three distinct phylogenetic clades: Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. We also evaluated the neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, which is the species responsible for most snake bites in the Amazon region, but not included in the immunization antigen mixture used to produce SAB. Using mass spectrometric and chromatographic approaches, we observed a lack of similarity in protein composition between the venoms from closely related snakes and a high similarity between the venoms of phylogenetically more distant snakes, suggesting little connection between taxonomic position and venom composition. P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs are the most antigenic toxins in the venoms of snakes from the Bothrops complex, whereas class P-I SVMPs, snake venom serine proteinases and phospholipases A2 reacted with antibodies in lower levels. Low molecular size toxins, such as disintegrins and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, were poorly antigenic. Toxins from the same protein family showed antigenic cross-reactivity among venoms from different species; SAB was efficient in neutralizing the B. atrox venom major toxins. Thus, we suggest that it is possible to obtain pan-specific effective antivenoms for Bothrops envenomations through immunization with venoms from only a few species of snakes, if these venoms contain protein classes that are representative of all species to which the antivenom is

  11. Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Naturally, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

  12. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  13. Variaciones en las actividades enzimáticas del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox "jergón", de tres zonas geográficas del Perú Variation of the enzymatic activity of Bothrops atrox "jergon" snake venom from three geographic regions, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ortiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estudiar la variabilidad en la composición y actividades enzimáticas entre venenos de ejemplares adultos de Bothrops atrox. Materiales y métodos. Se emplearon venenos de serpientes adultas procedentes de Amazonas, Junín y Ucayali. A cada una de las muestras se les realizó el análisis del contenido proteico y del número de bandas por PAGESDS, así como las actividades de fosfolipasa A2, hemolítica indirecta, amidolítica, coagulante, hemorrágica y proteolítica sobre caseína y mediante zimograma; además, se hicieron ensayos de inmunodifusión y neutralización in vitro con el suero antibotrópico polivalente del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Resultados. Las actividades amidolítica, coagulante, hemorrágica, proteolítica mediante zimograma, fosfolipasa A2 y hemolítica indirecta fueron variables, evidenciándose en las tres últimas una mayor actividad en los venenos de Amazonas, mientras que en la cantidad de proteína, bandas electroforéticas y actividad proteolítica sobre caseína no se observaron diferencias. Con respecto a las pruebas de neutralización, 0,5 dosis del antiveneno fueron suficientes para neutralizar con eficacia (más del 50% la actividad coagulante y fosfolipasa A2 de todas las muestras analizadas. Conclusiones. Algunas propiedades biológicas del veneno de ejemplares adultos de Bothrops atrox de Perú son variables, sin que ello afecte la neutralización in vitro por parte del suero antibotrópico polivalente sobre las actividades coagulante y fosfolipasa A2 del veneno.Objectives. To study the variability in the composition and enzymatic activity of venom from adult Bothrops atrox specimens. Materials and methods. We used venoms from adult snakes from Amazonas, Junín and Ucayali. Each of the venom samples underwent analysis for protein and number of bands by pagesds. Phospholipase A2, hemolytic, amidolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic activity were analyzed, also and proteolytic activity on

  14. Neutralization of the neuromuscular activity of bothropstoxin-i, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, by a hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (guaçatonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oshima-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are used as snakebite antidotes in Brazilian folk medicine, including Casearia sylvestris Swartz, popularly known as guaçatonga. In this study, we examined the action of a hydroalcoholic extract from C. sylvestris on the neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu venom, in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations. Aqueous (8 and 12 mg/ml, n=4 and 5, respectively and hydroalcoholic (12 mg/ml, n=12 extracts of the leaves of C. sylvestris caused facilitation in PND preparations followed by partial neuromuscular blockade. BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 caused 50% paralysis after 65±15 min (mean ± S.E.M. Preincubation (30 min at 37° C of BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 with a concentration of the hydroalcoholic extract (4 mg/ml that had no neuromuscular activity, such as the control (n=5, prevented the neuromuscular blockade caused by the toxin. This protection may be mediated by compounds such as flavonoids and phenols identified by thin-layer chromatography and colorimetric assays.

  15. [The efficacy of the bothropic-crotalic antivenom in the neutralization of the main Bothrops jararacussu venom effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos-Santos, M C; Gonçalves, L R; Fortes-Dias, C L; Cury, Y; Gutiérrez, J M; Furtado, M de F

    1992-01-01

    Myonecrosis is one of the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom, from which a myotoxin was isolated showing structural homology to phospholipase A2 (PLA2), but without enzymatic activity. Such myotoxic activity is also present in the Crotalus durissus terrifucus venom, and is attributed to crotoxin and to PLA2 (crotoxin B), the basic component of the crotoxin complex. The Bothrops jararacussu venom showed three proteins with immunologic identity to PLA2 from crotoxin. The bothropic (AB) and the bothropic/crotalic (AB/C) anti-venoms, two commercial polyvalent anti-venoms produced at Instituto Butantan, were compared in order to assess their capacity for neutralization of the lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. Both anti-venoms showed the same level of hemorrhagic activity neutralization. However, AB/C was about three times more efficient than AB in neutralizing the myotoxic activity, and two times more potent for neutralization of lethality and coagulant activity of Bothrops jararacussu venom. These data suggest that the use of AB/C could be of value in the treatment of patients bitten by snakes of this species.

  16. 蛇毒类凝血酶基因工程的研究进展%Research Progress on Cloning of Snake Venom Thrombin-like Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家祺; 李谦; 唐松山; 李红枝

    2013-01-01

    蛇毒类凝血酶(Thrombin-like enzyme,TLE)是蛇毒中与血浆凝血酶性质相似的一类丝氨酸蛋白酶,所不同的是在蛇毒类凝血酶结构中已经没有纤维蛋白稳定因子激活组分.由于蛇毒类凝血酶在新药研究中扮演重要角色,比如来自Bothrops jararaca和Bothrops atrox蛇毒的立芷雪、来自东北白眉蝮蛇毒的邦停和来自尖吻蝮蛇毒的苏灵,它们是具有止血作用的新药;来自Gloydius shedaoensis和Gloydius ussuriensis蛇毒的东菱克栓酶、来自白眉蝮蛇和尖吻蝮蛇毒的降纤酶、来自Calloselasma rhodostoma蛇毒的安克洛酶和来自Crotalus adamanteus蛇毒的Crotalase,它们是具有溶栓作用的新药.这些药用蛋白质的来源和产量因有限的蛇毒原料而有很大限制,通过基因克隆可解决资源问题.文章综述了蛇毒类凝血酶的基因结构、糖基化特点和各种重组表达体系,为大量制备供临床和基础研究使用奠定基础.%Snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (snTLE) are one kind of serine proteases similar to thrombin from blood, but the basic difference between them is that snTLE has no XIII-activated domain to lead thrombosis in vivo or in vitro. Because snake venoms play very important role in pharmaceutics,for example Reptilase from Bothrops jararaca or Bothrops atrox snake venom, Bangtin from Agkistrodon halys snake venom,or Siding from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom,are hemostatic drugs. Defibrase from Gloydius shedaoensis ,Cloydius ussuriensis,Agkistrodon halys,or Agkistrodon acutus snake venom,Ancrod from Calloselasma rhodostoma snake venom, or Crotalase from Crotalus adamanteus snake venom, is thrombolytic drug. So the shortage of snake venom source can be overcome by using gene recombination method. The gene structures, protein glycosylation, and all kinds of cloning expression systems for snTLE protein are summarized in the paper,which will provide a basis for large-scale production of some snTLE proteins.

  17. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  18. First report of hepatic hematoma after presumed Bothrops envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn Latin America, Bothrops envenomation is responsible for the majority of accidents caused by venomous snakes. Patients usually present local edema, bleeding and coagulopathy. Visceral hemorrhage is extremely rare and considered a challenge for diagnosis and management. We report the first case of hepatic hematoma owing to the bothropic envenomation in a 66-year-old man who was bitten in the left leg. He presented local edema, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. Radiological findings suggested hepatic hematoma, with a volume of almost 3 liters. The hepatic hematoma was gradually absorbed without the need for surgical intervention with complete resolution in 8 months.

  19. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  20. The distribution and elimination of Bothrops erythromelas venom labeled with {sup 131} I after intravenous injection in mice

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    Rocha, M.L. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: rocha@cascavel.uefs.br

    1999-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies can be used to study the systemic effects of snake venoms and to develop standard serotherapy protocols for envenomation. Bothrops erythromelas is probably responsible for most of the snakebite in Pernambuco. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of B. erythromelas venom (BeV) in mice, and to evaluate the efficacy of bothropic antivenom. BeV showed bicompartmental distribution in the blood of the experimental animals. (author)

  1. Immunological assessment of mice hyperimmunized with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated Bothrops venoms

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    R. S. Ferreira Junior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ELISA was used to evaluate, accompany, and compare the humoral immune response of Swiss mice during hyperimmunization with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated (60Co venoms of Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops moojeni. Potency and neutralization were evaluated by in vitro challenges. After hyperimmunization, immunity was observed by in vivo challenge, and the side effects were assessed. The animals immunization with one LD50 of each venom occurred on days 1, 15, 21, 30, and 45, when blood samples were collected; challenges happened on the 60th day. Results showed that ELISA was efficient in evaluating, accompanying and comparing mouse immune response during hyperimmunization. Serum titers produced with natural venom were similar to those produced with irradiated venom. Immunogenic capacity was maintained after 60Co-irradiation. The sera produced with native venom showed neutralizing potency and capacity similar to those of the sera produced with irradiated venom. All antibodies were able to neutralize five LD50 from these venoms. Clinical alterations were minimum during hyperimmunization with irradiated venom, however, necrosis and death occurred in animals inoculated with native venom.

  2. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  3. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  4. Comparação entre a epidemiologia do acidente e a clínica do envenenamento por serpentes do gênero Bothrops, em adultos idosos e não idosos Comparison between the epidemiology of accidents and the clinical features of envenoming by snakes of the genus Bothrops, among elderly and non-elderly adults

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    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer diferenças epidemiológicas e clínicas do envenenamento por Bothrops spp em adultos idosos (>60 anos e não idosos (20 a 59 anos. Os dados foram obtidos de 1.930 prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Instituto Butantan de 1981 a 1992. Quanto maior a idade do paciente maior a freqüência do acometimento das mãos em relação aos pés (p12 horas após a picada (pThis study had the aim of ascertaining epidemiological and clinical differences in envenoming caused by Bothrops spp between elderly adults (>60 years and non-elderly adults (20 to 59 years. The data were obtained from 1,930 medical records of patients attended at the Butantan Institute between 1981 and 1992. The greater the patient’s age was, the higher the frequency of bites on the hands rather than on the feet was (p 12 hours after the bite (p < 0.05. Necrosis was more common among the elderly patients (p < 0.05 and renal failure was more common among patients aged 50 years or over (p < 0.05, in relation to younger patients. It was concluded that elderly individuals are more often bitten on the hands and less often on the feet, and that they develop local necrosis and renal failure more frequently than do younger individuals.

  5. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  6. A randomized blinded clinical trial of two antivenoms, prepared by caprylic acid or ammonium sulphate fractionation of IgG, in Bothrops and Porthidium snake bites in Colombia: correlation between safety and biochemical characteristics of antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Gutiérrez, J M; Rojas, G; Núñez, V; Díaz, A; Miranda, E; Uribe, A F; Silva, J F; Ospina, J G; Medina, Y; Toro, M F; García, M E; León, G; García, M; Lizano, S; De La Torre, J; Márquez, J; Mena, Y; González, N; Arenas, L C; Puzón, A; Blanco, N; Sierra, A; Espinal, M E; Lozano, R

    1999-06-01

    A randomized blinded clinical trial was performed in 53 patients bitten by Bothrops sp. and Porthidium sp. in Antioquia and Chocó, Colombia, in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two antivenoms made of whole IgG obtained by either ammonium sulphate (monovalent anti-B. atrox) or caprylic acid (polyvalent) fractionation. Additionally, antivenoms were compared by electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses and anticomplementary activity in vitro. With a protocol of 2, 4 and 6 antivenom vials for the treatment of mild, moderate and severe envenomings, respectively, both antivenoms were equally efficient to neutralize the most relevant signs of envenoming and to clear serum venom levels in patients from the first hour and later on. Three patients with severe envenoming and initially treated with less than six vials on admission had persistent or recurrent venom antigenemia within 12-48 h. Monovalent antivenom fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation had higher amounts of protein aggregates and nonimmunoglobulin proteins than polyvalent antivenom fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation. Both antivenoms presented anticomplementary activity in vitro, being higher in the monovalent product. In agreement, monovalent antivenom induced a significantly higher incidence of early antivenom reactions (52%) than polyvalent antivenom (25%).

  7. Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom: insights from docking and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Rey-Suarez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Henao Castañeda, Isabel Cristina; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) (2-Hydroxyethanoic acid) is widely used as chemical peeling agent in Dermatology and, more recently, as a therapeutic and cosmetic compound in the field of skin care and disease treatment. In this work we tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC₅₀ of 1.67 mM. The compound was also effective at inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of BaP1 in skin and muscle in experiments involving preincubation of enzyme and inhibitor prior to injection. When BaP1 was injected i.m. and then, at the same site, different concentrations of glycolic acid were administered at either 0 or 5 min, 7 mM solutions of the inhibitor partially abrogated hemorrhagic activity when administered at 0 min. Moreover, glycolic acid inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, edema-forming activity of BaP1 in the footpad. In order to have insights on the mode of action of glycolic acid, UV-vis and intrinsic fluorescence studies were performed. Results of these assays suggest that glycolic acid interacts directly with BaP1 and chelates the Zn²⁺ ion at the active site. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that glycolic acid forms hydrogen bonds with residues Glu143, Arg110 and Ala111 of the enzyme. Additionally, molecular modeling results suggest that the inhibitor chelates Zn²⁺, with a distance of 3.58 Å, and may occupy part of substrate binding cleft of BaP1. Our results suggest that glycolic acid is a candidate for the development of inhibitors to be used in snakebite envenomation.

  8. Dieta e uso de habitat da jararaca-do-brejo, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridade em domínio subtropical do Brasil Diet and habitat use of swamp racer snake, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridae in subtropical domains of Brazil

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    Pedro T. Leite

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A serpente Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 é um grande colubrídeo neotropical que habita áreas abertas na América do Sul. Sua dieta é composta principalmente por anfíbios, mas inclui outros itens como mamíferos e lagartos. A dissecção de 224 espécimes desta serpente, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, preservados em coleções herpetológicas do Brasil e um estudo de campo entre 1996 e 1998, fornecem informações sobre os hábitos alimentares e uso de habitat dessa serpente em domínio subtropical no Brasil. Essa serpente alimenta-se de anfíbios (80%, em sua maioria da família Leptodactylidae, mamíferos (10% e lagartos (2%. Foi verificada mudança ontogenética na dieta de M. bifossatus, o tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o aumento de tamanho da serpente. Essa espécie ocorre principalmente em áreas abertas, algumas vezes perto de áreas antrópicas em domínio subtropical no Brasil.Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 is a large neotropical colubrid snake that inhabits open areas in South America. The diet is mainly composed by frogs, but it includes other items like mammals and lizards. The dissection of 224 specimens of this snake, proceeding from the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, stored in herpetological collections in Brazil and a field study between 1996 and 1998, provided information on dietary habits and habitat use of this snake in subtropical domains in Brazil. This snake eats mainly amphibians of the family Leptodactylidae (80%, mammals (10% and lizards (2%. There is ontogenetic diet shift in M. bifossatus, as the snake grows, the range of preys grows as well. M. bifossatus occur in open areas.

  9. Tissue damage caused by Bothrops sp envenoming evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, M.G. [Faculdade do Norte Paulista, Bebedouro, SP (Brazil); Matias, M.R.C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Unidade de Ressonancia Magnetica; Yamashita, S.; Morceli, J. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Barraviera, B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Venenosos (CEVAP)]. E-mail: marilucefonseca@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate local tissue damage caused by Bothrops sp envenoming in relation to lesion type and damaged tissues using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients bitten by Bothrops snakes were treated at the Emergency Unit of the Tropical Diseases Unit at the University Hospital, Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After receiving specific sero therapy, the patients were submitted to MR of the bite site. T 1 spin-echo MRI were obtained revealing the following lesions: edema (n=9), edema associated with hemorrhage (n=5), and hemorrhage (n=1). Peri muscular areas (n=6) and subcutaneous tissues (n=5) were the most affected, followed by muscular tissues (n=4). It is important to mention that MRI did not show myonecrosis of the bite site, a widely reported finding in anatomical and histopathological experimental studies. (author)

  10. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae

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    Beçak Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The positioning of macrochromosomes of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops insularis (Viperidae was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia not subjected to spindle inhibitors. Colchicinized metaphases from uncultured (spleen and intestine and cultured tissues (blood were also analyzed. We report two antagonic non-random chromosome arrangements in untreated premeiotic cells: the parallel configuration with homologue chromosomes associated side by side in the metaphase plate and the antiparallel configuration having homologue chromosomes with antipolar distribution in the metaphase ring. The antiparallel aspect also appeared in colchicinized cells. The spatial chromosome arrangement in both configurations is groupal size-dependent and maintained through meiosis. We also describe, in untreated gonia cells, endomitosis followed by reductional mitosis which restores the diploid number. In B. jararaca males we observed that some gonad regions present changes in the meiotic mechanism. In this case, endoreduplicated cells segregate the diplochromosomes to opposite poles forming directly endoreduplicated second metaphases of meiosis with the suppression of first meiosis. By a successive division, these cells form nuclei with one set of chromosomes. Chromosome doubling in oogonia is known in hybrid species and in parthenogenetic salamanders and lizards. This species also presented chromosome rearrangements leading to aneuploidies in mitosis and meiosis. It is suggested that somatic pairing, endomitosis, meiotic alterations, and chromosomal aberrations can be correlated processes. Similar aspects of nuclei configurations, endomitosis and reductional mitosis were found in other Viperidae and Colubridae species.

  11. Snake bites

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    Bites - snakes ... Snake bites can be deadly if not treated quickly. Because of their smaller body size, children are ... risk for death or serious complications due to snake bites. The right antivenom can save a person's ...

  12. Protistas "incerta sedis" de ofídios do Brasil: Toddia França, 1912 e Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: estudo comparativo "Incerta sedis" Portists from Brazilian snakes: Toddia França, 1912 and Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: comparative study

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre 683 serpentes procedentes de diferentes pontos do Brasil, 16 (2,4% apresentaram em seu sangue (em glóbulos vermelhos maturos e imaturos Toddia ou Pirhemocyton. Denominamos provisoriamente Toddia os parasitos encontrados em Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca e Chironius flavolineatus e Pirhemocyton os encontrados em B. alternatus; fornecemos a primeira referência nestes hospedeiros. Estes parasitos foram estudados comparativamente com o objetivo de estabelecermos a extensão de suas afinidades. Com Toddia de B. moojeni realizamos técnica citoquímica para caracterização de ácidos nucleicos e encontramos positividade apenas para DNA. As maiores afinidades entre os parasitos estudados residiam nas características dos corpúsculos cromáticos e alterações celulares que determinam; observarmos quase total identidade nas maneiras como os parasitos da mesma espécie de serpente se apresentaram. Constatamos a coexistência de inclusões globóides, cristalóides e formas intermediárias associada aos parasitos de B. pradoi e B. alternatus; em C. flavolineatus encotnramos além dos cristais, raríssimas formas intermediárias entre estes e globóides. Afinidades entre Toddia e Pirhemocyton abrangendo o tipo de inclusão contrariam as descrições originais, tornando pouco válida esta separação genérica. Discutimos também os fundamentos da criação das espécies e a possível natureza virótica destes parasitos.Among 683 snakes from several localities of Brazil, 16 (2,4% presented in their blood (in mature or immature red cells Toddia or Pirhemocyton. We named provisorily Toddia the parasites found in Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca and Chironius flavolineatus and Pirhemocyton those found in B. alternatus; we give the first reference in these hosts. These parasites were comparatively studied in view to establish the range of their relationship. With Toddia from B. moojeni we attempted nucleic acids by cytochemical

  13. Effect of suramin on myotoxicity of some crotalid snake venoms

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    E.Z. Arruda

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of suramin, an enzyme inhibitor and an uncoupler of G protein from receptors, on the myotoxic activity in mice of different crotalid snake venoms (A.c. laticinctus, C.v. viridis, C.d. terrificus, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, L. muta. Myotoxicity was evaluated in vivo by injecting im the venoms (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg dissolved in physiological saline solution (0.1 ml and measuring plasma creatine kinase (CK activity. Two experimental approaches were used in mice (N = 5 for each group. In protocol A, 1 mg of each venom was incubated with 1.0 mg suramin (15 min, 37ºC, in vitro, and then injected im into the mice at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg (in vivo. In protocol B, venoms, 1.0 mg/kg, were injected im 15 min prior to suramin (1.0 mg/kg, iv. Before and 2 h after the im injection blood was collected by orbital puncture. Plasma was separated and stored at 4ºC for determination of CK activity using a diagnostic kit from Sigma. Preincubation of some venoms (C.v. viridis, A.c. laticinctus, C.d. terrificus and B. jararacussu with suramin reduced (37-76% the increase in plasma CK, except for B. alternatus, B. jararaca or L. muta venoms. Injection of suramin after the venom partially protected (34-51% against the myotoxicity of B. jararacussu, A.c. laticinctus and C.d. terrificus venom, and did not protect against C.v. viridis, L. muta, B. moojeni, B. alternatus or B. jararaca venoms. These results show that suramin has an antimyotoxic effect against some, but not all the North and South American crotalid snake venoms studied here.

  14. Screening for proteolytic activities in snake venom by means of a multiplexing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, André; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    A multiplexed mass spectrometry based assay scheme for the simultaneous determination of five different substrate/product pairs was developed as a tool for screening of proteolytic activities in snake venom fractions from Bothrops moojeni. The assay scheme was employed in the functional characteriza

  15. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

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    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  16. Reproductive Biology of Bothrops erythromelas from the Brazilian Caatinga

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    Verônica Alberto Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Bothrops erythromelas, a small pit viper from the Caatinga, a semiarid biome in Brazil, is described based on analysis of individuals deposited in zoological collections. Males are smaller and also attain sexual maturity at a smaller size than females. Female reproductive cycle is seasonal with an extended period of secondary vitellogenesis and births occurring in a restricted period from late spring to early summer. Sperm storage in females may probably occur in infundibular tubular glands and uterine muscular twisting (UMT, which is a polymorphic condition within B. erythromelas. Seasonal spermatogenesis in males is variable with some intraspecific variation regarding the male reproductive stage per season. Most males are reproductively active during spring/summer and reproductively quiescent during autumn/winter, although some individuals vary (e.g., show testicular spermatogenesis and active sexual segment of the kidneys (SSK during winter. The SSK could be identified in every male. Most males showed highly hypertrophied SSK in spring/summer and moderately hypertrophied SSK in autumn/winter. The ampulla ductus deferentis was observed and histochemical reactions were conducted. We discuss the probable influence of the unique environmental conditions of the Caatinga region and phylogenetic inertia in the reproductive patterns of this snake species.

  17. Fatal bothropic snakebite in a horse: a case report

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    NS Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a snakebite in a horse in the state of Pará, Brazil. At initial evaluation the animal was reluctant to walk and had tachycardia, tachypnea, severe lameness, bleeding on the pastern and swelling around the left hind leg. Blood samples from the bleeding sites, took on the first day, showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia, whereas biochemical values of urea and creatinine were significantly increased. The chosen treatment was snake antivenom, fluid therapy, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents and diuretic drugs. On the fourth day of therapy, the hematological values were within normal parameters. There was improvement related to the clinical lameness and swelling of the limb. However, a decrease in water intake and oliguria were observed. On the seventh day the animal died. Necropsy revealed areas of hemorrhagic edema in the left hind limb and ventral abdomen; the kidneys presented equimosis in the capsule, and when cut they were wet. Moreover, the cortex was pale, slightly yellow and the medullary striae had the same aspect. Based on these data, we concluded that the snakebite in the present study was caused by Bothrops spp. and that renal failure contributed to death.

  18. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae in Costa Rica

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    G. Alvarado

    Full Text Available Abstract Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884 was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845. This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812 on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM of the specimens are given.

  19. Myonecrosis induced in rat by a myotoxin isolated from the venom of Bothrops neuwiedifrom Alfenas, MG

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    V.L. Leite

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops venoms are composed by several protein fractions. Among these fractions there are myotoxins which induce an important muscle lesion. The purification of this component involves some steps, although providing a pure material, is time consuming. In the present study, we describe a quick method for myotoxin fraction isolation from the venom of Bolhrops nsuwiedi using one-step high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The complete procedure took 30 min. The pur6+y of the two myotoxic fractions isolated was assessed by SDS-PAGE. Upon i.m. injection into rat tibialis anterior, both toxins induced early morphological changes, indicating that the plasma membrane was the first cellular structure affected. Afterwards, the lesion was typically myonecrotic and inflammatory infiltrate was present.Os venenos de Bolhrops são compostos por várias frações protéicas. Dentre elas, as miotoxinas induzem lesões musculares importantes. A purificação deste componente envolve várias etapas e, embora forneça frações puras, é muito trabalhosa. Neste trabalho foi descrito um método rápido para o isolamento da fração miotóxica do veneno de Bothrops neuwiedi (jararaca pintada, utilizando-se uma etapa única de purificação por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O procedimento completo demorou apenas 30 min. Foram isoladas duas frações com atividade miotóxica, cuja pureza foi verificada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida-SDS. A injeção intramuscular no músculo tibial anterior de ratos induziu alterações morfológicas precoces, indicando que a membrana plasmática foi a primeira estrutura celular afetada pela fração miotóxica. A lesão muscular obtida foi tipicamente mionecrótica e foi observado infiltrado inflamatório.

  20. Hemiparesia esquerda consecutiva a empeçonhamento: Por Bothrops Jararacussu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleão L. Teixeira

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available O A. apresenta uma observação de hemiparesia esquerda, consecutiva a envenenamento por Bothrops Jararacussu. É o segundo caso que publica, com idêntica etiologia; além das suas, há duas outras observações semelhantes, de Octávio de Magalhães. Depois de discorrer sobre as hemiplegias cerebrais infantis - mais comuns - lembra que estas nem sempre se acompanham de espasticidade, podendo apresentar-se, raramente, com hipotonia muscular, ou mesmo de coréia, atetose, ou movimentos córeo-atetóticos que falam em favor de comprometimento extrapiramidal. Assinala, também, que crises epileptiformes - generalizadas ou parciais - podem ocorrer, o mesmo se podendo dizer de distúrbios psíquicos. Traduzir-se-iam, estes, por déficit intelectual marcado, podendo ir desde a debilidade mental até a idiotia; ou então, mesmo quando não há aparente comprometimento da esfera intelectual, por perturbações da afetividade, da vontade e do pragmatismo. Passando em revista as causas mais frequentes das hemiplegias cerebrais infantis, abre lugar, dentre elas, para os empeçonhamentos ofídico e escorpiônico (Magalhães e Guimarães. Estuda, a seguir, a patogenia das hemiplegias no decurso dos referidos empeçonhamentos, alinhando as hipóteses correntes, da preferência de conceituadas autoridades no assunto. Transcreve, finalmente, sua observação clínica, da qual se pode concluir, sem dúvida possível, haver, no caso "que apresenta, estreita e imediata ligação entre o envenenamento ofídico e a hemiparesia em estudo. O observado seria portador, além do mais, de crises epileptiformes generalizadas, aparecidas logo a seguir ao empeçonhamento. Além da fotografia do caso que apresenta, mostra-nos o A. outra, de caso anteriormente publicado, este, porém, de hemiplegia cerebral infantil típica, instalada aos 11 anos, após picada de Bothrops jararaca.

  1. Purification and biological effects of a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops moojeni

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    PSF Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom proteins from the C-type lectin family have very distinct biological activities despite their highly conserved primary structure, which is homologous to the carbohydrate recognition region of true C-type lectins. We purified a lectin-like protein (BmLec from Bothrops moojeni venom and investigated its effect on platelet aggregation, insulin secretion, antibacterial activity, and isolated kidney cells. The BmLec was purified using two chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. BmLec showed a dose-dependent platelet aggregation and significantly decreased the bacterial growth rate in approximately 15%. During scanning electron microscopy, the profile of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae treated with lectin disclosed a high vesiculation and membrane rupture. BmLec induced a strong and significant increase in insulin secretion at 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose concentrations, and this effect was seen in the presence of EGTA in both experiments. BmLec (10 µg/mL increased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance and urinary flow. The glomerular filtration rate and percentages of sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport were reduced at 60 minutes of perfusion. Renal alterations caused by BmLec were completely inhibited by indomethacin in all evaluated parameters. In conclusion, the C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops moojeni affected platelet aggregation, insulin secretion, antibacterial activity and isolated kidney function.

  2. Does gestation or feeding affect the body temperature of the golden lancehead, Bothrops insularis (Squamata: Viperidae under field conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P. Bovo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects physiological performance in reptiles and, therefore, body temperature (Tb control is argued to have an important adaptive value. Alterations in Tb due to transient changes in physiological state, as during digestion or gestation, are often linked to the potential benefits of a more precise Tb regulation. However, such thermoregulatory responses in nature remain controversial, particularly for tropical snakes. Herein, we measured Tb of the golden lanceheads, Bothrops insularis (Amaral, 1921, at Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil, to test for alteration in selected body temperatures associated with feeding or gestation. We found no evidence that postprandial or gravid snakes selected for higher Tb indicating that, under natural conditions, body temperature regulation in B. insularis apparently encompasses other ecological factors beyond physiological state per se.

  3. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  4. Snake envenomations in northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Tinoco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of envenoming in Northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000 was evaluated. Reports from the Municipal Secretariat of Health of these counties were used. The results demonstrated that, from 1997 to 1999, there was a shortage of notification, and 40 cases of envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were registered. These cases were more common from February to October, and the lower limbs of male peasants were the mainly affected areas.

  5. Morphological Snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Luis; Baumela Molina, Luis; Henríquez, Pedro; Márquez Neila, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a morphological approach to curve evolution. The differential operators used in the standard PDE snake models can be approached using morphological operations on a binary level set. By combining the morphological operators associated to the PDE components we achieve a new snakes evolution algorithm. This new solution is based on numerical methods which are very simple, fast and stable. Moreover, since the level set is just a binary piecewise constant function, this approach does ...

  6. Acción del veneno de Bothrops jararacussu de Argentina sobre la coagulación sanguínea Activity of the venom of Bothrops jararacussu of Argentina on blood coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Maruñak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops (yarará de Argentina se caracteriza por causar efectos locales y sistémicos. Entre los sistémicos pueden generar alteraciones en la coagulación de la sangre, hemorragias, shock, insuficiencia renal. En este trabajo se estudiaron los efectos que causa el veneno de Bothrops jararacussu de Misiones, Argentina, sobre la coagulación de la sangre. Se utilizaron métodos in vitro e in vivo para evaluar la actividad coagulante, fibrinolítica y defibrinante, como así también la capacidad de degradar el fibrinógeno y la letalidad del veneno. El veneno mostró ser α-fibrinogenolítico y los resultados para las actividades ensayadas fueron: concentración coagulante mínima (CCM 18,5 μg/ml, concentración fibrinolítica mínima (CFM 9,5 mg/ml, dosis defibrinante mínima (DDM 1,56 μg, DL50 43,52 μg/ratón, los que difieren de los obtenidos para otras especies de Bothrops e incluso dentro de la misma especie, pero distribuídas en otras regiones sudamericanas. Se concluye que el veneno de B. jararacussu de Argentina afecta marcadamente el sistema hemostático, y que las actividades coagulantes y anticoagulantes exhibidas por esta secreción probablemente influyan en la letalidad del veneno, dado que contribuirían a la aparición de hemorragias que, de ser severas, conducen a fallo renal y muerte de la víctima.The envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops of Argentina causes local and systemic signs. Among the systemic damages, bothropic venoms induce a wide variety of effects on blood coagulation, haemorrhage, shock and renal failure. In this paper the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom from Argentina on the hemostatic system were determined. In order to estimate blood-clotting, fibrinolytic and defibrinating activities of the venom, in vitro and in vivo tests were employed. The ability to degrade fibrinogen and the lethal dosis (DL50 also were determined. The B

  7. Fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Risk factors associated with coagulation abnormalities in Bothrops envenoming

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    Ricardo Borges de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento botrópico, foram obtidas informações de 2.991 prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Instituto Butantan de 1981 a 1990. Associaram-se positivamente à incoagulabilidade sangüínea (p0,05: horário do acidente; presença de presa recém-deglutida no tubo digestivo da serpente; sexo e idade do paciente; ocorrência de bolha, necrose, abscesso e incisão local, amputação, insuficiência renal e óbito. Pode-se concluir que, embora a incoagulabilidade sangüínea apresente associação com manifestações precoces do envenenamento, não tem boa associação com a evolução clínica do paciente.This study aimed at assessing, in the envenoming by Bothrops, factors that are associated with blood incoagulability. Information was obtained from the charts of 2,991 patients admitted to Instituto Butantan, from 1981 to 1990. Factors positively associated with blood incoagulability (p0.05 were: time of the bite; presence of recently swallowed prey in the snake gut; gender and age of the patient; blister, necrosis, and abscess at the bite site; occurrence of amputation, renal failure and death; presence of an incision at the bite site. We conclude that although blood incoagulability is associated with early manifestations of Bothrops envenoming, it is not associated with the clinical outcome.

  8. Estudo bacteriológico de abscessos causados por picada de serpentes do genero bothrops Bacterial flora of abscesses following Bothrops snakebite

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    João guimarães De Andrade

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a flora bacteriana de 99 abscessos causados por picadas de serpentes do gênero Bothrops, correspondendo a 61,1% dos casos que ocorreram em 1030 acidentes ofídicos atendidos no Hospital de Doenças Tropiciais (HDT de Goiânia, no período de janeiro de 1984 a abril de 1988. O exsudato dos abscessos foi estudado através de bacterioscopia, cultura e testes de sensibilidade para aeróbios. Os bacilos Gram negativos foram isolados em maior frequência, destacando-se a Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli e Providencia sp presentes respectivamente em 44,4%, 20,2% e 13,1% das amostras. Esta flora aeróbica foi semelhante à encontrada na cavidade oral e no veneno das serpentes em outros estudos, nos quais predominaram Morganella morganii. Foi sugerido o uso do cloranfenicol no tratamento dos abscessos que não respondam à simples drenagem, face à grande sensibilidade destes microorganismos demonstrada nos testes "in vitro".The bacterial flora of 99 cases of abscesses following Bothrops snakebite were analysed. They corresponded to 61.1% of all snakebite abs cesses observed in 1030 patients attending the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiânia in Goiás, Brazil, from January 1984 to April 1988. An exsudate sample of each abscess was examined by Gram stain, culture and susceptibility tests. The Gram negative bacillis, Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli and Providencia sp were the most frequent bacterias isolated. They were identified in 44.4%, 20.2% and 13.1% of the samples respectively. This flora was similar to those described in snake mouth and venom by other researchers. Based on the results of the susceptibility tests the authors suggested the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of those abscesses which do not respond to simple drainage.

  9. Structural and biophysical studies with the MjTX-I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, G.H.M.; Fernandes, C.A.H.; Fernandez, R.M.; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Marchi-Salvador, D.P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Soares, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-RP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.L.P [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Phospholipases A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) are small proteins found in a great diversity of organisms and belong to a superfamily of proteins involved in many important pharmacological processes, such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, platelet aggregation, and anticoagulant activity. Ophidic accidents caused by snakes from Bothrops genus are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, and then detailed studies with this class of proteins may be very important to supplement this conventional therapy. Miotoxin-I (MjTX-I) is a basic Lys49-PLA{sub 2}, isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, which induces a drastic local myonecrosis. Crystal structure of MjTX-I shows four molecules in the asymmetric unit, an unusually oligomeric conformation for snake venom Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. However, bioinformatics techniques indicate a dimer as the biological oligomeric conformation. To get additional information of its biological conformation, we also performed Dynamic Light Scattering, Size Exclusion Chromatography and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments. These techniques showed a monomer as the most probable biological conformation in water; however small changes in pH and ionic strength result in different oligomeric assemblies. These novel information for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s may result in important conclusions for this intriguing class of toxins. (author)

  10. Cotiarinase is a novel prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Eduardo S; Garcia, Thalita C; Menezes, Milene C; Tashima, Alexandre K; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange M T

    2013-08-01

    Snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) may affect hemostatic pathways by specifically activating components involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation or by unspecific proteolytic degradation. In this study, we purified and characterized an SVSP from Bothrops cotiara venom, named cotiarinase, which generated thrombin upon incubation with prothrombin. Cotiarinase was isolated by a two-step procedure including gel-filtration and cation-exchange chromatographies and showed a single protein band with a molecular mass of 29 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Identification of cotiarinase by mass spectrometric analysis revealed peptides that matched sequences of viperid SVSPs. Cotiarinase did not show fibrinogen-clotting, platelet-aggregating, fibrinogenolytic and factor X activating activities. Upon incubation with prothrombin the generation of thrombin was detected using the peptide substrate d-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA. Moreover, mass spectrometric identification of prothrombin fragments generated by cotiarinase in the absence of co-factors (phospholipids, factor Va, factor Xa and Ca(2+) ions), indicated the limited proteolysis of this protein to release prothrombin 1, fragment 1 and thrombin. Cotiarinase is a novel SVSP that acts on prothrombin to release active thrombin that does not match any group of the current classification of snake venom prothrombin activators.

  11. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve...

  12. Effect of monospecific antibodies against baltergin in myotoxicity induced by Bothrops alternatus venom from northeast of Argentina. Role of metalloproteinases in muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Maruñak, Silvana; Teibler, Pamela; Leiva, Laura; Acosta, Ofelia

    2013-03-01

    Myotoxicity, one of the most relevant local manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops genus, may result from a direct action of myotoxins or be due to an indirect vascular degeneration and ischemia. Baltergin, a snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), isolated from Bothrops alternatus venom has been used to obtain monospecific IgG, in order to determine the relative role of toxin in myotoxicity induced by whole venom. Bothrops diporus venom, another medical relevant genus of the northeastern region of Argentina, was also studied. Anti-baltergin IgG was able to neutralize completely the hemorrhagic activity of B. alternatus venom at an antibodies:venom ratio of 30:1 (w:w). However, mice injected with B. diporus venom showed a small spot remaining even at the highest ratio of IgG:venom assayed (50:1; w:w). Specific antibodies were efficient to neutralize the myotoxicity of B. alternatus venom at ratio 30:1 (w:w) but did not neutralize the same effects in B. diporus venom. Anti-baltergin polyclonal antibodies were useful tools for revealing the central role of SVMPs in the development of myotoxicity of B. alternatus venom, as well as, helping to suggest indirectly presence of potent myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) in B. diporus venom.

  13. [Pharmacologic and enzymatic effects of snake venoms from Antioquia and Choco (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Guillermo Osorio, R; Valderrama, R; Augusto Giraldo, C

    1992-01-01

    We compared several pharmacological and enzymatic effects induced by 11 snake venoms from seven species, six of them from different geographic areas of Antioquia and Choco, north-west of Colombia, South America (Bothrops atrox, B. nasutus, B. schlegelii, B. punctatus, Lachesis muta, Micrurus mipartitus), and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, from specimens captured in other provinces of the country (Tolima, Huila, Meta and Atlantico). Differences were observed in edema-forming, hemorrhage, defibrination, indirect hemolysis, myonecrosis, proteolysis and lethal activity between venoms from different genera or species, as well as according to the geographic area of origin in B. atrox and B. nasutus snake venoms. Bothrops venoms, in particular B. atrox and L. muta, produced major local effects. All of the venoms, including M. mipartitus, had myotoxic effects. The most defibrinating venoms were B. atrox, L. muta, B. punctatus and C. d. terrificus. All of the venoms had indirect hemolytic activity; the venom of M. mipartitus being greatest. The most lethal venoms were those of C. d. terrificus and M. mipartitus. Within Bothrops species, the venom of B. schlegelii was the least active in terms of local and systemic pathologic effects.

  14. Dictionary Snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues like texture, color and context make objects appear distinct from the surroundings, even without gradients between regions. Texture-rich objects are often difficult to segment because algorithms need advanced features which are unique for the image. In this paper we suggest a method for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours wit...

  15. Forced Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial localization in the real subcritical Ginzburg-Landau equation ut =m0 u +m1 cos2/π l x u +uxx +d | u | 2 u -| u | 4 u with spatially periodic forcing. When d > 0 and m1 = 0 this equation exhibits bistability between the trivial state u = 0 and a homogeneous nontrivial state u =u0 with stationary localized structures which accumulate at the Maxwell point m0 = - 3d2 / 16 . When spatial forcing is included its wavelength is imprinted on u0 creating conditions favorable to front pinning and hence spatial localization. We use numerical continuation to show that under appropriate conditions such forcing generates a sequence of localized states organized within a snakes-and-ladders structure centered on the Maxwell point, and refer to this phenomenon as forced snaking. We determine the stability properties of these states and show that longer lengthscale forcing leads to stationary trains consisting of a finite number of strongly localized, weakly interacting pulses exhibiting foliated snaking.

  16. Triacontyl p-coumarate: an inhibitor of snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M M; Vieira, S A P B; Gomes, M S R; Paula, V F; Alcântara, T M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; dos Santos, J I; Magro, A J; Fontes, M R M; Rodrigues, V M

    2013-02-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) participate in a number of important biological, physiological and pathophysiological processes and are primarily responsible for the local tissue damage characteristic of viperid snake envenomations. The use of medicinal plant extracts as antidotes against animal venoms is an old practice, especially against snake envenomations. Such plants are sources of many pharmacologically active compounds and have been shown to antagonize the effects of some venoms and toxins. The present study explores the activity of triacontyl p-coumarate (PCT), an active compound isolated from root bark of Bombacopsis glabra vegetal extract (Bg), against harmful effects of Bothropoides pauloensis snake venom and isolated toxins (SVMPs or phospholipase A(2)). Before inhibition assays, Bg or PCT was incubated with venom or toxins at ratios of 1:1 and 1:5 (w/w; venom or isolated toxins/PCT) for 30 min at 37°C. Treatment conditions were also assayed to simulate snakebite with PCT inoculated at either the same venom or toxin site. PCT neutralized fibrinogenolytic activity and plasmatic fibrinogen depletion induced by B. pauloensis venom or isolated toxin. PCT also efficiently inhibited the hemorrhagic (3MDH - minimum hemorrhagic dose injected i.d into mice) and myotoxic activities induced by Jararhagin, a metalloproteinase from B. jararaca at 1:5 ratio (toxin: inhibitor, w/w) when it was previously incubated with PCT and injected into mice or when PCT was administered after toxin injection. Docking simulations using data on a metalloproteinase (Neuwiedase) structure suggest that the binding between the protein and the inhibitor occurs mainly in the active site region causing blockade of the enzymatic reaction by displacement of catalytic water. Steric hindrance may also play a role in the mechanism since the PCT hydrophobic tail was found to interact with the loop associated with substrate anchorage. Thus, PCT may provide a alternative to complement

  17. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as th...

  18. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em serpentes de cativeiro Prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Custório Ruggiero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium é um protozoário encontrado em uma grande variedade de espécies animais como responsável por casos de gastrite e enterite, porém com epidemiologia pouco conhecida em animais silvestres. A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em lavado gástrico de serpentes mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta foi realizada uma semana após alimentação, evitando, assim, a regurgitação devido à manipulação. Foram realizados esfregaços do sedimento do lavado gástrico, obtido por centrifugação, corados pela técnica de coloração de Kinyoun. Parte do sedimento foi submetido à técnica de RFLP-PCR para identificação da espécie de Cryptosporidium. O serpentário é dividido em três seções, por espécie - a primeira com oito jibóias (Boa constrictor amarali, a segunda com dez jararacas (Bothropoides jararaca e a última com sete cascavéis (Caudisona durissa. A prevalência de C. serpentis encontrada neste estudo para as serpentes C. durissa, B. jararaca e Boa c. amarali, foi de 57,14% (04/07, 40% (04/10 e 37,5% (03/08, respectivamente, revelando importante ocorrência desse protozoário em serpentes de cativeiro. Apesar da alta prevalência encontrada, apenas as jiboias apresentaram sintomas como perda de peso e regurgitação, refletindo uma sensibilidade diferente da espécie para C. serpentis.Cryptosporidium is a protozoan found in a wide variety of animal species which is responsible for gastritis and enteritis, but its epidemiology is poorly known in wild animals. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in gastric aspirate of captive snakes from the public serpentarium of the Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was performed preferably one week after feeding, thereby preventing regurgitation due to manipulation. Smears were done from the gastric

  19. Effects of nonionic surfactant lauryl alcohol ethoxylated on stratum corneum alternative model biomembranes evaluated by biophysical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Baby, André R.; Lacerda, Áurea C. L.; Prestes, Paula S.; Velasco, María Valéria R.; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko,Telma Mary

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the nonionic surfactant lauryl alcohol ethoxylate with 12 moles ethylene oxide (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the Stratum corneum model biomembrane (SCMM) of shed snake skin (Bothrops jararaca and Spilotes pullatus) through the biophysical techniques Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR). The surfactant was used in aqueous solutions above and below the critical micelle concentration (cmc), 50.0 and 0....

  20. Effects of photobiostimulation on edema and hemorrhage induced by Bothrops moojeni venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadur-Andrade, Nikele; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Carlos, Fernando Pereira; Lima, Carlos José; Cogo, José Carlos; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2012-01-01

    Antivenom (AV) treatment has been ineffective in neutralizing the severe local fast-developing tissue damage following snake-bite envenoming. We studied the effectiveness of low-level laser (LLL) and light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation alone or in combination with AV in reducing local edema formation and hemorrhage induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (BmV) in mice. Edema formation was induced by injection of 1 μg per paw of BmV into the right paw and was evaluated before and at several intervals after BmV intraplantar injection. Hemorrhagic activity was evaluated after intradermal injection of 20 μg of BmV by measuring the diameter of the hemorrhagic area on the inner side of the skin. The site of BmV injection was irradiated by LLL or LED 30 min after BmV inoculation. AV was also administered intravenously 30 min after BmV injection. Irradiation with LLL at a wavelength of 685 nm and a dose of 2.2 J/cm(2) and with a red LED and an infrared LED at wavelengths of 635 nm and 945 nm, respectively, and a dose of 4 J/cm(2) reduced edema formation and hemorrhage induced by BmV (p BmV may be clinically relevant.

  1. Contribuição à biologia de serpentes da Bahia, Brasil: I. vivíparas Contribution to reproductive biology of snakes in Bahia, Brazil: I. viviparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Great part of lhe avaiable data about snakes reprodution refers to species coming from subtropical and temperate regions. In Brazil, the data is rather rare and can be found in various works where information is restricted. Results from studies developed with five viviparous snakes - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Wagler, 1824. Bothrops erythromelas(Amaral, 1923, B. leucurus (Wagler, 1824, Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1873 and Thamnodynastes strigilis (Thiinberg, 1787 - which come from the Northeast of Brazil (Bahia are described. Data about pregnancy and birth, number, sex ratio, length and weight of neonates is given and discussed.

  2. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  3. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  4. Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidiane D R Prado

    Full Text Available Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II, two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718 were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607 neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem.

  5. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  6. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  7. Isotopic change in the tissues of Bothrops atrox in captivity collected from environments of the eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Chalkidis, H. D.; Amazonas, D. R.; da Silva, A. M.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Bothrops atrox is little studied because it is sympatric Amazonian animals, and very little is known about the ecology and natural history of this species. It has a generalist diet and the distribution of this species is very wide. The adult animals forage mostly on the ground, while the younger animals prefer to stay on the vegetation. They are easily find in the rainy months in areas near lakes and seasonally flooded and are difficult to find in the driest months, a period where there is less availability of preys in these environments. Due to its aggressiveness, is considered one of the most feared snakes in South America and in the eastern Amazon, being responsible for the largest number of snakebites in the region. Through stable isotope carbon-13 and nitrogen-15, is intended to characterize the variations of the feeding habits of these collected animals in different environments and also when they are kept in captivity, feeding the animal's bioterium. The serpents were collected in environments with different land uses, such as native forest, savannah, pasture and have been brought to the serpentarium Integrated College Tapajos (FIT), being retained in order to Samplings throughout the experiment with feeding mice's own bioterium. When these snakes came from different locations, samples were collected scales and blood (T0), before receiving the new supply (captive), and every time we fed the mice the vivarium, new tissue samples were collected, (T1, T2, T3) to exchange all the nature of food for the food captivity.Based on the results of δ13C and δ15N, the samples collected in the tissues of snakes of different environments (nature and captivity), it was observed that changes in food sources reflect changes in tissues (blood and scales), also reflecting the production of poison different periods of turnover of absorbed material in those tissues, contributing to the study of animal ecology and behavior in relation to habitat.

  8. Daily patterns of the locomotor activity of Bothrops jararacussu (Serpentes: Viperidae: A response to environmental lighting conditions or an endogenous rhythm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available While most circadian biologists would probably assume that circadian clocks drive activity patterns, it is also well known that environmental stimuli may mask endogenous rhythms by either increasing or suppressing activity. The hypothesis that circadian rhythms are generally entrained by exogenous cycles was experimentally tested in Bothrops jararacussu. In this study, we investigated the locomotor activity under constant light and constant dark conditions for 24 days and compared it to that of control snakes living under a light/dark cycle. Under the light/dark cycle, one peak of activity was observed during the night phase, which is typical of the circadian rhythms of nocturnal species. Constant light on Bothrops jararacussu promoted a significant fragmentation and an overall increase in the amount of locomotor activity, while constant darkness provoked a significant suppression of activity. This circadian rhythm is probably endogenous, primarily synchronized by alternating light and darkness. Constant light induces desynchronization, and constant darkness leads to the blockage of circadian clocks. The functional significance of these circadian changes suggests a small flexibility in circadian organization in response to environmental conditions.

  9. Snakes and spin rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-06-18

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10{sup {minus}4} will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of myotoxin I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} from Bothrops moojeni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi-Salvador, D. P. [Departamento de Física e Biofísica-IB, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil); Silveira, L. B.; Soares, A. M. [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto/SP (Brazil); Fontes, M. R. M., E-mail: fontes@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Biofísica-IB, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-01

    A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase from B. moojeni has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.18 Å resolution. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, leading to a possible new oligomeric structure for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group C2. The unit-cell parameters are a = 56.8, b = 125.0, c = 64.7 Å, β = 105.5°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit. This may suggest a new quaternary structure for this Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} in contrast to the dimeric and monomeric structures solved so far for this class of proteins.

  11. Radioiodination and biodistribution of Leucurolysin-B isolated from Bothrops Leucurus in mice bearing Ehrlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, L.M.; Soares, M.A.; Bicalho, M.S.; Santos, R.G. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcellaaraugio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: mbs@cdtn.br, e-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Sanchez, E.O.F.; Silva, S.G. [Ezequiel Dias Foundation, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: silea@funed.mg.gov.br, e-mail: eladio@funed.mg.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Integrins are family of heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors able to recognize and bind to proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This recognition is mainly through the RGD domain present in both the cell surface as the protein in the ECM. Various integrins have been identified as regulators of tumor progression. The RGD domain is also found in some snake venoms named disintegrins. Disintegrins inhibit cell-matrix and a cell-cell interaction mediated by integrin and has been shown that these proteins are able to inhibit metastasis in processes dependent on integrin. The disintegrin-like (ECD), as well as RGD-disintegrin are also able to bind to cell surface integrins and inhibit their adherence to the natural ligands. Leucurolysin-B (Leuc-B) is a metalloproteinase class P-III isolated from Bothrops leucurus (BLV) and possesses a disintegrin-like domain (ECD). The goals of this work were to synthesize a radioactive probe analog to Leuc-B using radioiodine {sup 125}I and evaluate the interaction of {sup 125}I-Leuc-B in tumor cells through the study of biodistribution in animals bearing Ehrlich tumor.125I-Leuc-B was synthesized using lactoperoxidase with high yield (90%) and specific activity of 1.2x10-7Bq/mmol. It was observed that {sup 125}I-Leuc-B had very fast clearance from the blood stream (T1/2= 0.01 h). Tumor uptake of 125I-Leuc-B gradually increased up to (2 min) and remained for a quite long period. The tumor/normal tissue uptake ratios of {sup 125}I-Leuc-B were 1.77 (tumor/normal paw) and 8.44 tumor/skeletal muscle. The results suggest that {sup 125}I-Leuc- B may constitute a good template for development of a tool for detection of solid tumors. (author)

  12. Immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae venom and its evaluation by immunoenzymatic methods Inmunogenicidad del veneno de Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae y su evaluación por métodos inmunoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sandoval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, venom was studied using ELISA and Western Blot methods, as well as cross-reactivity patterns against venoms of Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta and Crotalus durissus. For this purpose, New Zealand white rabbits (2 kg aprox were immunized with four 500 μg doses of B. atrox venom in a period of 90 days. Antibody production was followed using ELISA technique, and title of hiper-immune serum was determined at the end of immunization protocol. Additionally, electrophoretic patterns of venoms were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and venom reactivity against obtained serum by ELISA and Western Blot. Immunization schedule allowed a pronounced antibody production since day 20 of protocol. At the end of process, serum title was 256000, which demonstrated both efficacy and usefulness of the developed procedure. On the other hand, studied venoms showed a heterogenic protein composition according to their electrophoretic patterns, whereas cross-reactivity values of 23,7%, 4,0% and 1,8% were obtained between B. atrox venom and B. brazili, L. muta and C. durissus venoms, respectively, using immunoenzymatic methods. According to our results, this procedure constitutes an initial step for further assays directed to optimization in immunoserum production for envenoming treatment and development of kits for diagnosis and species identification of snakes.Se estudió la inmunogenicidad del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, utilizando los métodos inmunoenzimáticos de ELISA y Western Blot, así como los patrones de reactividad cruzada empleando los venenos de las serpientes Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Crotalus durissus. Para este fin se inmunizaron conejos albinos Nueva Zelanda (2 kg aprox con cuatro dosis de 500 μg del veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de 90 días. La producción de anticuerpos fue monitoreada mediante la técnica de ELISA, determinándose el título del suero hiperinmune obtenido

  13. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wild snakes in eastern North America caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. The data presented here describe: 1) the types of fungi recovered in culture from the skin of snakes with and without fungal skin infections, 2) the presence or absence of skin lesions in populations of snakes surveyed at several sites in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 3) the various species of snakes that have been found to harbor O. ophiodiicola.

  14. Structural and functional studies of a bothropic myotoxin complexed to rosmarinic acid: new insights into Lys49-PLA₂ inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana I Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenoming is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, and is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Most severe cases are inflicted by species of the families Elapidae and Viperidae, and lead to a number of systemic and local effects in the victim. One of the main problems regarding viperidic accidents is prominent local tissue damage whose pathogenesis is complex and involves the combined actions of a variety of venom components. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s are the most abundant muscle-damaging components of these venoms. Herein, we report functional and structural studies of PrTX-I, a Lys49-PLA₂ from Bothops pirajai snake venom, and the influence of rosmarinic acid (RA upon this toxin's activities. RA is a known active component of some plant extracts and has been reported as presenting anti-myotoxic properties related to bothopic envenomation. The myotoxic activity of Lys49-PLA₂s is well established in the literature and although no in vivo neurotoxicity has been observed among these toxins, in vitro neuromuscular blockade has been reported for some of these proteins. Our in vitro studies show that RA drastically reduces both the muscle damage and the neuromuscular blockade exerted by PrTX-I on mice neuromuscular preparations (by ∼80% and ∼90%, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the two effects are closely related and lead us to suggest that they are consequences of the muscle membrane-destabilizing activity of the Lys49-PLA₂. Although the C-terminal region of these proteins has been reported to comprise the myotoxic site, we demonstrate by X-ray crystallographic studies that RA interacts with PrTX-I in a different region. Consequently, a new mode of Lys49-PLA₂ inhibition is proposed. Comparison of our results with others in the literature suggests possible new ways to inhibit bothropic snake venom myotoxins and improve serum

  15. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0620 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAO72730.1| follicle-stimulating hormone receptor [Bothrops jararaca] 0.0 85% MALVYLCLLLLLLPSGTCSGCQHPLCQCSD...GANGPSFLDISETRISQLPAIGLESISKLRARSAYSLKKLPPLDKFRALIEANLTYPSHCCAFANWTKQNSMLHPLCNKSSTKQDPEGLYFELDEDDYYQSLCKEEVQ

  16. Isolation and characterization of two new non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinases with fibrinogenolytic activity from the mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, María E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana María; Sánchez, Elda E; Galán, Jacob; Ibarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy

    2013-01-01

    Colombienases are acidic, low molecular weight metalloproteinases (Mr of 23,074.31 Da colombienase-1 and 23,078.80 Da colombienase-2; pI of 6.0 and 6.2, respectively) isolated from Bothrops colombiensis snake venom. The chromatographic profile in RP-HPLC and its partial sequence confirmed its high homogeneity. Both colombienases present fibrino(geno)lytic activity, but did not show any hemorrhagic, amidolytic, plasminogen activator or coagulant activities, and no effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP. Both enzymes were strongly active on fibrinogen Aα chains followed by the Bβ chains, and colombienases-2, at high doses, also degraded the γ chains. This activity was stable at temperatures ranging between 4 and 37 °C, with a maximum activity at 25 °C, and at pHs between 7 and 9. The homology demonstrated by the comparison of sequences, with zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, as well as the metal chelant effects on, confirmed that the colombienases were metalloproteinases, particularly to α-fibrinogenases belonging to the P-I class of SVPMs (20-30 kDa), which contain only the single-domain proteins. The biological characteristics of the colombienases confer a therapeutic potential, since they contain a high fibrino(geno)lytic activity, devoid of hemorrhagic activity. These metalloproteinases might be explored as thrombolytic agents given that they dissolve fibrin clots or prevent their formation.

  17. Human neutrophil migration and activation by BJcuL, a galactose binding lectin purified from Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil migration to an inflamed site constitutes the first line of the innate immune response against invading microorganisms. Given the crucial role of endogenous lectins in neutrophil mobilization and activation, lectins from exogenous sources have often been considered as putative modulators of leukocyte function. Lectins purified from snake venom have been described as galactoside ligands that induce erythrocyte agglutination and platelet aggregation. This study evaluated human neutrophil migration and activation by C-type lectin BJcuL purified from Bothrops jararacussu venom. Results Utilizing fluorescence microscopy, we observed that biotinylated-BJcuL was evenly distributed on the neutrophil surface, selectively inhibited by D-galactose. Lectin was able to induce modification in the neutrophil morphology in a spherical shape for a polarized observed by optical microscopy and exposure to BJcuL in a Boyden chamber assay resulted in cell migration. After 30 minutes of incubation with BJcuL we found enhanced neutrophil functions, such as respiratory burst, zymozan phagocytosis and an increase in lissosomal volume. In addition, BJcuL delays late apoptosis neutrophils. Conclusion These results demonstrate that BJcuL can be implicated in a wide variety of immunological functions including first-line defense against pathogens, cell trafficking and induction of the innate immune response since lectin was capable of inducing potent neutrophil activation.

  18. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Carvalho

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, com hábitos predominantemente diurnos, terrestres e com dietas baseadas em anfíbios e/ou lagartos. Dentre os 307 acidentes ofídicos registrados, 56% foram causados por serpentes sem interesse médico e 44% constituíram acidentes de importância médica. Cerca de 99% dos acidentes de importância médica foram atribuídos ao gênero Bothrops (Bothrops moojeni e Bothrops neuwiedi seriam as principais causadoras. Dentre as espécies sem interesse médico, Philodryas olfersii e Waglerophis merremii provavelmente foram as principais responsáveis pela maior parte dos acidentes.This study presents data on snakes recorded in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sources of information included specimens captured by local residents (1986-1993 and turned over to the Mato Grosso Regional Ophiological Center (Normat, and data from the Anti-Venom Information Center (Ciave, regarding urban snakebites (1988-1993. Thirty-seven species of snakes from 25 genera and three families were recorded. Diurnal and terrestrial habits predominated, as well as a diet based on amphibians and/or lizards. From a total of 307 snakebites recorded, some 56% were of no clinical importance, caused by non-venomous snakes, whereas 44% were clinically relevant. Approximately 99% of the latter were attributed to vipers of the genus Bothrops, and especially the Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi species The colubrids Philodryas olfersii and Waglerophis merremii were

  19. Snake evolution and prospecting of snake venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Freek Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    in this thesis I have shown that snakes have undergone multiple changes in their genome and embryonic development that has provided them with the variation to which natural selection could act. This thesis provides evidence for the variable mechanisms of venom gene evolution, which presumably is muc

  20. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  1. Nonreversible Homoclinic Snaking

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Vielitz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Homoclinic snaking refers to the sinusoidal snaking continuation curve of homoclinic orbits near a heteroclinic cycle connecting an equilibrium E and a periodic orbit P. Along this curve the homoclinic orbit performs more and more windings about the periodic orbit. Typically this behaviour appears in reversible Hamiltonian systems. Here we discuss this phenomenon in systems without any particular structure. We give a rigorous analytical verification of homoclinic snaking under certain assumptions on the behaviour of the stable and unstable manifolds of E and P. We show how the snaking behaviour depends on the signs of the Floquet multipliers of P. Further we present a nonsnaking scenario. Finally we show numerically that these assumptions are fulfilled in a model equation.

  2. Pulmonoscopy of Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonoscopy is a practical diagnostic tool for investigating respiratory diseases in snakes. Two different approaches exist for pulmonoscopy, tracheal and transcutaneous. The access to the proximal or distal lung is limited by the length and diameter of the endoscope when using the tracheal approach. The transcutaneous approach allows direct evaluation of the lung and distal trachea through the air sac. Both of the methods are safe, and specific contraindications for pulmonoscopy in snakes are not known except for any anesthesia contraindication.

  3. Lance-headed viper (Bothrops moojeni bite wounding the eye Acidente botrópico (Bothrops moojeni com ferimento ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Otaviano Brandão

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl was bitten in her left eye by a lance-headed viper identified as Bothrops moojeni, measuring 115 cm of length. There was severe facial swelling and left exophthalmus, and enucleation of the eye was necessary. The patient apparently had mild systemic envenoming, but local inflammatory signs and histological evidence of necrosis suggest that both the mechanical trauma and the local action of the venom had a role in the genesis of the eye lesion. It is arguable if the loss of the eye could be prevented even if the antivenom was administered earlier.Uma menina de 5 anos de idade foi picada no olho esquerdo por uma serpente da espécie Bothrops moojeni, que media 115 cm de comprimento. Houve intenso edema facial e ex-oftalmia; enucleação do olho foi necessária. A paciente aparentemente apresentou um envenenamento sistêmico leve, mas os sinais inflamatórios locais e a evidência histológica de necrose sugerem que tanto o traumatismo mecânico como a ação local do veneno tiveram um papel na gênese da lesão ocular. É questionável se o prognóstico da lesão ocular teria sido diferente se o antiveneno tivesse sido administrado em dose adequada mais precocemente.

  4. Crystal structure of a Bothrops toxin I, a Myotoxin K 49 like Phospholipase A{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giotto, M.T.S.; Azevedo, W.F.; Horjales, E.; Oliva, G.; Mascarenhas, Y.P.; Garratt, R.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Bothrops toxin-I (BthTX-I) is a mytoxin isolated from the Brazilian snake Bothrops jararacussu which is a member of the phospholipase A{sub 2} but presents no catalytic activity due to a D49K substitution. Protein was provided by Prof. Dr. J.R. Giglio and Prof{sup a}. Dr{sup a}. A.C.O. Cintra from the Departamento de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto and used in crystallization experiments which were performed using the vapor diffusion technique in hanging drops at 18{sup 0}C. The BthTX-I crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES, pH ranging from 7.0 to 7.6. The precipitant was (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4} in concentrations ranging from 7.0 to 7.6. The precipitant was (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4} in concentrations ranging from 57 to 62%. The data collection was initially performed using the automatic difractometer R-AXIS IIC from the Rigaku Co. at the Laboratorio de Cristalografia of IFESC-USP. Subsequently a second data set was collected at SERC Daresbury Laboratory in England using synchrotron radiation. BthTX-I crystallizes in space group P3{sub 1} 21 with a=b=57.58 A, c=131.27 A, {alpha}={beta}=900{sup 0}C and {gamma}=120{sup 0}C. Processing of the data was performed with the MOSFLM program yielding an R{sub merge}= 6.3% and completeness of 99.6% at 2.1 A of resolution. The structure was solved by Molecular Replacement using the package AMoRe with the Agksitrodon piscivorus piscivorus enyme as search model and refined using the refinement program X-PLOR to a final R=18.7% and R{sub free}=27.4%. The assymetric unit contains two monomers, which can be chosen such that they present similar interactions to those described for the homogeneous myotoxin II from B. asper. The interface is, however, surprisingly small when compared to other dimeric structures and is less complementary than expected. A theoretical model for phospholipid building to BthTX-I suggests that no direct interactions between the sn-2 ester bond and K49 would be expected, thus explaining the lack of catalytic activity.

  5. Argininosuccinate Synthetase Is a Functional Target for a Snake Venom Anti-hypertensive Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Juliano R.; Lameu, Claudiana; Oliveira, Eduardo F.; Klitzke, Clécio F.; Melo, Robson L.; Linares, Edlaine; Augusto, Ohara; Fox, Jay W.; Lebrun, Ivo; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Camargo, Antonio C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bj-BPP-10c is a bioactive proline-rich decapeptide, part of the C-type natriuretic peptide precursor, expressed in the brain and in the venom gland of Bothrops jararaca. We recently showed that Bj-BPP-10c displays a strong, sustained anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), without causing any effect in normotensive rats, by a pharmacological effect independent of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesized that another mechanism should be involved in the peptide activity. Here we used affinity chromatography to search for kidney cytosolic proteins with affinity for Bj-BPP-10c and demonstrate that argininosuccinate synthetase (AsS) is the major protein binding to the peptide. More importantly, this interaction activates the catalytic activity of AsS in a dose-de pend ent manner. AsS is recognized as an important player of the citrulline-NO cycle that represents a potential limiting step in NO synthesis. Accordingly, the functional interaction of Bj-BPP-10c and AsS was evidenced by the following effects promoted by the peptide: (i) increase of NO metabolite production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell culture and of arginine in human embryonic kidney cells and (ii) increase of arginine plasma concentration in SHR. Moreover, α-methyl-dl-aspartic acid, a specific AsS inhibitor, significantly reduced the anti-hypertensive activity of Bj-BPP-10c in SHR. Taken together, these results suggest that AsS plays a role in the anti-hypertensive action of Bj-BPP-10c. Therefore, we propose the activation of AsS as a new mechanism for the anti-hypertensive effect of Bj-BPP-10c in SHR and AsS as a novel target for the therapy of hypertension-related diseases. PMID:19491403

  6. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  7. Distribution of 131I-labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.L. Vasconcelos

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with 131I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl® S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%. Male Swiss mice (40-45 g, which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 105 cpm/mouse of 131I-venom (N = 42, 131I-albumin or 131I (controls, N = 28 each. Thirty minutes and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% NaCl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption in the skin (51% within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1% and free iodine (8.2%. Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach (3rd h, small intestine (3rd h and large intestine (6th h. Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively, and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3rd h postinjection (1.98%. There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (<0.54%, thyroid (<0.11% and lungs (<0.08%, and no iodinated venom was detected in brain, heart, diaphragm, spleen or bladder. The low venom binding observed in most internal organs, comparable to that of albumin, suggests that B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs

  8. Distribution of {sup 131} I- labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, C.M.L.; Valenca, R.C.; Araujo, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Modesto, J.C.A.; Pontes, M.M.; Guarnieri, M.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Brazil, T.K. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1998-03-01

    Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with {sup 131} I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%.Male Swiss mice (40-45 g), which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc) with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 10{sup 5} cpm/mouse) of {sup 131} I-venom (N = 42), {sup 131} -albumin or {sup 131} I (controls, N = 28 each). Thirty minutes and 1,3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% Na Cl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption int he skin (51%) within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1%) and free iodine (8.2%). Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach ( 3 rd h),small intestine (3 rd h) and large intestine (6th h). Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively), and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3 rd h postinjection (1.98%).There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs). That is, the systemic effects of envenomation ar mainly due to an indirect action. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Effects of irradiated Bothropstoxin-1 and Bothrops jararacussu crude venom on the immune system; Acao da Bothropstoxina-1 e do veneno total de Bothrops jararacussu irradiados sobre o sistema imune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Priscila

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity, however, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. At the present work, we have evaluated the effects on immune system of B10.PL and BALB/c mice of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and isolated bothropstoxin-1 (Bthx-1), before and after gamma radiation exposition. According to our data, irradiation process promoted structural modifications on both isolated toxin and crude venom, characterized by higher molecular weight protein (aggregates and oligomers) formation. Irradiated samples were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties. Also, our data indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved. Results from Western blot assay showed that antibodies raised against irradiated bothropstoxin-1 recognize both native isolated toxin or crude venom. Cytotoxicity assay showed that irradiated toxin and crude venom were less toxic than their native counterpart. Thus, the viability of the macrophages cultured in the presence of irradiated Bthx-1 or crude venom was higher if compared with their native forms. LDH Assay showed that irradiated Bthx-1 promotes less muscular damage than the native form. Our data confirm a potential use of

  10. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  11. Crystal structure of myotoxin-II: a myotoxic phospholipase A{sub 2} - homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, W.F.; Ward, R.J.; Lombardi, F.R.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas; Soares, A.M.; Giglio, J.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. Biofisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA{sub 2}; E C 3.1.1.4, phosphatides s n-2 acyl hydrolases) hydrolysis the s n-2 ester bond of phospholipids showing enhanced activity at lamellar or membrane surfaces. Intracellular PLA{sub 2} s are involved at phospholipid metabolism and signal transduction, whereas extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are found in mammalian pancreatic juices, the venoms of snakes, lizards and insects. Based on their high primary sequence similarity, extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are separated into Classes I, II and III. Class II PLA{sub 2} s are found in snake venoms of Crotalidae an Viperidae species, and include the sub-family of Lys PLA{sub 2} s homologue. he coordination of the Ca{sup 2+} ion in the PLA{sub 2} calcium-binding loop includes and aspartate at position 49. In the catalytically active PLA{sub 2} s, this calcium ion plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The conservative substitution Asp49-Lys results in a decreased calcium affinity with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity, and naturally occurring PLA{sub 2} s-homologues showing the same substitution are catalytically inactive. However, the Lys PLA{sub 2} s possess cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid layers by a ca{sup 2+}-independent mechanism for which there is no evidence of lipid hydrolysis. Lys 49 PLA{sub 2} homologues have been isolated from several Bothrops spp. venoms including B. moojeni. Therefore, in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca{sup 2+} independent membrane damaging activities we have determined the crystal structure of MjTX-II, a Lys 49 homologue from the venom of B. moojeni. The model presented has been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (R{sub f}ree=28.1%). (author)

  12. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gâz Florea Şerban Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III classes were separated in subclasses based on distinctive post-translational modifications. SVMPs are synthesized in a latent form, being activated through a Cys-switch mechanism similar to matrix metalloproteinases. Most of the metalloproteinases of the snake venom are responsible for the hemorrhagic events but also have fibrinogenolytic activity, poses apoptotic activity, activate blood coagulation factor II and X, inhibit platelet aggregation, demonstrating that SVMPs have multiple functions in addition to well-known hemorrhagic function.

  13. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  14. Coagulant thrombin-like enzyme (barnettobin) from Bothrops barnetti venom: molecular sequence analysis of its cDNA and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Ruiz, Dan E; Sandoval, Gustavo A; Mendoza, Julio; Inga, Rosalina R; Gontijo, Silea; Richardson, Michael; Eble, Johannes A; Yarleque, Armando; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2013-07-01

    The thrombin-like enzyme from Bothrops barnetti named barnettobin was purified. We report some biochemical features of barnettobin including the complete amino acid sequence that was deduced from the cDNA. Snake venom serine proteases affect several steps of human hemostasis ranging from the blood coagulation cascade to platelet function. Barnettobin is a monomeric glycoprotein of 52 kDa as shown by reducing SDS-PAGE, and contains approx. 52% carbohydrate by mass which could be removed by N-glycosidase. The complete amino acid sequence was deduced from the cDNA sequence. Its sequence contains a single chain of 233 amino acid including three N-glycosylation sites. The sequence exhibits significant homology with those of mammalian serine proteases e.g. thrombin and with homologous TLEs. Its specific coagulant activity was 251.7 NIH thrombin units/mg, releasing fibrinopeptide A from human fibrinogen and showed defibrinogenating effect in mouse. Both coagulant and amidolytic activities were inhibited by PMSF. N-deglycosylation impaired its temperature and pH stability. Its cDNA sequence with 750 bp encodes a protein of 233 residues. Indications that carbohydrate moieties may play a role in the interaction with substrates are presented. Barnettobin is a new defibrinogenating agent which may provide an opportunity for the development of new types of anti-thrombotic drugs.

  15. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  16. Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb. MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: Insights from a Model with Extract Administration before Venom Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Camilo Patiño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renealmia alpinia (Rottb. MAAS, obtained by micropropagation (in vitro and wild forms have previously been shown to inhibit some toxic activities of Bothrops asper snake venom if preincubated before injection. In this study, assays were performed in a murine model in which extracts were administered for three days before venom injection. R. alpinia extracts inhibited lethal activity of B. asper venom injected by intraperitoneal route. Median Effective Dose (ED50 values were 36.6 ± 3.2 mg/kg and 31.7 ± 5.4 mg/kg (p > 0.05 for R. alpinia wild and in vitro extracts, respectively. At a dose of 75 mg/kg, both extracts totally inhibited the lethal activity of the venom. Moreover, this dose prolonged survival time of mice receiving a lethal dose of venom by the intravenous route. At 75 mg/kg, both extracts of R. alpinia reduced the extent of venom-induced pulmonary hemorrhage by 48.0% (in vitro extract and 34.7% (wild extract, in agreement with histological observations of lung tissue. R. alpinia extracts also inhibited hemorrhage in heart and kidneys, as evidenced by a decrease in mg of hemoglobin/g of organ. These results suggest the possibility of using R. alpinia as a prophylactic agent in snakebite, a hypothesis that needs to be further explored.

  17. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1999-11-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  19. Ethnobotanic study of Randia aculeata (Rubiaceae in Jamapa, Veracruz, Mexico, and its anti-snake venom effects on mouse tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gallardo-Casas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, medicinal plants are widely used. The use of Randia aculeata by healers against snakebites has never been scientifically tested in relation to possible effects on blood parameters and muscle tissue damage. Interviews were carried out in Jamapa, Veracuz, Mexico, with local residents to collect information about the traditional use of Randia aculeata. In this locality, seven pieces of fruit from the plant are mixed in a liter of alcohol, and then administered orally against snakebites. By using histological techniques and a murine model, we explored its cytoprotective properties against the effects of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms. Possible protections provided by the plant against tissue damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles and against the typical loss of red blood cells were analyzed. Randia aculeata caused an increase in microhematocrit and total hemoglobin, parameters that are often decremented in association with the loss of red blood cells, which is a characteristic effect of animal venom. Randia aculeata was also shown to protect against the lowering of platelet levels caused by Bothrops asper venom. Finally, Randia aculeata produced a partial inhibition of necrosis following administration of snake venom in skeletal and myocardial muscles. The present results provide solid evidence for the traditional use of Randia aculeata against snakebites, as demonstrated by protection against muscular tissue damage and the diminution of red blood cells.

  20. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, I.; R. Jaspers,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal View allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to

  1. Quantum Snake Walk on Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2010-01-01

    I introduce a new type of continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states which most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. No efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  2. A importância dos acidentes ofídicos como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil The importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2006-06-01

    ível pela determinação precisa do quadro clínico-patológico. Com base nos dados disponíveis e em nossa experiência, somos da opinião que os acidentes ofídicos fatais em bovinos são bem menos freqüentes do que se acredita, isto é, sua importância vem sendo bastante superestimada.A review of the literature shows that opinions on the importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil are divergent among veterinarians; some think they are of no importance or of only minor significance, others are of the opinion that snake bites are frequent. However, the literature only reports two confirmed fatal cases by Bothrops and none by Crotalus in cattle in the country. A questionnaire which was submitted for appraisal to veterinary pathologists and clinicians in various States of Brazil, revealed only suspected cases of fatal accidents by snakes in cattle. During our field and laboratory diagnostic work we never made a diagnosis of a snake bite accident. Many "diagnoses" have apparently been made at a distance from where the animals died, without clinical and post-mortem examination, nor histological studies. By this way, the great majority of cases seems to be only supposition. In Brazil there are only few snakes of the genus Bothrops theoretically able to produce sufficient amounts of venom to kill an adult bovine. Nevertheless, in experiments, only Bothrops alternatus was able to cause the death of just one out of three bovines bitten, and this animal only weighed 279 kg. Snakes of the genus Crotalus can produce sufficient amounts of venom to kill an adult bovine; however it is known, that snakes of the genus Crotalus as well as of Bothrops generally inoculate only a part of their venom. These considerations indicate that the deaths suspected to have been caused by snake bites in cattle in Brazil have to be studied more thoroughly. A diagnosis can only be confirmed by establishing the precise clinical and pathological picture. Our current opinion is that fatal

  3. Evaluación biológica preliminar de extractos vegetales utilizados en la medicina tradicional de la Sierra Nevada deSanta Marta contra el veneno de la Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willinton Barranco Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Preliminary biological evaluation of plants extracts used in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta against the snake Bothrops asper venom.ResumenLa mordedura de serpientes constituye un problema de salubridad importante en muchos países tropicales y subtropicales, con un estimado de 2,5 millones de personas envenenadas cada año. En Colombia las especies Bothropsasper y Bothropsatrox son las causantes del 70 al 90 % de los accidentes registrados. Se estima que el 60% de estos accidentes son inicialmente tratados por curanderos tradicionales utilizando plantas medicinales en diferentes preparaciones. Este estudio evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria de cinco especies contra el efecto proteolítico y hemolítico indirecto inducido por el veneno de B. asper en ensayos in vitro.Las especies, que fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo a su uso en la medicina tradicional por parte de las comunidades campesinas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, fueron, Aristolochia máxima, Cissampelospareira, Equisetumbogotense, Mucunacfpruriens y una especie de la familia Asteraceae. La planta E. bogotense mostró los mayores porcentaje de inhibición contra la actividad de las fosfolipasas A2(42,29 %, así como la mayor precipitación de las proteínas en un rango de masas moleculares de 28,2 y 94,43 KDa. Al fraccionar el extracto de E. bogotense se obtuvieron cinco fracciones, las cuales presentaron un porcentaje de inhibición de 36,6 ± 1,07 a 46,1 ± 13,6. Adicionalmente se detectaron por métodos cualitativos núcleos como, alcaloides, esteroides y/o triterpenos, taninos, cumarinas y leucoantocianidinas. En estudio se reporta la actividad antiofídica en ensayos in vitro de la especie E. bogotense contra el veneno de la especie B.asper. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 2, 140 - 150AbstractIn Colombia the species Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox are responsible for 70 to 90% of the snakebite accidents. Around 60% of these injuries are initially treated by traditional healers; they

  4. Ação de venenos de serpentes brasileiras sôbre a alexina ou complemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Rocha Lagôa

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou a ação inativante, sôbre o complemento de cobaia, alguns venenos de serpentes brasileiras pertencentes às famílias dos Elapideos e Crotalideos. Da primeira, foi utilizado veneno de Micrurus frontalis, da segunda, foram usados venenos de espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Crotalus (C. terrificus e Bothrops (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. ja-raracussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata. O venenos de M. frontalis e C. terri¬ficus se revelaram incapazes de inativar o complemento, ao passo que os diversos de Bothrops empregados se mostraram altamente inativantes, destruindo sempre o 4.° componente do complemento (C4, fração idêntica à afetada pela ação da amônea.The author shows in this paper the results of the inactivation of com¬plement or alexin by some Brazilian snakes venoms of the Elapideae and Cro¬talideae families. The venom of Micrurus frontalis (Elapideae family and of Crotalus terrificus (Crotalideae family did not destroy the complement; but the venoms of Bothrops generus (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. jararacussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata, (Crotalideae family are highly active in the inactivation complement, always destroing the fourth component, whichis exactly the same component that is detroyed by ammonia.

  5. Caracterização individual do veneno de Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril em função da distribuição geográfica no Brasil (Serpentes,Viperidae Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência, que inclui serpentes, em sua maioria, da região do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas as atividades letal, coagulante sobre o plasma, proteolítica sobre a caseína e miotóxica, bem como os padrões eletroforéticos de 61 amostras individuais de veneno contrapostas ao "pool". Os resultados mostraram que o veneno de B. alternatus é pouco ativo, comparativamente ao de outros Bothrops Wagler, 1824. A variação individual prevaleceu, não apresentando correlação com as áreas de distribuição geográfica e domínios morfoclimáticos, porém a atividade coagulante das amostras de veneno provenientes do nordeste da distribuição geográfica apresentaram-se menos ativas comparativamente às da porção central da distribuição. Os venenos provenientes das bordas da distribuição apresentaram ações proteolíticas e miotóxicas mais intensas, que estatisticamente não foram significativamente diferentes. As variações individuais prevaleceram.Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 snakebites are an important public health problem in Brazil. Such snakes are found from Mato Grosso do Sul (central Brazil to southeastern Brazil, reaching even Argentina and Uruguay and thereby occupying different morphoclimatic domains. This work investigated venom variation occurring in adult specimens of B. alternatus specimens, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil. The standard venom pool (reference venom produced by

  6. Biotechnological application of protein Leuc-B isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom as a prototype for antitumoral radiopharmaceutical;Aplicacao biotecnologica da proteina Leuc-B isolada da peconha de Bothrops leucurus como prototipo de radiofarmaco antitumoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Lucilene Marcia

    2010-07-01

    According to the report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the growth of this disease implies the death of 17 million people a year by 2030. Although the knowledge on development of cancer is growing considerably, just a few advances in the diagnosis and therapy has been achieved. Faced with this scenario, it is clear the need for new substances more specifics with low toxicity to the patient, which can be used for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Membrane receptors over expressed in tumor cells are promising target candidates for development of diagnostic and therapeutical tools. Integrins are a family of hetero dimeric cell surface adhesion receptors able to recognize and bind to proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This recognition is mainly through the RGD domains presents in both the cell surface as in the protein from the ECM. Various integrins have been identified as regulators of tumor progression. The RGD domain is also found in some snake venoms named disintegrins. Disintegrins inhibit cell-matrix and a cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins and it has been shown that these proteins are able to inhibit metastasis in processes dependent on integrin. The disintegrin-like (ECD), as well as RGD-disintegrin are also able to bind to cell surface integrins and inhibit their adhesion to the natural ligands. In this work it was purified from Bothrops leucurus venom (VBL), a metalloproteinase-class P-III with disintegrin-like domain (ECD), Leucurolisina B (Leuc-B). This metalloproteinase and the crude venom were used to evaluate their applicability in the differential detection of tumors. In vitro results demonstrated that both VBL and Leuc-B have potent antitumoral effect on several cancer cell lines: U87, T98, RT2 (glioblastoma), MCF7 (breast), Ehrlich and UACC (melanoma) with IC{sub 50} values of approximately 0.6 muM. The morphological changes observed in these strains when treated with Leuc-B, and data from the DAPI staining

  7. Natural History of Pseudoboine Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília P. Gaiarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.

  8. Cutaneous Chromatophoromas in Captive Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, J F; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis.

  9. Bites by the colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis: a clinical and epidemiological study of 297 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Carlos R; Hess, Priscila L; Nicoleti, Alessandra F; Sueiro, Leticia R; Duarte, Marcelo R; de Almeida-Santos, Selma M; França, Francisco O S

    2010-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 297 proven cases of Philodryas patagoniensis bites admitted to Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB), Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1959 and 2008. Only cases in which the causative animal was brought and identified were included. Part of the snakes brought by the patients was still preserved in the collection maintained by the Laboratory of Herpetology. Of the 297 cases, in 199 it was possible to describe the gender of the snake, and seventy three (61.3%) of them were female. The length of snakes (snout-vent length) ranged from 160 to 1080 mm. In 117 snakes their state of preservation enabled the dissection and examination of their stomach contents. The stomach was empty in 106 snakes (89.1%). Most bites occurred in the seasons of spring and summer (n = 196, 66.0%) and during warmer periods of the day. The mean age of the victims was 24.1 +/- 15.1 years old and 206 (69.4%) patients were men. Around 92% of the patients sought medical care within 6 h after the bite. Both lower (n = 188, 63.3%) and upper limbs (n = 102, 34.3%) were most frequently bitten, especially the feet and hands (n = 205, 69.0%). The local clinical manifestations were pain (n = 151, 50.8%), transitory bleeding (n = 106, 35.7%), erythema (n = 47, 15.8%) and edema (n = 39, 13.1%). Ecchymosis was not observed. Only 7 (2.4%) patients reported systemic symptoms characterized by mild dizziness and 88 patients (29.6%) showed no evidence of envenoming. The whole blood clotting time was performed in 76 (25.6%) patients on admission and all of them had coagulable blood. Supportive treatment was offered to only 13.4% of patients, namely administration of antihistamines (n = 19, 6.4%) and analgesics (n = 12, 4.1%). Eight patients (2.7%) were mistreated with Bothrops antivenom before their admission to HVB. No sequels or relevant complications were observed in patients, and the prognostic was benign. Therefore, although P. patagoniensis accidents can cause mild local

  10. Las serpientes venenosas de importancia en la salud publica del perú – The poisonous snakes of public health importance of peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Zamora Miluska B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el Perú existen aproximadamente 33 especies de serpientesvenenosas distribuidas en 2 familias: Viperidae y Elapidae. Ladistribución geográfica es en los diferentes hábitats de la Costa, Sierra y Selva. El manejo de estos animales requiere de equipos especiales y de personal calificado para evitar los accidentes. El veneno producido por las serpientes es una modificación de las glándulas salivales que va a facilitar la digestión de sus presas. El ofidismo es la inoculación de éste veneno, y en el Perú se atribuye a Bothrops atrox como el animal agresor con mayor reporte de accidentes en humanos. El mecanismo de acción de estos venenos puede presentarse como una acción proteolítica, neurotóxica, coagulante, vasculotóxica, hemolítica, miotóxica, necrotóxica y hepatotóxica, que van a caracterizar a los diferentes accidentes ofídicos. El objetivo de ésta revisión fue proporcionar conocimientos acerca de las diferentes serpientes venenosas que hay en el Perú, su ubicación en el territorio nacional, los accidentes ofídicos por la inoculación del veneno y su tratamiento, asimismo una revisión epidemiológica de los casos presentados y de los últimos avances del uso del veneno en medicina.SummaryThere are 33 species of venomous snakes in Perú and these aredistributed in two families: Viperidae and Elapidae. They aregeographically distributed in different habitats in Costa, Sierra and Selva of Perú. Handling these animals requires special equipment andmust be done by qualified staff in order to avoid accidents. Venomproduced by snakes is a modification of salivary glands that facilitates digestion of its preys. Inoculation of the snake venom is called “ofidismo” (snakebite, in Perú Bothrops atrox is the aggressor animal with more ophidian accident reports. Mechanisms of these venoms can be present as proteolytic, neurotoxic, coagulate, vascular toxicity, hemolytic, necrotic toxicity and liver toxicity actions

  11. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W; Nydam, Randall L; Palci, Alessandro; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2015-01-27

    The previous oldest known fossil snakes date from ~100 million year old sediments (Upper Cretaceous) and are both morphologically and phylogenetically diverse, indicating that snakes underwent a much earlier origin and adaptive radiation. We report here on snake fossils that extend the record backwards in time by an additional ~70 million years (Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). These ancient snakes share features with fossil and modern snakes (for example, recurved teeth with labial and lingual carinae, long toothed suborbital ramus of maxillae) and with lizards (for example, pronounced subdental shelf/gutter). The paleobiogeography of these early snakes is diverse and complex, suggesting that snakes had undergone habitat differentiation and geographic radiation by the mid-Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis of squamates recovers these early snakes in a basal polytomy with other fossil and modern snakes, where Najash rionegrina is sister to this clade. Ingroup analysis finds them in a basal position to all other snakes including Najash.

  12. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D. [and others

    1993-04-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

  13. The burrowing origin of modern snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  14. The burrowing origin of modern snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes.

  15. Coyotes Are Afraid of Little Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Wichita tale of a contest between Coyote and Small Snake to see whose teeth are strongest. They bite each other, and soon big, strong Coyote is dead from the poisoned bite of the tiny snake. Explains why, from that time onward, coyotes have been afraid of little snakes. (DS)

  16. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  17. Anti-parasitic effect on Toxoplasma gondii induced by BnSP-7, a Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops pauloensis venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Isabela Pacheco; Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Barbosa, Bellisa Freitas; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; da Silva, Rafaela José; Mineo, José Roberto; Tudini, Kelly Aparecida Yoneyama; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis affects a third of the global population and presents high incidence in tropical areas. Its great relevance in public health has led to a search for new therapeutic approaches. Herein, we report the antiparasitic effects of BnSP-7 toxin, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, on Toxoplasma gondii. In an MTT assay, BnSP-7 presented significant cytotoxicity against host HeLa cells at higher doses (200 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL), whereas lower doses (25 μg/mL to 1.56 μg/mL) produced low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the toxin showed no effect on T. gondii tachyzoite viability when evaluated by trypan blue exclusion, but decreased both adhesion and parasite proliferation when tachyzoites were treated before infection. We also measured cytokines in supernatants collected from HeLa cells infected with T. gondii tachyzoites previously treated with RPMI or BnSP-7, which revealed enhancement of only MIF and IL-6 cytokines levels in supernatants of HeLa cells after BnSP-7 treatment. Our results showed that the BnSP-7 PLA2 exerts an anti-Toxoplasma effect at a lower dose than that required to induce cytotoxicity in HeLa cells, and also modulates the immune response of host cells. In this sense, the anti-parasitic effect of BnSP-7 PLA2 demonstrated in the present study opens perspectives for use of this toxin as a tool for future studies on toxoplasmosis.

  18. Alternagin-C, a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus, modulates a2ß1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion, migration and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selistre-de-Araujo H.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha2ß1 integrin is a major collagen receptor that plays an essential role in the adhesion of normal and tumor cells to the extracellular matrix. Alternagin-C (ALT-C, a disintegrin-like protein purified from the venom of the Brazilian snake Bothrops alternatus, competitively interacts with the alpha2ß1 integrin, thereby inhibiting collagen binding. When immobilized in plate wells, ALT-C supports the adhesion of fibroblasts as well as of human vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and does not detach cells previously bound to collagen I. ALT-C is a strong inducer of HUVEC proliferation in vitro. Gene expression analysis was done using an Affimetrix HU-95A probe array with probe sets of ~10,000 human genes. In human fibroblasts growing on collagen-coated plates, ALT-C up-regulates the expression of several growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as some cell cycle control genes. Up-regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and other growth factors could explain the positive effect on HUVEC proliferation. ALT-C also strongly activates protein kinase B phosphorylation, a signaling event involved in endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis. In human neutrophils, ALT-C has a potent chemotactic effect modulated by the intracellular signaling cascade characteristic of integrin-activated pathways. Thus, ALT-C acts as a survival factor, promoting adhesion, migration and endothelial cell proliferation after binding to alpha2ß1 integrin on the cell surface. The biological activities of ALT-C may be helpful as a therapeutic strategy in tissue regeneration as well as in the design of new therapeutic agents targeting alpha2ß1 integrin.

  19. An alternative method to isolate protease and phospholipase A2 toxins from snake venoms based on partitioning of aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GN Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are rich sources of active proteins that have been employed in the diagnosis and treatment of health disorders and antivenom therapy. Developing countries demand fast economical downstream processes for the purification of this biomolecule type without requiring sophisticated equipment. We developed an alternative, simple and easy to scale-up method, able to purify simultaneously protease and phospholipase A2 toxins from Bothrops alternatus venom. It comprises a multiple-step partition procedure with polyethylene-glycol/phosphate aqueous two-phase systems followed by a gel filtration chromatographic step. Two single bands in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and increased proteolytic and phospholipase A2 specific activities evidence the homogeneity of the isolated proteins.

  20. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  1. Privileged frameworks from snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeks, T A; Fry, B G; Alewood, P F

    2015-05-01

    Venom as a form of chemical prey capture is a key innovation that has underpinned the explosive radiation of the advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Small venom proteins are often rich in disulfide bonds thus facilitating stable molecular scaffolds that present key functional residues on the protein surface. New toxin types are initially developed through the venom gland over-expression of normal body proteins, their subsequent gene duplication and diversification that leads to neofunctionalisation as random mutations modify their structure and function. This process has led to preferentially selected (privileged) cysteine-rich scaffolds that enable the snake to build arrays of toxins many of which may lead to therapeutic products and research tools. This review focuses on cysteine-rich small proteins and peptides found in snake venoms spanning natriuretic peptides to phospholipase enzymes, while highlighting their three-dimensional structures and biological functions as well as their potential as therapeutic agents or research tools.

  2. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Hattori, T.; Huang, H.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2007-06-01

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  3. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S R [Convergent Computing Inc, PO Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States); Shatunov, Yu M [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Yokoya, K [National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  4. Toxin synergism in snake venoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components, and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway or physiological process. Few...... simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to investigate synergism in snake venoms may help unravel strategies for developing novel...

  5. Polarized protons and Siberian snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The lecture started with a brief review of the history of polarized proton beams. Then it described the unexpected and still unexplained large transverse spin effects found in high energy proton spin experiments at the ZGS, AGS, and Fermilab. Next there was detailed discussion of Siberian snakes and some of their tests at the IUCF Cooler Ring. Finally there was a review of the use of Siberian Snakes in some possible high energy polarized proton beams at RHIC, HERA and Fermilab. Since a similar lecture is being published elsewhere, this manuscript will only contain this brief summary and the references. (author)

  6. The algebraic combinatorics of snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Snakes are analogues of alternating permutations defined for any Coxeter group. We study these objects from the point of view of combinatorial Hopf algebras, such as noncommutative symmetric functions and their generalizations. The main purpose is to show that several properties of the generating functions of snakes, such as differential equations or closed form as trigonometric functions, can be lifted at the level of noncommutative symmetric functions or free quasi-symmetric functions. The results take the form of algebraic identities for type B noncommutative symmetric functions, noncommutative supersymmetric functions and colored free quasi-symmetric functions.

  7. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.

  8. Snake Robots Modelling, Mechatronics, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Liljebäck, Pål; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Snake Robots is a novel treatment of theoretical and practical topics related to snake robots: robotic mechanisms designed to move like biological snakes and able to operate in challenging environments in which human presence is either undesirable or impossible. Future applications of such robots include search and rescue, inspection and maintenance, and subsea operations. Locomotion in unstructured environments is a focus for this book. The text targets the disparate muddle of approaches to modelling, development and control of snake robots in current literature, giving a unified presentation of recent research results on snake robot locomotion to increase the reader’s basic understanding of these mechanisms and their motion dynamics and clarify the state of the art in the field. The book is a complete treatment of snake robotics, with topics ranging from mathematical modelling techniques, through mechatronic design and implementation, to control design strategies. The development of two snake robots is de...

  9. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  10. Snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Francis S; Swenson, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Recent proteomic analyses of snake venoms show that metalloproteinases represent major components in most of the Crotalid and Viperid venoms. In this chapter we discuss the multiple activities of the SVMPs. In addition to hemorrhagic activity, members of the SVMP family also have fibrin(ogen)olytic activity, act as prothrombin activators, activate blood coagulation factor X, possess apoptotic activity, inhibit platelet aggregation, are pro-inflammatory and inactivate blood serine proteinase inhibitors. Clearly the SVMPs have multiple functions in addition to their well-known hemorrhagic activity. The realization that there are structural variations in the SVMPs and the early studies that led to their classification represents an important event in our understanding of the structural forms of the SVMPs. The SVMPs were subdivided into the P-I, P-II and P-III protein classes. The noticeable characteristic that distinguished the different classes was their size (molecular weight) differences and domain structure: Class I (P-I), the small SVMPs, have molecular masses of 20-30 kDa, contain only a pro domain and the proteinase domain; Class II (P-II), the medium size SVMPs, molecular masses of 30-60 kDa, contain the pro domain, proteinase domain and disintegrin domain; Class III (P-III), the large SVMPs, have molecular masses of 60-100 kDa, contain pro, proteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain structure. Another significant advance in the SVMP field was the characterization of the crystal structure of the first P-I class SVMP. The structures of other P-I SVMPs soon followed and the structures of P-III SVMPs have also been determined. The active site of the metalloproteinase domain has a consensus HEXXHXXGXXHD sequence and a Met-turn. The "Met-turn" structure contains a conserved Met residue that forms a hydrophobic basement for the three zinc-binding histidines in the consensus sequence.

  11. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  12. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  13. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F

    2000-07-19

    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  14. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  15. Variação entre filhotes de representantes do complexo Bothrops newied (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available External morphological characters of 141 young specimens (69 males and 72 femalesof the Bothrops newied complex were analyzed. Regression analysis was used in the study of morphometric characters and principal components analysis was used in the study of meristic and qualitative characters. Sexual dimorphism was confirmed in the meristic and morphometric characters. Males showed higher counts of subcaudals and longer tails. Females showed eventually higher number of ventrals and dorsal rows, and larger heads. Six different drawing patterns were diagnosed and can indicate the existence of different species. Ontogenetic variation was described.

  16. Observations of Snake Resonance in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lin, Fanglei; MacKay, William; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes $\\frac{1}{2}$ which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the betatron tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

  17. The Study on the Snake by TOXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-wook Kim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the researches of Snake which was published papers in the TOXICON(1990-2.000, one of the most famous Journal of toxicology. And the results were as follows: 1. The number related with Snake is 195papers. 2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in the composition of snake venom. 4. There were great papers related wih neurotoxin in the research of poisonous character. 5. There were great papers related wih Viper according to the anticoagulation. 6. Eight papers were published to study the immune response of snake venom. 7. The papers of molecular study of snake venom were seven. 8. The papers of anti-snake venom study were three.

  18. Purification and functional characterization of two fibrinogenolytic enzymes from Bothrops alternatus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fibrinogenolytic enzymes, Bothrops alternatus metalloprotease isoform (BaltMP-I and II, were purified from Bothrops alternatus venom using Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE Sephacel, Sephadex G-75 and Heparin-Agarose column chromatography. Purified BaltMP-I and II ran as single protein bands on analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed molecular weights of 29000 and 36000, respectively, under reducing conditions in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. BaltMP-II, but not BaltMP-I, displayed blood-clotting activity in bovine plasma, which was about 10-fold higher than that of the crude venom. Both enzymes were proteolytically active against bovine fibrinogen as substrate. When fibrinogen and each enzyme were incubated at 37°C, at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w, BaltMP-II cleaved preferentially the Aalpha -chain and more slowly the Bbeta -chain. The action of BaltMP-I was similar, but lower. None of the proteases degraded the gamma-chain of fibrinogen. The fibrinogenolytic activity of the enzymes was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they are metalloproteases. Since both enzymes were found to cause defibrinogenation when intraperitoneally (i.p. administered to mice, they can be of medical interest as a therapeutic agent in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis.

  19. Local inflammation, lethality and cytokine release in mice injected with Bothrops atrox venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Barros

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have provided evidence that: (a lethality of mice to crude Bothrops venom varies according the isogenic strain (A/J > C57Bl/6 > A/Sn > BALB/c > C3H/ HePas > DBA/2 > C3H/He; (bBALB/c mice (LD50=100.0 μg were injected i.p. with 50 μg of venom produced IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α and NO in the serum. In vitro the cells from the mice injected and challenged with the venom only released IL-10 while peritoneal macrophages released IL-10, INF-γ and less amounts of IL-6; (c establishment of local inflammation and necrosis induced by the venom, coincides with the peaks of TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO and the damage was neutralized when the venom was incubated with a monoclonal antibody against a 60 kDa haemorrhagic factor. These results suggest that susceptibility to Bothrops a trox venom is genetically dependent but MHC independent; that IL-6, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO can be involved in the mediation of tissue damage; and that the major venom component inducers of the lesions are haemorrhagins.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Viperidae Venoms Antibacterial Profile: a Short Communication for Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bruno L.; Santos, Dilvani O.; dos Santos, André Luis; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; de Freitas, Cícero C.; Cabral, Lúcio M.; Castro, Helena C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infections involving multidrug-resistant strains are one of the ten leading causes of death and an important health problem in need for new antibacterial sources and agents. Herein, we tested and compared four snake venoms (Agkistrodon rhodostoma, Bothrops jararaca, B. atrox and Lachesis muta) against 10 Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug-resistant clinical bacteria strains to identify them as new sources of potential antibacterial molecules. Our data revealed that, as efficient as some antibiotics currently on the market (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 1–32 μg mL−1), A. rhodostoma and B. atrox venoms were active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4.5 μg mL−1), while B. jararaca inhibited S. aureus growth (MIC = 13 μg ml−1). As genomic and proteomic technologies are improving and developing rapidly, our results suggested that A. rhodostoma, B. atrox and B. jararaca venoms and glands are feasible sources for searching antimicrobial prototypes for future design new antibiotics against drug-resistant clinical bacteria. They also point to an additional perspective to fully identify the pharmacological potential of these venoms by using different techniques. PMID:18955360

  1. Comparative Analysis of Viperidae Venoms Antibacterial Profile: a Short Communication for Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections involving multidrug-resistant strains are one of the ten leading causes of death and an important health problem in need for new antibacterial sources and agents. Herein, we tested and compared four snake venoms (Agkistrodon rhodostoma, Bothrops jararaca, B. atrox and Lachesis muta against 10 Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug-resistant clinical bacteria strains to identify them as new sources of potential antibacterial molecules. Our data revealed that, as efficient as some antibiotics currently on the market (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC = 1–32 μg mL−1, A. rhodostoma and B. atrox venoms were active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4.5 μg mL−1, while B. jararaca inhibited S. aureus growth (MIC = 13 μg ml−1. As genomic and proteomic technologies are improving and developing rapidly, our results suggested that A. rhodostoma, B. atrox and B. jararaca venoms and glands are feasible sources for searching antimicrobial prototypes for future design new antibiotics against drug-resistant clinical bacteria. They also point to an additional perspective to fully identify the pharmacological potential of these venoms by using different techniques.

  2. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms.

  3. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. PMID:26702042

  4. Hybrid helical snakes and rotators for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1995-06-13

    The spin rotators and Siberian snakes presently envisaged for RHIC utilize helical dipole magnets. The snakes and the rotators each consist of four helices, each with a full twist (360{degrees}) of the field. Here we investigate an alternate layout, namely combinations of helical and pure bending magnet, and show that this may have advantages.

  5. On a collection of Snakes from Dehli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1890-01-01

    During his stay in Laboean (Delili, East-Sumatra) Dr. B. Hagen, to whom the Leyden Museum is indebted for large series of mammals, birds and insects, also collected a large number of snakes, the greater part of which were sent to our Museum. Dr. Hagen took a lively interest in snakes, and being conv

  6. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  7. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  8. [In relation to Cleopatra and snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R

    2001-10-01

    Cleopatra VII, one of the last Egyptian sovereigns of the ptolomeic dynasty, is envisioned as a mythic figure, surrounded by intrigues and mystery. her mysterious death was caused, according to history, by a snake bite. This article shows some instances of great Cleopatra's life and the state of the art on snake venoms. Even at the present time, snake bites are a public health problem in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, causing more than 25,000 deaths every year. Most snake venoms have a protein structure and cause neurotoxic and hemolytic effects, altering coagulation and fibrinolysis. The mortality due to snake bites fluctuates between 1 and 22%. Specific treatment includes the use of specific antiserums with highly purified components.

  9. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  10. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande...

  11. Purificación de fosfolipas A2 a partir de veneno de Bothrops atrox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo B.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available La fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2 fue purificada a partir de veneno de serpiente de Bothrops atrox (Sensu lato de Chiriguaná (Colombia por cromatografía de exclusión sobre Sephadex G-75, de donde se obtuvieron cinco fracciones, una de ellas con actividad fosfolipasa A2. Después de pasarla por una columna de intercambio catiónico Mono S, donde se separaron ocho fracciones con activi-dad PLA2, ésta se midió usando el método hemolítico. La electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida en condiciones desnaturalizantes, mostró pesos moleculares entre 16.000 y 17.000 para las ocho fracciones, seis de las cuales pre-sentaron una sola banda. 

  12. Neutralizing capacity of a new monovalent anti-Bothrops atrox antivenom: comparison with two commercial antivenoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otero

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia. The following antivenoms were used: a polyvalent (crotaline antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica, b monovalent antibothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS (Bogotá, and c a new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom produced with the venom of B. atrox from Antioquia and Chocó. The three antivenoms neutralized all toxic activities tested albeit with different potencies. The new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom showed the highest neutralizing ability against edema-forming and defibrinating effects of B. atrox venom (41 ± 2 and 100 ± 32 µl antivenom/mg venom, respectively, suggesting that it should be useful in the treatment of B. atrox envenomation in Antioquia and Chocó

  13. Safe Handling of Snakes in an ED Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Melanie; Swanson, Kristofer; Sanders, April; Prater, Samuel; von Wenckstern, Toni; Mick, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED.

  14. A preliminary survey of Hong Kong snake shops and the potential snake bite risks for the healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Oi-Fung; Hin-Tat, Fung; Shing-Kit-Tommy, Lam; Ka-Keung, Lam; Chak-Wah, Kam; Simpson, Ian D

    2009-09-01

    Consumption of snakes is a traditional part of Chinese life. Snake shops, which provide both the food products and live snakes to the public, are believed by the medical community to stock only local species. The medical risk posed by these live snakes is therefore regarded as manageable as they are indigenous and thus effective anti-snake venom (ASV) is believed to be available. This study visited four snake shops, reviewed the snakes present and interviewed the vendors regarding the snakes' likely geographical origin. Snakes species were definitively identified and, in addition, the current stocking of ASV by hospitals in terms of amount and species covered was determined. Snakes were also examined to determine whether they had been de-fanged and thus rendered unable to inflict a venomous bite. The study identified that non-indigenous species are being imported, capable of delivering a venomous bite, which provide a tangible medical risk as ASV is not available to deal with envenomations.

  15. Coral snakes predict the evolution of mimicry across New World snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Cox, Christian L; Rabosky, Daniel L; Title, Pascal O; Holmes, Iris A; Feldman, Anat; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-05-05

    Batesian mimicry, in which harmless species (mimics) deter predators by deceitfully imitating the warning signals of noxious species (models), generates striking cases of phenotypic convergence that are classic examples of evolution by natural selection. However, mimicry of venomous coral snakes has remained controversial because of unresolved conflict between the predictions of mimicry theory and empirical patterns in the distribution and abundance of snakes. Here we integrate distributional, phenotypic and phylogenetic data across all New World snake species to demonstrate that shifts to mimetic coloration in nonvenomous snakes are highly correlated with coral snakes in both space and time, providing overwhelming support for Batesian mimicry. We also find that bidirectional transitions between mimetic and cryptic coloration are unexpectedly frequent over both long- and short-time scales, challenging traditional views of mimicry as a stable evolutionary 'end point' and suggesting that insect and snake mimicry may have different evolutionary dynamics.

  16. ENVENENAMIENTO OFIDICO POR EL GENERO Bothrops COMPLICADO CON MIOCARDIOPATIA TÓXICA: A PROPOSITO DE UN CASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajar Abusaid Palomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El envenenamiento ofídico en Venezuela es un problema de salud pública, afectando a agricultores y mineros, implicada con mayor frecuencia la familia Viperidae, genero Bothrops. Presenta clínica variable, desde manifestaciones locales hasta sistémicas. Paciente femenina de 40 años, agricultora, consulta por dolor y aumento de volumen en cara lateral de pie izquierdo por envenenamiento ofídico. Acude a ambulatorio de su localidad, 24 horas después es trasladada al Hospital Universitario Ruiz y Páez, ingresando con diagnóstico de Envenenamiento Ofídico por Bothrops. Evoluciona tórpidamente presentando Insuficiencia Renal Aguda en terapia de hemodiálisis, Sepsis punto de partida respiratorio, Insuficiencia Respiratoria Aguda y Miocardiopatía Tóxica, por lo que ingresa a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y Cuidados Coronarios. Luego de marcada mejoría clínica es dada de alta. El envenenamiento ofídico por Bothrops corresponde 80% de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes, su pronóstico depende de la especie, atención medica-hospitalaria, el intervalo de tiempo ocurrido y el uso de la terapia antiofídica especifica.

  17. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions.

  18. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on an inclined plane. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes---triangular and sinusoidal waves---across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficient, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling-wave motions with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  19. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C.; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Öhman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as “evolutionary fear-relevant”. Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines. PMID:25493937

  20. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Soares

    Full Text Available Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009, the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205 we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  1. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Ohman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  2. First documented case of snake fungal disease in a free-ranging wild snake in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Green, David E.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a recently documented mycotic disease characterized by scabs or crusty scales, subcutaneous nodules, abnormal molting, cloudiness of the eyes (not associated with molting), and localized thickening or crusting of the skin. SFD has been documented in many species in the Eastern and Midwestern United States within the last decade. SFD has proven lethal in many snakes, and the disease is recognized as an emerging threat to wild snake populations. Here, we describe the first documented case of SFD in Louisiana in a free-ranging wild snake.

  3. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate...... of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus...

  4. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

    2012-11-07

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability.

  5. Spin flipping in rings with Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail: srmane@optonline.net

    2009-07-01

    I display numerical spin tracking simulations for spin flippers in model storage rings with full or nearly full Siberian Snakes. In many cases, the results differ from the predictions using the Froissart-Stora formula.

  6. Inflammatory effects of snake venom metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina de Fátima Pereira Teixeira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteinases are abundant enzymes in crotaline and viperine snake venoms. They are relevant in the pathophysiology of envenomation, being responsible for local and systemic hemorrhage frequently observed in the victims. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP are zinc-dependent enzymes of varying molecular weights having multidomain organization. Some SVMP comprise only the proteinase domain, whereas others also contain a disintegrin-like domain, cysteine-rich, and lectin domains. They have strong structural similarities with both mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and members of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase group. Besides hemorrhage, snake venom metalloproteinase induce local myonecrosis, skin damage, and inflammatory reaction in experimental models. Local inflammation is an important characteristic of snakebite envenomations inflicted by viperine and crotaline snake species. Thus, in the recent years there is a growing effort to understand the mechanisms responsible for SVMP-induced inflammatory reaction and the structural determinants of this effect. This short review focuses the inflammatory effects evoked by SVMP.

  7. Evaluation of Eastern Indigo Snakes Restocking Attempts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Beginning in 1976 and continuing through 1987 marked indigo snakes adults, juveniles and hatchlings were released in wild habitats within the historic range of the...

  8. AcEST: DK960586 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8UF9 Definition sp|Q98UF9|VMHF3_BOTJA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin HF3 OS=Bothrops jararaca Align leng...rinogen decarboxylase OS=Agrobacte... 30 8.9 >sp|Q98UF9|VMHF3_BOTJA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin HF3 OS=Bothrops jar

  9. Drug: D06076 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06076 Drug Teprotide (USAN/INN) C53H76N14O12 1100.5767 1101.2571 D06076.gif Bothrops jar...ing] Same as: C11712 venom of the Bothrops jararaca angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor [HSA:1636

  10. Snake Worsbip among the Dong Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE beautiful area of mountains and rivers atthe juncture of Hunan, Gulzhou and GuangxiZhuang Autonomous Region is irthabited byover 1 million Dong people. Because of the area’sgeographic remoteness, this minority ethnic groupformed its own notions on nature over the centuries.The Dong ancestors worshiped snakes, a tradition thathas not entirely died out today.In the traditional concept of the Dong people,snakes are not ordinary reptiles but supernatural beings

  11. Accelerating Polarized Protons with Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)

    1998-05-01

    There is a brief review of the history of polarized proton beams and the unexpected and still unexplained large transverse spin effects found in high energy proton spin experiments at the ZGS, AGS and Fermilab. Next there is a detailed discussion of Siberian snakes and some of their tests at the IUCF Cooler Ring. Finally there is a report on the use of Siberian snakes in some possible high energy polarized proton beams at RHIC, HERA and Fermilab. (author) 19 refs, 12 figs

  12. Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different group-II phospholipase A2 myotoxins from its own venom: isolation, molecular cloning and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, S; Angulo, Y; Lomonte, B; Fox, J W; Lambeau, G; Lazdunski, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2000-01-01

    Myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s; group II) account for most of the muscle-tissue damage that results from envenomation by viperid snakes. In the venom of the Godman's viper (Cerrophidion godmani, formerly Bothrops godmani), an enzymically active PLA(2) (myotoxin I) and an inactive, Lys-49 variant (myotoxin II) induce extensive muscle damage and oedema. In this study, two distinct myotoxin inhibitor proteins of C. godmani, CgMIP-I and CgMIP-II, were purified directly from blood plasma by selective binding to affinity columns containing either myotoxin I or myotoxin II, respectively. Both proteins are glycosylated, acidic (pI=4) and composed of 20-25-kDa subunits that form oligomers of 110 kDa (CgMIP-I) or 180 kDa (CgMIP-II). In inhibition studies, CgMIP-I specifically neutralized the PLA(2) and the myotoxic, oedema-forming and cytolytic activities of myotoxins I, whereas CgMIP-II selectively inhibited the toxic properties of myotoxin II. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the two inhibitors revealed that CgMIP-I is similar to gamma-type inhibitors, which share a pattern of cysteine residues present in the Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, whereas CgMIP-II shares sequence identity with alpha-type inhibitors that contain carbohydrate-recognition-like domains, also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA(2) receptors. N-terminal sequencing of myotoxin I revealed a different primary structure from myotoxin II [De Sousa, Morhy, Arni, Ward, Díaz and Gutiérrez (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1384, 204-208], which provides insight into the nature of such pharmacological specificity. PMID:10698689

  13. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    CERN Document Server

    Anferov, V A

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer G gamma.

  15. Snakes and spin rotators for high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-08-15

    A modification to the continuous family of snake and spin rotators, discovered by Steffen, is discussed. A compact snake configuration is found to have the advantages of requiring a smaller total integrated dipole magnet strength and a smaller transverse displacement for circulating particles. A split snake configuration has the advantage of allowing an entire experimental insertion region to be located between the two halves of the snake. Such configuration could serve as both a snake and a 90deg spin rotator for experiments requiring different helicity states. General properties of these snake configurations are discussed. (orig.).

  16. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, Gabriel E.A.; Hicks, James W.; Manzani, Paulo R.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the ......The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures......, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using...... counterparts. The best‐fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent...

  17. Spontaneous appearance of snakes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Edwards, A.W.; Pasini, D.; Wolfe, S.W. (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking)

    1991-01-01

    Tokamaks exhibit a wide variety of mhd activity on the q=1 surface such as sawteeth and the recently discovered snake which is a surprisingly long lived compact region of high density plasma formed on the q=1 surface following pellet injection. More recently, snakes have been observed to form spontaneously in JET at the onset of the sawtooth and also during neutral beam injection. A typical sawtooth onset case shows that when q becomes 1 in or near the plasma centre mhd oscillations are seen with m=n=1 and a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. Immediately after the first sawtooth these are replaced by a snake, which gradually decays in amplitude, but survives several sawtooth crashes. It is probable that these spontaneous snakes have been previously observed in many other machines but classified as m=1 instabilities. For example, during the 'O' mode of sawtooth onset of DIII, or the mhd activity observed early in PBX discharges. Further, JET discharges from as long ago as 1984 had similar mhd activity at early times which, in retrospect, can also probably be identified as due to snakes. It appears that snakes are a much more general phenomena than originally realized. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Snake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faith; McNulty; 汤士符

    2002-01-01

    蛇体型细长,多呈圆柱状,但海蛇和许多树栖蛇则为扁平状。蛇没有四肢,尽管为数不多的几种仍有细微的后肢残迹,其中大蟒蛇和巨蟒尾基处残留的后肢尖清晰可见。蛇体由一种

  19. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  20. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  1. Características bioquímicas y capacidad neutralizante de cuatro antivenenos polivalentes frente a los efectos farmacológicos y enzimáticos del veneno de Bothrops asper y Porthidium nasutum de Antioquia y Chocó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Saldarriaga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el 90-95% de las 3000 mordeduras de serpientes informadas cada año, son ocasionadas por Bothrops spp, con una elevada mortalidad y secuelas. Siguiendo recomendaciones de la OMS, se evaluó la capacidad neutralizante de los efectos farmacológicos y enzimáticos de los venenos de Bothrops asper y Porthidium nasutum de Antioquia y Chocó por cuatro antivenenos; 2 de ellos de IgG completa (polivalente antibothrópico, anticrotálico del Instituto Nacional de Salud INS -Colombia; polivalente antibothrópico, anticrotálico, antilachésico de Laboratorios Probiol -Colombia y 2 antivenenos de fragmentos F(ab’2 (polivalente antibothrópico, anticrotálico del Centro de Biotecnología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela; y el polivalente antibothrópico, anticrotálico Antivipmyn® del Instituto Bioclón -México. Se determinó la actividad letal, hemorrágica, desfibrinante, edematizante, mionecrosante y hemolítica indirecta de cada veneno, siguiendo métodos ya estandarizados. Las pruebas de neutralización in vitro e in vivo se realizaron por el método de preincubación a 370C de dosis fijas de veneno y dosis variables de antiveneno. Los antivenenos Antivipmyn® de México y polivalente INS de Colombia tuvieron la mayor potencia neutralizante de todos los efectos farmacológicos y enzimáticos del veneno de B. asper y P. nasutum. El antiveneno polivalente Probiol fue el de menor capacidad neutralizante y mayor concentración de proteínas. Los antivenenos de fragmentos F(ab’2 tuvieron más baja concentración de proteínas y solo cantidades menores de proteínas no inmunes por electroforesis. Ninety to 95% of the snakebites reported yearly in Colombia are inflicted by Bothrops spp with high mortality and sequelae. Following recommendations of the World Health Organization, the neutralizing ability of four polyvalent antivenoms against several pharmacological and enzymatic effects of Bothrops asper and Porthidium nasutum snake

  2. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  3. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Escalante

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM and associated extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a, from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of

  4. Treatment of Bothrops alternatus envenomation by Curcuma longa and Calendula officinalis extracts and ar-turmerone Tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus com extrato de Curcuma longa e Calendula officinalis e ar-turmerone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the efficiency of two extracts of plants and one fraction of their properties against the local effects of bothropic envenomation. Bothrops alternatus venom (1.25µg diluted in 100µl of sterile saline solution was inoculated (intradermally into the shaved dorsal back skin of 30 New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided in six groups receiving the following treatments: group I: subcutaneous application of Curcuma longa extract (1.0ml; group II: topic treatment of Curcuma longa hydroalcoholic extract (1.0ml; group III: topic application of ar-turmerone in vaseline (1.0g; group IV: topic application of Curcuma longa methanolic extract (1.0ml; group V: topic application of Calendula officinalis ointment (1.0g; group VI: topic application of saline (1.0ml. These treatments were done at 30 minutes, and at 2, 4, 24 and 72 hours after venom inoculation. Intensity of local edema, hemorrhagic halo and necrosis were evaluated until 168h after that. Additionally, seven days after the Bothrops venom inoculation, blood was collected from heart with and without EDTA (10% for hemogram and biochemical parameters (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and fibrinogen and all the animals were anesthetized, sacrificed by ether inhalation and submitted to necropsy. Fragments of tissues were taken for histopathological evaluation. The most efficient treatment for inhibition of edema, necrosis and local hemorrhage after Bothrops alternatus venom was the topic application of ar-turmerone.Investigou-se a eficácia do extrato de plantas no tratamento local do envenenamento botrópico. Veneno de serpentes Bothrops alternatus (1,25µg diluído em 100µl de solução salina estéril foi inoculado (via intradérmica entre as escápulas de 30 coelhos. Os animais foram divididos em seis grupos (tratamentos: grupo I: tratamento subcutâneo com extrato de Curcuma longa; grupo II: tratamento tópico com extrato hidroalcoólico de Curcuma longa

  5. VARYING A V BLOCK COMPLICATING SNAKE BITE - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of snake bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 23 - year - old man who developed coagulopathy and AV node dysfunction following snake bite. Electrocardiography showed all variatio ns of AV conduction dysfunction . This is the first account of AV node dysfu nction caused by a snake bite with cardiotoxi city presenting as atrioventricular block

  6. Model-based Locomotion Control of Underactuated Snake Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Rezapour, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Snake robots are a class of biologically inspired robots which are built to emulate the features of biological snakes. These robots are underactuated, i.e. they have fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom, and are hyper redundant, i.e. they have many degrees of freedom. Furthermore, snake robots utilize complex motion patterns and possess a complicated but highly flexible physical structure. These properties make locomotion control of snake robots a complicated and cha...

  7. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison Saturnino-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms’ local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation.

  8. Bothrops jararacussu venom-induced neuromuscular blockade inhibited by Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet hydroalcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet (Flacourtiaceae was standardized for the first time through quality control procedures including pharmacognostic methods, fingerprint chromatograms, defined amounts of marker substances and physicochemical characteristics. The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu venom (60 µg/mL in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Bjssu venom blocked muscle activity for 26 (± 2.0 minutes (n = 6. Cg extract (0.1 mg/mL induced changes on the baseline muscle activity without impairing the muscle function and inhibited 87.6% (± 1.8 (n = 6 of the Bjssu venom-induced blockade. Both flavonoids (0.624 g% and polyphenols (4.63 g% from the extract were spectrophotometrically quantified. Therefore, the present study confirms the antibothropic activity of Cg extract, supporting the ethnomedical use of Casearia sp. in the treatment of snakebite victims.

  9. Acción de la miotoxina del veneno de Bothrops brazili Hoge, 1953 (Ophidia: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pantigoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el modo de acción de la miotoxina aislada del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. La inoculación de la miotoxina en el músculo gastrocnemius de ratones albinos produce durante la primera hora de acción la liberación de creatina kinasa y lactato deshidrogenasa, mientras que por PAGE-SDS, se revela que la incubación de la miotoxina con músculo gastrocnemius aislado, produce además la liberación de otras proteínas musculares. Asimismo, la miotoxina produce hipercontracción, lesiones delta e incrementa los niveles de calcio intramuscular, tanto in vivo como in vitro, lo cual no depende del ingreso de calcio extracelular vía receptores de dihidropiridina. Este incremento de calcio explicaría la hipercontracción observada y podría generar la activación de proteasas y lipasas endógenas dependientes de calcio, que conducirían a la necrosis muscular.

  10. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  11. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saturnino-Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm², pulsed mode. Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively. Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury.

  12. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  13. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  14. Hemostatic effects of recombinant DisBa-01, a disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskot, Alexandre; Cominetti, Marcia R; Ramos, Oscar H P; Bechyne, Iga; Renard, Jean-Marie; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Crepin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S; Bonnefoy, Arnaud

    2008-05-01

    A monomeric RGD-disintegrin was recently identified from a cDNA library from the venom gland of Bothrops alternatus. The corresponding 12 kDa-recombinant protein, DisBa-01, specifically interacted with alpha(v)beta3 integrin and displayed potent anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties. Here, the interaction of DisBa-01 with platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and its effects on hemostasis and thrombosis were investigated. DisBa-01 bound to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta3 or alphaIIb beta3 and promoted their adhesion and the adhesion of resting platelets onto glass coverslips. The disintegrin inhibited the binding of FITC-fibrinogen and FITC-PAC-1 to ADP-stimulated platelets and inhibited ADP-, TRAP- and collagen-induced aggregation of murine, rabbit or human platelets. In a flow chamber assay, DisBa-01 inhibited and reverted platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. DisBa-01 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK following platelet activation. The intravenous injection of DisBa-01 in C57Bl6/j mice, prolonged tail bleeding time as well as thrombotic occlusion time in mesenteric venules and arterioles following vessel injury with FeCl3. In conclusion, DisBa-01 antagonizes the platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and potently inhibits thrombosis.

  15. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  16. Optimizing snake locomotion in the plane. II. Large transverse friction

    CERN Document Server

    Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We determine analytically the form of optimal snake locomotion when the coefficient of transverse friction is large, the typical regime for biological and robotic snakes. We find that the optimal snake motion is a retrograde traveling wave, with a wave amplitude that decays as the -1/4 power of the coefficient of transverse friction. This result agrees well with our numerical computations.

  17. Curvilinear shapes and the snake detection hypothesis : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Christiaans, Gerwin; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the snake detection hypothesis, previous ERP studies have established a larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Here, we examined to what extent the curvilinear shape of the snake's body drives the l

  18. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field.

  19. Function of snake mobbing in spectral tarsiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Sharon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous species are known for their tendency to approach and confront their predators as a group. This behavior is known as mobbing. Snakes seem to be one of the more consistent recipients of this type of predator-directed behavior. This paper explores individual differences (sex and age) in the mobbing behavior of the spectral tarsier toward live and model snakes. This study was conducted at Tangkoko Nature Reserve (Sulawesi, Indonesia) during 2003-2004. During this research, 11 natural mobbing events and 31 artificially induced mobbing events were observed. The mean number of individuals at a mobbing was 5.7. The duration of mobbing events was strongly correlated with the number of assembled mobbers. Adults were more likely than other age classes to participate in mobbings. Males were more likely than females to participate in mobbings. Mobbing groups often contained more than one adult male, despite the fact that no spectral tarsier group contains more than one adult male. No difference in body size between extragroup males and resident males was observed, refuting the "attract the mightier" hypothesis. The number of mobbers did not affect whether the tarsier or the snake retreated first, countering the "move-on" hypothesis. The "perception advertisement" hypothesis was tentatively supported, in that live snakes were rarely seen in the area following mobbing calls, in comparison to when tarsiers either ignored the snake or alarm call.

  20. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  1. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them.

  2. Blood flow dynamics in the snake spectacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Kevin; Sivak, Jacob G

    2013-11-15

    The eyes of snakes are shielded beneath a layer of transparent integument referred to as the 'reptilian spectacle'. Well adapted to vision by virtue of its optical transparency, it nevertheless retains one characteristic of the integument that would otherwise prove detrimental to vision: its vascularity. Given the potential consequence of spectacle blood vessels on visual clarity, one might expect adaptations to have evolved that mitigate their negative impact. Earlier research demonstrated an adaptation to their spatial layout in only one species to reduce the vessels' density in the region serving the foveal and binocular visual fields. Here, we present a study of spectacle blood flow dynamics and provide evidence of a mechanism to mitigate the spectacle blood vessels' deleterious effect on vision by regulation of blood flow through them. It was found that when snakes are at rest and undisturbed, spectacle vessels undergo cycles of dilation and constriction, such that the majority of the time the vessels are fully constricted, effectively removing them from the visual field. When snakes are presented with a visual threat, spectacle vessels constrict and remain constricted for longer periods than occur during the resting cycles, thus guaranteeing the best possible visual capabilities in times of need. Finally, during the snakes' renewal phase when they are generating a new stratum corneum, the resting cycle is abolished, spectacle vessels remain dilated and blood flow remains strong and continuous. The significance of these findings in terms of the visual capabilities and physiology of snakes is discussed.

  3. Kinetics of venom and antivenom serum and clinical parameters and treatment efficacy in Bothrops alternatus envenomed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, Do; Melo, M M; Santos, M M B; Heneine, L G D

    2002-12-01

    Dogs envenomed with non-lethal doses of Bothrops alternatus venom received standard antivenom therapy, im injections of flunixin meglumine, or topical treatmentwith aqueous Curcuma longa plant extract. Biodistribution of the venom and antivenom were determined by ELISA. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of antivenom and plant extract on local effects; flunixin treatment had lower efficacy. Distribution of the venom was similar with all 3 treatments. Serum levels of the antivenom reached maximum 2-4 h after administration and were not detected after the 5th d.

  4. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimani, Amina; Mcnierney, Afton; Surani, Sara; Surani, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite. PMID:24083047

  5. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  6. Slanted snaking bifurcation of localized Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pradenas, Bastián; Clerc, Marcel G; Falcón, Claudio; Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental, theoretical and numerical study of slanted snaking of spatially localized parametrically excited waves on the surface of a water-surfactant mixture in a Hele-Shaw cell. We demonstrate experimentally the presence of a hysteretic transition to spatially extended parametrically excited surface waves when the acceleration amplitude is varied, as well as the presence of spatially localized waves exhibiting slanted snaking. The latter extend outside the hysteresis loop. We attribute this behavior to the presence of a conserved quantity, the liquid volume, and introduce a universal model which couples the wave amplitude with such a conserved quantity. The model captures both the observed slanted snaking and the presence of localized waves outside the hysteresis loop, as demonstrated by numerical integration of the model equations.

  7. Helical spin rotators and snakes for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsin, V.I.; Shatunov, Yu.M. [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The RHIC collider, now under construction at BNL, will have the possibility of polarized proton-proton collisions up to a beam energy of 250 Gev. Polarized proton beams of such high energy can be only obtained with the use of siberian snakes, a special kind of spin rotator that rotates the particle spin by 180{degree} around an axis lying in the horizontal plane. Siberian snakes help to preserve the beam polarization while numerous spin depolarizing resonances are crossed, during acceleration. In order to collide longitudinally polarized beams, it is also planned to install spin rotators around two interaction regions. This paper discusses snake and spin rotator designs based on sequences of four helical magnets. The schemes that were chosen to be applied at RHIC are presented.

  8. Presynaptic Proteins as Markers of the Neurotoxic Activity of BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II Toxins from Bothrops marajoensis (Marajó Lancehead) Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Antonio; Melaré, Rodolfo; Franco, Junia R. B.; Bis, Carolina V.; Gracia, Marta; Ponce-Soto, Luis A.; Marangoni, Sérgio; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular preparations exposed to B. marajoensis venom show increases in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials and twitch tension facilitation followed by presynaptic neuromuscular paralysis, without evidences of muscle damage. Considering that presynaptic toxins interfere into the machinery involved in neurotransmitter release (synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins), the main objective of this communication is to analyze, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expression of the synaptic proteins, synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 and by myography, light, and transmission electron microscopy the pathology of motor nerve terminals and skeletal muscle fibres of chick biventer cervicis preparations (CBC) exposed in vitro to BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II toxins from B. marajoensis venom. CBC incubated with toxins showed irreversible twitch tension blockade and unaffected KCl- and ACh-evoked contractures, and the positive colabelling of acetylcholine receptors confirmed that their action was primarily at the motor nerve terminal. Hypercontraction and loose myofilaments and synaptic vesicle depletion and motor nerve damage indicated that the toxins displayed both myotoxic and neurotoxic effect. The blockade resulted from interference on synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins leading to the conclusion that BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II affected neurotransmitter release machinery by preventing the docking of synaptic vesicles to the axolemma of the nerve terminal. PMID:27635261

  9. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  10. Drinking in snakes: resolving a biomechanical puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundall, David; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Constantino, Joseph; Deufel, Alexandra; Grapski, Douglas; Kley, Nathan J

    2012-03-01

    Snakes have long been thought to drink with a two-phase buccal-pump mechanism, but observations that some snakes can drink without sealing the margins of their mouths suggest that buccal pumping may not be the only drinking mechanism used by snakes. Here, we report that some snakes appear to drink using sponge-like qualities of specific regions of the oropharyngeal and esophageal mucosa and sponge-compressing functions of certain muscles and bones of the head. The resulting mechanism allows them to transport water upward against the effects of gravity using movements much slower than those of many other vertebrates. To arrive at this model, drinking was examined in three snake species using synchronized ciné and electromyographic recordings of muscle activity and in a fourth species using synchronized video and pressure recordings. Functional data were correlated with a variety of anatomical features to test specific predictions of the buccal-pump model. The anatomical data suggest explanations for the lack of conformity between a buccal-pump model of drinking and the performance of the drinking apparatus in many species. Electromyographic data show that many muscles with major functions in feeding play minor roles in drinking and, conversely, some muscles with minor roles in feeding play major roles in drinking. Mouth sealing by either the tongue or mental scale, previously considered critical to drinking in snakes, is incidental to drinking performance in some species. The sponge mechanism of drinking may represent a macrostomatan exaptation of mucosal folds, the evolution of which was driven primarily by the demands of feeding.

  11. Study of spin resonances in the accelerators with snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (USA))

    1989-05-05

    Spin resonances in the circular accelerators with snakes are studied to understand the nature of snake resonances. We analyze the effect of snake configuration, and the snake superperiod on the resonance. Defining the {ital critical} {ital resonance} {ital strength} {epsilon}{sub {ital c}} as the maximum tolerable resonance strength without losing the beam polarization after passing through the resonance, we found that {epsilon}{sub {ital c}} is a sensitive function of the snake configuration, the snake superperiod at the first order snake resonance, the higher order snake resonance conditions and the spin matching condition. Under properly designed snake configuration, the critical resonance strength {epsilon}{sub {ital c}} is found to vary linearly with {ital N}{sub {ital S}} as {l angle}{epsilon}{sub {ital c}}{r angle}=(1/{pi})sin{sup {minus}1}(cos {pi}{nu}{sub z}{vert bar}{sup 1/2})N{sub S}, where {nu}{vert bar}{sub z} and N{sub S} are the betatron tune and the number of snakes respectively. We also study the effect of overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The imperfection resonance should be corrected to a magnitude of insignificance (e.g., {epsilon}{le}0.1 for two snakes case) to maintain proper polarization.

  12. Snake perturbation during pellet injection in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xingjia; Hu, Jiansheng; Xu, Liqing; Xu, Zong; Chen, Yue; Li, Changzheng; Liu, Haiqing; Zhao, Hailing; Duan, Yanmin; Shi, Tonghui; Shen, Wei; EAST Team

    2016-11-01

    The pellet-induced snake oscillation was observed by soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostic in EAST for the first time after a fueling-sized pellet penetrated the q  =  1 surface. The snake phenomenon has a long lifetime with a helicity of m  =  1 and n  =  1. Basic behaviors of the snake, including the triggering condition, interaction with the sawtooth and snake rotation frequency, were discussed in detail by multiple core diagnostics. The snake location was also analyzed through observation of the vertical SXR arrays and raw SXR brightness profiles. It is clear that the snake resided in a broad region between the magnetic axis and the q  =  1 surface derived from equilibrium reconstruction. This investigation is beneficial for the understanding of the snake formation for EAST and future devices, like ITER and DEMO.

  13. Improved Snake algorithm for complex target's boundary detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bao-jun; LI Dong

    2006-01-01

    The traditional Snake algorithm cannot effectively detect the object edge of an image with non-convex shapes or low SNR.This paper studies the characteristics of this type of image with complex shape target or noise and presents an improved Snake algorithm.The traditional Snake function model and operation strategy are improved by increasing new control energy functions,and the influencing weight of these energy factors is discussed.At the same time,a dynamic arrangement for the Snake points is used to adapt different target shapes.The simulation results indicate that the new Snake model greatly decreases the dependence on the Snake point's initial position and effectively overcomes noise influence.This method enhances the Snake algorithm's ability of detecting object edge.

  14. Snake River Islands Wilderness proposal : Snake River sector : Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the Snake River Islands in the Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge which have been studied pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964 to determine...

  15. The upper cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the phylogenetic relationships of snakes and lizards are plagued by problematic characterizations of anatomy that are then used to define characters and states in taxon-character matrices. State assignments and character descriptions must be clear characterizations of observable anatomy and topological relationships if homologies are to be hypothesized. A supposed homology among snakes, not observed in lizards, is the presence of a crista circumfenestralis (CCF), a system of bony crests surrounding the fenestra ovalis and lateral aperture of the recessus scalae tympani. We note that there are some fossil and extant snakes that lack a CCF, and some extant lizards that possess a morphological equivalent. The phylogenetically important upper Cretaceous fossil snake Dinilysia patagonica has been interpreted by different authors as either having or lacking a CCF. These conflicting results for Dinilysia were tested by re-examining the morphology of the otic region in a large sample of snakes and lizards. An unambiguous criterion arising from the test of topology is used to define the presence of a CCF: the enclosure of the ventral margin of the juxtastapedial recess by flanges of the otoccipital (crista tuberalis and crista interfenestralis) that extend forward to contact the posterior margin of the prootic. According to this criterion D. patagonica does not possess a CCF, therefore, this anatomical feature must have arisen later during the evolution of snakes.

  16. A Schoolwide Endeavor: Our Exquisite Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The author was originally inspired by "The Exquisite Snake" exhibit she saw at a local museum. Two hundred contemporary artists contributed to this exhibit, which was an adaptation of the old parlor game called "The Exquisite Corpse" that Surrealist artists used to play in the late 1920s and '30s. The author just loved this idea and decided to…

  17. A snake bite case developing thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Adıgön

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a twenty four year old man whowas bitten by a snake on his right leg. It was a severeenvenomation with ensuing marked edema and severepain with complicated coagulation defects. After medicaltreatmant with antivenom the patient discharged withoutany complication. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2: 293-295

  18. Weakly exact categories and the snake lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Amir

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of an exact category and introduce weakly exact categories. A proof of the snake lemma in this general setting is given. Some applications are given to illustrate how one can do homological algebra in a weakly exact category.

  19. Book Review: The Snakes of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Zaher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Book review: McCranie, J. R. 2011. The Snakes of Honduras – Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Contributions to Herpetology, Volume 26. Society for the Study of Amphibians andReptiles, Thomson-Shore, Inc., Michigan. 724 pages, 65 figures, 23 tables, 20 color plates.

  20. Cytotoxicity of Southeast Asian snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jamunaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of venoms from eleven medically important snakes found in Southeast Asia (Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis, Naja sumatrana, Ophiophagus hannah, Bungarus candidus, Bungarus fasciatus, Enhydrina schistosa, Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus and Tropidolaemus sumatranus was determined, based on the MTS cytotoxicity assay, which determines the survival of viable cells in monolayer MDCK and Vero cell cultures upon exposure to the snake venoms. Snake venom toxicity was expressed as the venom dose that killed 50% of the cells (CTC50 under the assay conditions. Venoms of C. rhodostoma (2.6 µg/mL, 1.4 µg/mL and O. hannah were the most cytotoxic (3.8 µg/mL, 1.7 µg/mL whereas N. siamensis venom showed the least cytotoxicity (51.9 µg/mL, 45.7 µg/mL against Vero and MDCK cells, respectively. All the viper venoms showed higher cytotoxic potency towards both Vero and MDCK cell lines, in comparison to krait and cobra venoms. E. schistosa did not cause cytotoxicity towards MDCK or Vero cells at the tested concentrations. The cytotoxicity correlates well with the known differences in the composition of venoms from cobras, kraits, vipers and sea snakes.

  1. A variable parameter parametric snake method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, A.; Houacine, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to parametric snake method by using variable snake parameters. Adopting fixed parameter values for all points of the snake, as usual, constitutes by itself a limitation that leads to poor performances in terms of convergence and tracking properties. A more adapted choice should be the one that allows selection depending on the image region properties as on the contour shape and position. However, such variability is not an easy task in general and a precise method need to be defined to assure contour point dependent tuning at iterations. We were particularly interested in applying this idea to the recently presented parametric method [1]. In the work mentioned, an attraction term is used to improve the convergence of the standard parametric snake without a significant increase in computational load. We show here, that improved performances can ensue from applying variable parameter concepts. For this purpose, the method is first analyzed and then a procedure is developed to assure an automatic variable parameter tuning. The interest of our approach is illustrated through object segmentation results.

  2. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  3. Smart Material-actuated Flexible Tendon-based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  4. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Van Le

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014. In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  5. Proximity to Intrinsic Depolarizing Resonances with a Partial Siberian Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D. A.; Alexeeva, L. V.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Hu, S.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Varzar, S. M.; Wong, V. K.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Russell, A. D.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, H.

    1996-05-01

    Partial Siberian snakes are effective in overcoming imperfection depolarizing resonances, but they may also change the crossing energy for intrinsic depolarizing resonances. We experimentally investigated the effect of a partial Siberian snake near intrinsic depolarizing resonances with stored 140 MeV and 160 MeV polarized proton beams. Using various partial Siberian snake strengths up to 30%, depolarization was observed; this may be due to a change in the spin precession frequency which moves the energy of nearby intrinsic depolarizing resonances.

  6. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  7. Kinematic Control of Wheeled Snake-Like Mobile Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From a bionics viewpoint , this paper proposes a mechanical model of a wheeled snake-like mobile mechanism. On the hypothesis of the existing non-holonomic constraints on the robot kinematics, we set up the relationship among the kinetic control parameters in the snake-like movement using Lie group and Lie algebra of the principle fiber bundle and provide some theoretical control methods to realize the snake-like locomotion.

  8. Modeling, Control and Energy Efficiency of Underwater Snake Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kelasidi, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is mainly motivated by the attribute of the snake robots that they are able to move over land as well as underwater while the physiology of the robot remains the same. This adaptability to different motion demands depending on the environment is one of the main characteristics of the snake robots. In particular, this thesis targets several interesting aspects regarding the modeling, control and energy efficiency of the underwater snake robots. This thesis address...

  9. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  10. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Hori, Etsuro; Tran, Anh Hai; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  11. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered pr...

  12. Daño renal en ratas inducido por veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus de Argentina Renal injury in rats poisoned by venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Koscinczuk; Juan T Borda; Silvana Maruñak; Ofelia Acosta de Perez; Norma Mussart DE Coppo

    2004-01-01

    La insuficiencia renal aguda es una de las complicaciones sistémicas más frecuentes después de un accidente ofídico. En este estudio se evalúan los efectos que el veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus produce en el riñón de ratas machos de la cepa Wistar. La histopatología permitió comprobar el desarrollo de necrosis tubular aguda; las lesiones iniciales se observaron a las 3 horas de la inoculación de una dosis de 700 µg del veneno, observándose en corteza renal congestión y degeneración gran...

  13. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Libia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27% were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements and class II (DNA transposons mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large

  14. Acceleration of Polarized Beams Using Multiple Strong Partial Siberian Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, T.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Courant, E. D.; Glenn, J. W.; Gupta, R. C.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Okamura, M.; Takano, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization, but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20 - 30 % partial Siberian snake, both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical super-conducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction.

  15. Primary homologies of the circumorbital bones of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Some snakes have two circumorbital ossifications that in the current literature are usually referred to as the postorbital and supraorbital. We review the arguments that have been proposed to justify this interpretation and provide counter-arguments that reject those conjectures of primary homology based on the observation of 32 species of lizards and 81 species of snakes (both extant and fossil). We present similarity arguments, both topological and structural, for reinterpretation of the primary homologies of the dorsal and posterior orbital ossifications of snakes. Applying the test of similarity, we conclude that the posterior orbital ossification of snakes is topologically consistent as the homolog of the lacertilian jugal, and that the dorsal orbital ossification present in some snakes (e.g., pythons, Loxocemus, and Calabaria) is the homolog of the lacertilian postfrontal. We therefore propose that the terms postorbital and supraorbital should be abandoned as reference language for the circumorbital bones of snakes, and be replaced with the terms jugal and postfrontal, respectively. The primary homology claim for the snake "postorbital" fails the test of similarity, while the term "supraorbital" is an unnecessary and inaccurate application of the concept of a neomorphic ossification, for an element that passes the test of similarity as a postfrontal. This reinterpretation of the circumorbital bones of snakes is bound to have important repercussions for future phylogenetic analyses and consequently for our understanding of the origin and evolution of snakes.

  16. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius. PMID:27658593

  17. Modular Pneumatic Snake Robot: 3D Modelling, Implementation And Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Liljebäck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a treatment of various aspects related to snake locomotion. A mathematical model and a physical implementation of a modular snake robot are presented. A control strategy is also developed, yielding a general expression for different gait patterns. Two forms of locomotion have been simulated with the mathematical model, and experiments with the physical snake robot have been conducted. The simulation results revealed the parameter through which directional control may be achieved for each gait pattern. Experiments with the physical snake robot gave a crude qualitative verification of these findings.

  18. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.

  19. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.AHRENS,L.BAI,M.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction.

  20. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.; AHRENS,L.; BAI,M.; COURANT,E.; GLENN,J.W.; GUPTA,R.C.; HUANG,H.; LUCCIO,A.U.; MACKAY,W.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; WILLEN,E.; OKAMURA,M.; TAKANO,J.

    2004-10-10

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction.

  1. Studies of polarized beam acceleration and Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    We studied depolarization mechanisms of polarized proton acceleration in high energy accelerators with snakes and found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two. Thus the available betatron tune space becomes smaller. Some constraints on polarized beam colliders were also examined.

  2. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  3. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  4. Intravascular Ultrasound Image Segmentation Using Morphological Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first use of the technics of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS as an imaging technique for the coronary artery system at the 70th century until now , the segmentation of the arterial wall boundaries still an important problem . Much research has been done to give better segmentation result for better diagnostics , evaluation and therapy planning. In this paper we present a new segmentation technics based on Morphological Snakes which developed by Luis Álvarez used for the first time for IVUS segmentation. It is a simple , fast and stable approach of snakes evolution algorithm. Results are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in IVUS segmentation.

  5. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  6. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  7. tibetan plateau relict snakes of the genus thermophis and their relationship to new world relict snakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    the complete mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2)gene sequences of two species of thermophis,t.baileyi and t zhaoermii,were sequenced and compared to those of 86 sequences from other snakes (74 from caenophidia and 12 from henophidia).by using bayesian inference (bi)and maximum likehood (ml)approaches,thermophis was demonstrated as the sister group to the north american relicts of dipsadinae,and rooted in central and south american members of this subfamily.the results suggest that the closest relatives of thermophis are the north american relicts,and thus support the hypothesis for an asian-north american origin of xenodontine snakes as suggested by vidal et al.(2000).extensive sampling of asian snakes and american dipsadines is needed to further test this hypothesis in the future.

  8. Alteraciones estructurales y ultraestructurales del encéfalo ocasionados por veneno de la serpiente mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rodríguez Acosta; F. Monterrey; G. Céspedes; Finol HJ

    2003-01-01

    Las actividades tóxicas y enzimáticas del veneno deserpiente mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis), cuya acción abar-ca casi todos los tejidos de mamíferos, no han sido estudiadas,estructural o ultraestructuralmente de manera exhaustiva, en elSistema Nervioso Central (SNC).Se inocularon ratones adultos C57/Bl por vía endovenosa conconcentraciones de veneno de 0,25 mg/kg de peso. Se sacrifica-ron a las 24 horas después de la inoculación de veneno y se hizoextracción del encéfalo, se fijó inmediatam...

  9. Taxocenose de serpentes no Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Taxocenosis of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda da Brigada (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, e teve como objetivo contribuir com informações sobre riqueza, abundância de serpentes e comparação entre os métodos de amostragem. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas áreas, floresta e campo, no período de janeiro de 2001 a março de 2003. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: procura limitada por tempo (PLT, encontros ocasionais por terceiros (EOT, encontros ocasionais pela equipe (EOE e armadilhas de interceptação e queda (AQ. Com a utilização dos quatro métodos foi possível registrar 19 espécies de serpentes, distribuídas em três famílias (Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae e coletar 284 indivíduos, sendo 128 por EOT, 36 por PLT, 112 por AQ e 8 por EOE. Utilizando todos os métodos, as três espécies mais abundantes foram: Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 (16,9%, Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 (15,2% e Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (13,4%. O estudo dessa taxocenose revela importantes características da ecologia de serpentes e poderá subsidiar futuros estudos de conservação para a área.The present study was conducted on the Brigada Farm (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the study was to provide data regarding the richness and abundance of snakes and to compare sampling methods. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e., forest and field, between January 2001 and March 2003. Data were collected using the following methods: time-constrained search (TCS, occasional encounters by local collectors (OEC, occasional encounters by the team (OET, and by pitfall traps (PT. Using the four methods, 19 snake species belonging to three families (Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded, and 284 individuals were collected, including 128 by OEC, 36 by TCS, 112 by PT, and

  10. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  11. Highly extensible skeletal muscle in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Matthew; Perni, Stefano; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Cundall, David

    2014-07-15

    Many snakes swallow large prey whole, and this process requires large displacements of the unfused tips of the mandibles and passive stretching of the soft tissues connecting them. Under these conditions, the intermandibular muscles are highly stretched but subsequently recover normal function. In the highly stretched condition we observed in snakes, sarcomere length (SL) increased 210% its resting value (SL0), and actin and myosin filaments no longer overlapped. Myofibrils fell out of register and triad alignment was disrupted. Following passive recovery, SLs returned to 82% SL0, creating a region of double-overlapping actin filaments. Recovery required recoil of intracellular titin filaments, elastic cytoskeletal components for realigning myofibrils, and muscle activation. Stretch of whole muscles exceeded that of sarcomeres as a result of extension of folded terminal tendon fibrils, stretching of extracellular elastin and independent slippage of muscle fibers. Snake intermandibular muscles thus provide a unique model of how basic components of vertebrate skeletal muscle can be modified to permit extreme extensibility.

  12. Efeito de frações peptídicas do veneno da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae: Crotalinae) sobre a atividade enzimática dipeptidil-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) e sobre o receptor (GLP-1R) do peptídeo glucagon-símile tipo 1 (GLP-1).

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Zambotti Villela

    2010-01-01

    Novos agentes terapêuticos que preservem as células β do pâncreas e o controle do peso são importantes para o diabetes melittus tipo 2 (DM-2), constituindo uma importante área de investimento farmacêutico. Com o objetivo de contribuir com a toxinologia comparada de venenos de répteis e com a eventual descoberta de novos agentes insulinotrópicos, o presente estudo realizou a prospecção de compostos hipoglicemiantes análogos à exendina-4 (isolada de lagartos Heloderma) ou inibidores da dipe...

  13. Analgesic Effect of Photobiomodulation on Bothrops Moojeni Venom-Induced Hyperalgesia: A Mechanism Dependent on Neuronal Inhibition, Cytokines and Kinin Receptors Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Victoria Regina da Silva; Toniolo, Elaine Flamia; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; da Silva Jr., José Antonio; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-01-01

    Background Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice. Mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia were evaluated by von Frey filaments at different time points after venom injection. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied at the site of Bmv injection at wavelength of red 685 nm with energy density of 2.2 J/cm2 at 30 min and 3 h after venom inoculation. Neuronal activation in the dorsal horn spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry of Fos protein and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, B1 and B2 kinin receptors were evaluated by Real time-PCR 6 h after venom injection. Photobiomodulation reversed Bmv-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia and decreased Fos expression, induced by Bmv as well as the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and B1 and B2 kinin receptors. Finally, an increase on IL-10, was observed following LLLT. Conclusion/Significance These data demonstrate that LLLT interferes with mechanisms involved in nociception and hyperalgesia and modulates Bmv-induced nociceptive signal. The use of photobiomodulation in reducing local pain induced by Bothropic venoms should be considered as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of local symptoms induced after bothropic snakebites. PMID:27749899

  14. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage.

  15. Frogs and snakes from the island of Morotai (Moluccas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    Van Kampen (1924, p. 284) mentions only two species of frogs from Morotai Island; the identification of one of these was considered to be doubtful. Of snakes De Jong (1928, p. 149) records five species from this island. The study of a small collection of frogs and snakes from Morotai, presented to t

  16. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola (ty

  17. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata exclud

  18. A taping method for external transmitter attachment on aquatic snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Smith, J.J.; Amarello, M.; Casazza, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Radio telemetry is extremely useful for studying habitat use and movements of free ranging snakes. Surgically implanting radio transmitters into the body cavity of snakes is standard practice in most studies (e.g., Reinert and Cundall 1982; Weatherhead and Blouin-Demers 2004), but this implanting method has its drawbacks. Surgery itself is risky for individual snakes because of the potential for infection or incomplete healing of the incision site. Also, transmitters that are small enough to be carried by small or slender snakes have a relatively short battery life and need to be removed or replaced often, thus requiring frequent surgeries. In rare or endangered snake species, the risk of using invasive implantation surgery may not be merited. External attachment methods are relatively non-invasive and allow removal and replacement of radio transmitters on smaller snakes. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a semi-aquatic snake endemic to wetlands of the Central Valley of California, USA, and is federally and state listed as threatened (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). Telemetry studies of the habitat use and movements of this species typically used surgically implanted radio transmitters, but this method is limited to larger snakes, primarily females, because of size requirements for surgery (> 250 g). To overcome difficulties and biases associated with radio telemetry of T. gigas, we developed and evaluated several alternative techniques to attach external radio transmitters using tape.

  19. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat.

  20. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  1. Observations on Snake Repellent Property of Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Renapurkar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The repellent property of certain plant extracts and oils against snakes has been investigated. For this purpose 15 hexane extracts of plants and 11 oils were tested in the laboratory in a specially designed cage. Out of the materials tested. Across calamus extract and pine oil were found to exhibit excellent snake repellent property.

  2. Ascaridia galli infection in a checkered keelback (Xenochrophis piscator) snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javare Gowda, Ananda K; Rani, B Kavitha; Nandeesha, C; Naravi, Yashaswi

    2017-03-01

    The checkered keelback is also known as Asiatic water snake and is common species of non-venomous snake known to occur in India. The present study report the occurrence of Ascaridia galli infection in a checkered keelback snake, which was found dead near Veterinary College hostel premises. The post-mortem examination of the snake revealed catarrhal exudate without ingesta in the stomach and showed gastric ulcerations with edema. Large numbers of round worms were packed in the lumen of small intestine with petechial haemorrhages and necrotic enteritis. The nematode parasites were recovered and processed for identification. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as A. galli and the intestinal contents of the snake showed A. galli eggs.

  3. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis).

  4. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Courant, E.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gill, R.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Litvinenko, V.; Luccio, A.; Luo, Y.; Pilat, F.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Svirida, D.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discoverd by Lee and Tepikian [1]. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonanances is also presented.

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella in wild snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Toshiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Furukawa, Ichiro; Okatani, Alexandre Tomomitsu; Kato, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    A total of 87 wild snakes of 6 species in 2 families collected in Japan were examined for the presence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella was 58.6%, and that of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, which includes most human pathogenic serotypes, accounted for 12.6%. S. enterica subspecies I was isolated from Japanese grass snakes and Japanese four-striped snakes, and the isolates belonged to 6 serotypes: S. enterica subspecies enterica serotypes Eastbourne, Mikawashima, Narashino, Newport, Saintpaul, and Thompson. The prevalence of S. enterica subspecies IIIb was higher (41.4%) than that of S. enterica subspecies I, and it was isolated from 4 snake species. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies and isolation of serotypes that are commonly detected in reptiles and human salmonellosis suggest that wild snakes may become a source of Salmonella infection.

  6. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality.

  7. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking...... for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2......) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  8. Genetic assemblage of Sarcocystis spp. in Malaysian snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcocystis species are protozoan parasites with a wide host range including snakes. Although there were several reports of Sarcocytis species in snakes, their distribution and prevalence are still not fully explored. Methods In this study, fecal specimens of several snake species in Malaysia were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis by PCR of 18S rDNA sequence. Microscopy examination of the fecal specimens for sporocysts was not carried as it was difficult to determine the species of the infecting Sarcocystis. Results Of the 28 snake fecal specimens, 7 were positive by PCR. BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses of the amplified 18S rDNA sequences revealed the snakes were infected with either S. nesbitti, S. singaporensis, S. zuoi or undefined Sarcocystis species. Conclusion This study is the first to report Sarcocystis infection in a cobra, and S. nesbitti in a reticulated python. PMID:24010903

  9. Multi-terrain locomotor interactions in flying snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton, Isaac; Baumgardner, Grant; Ross, Shane; Socha, John

    Arboreal snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only known snakes to glide. To execute aerial locomotion, a snake uses one of several stereotyped jumps from a tree into the air, while simultaneously flattening its body into an aerodynamically favorable shape. Large amplitude traveling waves are propagated posteriorly during the stable glide, while landing involves body wrapping, passive body compression, and energy absorption through compliance in the landing substrate to dissipate the accumulated kinetic energy from the glide. In all of these locomotor events, from interacting with cylindrical branches, falling through the air, grasping compliant tree branches and leaves, to landing on solid ground, snakes appropriate the same body morphology and perhaps the same basic neural mechanisms. Here we discuss our use of computational models and animal experiments to understand how flying snakes interact with and locomote on and through multiple media, potentially providing principles for legless locomotor designs. Supported by NSF 1351322.

  10. Research on Snake-Like Robot with Controllable Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kailin; Zhao, Yuting; Chen, Shuping

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new structure for a snake-like robot. This type of snake-like robot is different from the normal snake-like robot because it has lots of controllable scales which have a large role in helping moving. Besides, a new form of robot gait named as linear motion mode is developed based on theoretical analysis for the new mechanical structure. Through simulation and analysis in simmechanics of matlab, we proved the validity of theories about the motion mode of snake-like robot. The proposed machine construction and control method for the designed motion is verified experimentally by the independent developed snake robot.

  11. A comparison of the ability of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) extract to inhibit the local effects of Bothrops atrox venom when pre-incubated and when used according to traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão de Moura, Valéria; Serra Bezerra, Adrielle N; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena; Varjão Lameiras, Juliana L; Almeida Raposo, Juliana D; Luckwu de Sousa, Rafael; Boechat, Antônio Luiz; Bezerra de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Menezes Chalkidis, Hipocrátes; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV). The concentrations of phenolic compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in AEBd were determined by colorimetric assays. The effectiveness of AEBd in inhibiting the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV was evaluated in mice in four different experimental in vivo protocols: (1) pre-incubation (venom:extract, w/w); (2) pre-treatment (p.o.); (3) post-treatment (p.o.); and (4) AEBd (p.o.) in combination with Bothrops antivenom (BA) (i.v.). To assess in vitro inhibition of BaV phospholipase A₂ activity, the pre-incubation method or incorporation of AEBd or BA in agarose gels were used. The effect of AEBd on BaV was determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography and Western blot. Colorimetric assays revealed higher concentrations of (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins than flavonoids in AEBd. Hemorrhagic activity was completely inhibited using the pre-incubation protocol. However, with pre-treatment there was no significant inhibition for the concentrations tested, and with the post-treatment only the 725 mg/kg dose of AEBd was able to inhibit 40.5% (p = 0.001) of the hemorrhagic activity of BaV. Phospholipase A₂ activity was only inhibited when AEBd was pre-incubated with BaV. BaV-induced edema was completely inhibited with pre-incubation (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with pre- and post-treatment (p.o.) for the concentrations tested. The reduction in local edema was even greater when AEBd

  12. The new conceptual design of snakes and spin rotators in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Courant, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the generalized snake configurations, which offers either the advantages of shorter total snake length and smaller horizontal orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the dual functions of a snake and a 90{degree} spin rotation for the helicity state. The generalized snake is then applied to the polarized proton collision in RHIC. The possible schemes of obtaining high luminosity are discussed.

  13. The Narrow Fellow in the Grass: Human Infants Associate Snakes and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no differential spontaneous reaction to films of snakes versus…

  14. Proteomics application exercise of the Swiss Proteomics Society: report of the SPS'02 session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binz, Pierre-Alain; Abdi, Fadi; Affolter, Michael; Allard, Laure; Barblan, Jachen; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev; Bienvenut, Willy V; Bulet, Philippe; Burgess, Jennifer; Carrette, Odile; Corthals, Garry; Delalande, François; Diemer, Hélène; Favreau, Philippe; Giuliano, Elia; Gueguen, Yannick; Guillaume, Elisabeth; Hahner, Stephanie; Man, Petr; Michalet, Sophie; Neri, Dario; Noukakis, Dimitrios; Palagi, Patricia; Paroutaud, Pierre; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Quadroni, Manfredo; Resemann, Anja; Richert, Sophie; Rybak, Jascha; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Scherl, Alexander; Scheurer, Simone; Schweiger Hufnagel, Ulrike; Siethoff, Christoph; Suckau, Detlev; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Wagner Redeker, Winfried; Walter, Nadia; Stöcklin, Reto

    2003-08-01

    After the success of the mass spectrometry (MS) round table that was held at the first Swiss Proteomics Society congress (SPS'01) in Geneva, the SPS has organized a proteomics application exercise and allocated a full session at the SPS'02 congress. The main objective was to encourage the exchange of expertise in protein identification, with a focus on the use of mass spectrometry, and to create a bridge between the users' questions and the instrument providers' solutions. Two samples were sent to fifteen interested labs, including academic groups and MS hardware providers. Participants were asked to identify and partially characterize the samples. They consisted of a complex mixture of peptide/proteins (sample A) and an almost pure recombinant peptide carrying post-translational modifications (sample B). Sample A was an extract of snake venom from the species Bothrops jararaca. Sample B was a recombinant and modified peptide derived from the shrimp Penaeus vannamei penaeidin 3a. The eight labs that returned results reported the use of a wide range of MS instrumentation and techniques. They mentioned a variety of time and manpower allocations. The origin of sample A was generally identified together with a number of database protein entries. The difficulty of the sample identification lay in the incomplete knowledge of the Bothrops species genome sequence and is discussed. Sample B was generally and correctly identified as penaeidin. However, only one group reported the full primary structure. Interestingly, the approaches were again varied and are discussed in the text.

  15. Daño renal en ratas inducido por veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus de Argentina Renal injury in rats poisoned by venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Koscinczuk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda es una de las complicaciones sistémicas más frecuentes después de un accidente ofídico. En este estudio se evalúan los efectos que el veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus produce en el riñón de ratas machos de la cepa Wistar. La histopatología permitió comprobar el desarrollo de necrosis tubular aguda; las lesiones iniciales se observaron a las 3 horas de la inoculación de una dosis de 700 µg del veneno, observándose en corteza renal congestión y degeneración granulohialina de las células epiteliales tubulares, acompañadas de dilatación y cilindros hialinos en la luz tubular. A las 24 horas se presentó necrosis tubular aguda en una superficie extensa de la corteza sin daño de la membrana basal tubular. Las lesiones de degeneración turbia de células epiteliales tubulares, dilatación de la luz tubular y cilindros hialinos se mantuvieron presentes hasta las 4 semanas post-inoculación. Si bien los parámetros de la bioquímica clínica asociados con insuficiencia renal aguda aumentaron a las 6 horas de la administración del veneno (urea: 1.10±0.22 g/dl; creatinina: 19.60±1.51mg/dl, a la semana descendieron a valores normales. Las densidades urinarias, en cambio, a la semana se mantuvieron más bajas que lo normal, 1.005 ± 0.001 (pAcute renal failure is one of the systemic complications that can be found in bothropic accidents. In this study the effects on male Wistar rats induced by the venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus were evaluated. The histopathology revealed acute tubular necrosis, lesions firstly were observed 3 hours post inoculation of 700 µg of venom. Cortical kidney congestion and granulohialin degeneration of tubular epithelial cells were observed, these lesions achieved a maximum at 24 hours after inoculation. Tubular epithelial hidropic degeneration and dilatation of tubular lumen with hyalin casts were present inclusive up to 4 weeks after inoculation. Biochemical parameter

  16. Molecular Convergence of Infrared Vision in Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; DeNardo, Dale F.

    2011-01-01

    It has been discovered that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) proteins of Boidae (boas), Pythonidae (pythons), and Crotalinae (pit vipers) are used to detect infrared radiation, but the molecular mechanism for detecting the infrared radiation is unknown. Here, relating the amino acid substitutions in their TRPA1 proteins and the functional differentiations, we propose that three parallel amino acid changes (L330M, Q391H, and S434T) are responsible for the development of infrared vision in the three groups of snakes. Protein modeling shows that the three amino acid changes alter the structures of the central region of their ankyrin repeats. PMID:20937734

  17. Insertion of helical Siberian snakes in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A.; Pilat, F.

    1995-05-01

    Spin rotators and Siberian snakes for RHIC can be built using 4 helical magnets obtained, by twisting, from the cosine dipoles. The authors found that the fringe fields are important. In the calculations they have used a plausible model for the fringe. However, only magnetic measurements on the prototypes presently being built will allow a final optimization. The linear coupling at injection, {Delta}Q{sub min} < 10{sup {minus}2}, is well within the range of the RHIC decoupling system. At storage, the coupling introduced by the devices ({Delta}Q{sub min} < 10{sup {minus}4}) is negligible.

  18. Spin rotators and split Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, Thomas

    1994-03-01

    The study of spin effects in the collision of polarized high energy beams requires flexible and compact spin rotators to manipulate the beam polarization direction. Design criteria and specific examples are presented for high energy, orbit transparent spin rotators ranging from small angle rotators to be used for the excitation of spin resonances to large angle rotators to be used as Siberian Snakes. It is shown that all the requirements for spin rotators can be met with a simple 6-magnet spin rotator design, for which a complete continuous solution is presented.

  19. Spin rotators and split Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1994-03-22

    The study of spin effects in the collision of polarized high energy beams requires flexible and compact spin rotators to manipulate the beam polarization direction. Design criteria and specific examples are presented for high energy, orbit transparent spin rotators ranging from small angle rotators to be used for the excitation of spin resonances to large angle rotators to be used as Siberian Snakes. It is shown that all the requirements for spin rotators can be met with a simple 6-magnet spin rotator design, for which a complete continuous solution is presented. (orig.)

  20. Atividade antiinflamatória do extrato aquoso de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl. sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl. on the self-induced inflammatory process from venoms amazonians snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Paixão Costa de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou o efeito antiinflamatório do extrato aquoso da Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl., Bignoniaceae, popularmente conhecida como "crajiru", sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas dos gêneros Brothrops e Crotalus, em camundongos albinos, por via oral, intraperitoneal e subcutânea. O efeito anti-edematogênico foi avaliado pela medição do diâmetro dos coxins das patas posteriores, sendo medidos as 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas, para B. atrox e 1, 3 e 6 horas para Crotalus durissus ruruima, e também avaliado por histopatologia. O estudo mostrou que o efeito inibitório do extrato aquoso para o gênero Bothrops, pelas vias subcutânea e intraperitoneal (12 horas foi de 55,87% e 65,70%, respectivamente. Para o gênero Crotalus o efeito inibitório do extrato pela via subcutânea após 3 horas foi de 33,55% e após 6 horas de 79,81%. Pela via intraperitoneal após 3 horas foi de 48,02% e após 6 horas de 92,52%. Na análise histopatológica, o infiltrado de granulócitos e a miocitólise foram os efeitos inflamatórios inibidos mais significativamente. Os resultados sugerem a presença no extrato aquoso de A. chica de substâncias com atividade inibitória sobre os efeitos inflamatórios dos venenos das serpentes Bothrops atrox e Crotalus durissus ruruima.The study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract (EAq, the Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl., Bignoniaceae, known as the "crajiru", tested on the paw oedema induced in inflammatory process by venoms Amazon snakes from the Bothrops and Crotalus species, on albino mice. This process was done by an oral, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous way. The cushions thickness was measured at time breaks of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, Bothrops genus and 1, 3 and 6 hours, Crotalus genus, and a histopathologic analysis was made. The Bothrops genus, was used as an inhibitory effect for the subcutaneous and intraperitoneal way (12 hours, and it

  1. Helical dipole partial Siberian snake for the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, J [RIKEN, Saitama, (Japan); Ahrens, L A [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Alforque, R [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Bai, M [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brown, K [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Courant, E D [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ganetis, G [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gardner, C J [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Glenn, J W [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hattori, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, (Japan); Huang, H [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Jain, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Luccio, A U [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); MacKay, W W [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Roser, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tsoupas, N [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tepikian, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tuozzolo, J [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wood, J [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zelenski, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zeno, K [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Overcoming depolarization resonances in medium class synchrotrons (3 to 50 GeV) is one of the key issues in accelerating a highly polarized proton beam up to very high energies. Since such synchrotrons, including the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the J-PARC Main Ring, generally do not have sufficiently long straight sections to accommodate full Siberian snakes with reasonable beam excursions, the practical solution is to use partial Siberian snakes that rotate the particle spin about a horizontal axis by a fraction of 180 degrees. For the AGS, we designed and installed a new partial Siberian snake consisting of a helical dipole magnet with a double pitch structure. The helical structure reduced the amount of transverse coupling as compared to that achieved by the previous solenoidal partial snake. This coupling led to partial depolarization at certain energies from horizontal betatron oscillations. The helical magnetic field in the snake magnet was calculated using a 3D magnetic field code TOSCA, and was optimized by segmenting the helical pitch and varying the lengths of the segments. Fabrication errors were checked and verified to be within required tolerances. Finally, the transverse field was measured by rotating harmonic coils. After installation, we achieved a 37.5% improvement in polarization - from 40% with the old solenoid to 55% with the new helical snake, thereby demonstrating that the helical partial snake is an effective device to suppress depolarization resonances in medium-sized synchrotrons.

  2. Helical dipole partial Siberian snake for the AGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Alforque, R.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Hattori, T.; Huang, H.; Jain, A.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Tepikian, S.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wood, J.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2006-11-01

    Overcoming depolarization resonances in medium class synchrotrons (3 to 50 GeV) is one of the key issues in accelerating a highly polarized proton beam up to very high energies. Since such synchrotrons, including the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the J-PARC Main Ring, generally do not have sufficiently long straight sections to accommodate full Siberian snakes with reasonable beam excursions, the practical solution is to use partial Siberian snakes that rotate the particle spin about a horizontal axis by a fraction of 180 degrees. For the AGS, we designed and installed a new partial Siberian snake consisting of a helical dipole magnet with a double pitch structure. The helical structure reduced the amount of transverse coupling as compared to that achieved by the previous solenoidal partial snake. This coupling led to partial depolarization at certain energies from horizontal betatron oscillations. The helical magnetic field in the snake magnet was calculated using a 3D magnetic field code TOSCA, and was optimized by segmenting the helical pitch and varying the lengths of the segments. Fabrication errors were checked and verified to be within required tolerances. Finally, the transverse field was measured by rotating harmonic coils. After installation, we achieved a 37.5% improvement in polarization - from 40% with the old solenoid to 55% with the new helical snake, thereby demonstrating that the helical partial snake is an effective device to suppress depolarization resonances in medium-sized synchrotrons.

  3. Visual Pigments, Ocular Filters and the Evolution of Snake Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Douglas, Ronald H; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Casewell, Nicholas R; Harrison, Robert A; Hart, Nathan S; Partridge, Julian C; Hunt, David M; Gower, David J

    2016-10-01

    Much of what is known about the molecular evolution of vertebrate vision comes from studies of mammals, birds and fish. Reptiles (especially snakes) have barely been sampled in previous studies despite their exceptional diversity of retinal photoreceptor complements. Here, we analyze opsin gene sequences and ocular media transmission for up to 69 species to investigate snake visual evolution. Most snakes express three visual opsin genes (rh1, sws1, and lws). These opsin genes (especially rh1 and sws1) have undergone much evolutionary change, including modifications of amino acid residues at sites of known importance for spectral tuning, with several tuning site combinations unknown elsewhere among vertebrates. These changes are particularly common among dipsadine and colubrine "higher" snakes. All three opsin genes are inferred to be under purifying selection, though dN/dS varies with respect to some lineages, ecologies, and retinal anatomy. Positive selection was inferred at multiple sites in all three opsins, these being concentrated in transmembrane domains and thus likely to have a substantial effect on spectral tuning and other aspects of opsin function. Snake lenses vary substantially in their spectral transmission. Snakes active at night and some of those active by day have very transmissive lenses, whereas some primarily diurnal species cut out shorter wavelengths (including UVA). In terms of retinal anatomy, lens transmission, visual pigment spectral tuning and opsin gene evolution the visual system of snakes is exceptionally diverse compared with all other extant tetrapod orders.

  4. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  5. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  6. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  7. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  8. Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, B F; Sampaio, F L; Jared, C; Antoniazzi, M M; Loew, E R; Bowmaker, J K; Rodriguez, A; Hart, N S; Hunt, D M; Partridge, J C; Gower, D J

    2015-07-01

    The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic.

  9. Venom of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer (jumping viper) from Guatemala and Honduras: comparative toxicological characterization, isolation of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue and neutralization by two antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Saravia, P; Angulo, Y; Arce, V; Lomonte, B; Chávez, J J; Velásquez, R; Thelestam, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2001-06-01

    A comparative study was performed on the venoms of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer from Guatemala and Honduras. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under reducing conditions, revealed a highly similar pattern of these venoms, and between them and the venom of the same species from Costa Rica. Similar patterns were also observed in ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Shephadex C-25, in which a highly basic myotoxic fraction was present. This fraction was devoid of phospholipase A(2) activity and strongly reacted, by enzyme-immunoassay, with an antiserum against Bothrops asper myotoxin II, a Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) homologue. A basic myotoxin of 16 kDa was isolated to homogeneity from the venom of A. nummifer from Honduras, showing amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence similar to those of Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) variants previously isolated from other crotaline snake venoms. Guatemalan and Honduran A. nummifer venoms have a qualitatively similar toxicological profile, characterized by: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; edema-forming; coagulant; and defibrinating activities, although there were significant quantitative variations in some of these activities between the two venoms. Neutralization of toxic activities by two commercially-available antivenoms in the region was studied. Polyvalent antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was effective in the neutralization of: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, but ineffective against edema-forming activity. On the other hand, MYN polyvalent antivenom neutralized: hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, albeit with a lower potency than Instituto Clodomiro Picado antivenom. MYN antivenom failed to neutralize lethal and edema-forming activities of A. nummifer venoms.

  10. Alteraciones estructurales y ultraestructurales del encéfalo ocasionados por veneno de la serpiente mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Acosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades tóxicas y enzimáticas del veneno deserpiente mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis, cuya acción abar-ca casi todos los tejidos de mamíferos, no han sido estudiadas,estructural o ultraestructuralmente de manera exhaustiva, en elSistema Nervioso Central (SNC.Se inocularon ratones adultos C57/Bl por vía endovenosa conconcentraciones de veneno de 0,25 mg/kg de peso. Se sacrifica-ron a las 24 horas después de la inoculación de veneno y se hizoextracción del encéfalo, se fijó inmediatamente con paraformal-dehído y se realizaron cortes vértico-tranversales, tomando áreasrepresentativas de corteza cerebral y cerebelosa, asta de Amón,núcleos grises basales y tallo encefálico. Se prepararon paraestudio de histología convencional (hematoxilina y eosina ypara microscopía electrónica, en un equipo de transmisiónHitachi HS-500. Al extraer el encéfalo y hacer cortes coronalesno se observaron lesiones macroscópicas, a pesar de verse inten-sa hemorragia en las áreas dérmicas. A la microscopía óptica,los cerebros de ratones mostraron eritrocitos extravasados en lasleptomeninges y pericapilares, en los núcleos grises centrales,así como ligera espongiosis subpial, pericapilar y en el neuropi-lo. En el ámbito ultrastructural, las células endoteliales de loscapilares corticales se encontraban tumefactas con algunas vesí-culas de pinocitosis en la superficie luminal, la luz capilar oclui-da y mitocondrias hinchadas. Además se observó tumefacciónde las prolongaciones astrogliales pericapilares. El endotelio delos capilares de los plexos coroideos mostró algunas figurasmielínicas citoplasmáticas y engrosamiento de la membranabasal.En conclusión, la actividad En conclusión, la actividad del veneno de Bothrops colombien-sisno fue de la intensidad que se observa en otros tejidos delorganismo, probablemente por el efecto protector de la barrerahematoencefálica, que pudiera bloquear la acción de muchoscomponentes tóxicos y

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available No Amazonas, o acidente ofídico é um problema de saúde pública pouco conhecido. Por este motivo, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde de 34 municípios, um distrito e dois pelotões de fronteira do Estado do Amazonas. As características mais comuns encontradas dentre os pacientes foram: agricultor (50,4%, do sexo masculino (81,3%, em idade produtiva (72,1%, picado no membro inferior (88,5%, por jararaca (48,6% ou surucucu (46,8%, na zona rural de seu município (70,2% e que só recebeu atendimento médico em tempo superior a seis horas, após acidente (57,3%. As manifestações locais mais freqüentes foram: edema (76,9%, dor (68,7%, eritema (10,2% e hemorragia (9,3%. Hemorragia (18,8% foi a manifestação sistêmica mais freqüente. O antiveneno foi administrado em apenas 65,9% dos pacientes. A via mais utilizada foi a endovenosa (52,3%, sendo relevante o uso de vias não mais recomendadas (47,7%. O antiveneno administrado, na maioria dos pacientes, foi o antibotrópico (66,7%. As complicações mais freqüentes foram abcesso (13,7%, necrose (12,3%, infecção secundária (8,3%, insuficiência renal (2,5% e gangrena (2,5%. Os procedimentos médicos mais usados para o tratamento das complicações foram: drenagem (52,6%, debridamento (28,9%, amputação (10,5%, limpeza cirúrgica (5,3% e diálise peritoneal (2,6%. A letalidade foi de 1%.In the State of Amazonas, accidents with snakes are a public health problem. For this reasons, the objective of this work was to carry out a descriptive study of the snake accidents attended in the health units of 34 municipalities, one district and two border platoons in the State of Amazonas. The characteristics most commonly observed among those involved in snake accidents were: farmers (50.4%, male (81.3%, belonging to the working age-group (72.1%, bitten on an upper limb (88.5% by a "jararaca" (48.6% or a "surucucu" (46.8% in the rural part of the

  12. Human Dermatitis Caused by Ophionyssus natricis, a Snake Mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Amanatfard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ophionyssus natricis is a purely blood sucking parasite of snakes and of worldwide distribution. Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, pruritus, crusting dermatitis, and behavioral changes. Ophionyssus natricis can also attack humans, causing popular vesiculo-bullous eruption of the skin. A 29 years old man working in zoo, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran, presented itchy papullar eruption of the skin. He had noticed small insects fixed on his skin and large numbers of these same insects on a python and its cage in the zoo. Regarding totheir morphological characteristics they were diagnosed as O. natricis (Geravis, 1844, a snake mite. It is the first report of O. natricis from Iran.

  13. Color snakes for dynamic lighting conditions on mobile manipulation platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Smith, Christopher Elmer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-03-01

    Statistical active contour models (aka statistical pressure snakes) have attractive properties for use in mobile manipulation platforms as both a method for use in visual servoing and as a natural component of a human-computer interface. Unfortunately, the constantly changing illumination expected in outdoor environments presents problems for statistical pressure snakes and for their image gradient-based predecessors. This paper introduces a new color-based variant of statistical pressure snakes that gives superior performance under dynamic lighting conditions and improves upon the previously published results of attempts to incorporate color imagery into active deformable models.

  14. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  15. Inhibitors of snake venoms and development of new therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Natural inhibitors of snake venoms play a significant role in the ability to neutralize the degradation effects induced by venom toxins. It has been known for many years that animal sera and some plant extracts are competent in neutralizing snake venoms. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent work that has been accomplished with natural inhibitors of snake venoms as well as revisiting the past research including those found in plants. The biomedical value of these natural inhibitors can lead to the development of new therapeutics for an assortment of diseases as well as contributing to efficient antivenoms for the treatment of ophidic accidents.

  16. Testing the Snake-Detection hypothesis : Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird

  17. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up.

  18. Heart position in snakes: response to "phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-01-01

    Here we comment on a recent article (Gartner et al. 2010 ) that addresses previous adaptive interpretations of heart position in the context of gravity effects on blood circulation of snakes. The authors used phylogenetically based statistical methods and concluded that both habitat and phylogeny influence heart position, which they contend is relatively more posterior in arboreal compared to terrestrial species. Their result is based on measurements of heart position relative to snout-vent length, rather than total body length as in previous studies. However, gravity acts on the total length of the arterial-venous vasculature, and caudal segments of continuous blood columns cannot be ignored. Arboreal snakes have relatively long tails; therefore anterior hearts appear to be more "posterior" when the position is described relative to a shorter trunk. There is no physiologically valid explanation for the alleged posterior heart position in arboreal snakes, and multiple lines of published evidence to the contrary are ignored. The authors secondarily evaluated their data set with estimates for total body length based on measurements from other taxa. They found no statistical difference between heart position in arboreal versus terrestrial species, yet their article implied otherwise. Gartner et al. ( 2010 ) contrasted "aquatic" and terrestrial species throughout their paper, and they claimed there is no correlation between heart position and habitat among "aquatic and terrestrial species." But they did not include any aquatic species in their data set. Therefore, the article confuses rather than promotes understanding of cardiovascular adaptation to gravity.

  19. SNAKE(2)算法新的Square攻击%New Square Attack on SNAKE (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅菲; 卫宏儒

    2014-01-01

    重新评估了分组密码SNAKE(2)算法抵抗Square攻击的能力.指出文献[4]中给出的基于等价结构的错误5轮Square区分器.综合利用算法原结构与其等价结构,给出了一个新的6轮Square区分器.利用新的区分器,对不同轮数的SNAKE(2)算法应用了Square攻击来恢复部分等价密钥信息,7轮、8轮、9轮SNAKE(2)算法的Square攻击时间复杂度分别为212.19、221.59、230.41次加密运算,数据复杂度分别为29、29.59、210选择明文.攻击结果优于文献[4]中给出的Square攻击.

  20. Molecular evolution of the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in snakes and implications for functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jie; Liang, Dan; Jiang, Ke; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium ion channel protein recently identified as the infrared receptor in pit organ-containing snakes. Therefore, understanding the molecular evolution of TRPA1 may help to illuminate the origin of "heat vision" in snakes and reveal the molecular mechanism of infrared sensitivity for TRPA1. To this end, we sequenced the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in 24 snake species, representing nine snake families and multiple non-snake outgroups. We found that TRPA1 is under strong positive selection in the pit-bearing snakes studied, but not in other non-pit snakes and non-snake vertebrates. As a comparison, TRPV1, a gene closely related to TRPA1, was found to be under strong purifying selection in all the species studied, with no difference in the strength of selection between pit-bearing snakes and non-pit snakes. This finding demonstrates that the adaptive evolution of TRPA1 specifically occurred within the pit-bearing snakes and may be related to the functional modification for detecting infrared radiation. In addition, by comparing the TRPA1 protein sequences, we identified 11 amino acid sites that were diverged in pit-bearing snakes but conserved in non-pit snakes and other vertebrates, 21 sites that were diverged only within pit-vipers but conserved in the remaining snakes. These specific amino acid substitutions may be potentially functional important for infrared sensing.

  1. Molecular evolution of the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in snakes and implications for functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Geng

    Full Text Available TRPA1 is a calcium ion channel protein recently identified as the infrared receptor in pit organ-containing snakes. Therefore, understanding the molecular evolution of TRPA1 may help to illuminate the origin of "heat vision" in snakes and reveal the molecular mechanism of infrared sensitivity for TRPA1. To this end, we sequenced the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in 24 snake species, representing nine snake families and multiple non-snake outgroups. We found that TRPA1 is under strong positive selection in the pit-bearing snakes studied, but not in other non-pit snakes and non-snake vertebrates. As a comparison, TRPV1, a gene closely related to TRPA1, was found to be under strong purifying selection in all the species studied, with no difference in the strength of selection between pit-bearing snakes and non-pit snakes. This finding demonstrates that the adaptive evolution of TRPA1 specifically occurred within the pit-bearing snakes and may be related to the functional modification for detecting infrared radiation. In addition, by comparing the TRPA1 protein sequences, we identified 11 amino acid sites that were diverged in pit-bearing snakes but conserved in non-pit snakes and other vertebrates, 21 sites that were diverged only within pit-vipers but conserved in the remaining snakes. These specific amino acid substitutions may be potentially functional important for infrared sensing.

  2. Effects of PI and PIII Snake Venom Haemorrhagic Metalloproteinases on the Microvasculature: A Confocal Microscopy Study on the Mouse Cremaster Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs) disrupt the microvasculature and cause haemorrhage have not been completely elucidated, and novel in vivo models are needed. In the present study, we compared the effects induced by BaP1, a PI SVMP isolated from Bothrops asper venom, and CsH1, a PIII SVMP from Crotalus simus venom, on cremaster muscle microvasculature by topical application of the toxins on isolated tissue (i.e., ex vivo model), and by intra-scrotal administration of the toxins (i.e., in vivo model). The whole tissue was fixed and immunostained to visualize the three components of blood vessels by confocal microscopy. In the ex vivo model, BaP1 was able to degrade type IV collagen and laminin from the BM of microvessels. Moreover, both SVMPs degraded type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries to a higher extent than in PCV and arterioles. CsH1 had a stronger effect on type IV collagen than BaP1. In the in vivo model, the effect of BaP1 on type IV collagen was widespread to the BM of arterioles and PCV. On the other hand, BaP1 was able to disrupt the endothelial barrier in PCV and to increase vascular permeability. Moreover, this toxin increased the size of gaps between pericytes in PCV and created new gaps between smooth muscle cells in arterioles in ex vivo conditions. These effects were not observed in the case of CsH1. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that both SVMPs degrade type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries in vivo. Moreover, while the action of CsH1 is more directed to the BM of microvessels, the effects of BaP1 are widespread to other microvascular components. This study provides new insights in the mechanism of haemorrhage and other pathological effects induced by these toxins. PMID:27992592

  3. Snake Creek Wetlands Narrative report: January - December, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Snake Creek Wetlands Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  8. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...

  10. Accelerated evolution of crotalinae snake venom gland serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Ogawa, T; Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Chijiwa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Niwa, M; Yamashina, I; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1996-11-11

    Eight cDNAs encoding serine proteases isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu snake) and T. gramineus (green habu snake) venom gland cDNA libraries showed that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated in the mature protein-coding regions to cause amino acid changes. Southern blot analysis of T. flavoviridis genomic DNAs using two proper probes indicated that venom gland serine protease genes form a multigene family in the genome. These observations suggest that venom gland serine proteases have diversified their amino acid sequences in an accelerating manner. Since a similar feature has been previously discovered in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozyme genes, accelerated evolution appears to be universal in plural isozyme families of crotalinae snake venom gland.

  11. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: May - August 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May - August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Delayed disengagement of attention from snakes in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIsomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the visual search task, it is well known that detection of a tilted straight line as the target among vertical lines that act as distractors is easier than vice versa, and that detection of a snake image as the target among flower images is easier than vice versa. In this study, the degree of such search asymmetry was compared between 19 children with autism and 14 typically developing (TD children. The results revealed that compared to TD children, children with autism were disproportionally slow when asked to detect the flower among the snake images, suggesting the possibility that they experienced difficulty of disengaging their attention from the snake images. This delayed disengagement would serve itself as an enhanced attentional bias toward snakes in children with autism that is similar to characteristics of visual search performance in anxiety patients.

  13. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  14. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  15. Delayed disengagement of attention from snakes in children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Tomoko; Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Masataka, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In the visual search task, it is well known that detection of a tilted straight line as the target among vertical lines that act as distractors is easier than vice versa, and that detection of a snake image as the target among flower images is easier than vice versa. In this study, the degree of such search asymmetry was compared between 18 children with autism and 14 typically developing (TD) children. The results revealed that compared to TD children, children with autism were disproportionally slow when asked to detect the flower among the snake images, suggesting the possibility that they experienced difficulty of disengaging their attention from the snake images. This delayed disengagement would serve itself as an enhanced attentional bias toward snakes in children with autism that is similar to characteristics of visual search performance in anxiety patients. PMID:25784895

  16. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May - August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: January - April 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Snake representation of a superprocess in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mytnik, Leonid; Zeitouni, Ofer

    2011-01-01

    We consider (discrete time) branching particles in a random environment which is i.i.d. in time and possibly spatially correlated. We prove a representation of the limit process by means of a Brownian snake in random environment.

  20. Quarterly narrative report - Snake River Refuge: August - September - October, 1939.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1939. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: September - December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  2. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: January - April 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. The composition, biochemical properties and toxicity of snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 2.5 million cases of snake bites are noticed in the world every year (within 100,000 is mortal. These bites occur frequently in Asia and Africa. Some reports proved the toxicity and composition changes of well-known venoms from the same snake species according to the climatic zone. Snake venom is a natural source of many biologically active substances, including those with potential therapeutic properties. These substances contain peptides, proteins, and enzymes which are divided into five subfamilies: three-finger toxins, serine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz type, phospholipases A2, serine proteases, and metalloproteases. All snake venoms are grouped depending on their mode of action. They usually cause neurotransmission disorders, cardiotoxic action, hemostasis disorders, and have central nervous system and necrotic activity.

  4. Applications of snake venoms in treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagish Kumar Laxman Shanbhag

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are folk medicines used since ages. The components of snake venoms have high specific affinity and actions on cells and cell components. Also snake venoms are largely cytotoxic to tumor cells than normal cells. In addition to these, they have several therapeutic actions that make them an attractive option in the management of cancer. The advent of modern technologies has greatly helped in extracting and identifying new components of therapeutic interests in short time. The article highlights the importance of snake venoms in the management of cancer, so as to motivate curious researchers to devote their skills in this fascinating area. This in turn may bring hope, smile and relief to several cancer patients in future.

  5. [Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September - December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 − snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC − snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  7. Applications of snake venoms in treatment of cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagish; Kumar; Laxman; Shanbhag

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are folk medicines used since ages. The components of snake venoms have high specific affinity and actions on cells and cell components. Also snake venoms are largely cytotoxic to tumor cells than normal cells. In addition to these, they have several therapeutic actions that make them an attractive option in the management of cancer. The advent of modern technologies has greatly helped in extracting and identifying new components of therapeutic interests in short time. The article highlights the importance of snake venoms in the management of cancer, so as to motivate curious researchers to devote their skills in this fascinating area. This in turn may bring hope, smile and relief to several cancer patients in future.

  8. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. [Technogenic factors of ecological impact on properties of snake venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiev, G A; Babaev, E T; Topchieva, Sh A; Chuburidze, T B; Kikalishvili, B Iu

    2009-12-01

    In article comparative literary and experimental data about degree of a level of scrutiny of snake venoms are presented. Obtained data shows that increased pollution of industrial regions results in higher levels of heavy metals in snake venom. Change of physical and chemical parametres, and also pharmacological activity and toxicity of zootoxins under influence biotics, abiotics factors and including heavy metals and radiation is noted.

  10. STUDY OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND COMPLICATIONS OF HAEMOTOXIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Snake bites are of major public health importance in many communities as causes of haemorrhage, other morbidity and mortality. 1 Of the 3000 species of snakes, about 500 belong to the 3 families of venomous snakes, Atr actaspididae, Elapidae and Viperidae. Estimated 15000 – 20000 people die each year from snake bite in India. 2 In tropical countries snake bite is occupational disease of farmers, plantation workers and hunters. In India after snake bite clinical manifestati ons are pain, oedema, bleeding at bite site. 3 The inpatient complaints are hypovolemic shock, bleeding diathesis, renal failure, sepsis. 4,5 The only specific treatment is Anti Snake Venom (A. S. V. In India most cases of renal injuries are caused by Rus sell’s viper and Saw scaled viper. 6,7 METHODS: Patients with history of snake bite with or without bite marks, bleeding diathesis or with prolonged clotting time or both. And observed for oliguria and high coloured urine to see renal injury. Period to b rought to hospital ( B elow 4 hours is ideal time early or late, tourniquet application and level of consciousness, and did the simple bed side test is 20 minute blood clot test and prothrombin time, platelet count. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases 35 cases are males and 15 cases are females, so common in males. Common symptoms are nausea, vomits, pain, swelling and paresthesia. Common signs are bleeding from bleeding site, gum bleeding, epistaxis, haemetemesis, malena. CONCLUSION: It is found more common in males. Common symptoms nausea, vomit, pain, swelling. Common sign are bleeding at bite site, gum bleeding, epistax i s, haemetemesis, malena, decreased urine output, giddiness and vertigo.

  11. ACCELERATING AND COLLIDING POLARIZED PROTONS IN RHIC WITH SIBERIAN SNAKES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.; AHRENS,L.; ALESSI,J.; BAI,M.; BEEBE - WANG,J.; BRENNAN,J.M.; BROWN,K.A.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.D.; DREES,A.; FISCHER,W.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    We successfully injected polarized protons in both RHIC rings and maintained polarization during acceleration up to 100 GeV per ring using two Siberian snakes in each ring. Each snake consists of four helical superconducting dipoles which rotate the polarization by 180{sup o} about a horizontal axis. This is the first time that polarized protons have been accelerated to 100 GeV. We report on our experiences during commissioning and operation of collider with polarized protons.

  12. Ecological and phylogenetic influences on maxillary dentition in snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Jackson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary dentition of snakes was used as a system with which to investigate the relative importance of the interacting forces of ecological selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints indetermining morphology. The maxillary morphology of three groups of snakes having different diets, with each group comprising two distinct lineages — boids and colubroids — was examined. Our results suggest that dietary selective pressures may be more significantthan phylogenetic history in shaping maxillary morphology.

  13. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  14. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  15. Visual servoing using statistical pressure snakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01

    A nonlinear visual servoing steering law is presented which is used to align a camera view with a visual target. A full color version of statistical pressure snakes is used to identify and track the target with a series of video frames. The nonlinear steering law provides camera-frame centric speed commands to a velocity based servo sub-system. To avoid saturating the subsystem, the commanded speeds are smoothly limited to remain within a finite range. Analytical error analysis is also provided illustrating how the two control gains contribute to the stiffness of the control. The algorithm is demonstrated on a pan and tilt camera system. The control law is able to smoothly realign the camera to point at the target.

  16. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P.J.; Andrade, H.F.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Rogero, J.R

    1998-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, subsequently submitted to irradiation. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD{sub 50} in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocurred in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain)

  18. Twist-related locomotion of a snake-like robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Changlong; Ma Shugen; Li Bin; Wang Yuechao; Jing Tao

    2006-01-01

    As a hyper-redundant robot, a 3D snake-like robot can perform many other configurations and types of locomotion adapted to environment except for mimicking the natural snake locomotion. The natural snake locomotion usually limits locomotion capability of the robot because of inadequacy in the mechanism and actuation to imitate characters of natural snake such as the too many DOFs and the characteristics of the muscle. In order to apply snake-like robots to the unstructured environment, the researchers have designed many gaits for increasing the adaptability to a variety of surroundings. The twist-related locomotion is an effective gait achieved by jointly driving the pitching-DOF and yawing-DOF, with which the snakelike robot can move on rough ground and even climb up some obstacles. In this paper, the twist-related locomotion function is firstly solved, and simplified to be expressible by sine or cosine function. The 2D locomotion such as V-shape and U-shape is achieved. Also by applying it to the serpentine locomotion or other types of locomotion, the snake-like robot can complete composite locomotion that combines the serpentine locomotion or others with twist-related locomotion. Then we extend the twist-related locomotion to 3D space. Finally, the experimental results are presented to validate all above analyses.

  19. Mechanisms of virus resistance and antiviral activity of snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JVR Rivero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses depend on cell metabolism for their own propagation. The need to foster an intimate relationship with the host has resulted in the development of various strategies designed to help virus escape from the defense mechanisms present in the host. Over millions of years, the unremitting battle between pathogens and their hosts has led to changes in evolution of the immune system. Snake venoms are biological resources that have antiviral activity, hence substances of significant pharmacological value. The biodiversity in Brazil with respect to snakes is one of the richest on the planet; nevertheless, studies on the antiviral activity of venom from Brazilian snakes are scarce. The antiviral properties of snake venom appear as new promising therapeutic alternative against the defense mechanisms developed by viruses. In the current study, scientific papers published in recent years on the antiviral activity of venom from various species of snakes were reviewed. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of resistance developed by viruses and the components of snake venoms that present antiviral activity, particularly, enzymes, amino acids, peptides and proteins.

  20. Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Xi WANG; Ping DING

    2012-01-01

    Nestedness is a pattern frequently reported for faunal assemblages in fragmented systems.Although nestedness has been documented for a wide range of taxa,it is rarely tested in snake assemblages.To arrive at robust generalizations about processes and mechanisms structuring island biotas,it is important to examine under-represented taxa such as snakes for the insights they may offer.We tested for the existence of nestedness and underlying causal mechanisms using snake data collected on islands in the Thousand Island Lake,China.We used the line-transect method to survey snake occupancy and abundance on 20 islands during two breeding seasons in 2009 and 2010.We used the recently developed metric WNODF to estimate nestedness.We used Spearman rank correlations to examine the associations of nestedness and habitat variables (area,isolation,and habitat diversity) as well as life-history traits (body size,clutch size,geographical range size and area requirement) related to species extinction and immigration tendencies.Snake assemblages were significantly nested and were shaped by extinction processes mediated through area effects and habitat nestedness.The nestedness of snake assemblages was not due to passive sampling or selective colonization.From a conservation viewpoint,our results indicate that we should protect both the largest island with the most species-rich community and habitat-rich islands to maximize the number of species preserved.

  1. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  2. Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium oocyst isolates from mammals, birds and reptiles to captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R

    1998-01-01

    Groups of four to five, 3-month-old rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) were separately gastrically inoculated with 2.0 x 10(6) viable oocysts of Cryptosporidium muris (mice and calves), C. muris-like (Bactrian camels), C. wrairi (guinea pigs), C. baileyi (chickens), C. meleagridis (turkeys), Cryptosporidium sp. (turtles, tortoises, chameleons and lizards) and C. serpentis from clinically (fatal case) and subclinically infected snakes. None of the snakes inoculated with oocysts originating from homothermous vertebrates developed infection as determined by histology and serology, whereas all snakes challenged with reptilian oocyst isolates were infected with Cryptosporidium on weeks 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). One week 10 PI, the snakes displayed mild to serve, multifocal to widespread, thinning and disorganization of gastric epithelium and nine out of twelve snakes infected by oocysts originating from reptiles other than snakes displayed severe gastric hyperplasia. Three out of ten snakes infected oocysts originating from snakes had ELISA-detectable Cryptosporidium-specific antibody (Ab) titers on week 6 PI; all snakes were Cryptosporidium-seroconverted on week 10 PI and their serum Ab titer significantly increased. The study demonstrated that Cryptosporidium infections in snakes maintained on the diet of rodents or birds cannot be initiated via ingestion of an infected food item; however, snakes can void ingested oocysts. Lack of host specificity among reptiles to this pathogen, demonstrated for the first time in the present study, indicates that snake-attributed C. serpentis is not distinct from Cryptosporidium sp. infecting reptiles other than snakes, and that clinical manifestations and virulence of Cryptosporidium in snakes in modulated by the species of the host. Housing of snakes with other reptiles can enhance transmission of Cryptosporidium to snakes, and therefore should be avoided.

  3. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  4. Molecular analysis of the diets of snakes: changes in prey exploitation during development of the rare smooth snake Coronella austriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Ebenezer, Katie L; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Reptiles are declining in many parts of the world, mainly due to habitat loss and environmental change. A major factor in this is availability of suitable food. For many animals, dietary requirements shift during developmental stages and a habitat will only be suitable for conserving a species if it supports all stages. Conventional methods for establishing diet often rely on visual recognition of morphologically identifiable features of prey in faeces, regurgitation or stomach contents, which suffer from biases and poor resolution of taxa. DNA-based techniques facilitate noninvasive analysis of diet from faeces without these constraints. We tested the hypothesis that diet changes during growth stages of smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca), which have a highly restricted distribution in the UK but are widespread in continental Europe. Small numbers of the sympatric grass snake (Natrix natrix) were analysed for comparison. Faecal samples were collected from snakes and prey DNA analysed using PCR, targeting amphibians, reptiles, mammals and invertebrates. Over 85% of smooth snakes were found to have eaten reptiles and 28% had eaten mammals. Predation on mammals increased with age and was entirely absent among juveniles and subadults. Predation on reptiles did not change ontogenetically. Smooth snakes may, therefore, be restricted to areas of sufficiently high reptile densities to support young snakes.

  5. Gliding flight in Chrysopelea: turning a snake into a wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J

    2011-12-01

    Although many cylindrical animals swim through water, flying snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only limbless animals that glide through air. Despite a lack of limbs, these snakes can actively launch by jumping, maintain a stable glide path without obvious control surfaces, maneuver, and safely land without injury. Jumping takeoffs employ vertically looped kinematics that seem to be different than any other behavior in limbless vertebrates, and their presence in a closely related genus suggests that gap-crossing may have been a behavioral precursor to the evolution of gliding in snakes. Change in shape of the body by dorsoventral flattening and high-amplitude aerial undulation comprise two key features of snakes' gliding behavior. As the snake becomes airborne, the body flattens sequentially from head to vent, forming a cross-sectional shape that is roughly triangular, with a flat surface and lateral "lips" that protrude ventrally on each side of the body; these may diminish toward the vent. This shape likely provides the snake with lift coefficients that peak at high angles of attack and gentle stall characteristics. A glide trajectory is initiated with the snake falling at a steep angle. As the snake rotates in the pitch axis, it forms a wide "S" shape and begins undulating in a complex three-dimensional pattern, with the body angled upward relative to the glide path. The head moves side-to-side, sending traveling waves posteriorly toward the tail, while the body (most prominently, the posterior end) oscillates in the vertical axis. These active movements while gliding are substantially different and more dynamic than those used by any other animal glider. As the snake gains forward speed, the glide path becomes less steep, reaching minimally recorded glide angles of 13°. In general, smaller snakes appear to be more proficient gliders. Chrysopelea paradisi can also maneuver and land either on the ground or on vegetation, but these locomotor behaviors have

  6. Quantificação de citocinas no soro e homogenato da pata na intoxicação experimental com veneno de Bothropoides jararaca em ratos Wistar tratados com soroterapia e Mikania glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Motta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo quantificar os níveis de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, entre as quais TNF-α, interleucina-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, e anti-inflamatórias, como IL-10, interferon-γ (INF-γ, bem como comparar o efeito do tratamento convencional com o efeito do tratamento complementado pelo extrato da planta Mikania glomerata, na intoxicação experimental por Bothropoides jararaca. Foram usados ratos Wistar,divididos em três grupos: C - controle, VB - veneno botrópico + soro antiofídico e VBM - veneno botrópico + soro antiofídico + Mikania glomerata. As citocinas foram quantificadas, no soro e no homogenato desses animais, pelo teste ELISA, em três momentos (M1 - 30 minutos, M2 - seis horas e M3 - 24 horas após a inoculação do veneno. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a intoxicação por veneno botrópico estimula principalmente a produção de IL-6 no soro e TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 no homogenato da pata de animais experimentalmente intoxicados. O tratamento complementar, com o extrato da planta Mikania glomerata, teve influência principalmente na produção de IL-6, IL-10 e IFN-γ no soro e IL-6, IL-1β e IFN-γ no homogenato. Porém, são necessários novos estudos com o extrato de Mikania glomerata para que se possa entender a ação dessa planta sobre a intoxicação botrópica, bem como verificar qual a melhor via para administrá-lo.

  7. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  8. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project... their proposed Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Garfield and Columbia...

  9. Observations of two melanistic smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca from Dorset, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo P. Pernetta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the capture of two smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca with melanistic colouration from a site in Dorset. These two individuals constitute the second published report of melanism in smooth snakes from the United Kingdom.

  10. Postnatal ontogeny and the evolution of macrostomy in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín

    2016-11-01

    Macrostomy is the anatomical feature present in macrostomatan snakes that permits the ingestion of entire prey with high cross-sectional area. It depends on several anatomical traits in the skeleton and soft tissues, of which the elongation of gnathic complex and backward rotation of the quadrate represent crucial skeletal requirements. Here, the relevance of postnatal development of these skull structures and their relationship with macrohabitat and diet are explored. Contrary to the condition present in lizards and basal snakes that occupy underground macrohabitats, elements of the gnathic complex of most macrostomatan snakes that exploit surface macrohabitats display conspicuous elongation during postnatal growth, relative to the rest of the skull, as well as further backward rotation of the quadrate bone. Remarkably, several clades of small cryptozoic macrostomatans reverse these postnatal transformations and return to a diet based on prey with low cross-sectional area such as annelids, insects or elongated vertebrates, thus resembling the condition present in underground basal snakes. Dietary ontogenetic shift observed in most macrostomatan snakes is directly linked with this ontogenetic trajectory, indicating that this shift is acquired progressively as the gnathic complex elongates and the quadrate rotates backward during postnatal ontogeny. The numerous independent events of reversion in the gnathic complex and prey type choice observed in underground macrostomatans and the presence of skeletal requirements for macrostomy in extinct non-macrostomatan species reinforce the possibility that basal snakes represent underground survivors of clades that had the skeletal requirements for macrostomy. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that macrostomy has been shaped during multiple episodes of occupation of underground and surface macrohabitats throughout the evolution of snakes.

  11. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A.

    1995-04-17

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180{degrees} apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90{degrees} to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis.

  12. Avaliação das lesões locais de cães envenenados experimentalmente com Bothrops alternatus após diferentes tratamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M.M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic action of flunixin meglumine and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (10% on local lesions caused by bothropic venom, comparing with the specific antivenom. Twelve adult dogs were inoculated in the middle third of the lateral face of the thigh with 0.3mg/kg of venom. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals and the treatment was done two hours after venom inoculation as follows: Group I- specific antivenom diluted in saline (one dosage sufficient to neutralize the venom, Group II- flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/kg, IM, once a day for five days, Group III- topical application of aqueous extract of C. longa (10% (three times a day for five days. Necrosis was observed in all dogs of groups I and II, and in two dogs of group III. Edema and hemorrhagic halo were observed in all dogs. Better recovery of lesions was observed in dogs of group I and III. The results denote a satisfactory effect of C. longa on treatment of local lesions caused by bothropic venom in dogs.

  13. Acidentes ofidicos causados por Bothrops moojeni: correlação do quadro clínico com o tamanho da serpente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante um período de 19 meses (março 1986 a setembro 1987 foram estudados 22 casos de acidentes ofídicos causados por Bothrops moojeni na região de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, nos quais o tamanho da serpente foi sistematicamente medido. Foram constituídos dois grupos de pacientes de acordo com o tamanho da serpente: grupo I - 9 casos de serpentes pequenas (30 a 53 cm e grupo II - 13 casos de serpentes grandes (80 a 147 cm. Os resultados mostraram: 1. efeitos locais iniciais - dor e edema - mais leves no grupo I; 2. tempo de coagulação prolongado/incoagulável levemente mais freqüente no grupo I; 3. complicações locais - necrose, infecção e síndrome compartimentai - exclusivamente, e em mais da metade dos casos do grupo II, apesar da terapia com antiveneno ter sido mais rápida e em doses maiores nesse grupo. Conclui-se que as serpentes Bothrops moojeni maiores apresentam grande incremento nas suas ações locais - edema, necrose e infecção secundária - e leve perda em sua ação coagulante.

  14. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Lynn L.; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Gordon M. Burghardt

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon b...

  15. Aqueous two-phase systems: A simple methodology to obtain mixtures enriched in main toxins of Bothrops alternatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela; Leiva, Laura; Nerli, Bibiana Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and protease (P) are enzymes responsible of myotoxic, edematogenic and hemostasis disorder effects observed in the envenomation by Bothrops alternatus pitviper. Their partitioning coefficient (Kp) in different polyethyleneglycol/potassium phosphate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) was determined in order to both achieve a better understanding of the partitioning mechanism and define optimal conditions for toxin isolation. Polyethyleneglycols (PEGs) of molecular weights 1000; 3350; 6000 and 8000; different temperatures (5, 20 and 37 °C) and phase volume ratios of 0.5; 1 and 2 were assayed. PLA2 partitioned preferentially to the top phase while P mainly distributed to the bottom phase. Either entropically- or enthalpically-driven mechanisms were involved in each case (PLA2 and P). The aqueous two-phase system formed by PEG of MW 3350 (12.20% wt/wt) and KPi pH 7.0 (11.82% wt/wt) with a volume ratio of one and a load of 1.25 mg of venom/g of system showed to be the most efficient to recover both enzymes. It allowed obtaining the 72% of PLA2 in the top phase with a purification factor of 2 and the 82% of P at the bottom phase simultaneously. A further adsorption batch step with DEAE-cellulose was used to remove satisfactorily the PEG from the top phase and recover the active PLA2. The proposed methodology is simple, inexpensive, and only requires professionals trained in handling basic laboratory equipment. It could be easily adoptable by developing countries in which the snakebite accidents cause considerable morbidity and mortality.

  16. Purification and evaluation of the interference of BthMP (a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni in blood clotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Andrade Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present was work reported the purification of the metalloprotease BthMP, from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. For purification of the protease was used ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose and molecular exclusion (Sephadex G-75, the product of these processes was a protein band with high purity, visualized on SDS-PAGE 14%, referred the BthMP. This protease when analyzed on MALDI-TOF revealed the molecular weight of the native form of 23.050 Da and 23.872 Da in the reduced form, and from the peptide fragments obtained by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF in MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF was observed high similarity with BmooMPα-I metalloprotease. In enzymatic terms, BthMP showed proteolytic activity on azocasein using PMSF and benzamidine, while this activity was inhibited in the presence of EDTA; 1,10-Phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol, it is therefore a zinc-dependent metalloprotease of the class P-I. To still with this purpose, we contemplate its enzymatic specificity of the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen and also the consumption of fibrinogen in vivo. It was also found its action on the components of the coagulation cascade, due to prolongation of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time. Thus, the sharp fibrinogenolytic activity and the high consumption of fibrinogen in vivo are results that indicate the anticoagulant action of BthMP; furthermore, their ability to interfere with the coagulation cascade suggested that this protease is promising for future studies that might indicate a new antithrombotic agent model.

  17. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  18. The toxinology of sea snakes: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Mohebbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea snakes belong to Hydrophiidae family mainly are found in tropical and subtropical waters of the world including the Persian Gulf. Their highly lethal venoms are more potent than snakes with terrestrial origin and contain complex mixtures of organic and inorganic bioactive substances, such as enzyme, and non-enzymatic proteins. There were limited studies on the venoms and toxins of sea snake; hence, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the toxinological dimensions of sea snakes. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate of the toxins of sea snakes,  the “Hydrophis schistosus toxin", "Hydrophis cyanocinctus toxin", " Hydrophis lapemoides toxin", "Hydrophis spiralis toxin", and "Lapemis curtus toxin " terms were searched separately, in "PubMed database", in 10/08/2016  which obtained 32, 9, 2, 2 and 4 papers, respectively. The "Hydrophis gracilis toxin" term had no any results.  For the “Hydrophis gracilis" term, two studies were obtained. The first one related to the sea snakes phylogenetic characteristics and the second one shared with other search results and well-connected with the issue. Some papers were similar in different searches. Of these, those studies were selected that had direct relevance to the subject  . Results: The main isolated toxins from different sea snakes venoms included three-finger toxin (3FTx (short chain neurotoxins isoforms: AAL54893, AAL54892, ABN54806; long chain neurotoxins isoforms: AAL54894, AAL54895, P68416 , ABN54805, pelamitoxin (P62388, phospholipase A2 (both the basic and acidic PLA2, two phospholipases A2 (PLA2-H1 and H2, cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP, snake venom Zn2+-metalloproteinase (SVMP, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO, 5′-nucleotidase, Hydrophitoxins a, b and c, Hydrophis ornatus a, Hydrophis lapemoides a, PDGF and α- neurotoxins of rSN311, rSN316 and rSN285. Each toxin and protein family presents a wide range of pharmacological activities. Some of

  19. Energy Scaling of Spin Tune due to RHIC Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay,W.W.

    2009-01-02

    For a ring like RHIC with two full Siberian snakes on opposite sides of the ring, the spin tune for a flat orbit will be 1/2 if the snake rotation axes are perpendicular, {Delta}{phi} = {phi}{sub 9}-{phi}{sub 3} = {pi}/2. Here {phi}{sup 9} and {phi}{sub 3} are respectively the direction of the rotation axes of the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock snakes relative to the design trajectory as shown in Figure 1. If the two snakes are slightly detuned by the same amount such that the rotation axes are no longer perpendicular, then the deviation of the closed-orbit spin tune {nu}{sub 0} from 1/2 is given by {Delta}{nu}{sub 0} {approx_equal} ({Delta}{mu}){sup 2}/4{pi} cosG{gamma}{pi} - 2{Delta}{phi}/{pi} {approx_equal} 2{Delta}{phi}/180{sup o} with G{gamma} at a half integer, and where {Delta}{mu} is the deviation of snake rotation angle from 180{sup o}. It should be noted that there is a sign ambiguity in {Delta}{mu}{sub 0} since a spin tune of 0.495 is also a spin tune of 0.505, depending on the direction taken along the stable spin axis. In order to understand the effect of energy scaling on the snake axis direction, I have integrated the trajectory and spin rotation through a model of a RHIC snake (bi9-snk7) and found the energy (U) dependence of the snake axis angle {phi}{sub 9} and rotation angle {mu} as shown. A {approx_equal} p{sup -2} scaling of errors is typical in helical snakes. To first order, the orbit excursion drops as p{sup -1} and the spin precessions about transverse fields increase as {gamma} giving an approximate cancellation with energy, so we do not expect much change during the field ramp. The next order term which comes in is primarily proportional to p{sup -2}; although naively one might expect a slight effect inversely proportional to the velocity since {gamma}/p {proportional_to} c/{nu} {approx_equal} 1 + 1/2{gamma}{sup 2}.

  20. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczko, Julia; Sherratt, Emma; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2016-01-01

    Snakes are a highly successful group of vertebrates, within great diversity in habitat, diet, and morphology. The unique adaptations for the snake skull for ingesting large prey in more primitive macrostomatan snakes have been well documented. However, subsequent diversification in snake cranial shape in relation to dietary specializations has rarely been studied (e.g. piscivory in natricine snakes). Here we examine a large clade of snakes with a broad spectrum of diet preferences to test if diet preferences are correlated to shape variation in snake skulls. Specifically, we studied the Xenodontinae snakes, a speciose clade of South American snakes, which show a broad range of diets including invertebrates, amphibians, snakes, lizards, and small mammals. We characterized the skull morphology of 19 species of xenodontine snakes using geometric morphometric techniques, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the association between diet and skull morphology. Using phylogenetic partial least squares analysis (PPLS) we show that skull morphology is highly associated with diet preferences in xenodontine snakes.

  1. Sets of disjoint snakes based on a Reed-Muller code and covering the hypercube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zanten, A.J.; Haryanto, L.

    2008-01-01

    A snake-in-the-box code (or snake) of word length n is a simple circuit in an n-dimensional cube Q n , with the additional property that any two non-neighboring words in the circuit differ in at least two positions. To construct such snakes a straightforward, non-recursive method is developed based

  2. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  3. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Klaczko

    Full Text Available Snakes are a highly successful group of vertebrates, within great diversity in habitat, diet, and morphology. The unique adaptations for the snake skull for ingesting large prey in more primitive macrostomatan snakes have been well documented. However, subsequent diversification in snake cranial shape in relation to dietary specializations has rarely been studied (e.g. piscivory in natricine snakes. Here we examine a large clade of snakes with a broad spectrum of diet preferences to test if diet preferences are correlated to shape variation in snake skulls. Specifically, we studied the Xenodontinae snakes, a speciose clade of South American snakes, which show a broad range of diets including invertebrates, amphibians, snakes, lizards, and small mammals. We characterized the skull morphology of 19 species of xenodontine snakes using geometric morphometric techniques, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the association between diet and skull morphology. Using phylogenetic partial least squares analysis (PPLS we show that skull morphology is highly associated with diet preferences in xenodontine snakes.

  4. 78 FR 13315 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project AGENCY... the Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project. The analysis will evaluate and disclose the effects of... Snake Fuels Management Project was previously scoped and anyalyzed through an environmental...

  5. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite.

  6. Modeling Climate-Change Effects on Snake Range Extents for Military Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    snakes are the largest snakes in North America , and also have the largest home ranges of North American snakes (Hyslop 2007). This means that home...selection in some Florida reptiles . Amer. Mus. Novitates 1358:1- 34. Breininger, David, M. Rebecca Bolt, Michael Legare, John Drese, and Eric Stolen

  7. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention. PMID:25237303

  8. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  9. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  11. Gravity and the evolution of cardiopulmonary morphology in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Albert, James S; Sheehy, Coleman M; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-02-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse - significantly longer heart-head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart-to-head distance and length of vascular lung are co-adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes.

  12. Interspecific Aggression and Habitat Partitioning in Garter Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgehouse, Michael; Latta, Leigh C.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    Defense of a limited resource, such as space or food, has recently been discovered in snakes and has been widely documented in lizards. Garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.) are historically considered generalist predators such that food is not a limiting resource. However, in this study we show that the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the aquatic garter snake (Thamnophis atratus) show a strong preference for amphibians as their primary food source at the Santa Lucia Preserve (SLP), Monterey County, California. This food preference forces these snake species at SLP to exploit aquatic habitats. Our principle goal was to investigate the aggressive behavior of T. sirtalis and the potential that this aggression displaces T. atratus from its preferred habitat. We found that when individuals from either species are alone, a 100% preference for aquatic or near aquatic habitat is observed. In contrast, when these species are together, T. sirtalis occupy the aquatic habitat and T. atratus occupy an area far removed from water. Thamnophis sirtalis often physically force T. atratus from the aquatic habitat through repeated biting and other displays of aggression. PMID:24465962

  13. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  14. Oviduct adenocarcinoma in some species of captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Viner, T C

    2008-09-01

    This article reports 5 cases of oviduct adenocarcinoma in adult captive snakes from Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. This neoplasm was found in 1 of each of the following species: emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), Amazonian tree boa (Corallus enydris enydris), Burmese rock python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus), and corn snake (Elaphe guttata). Grossly, tan to red firm masses were found within oviducts in 3 cases. In an additional 2 cases, the primary tumor was detected only histologically. Microscopically, neoplasms were papillary, and often extended transmurally. The neoplastic cells were polygonal and organized in acini or cords, with often abundant fibrovascular stroma. Hemorrhages and necrosis were present in all cases. Inflammation, myxomatous material, desmoplasia, and bacteria were often observed. Histologic evidence of metastasis was present in all cases. Solid metastases were seen in all animals except the Northern pine snake and involved several organs including the liver, lung, and heart. Emboli of neoplastic cells were observed in all animals but the Burmese rock python and corn snake.

  15. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests.

  16. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Anush; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, showing that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift appears also in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the ...

  17. Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM

    2004-05-01

    The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

  18. Antimetastatic Integrin as Inhibitors of Snake Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Rosenow

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis comprises several subsequent steps including local invasion and intravasation at the primary site, then their adhesion/arrest within the vessels of host organs followed by their extravasation and infiltration into the target organ stroma. In contrast to previous studies which have used aspartate-glycine-arginine (RGD peptides and antibodies against integrins, we used rare collagen- and laminin-antagonizing integrin inhibitors from snake venoms to analyze the colonization of the liver by tumor cells both by intravital microscopy and in vitro. Adhesion of liver-targeting tumor cells to the sinusoid wall components, laminin-1 and fibronectin, is essential for liver metastasis. This step is inhibited by lebein-1, but not by lebein-2 or rhodocetin. Both lebeins from the Vipera lebetina venom block integrin interactions with laminins in an RGD-independent manner. Rhodocetin is an antagonist of α2β1 integrin, a collagen receptor on many tumor cells. Subsequent to tumor cell arrest, extravasation into the liver stroma and micrometastasis are efficiently delayed by rhodocetin. This underlines the importance of α2β1 integrin interaction with the reticular collagen I-rich fibers in liver stroma. Antagonists of laminin- and collagen-binding integrins could be valuable tools to individually block the direct interactions of tumor cells with distinct matrix components of the Disse space, thereby reducing liver metastasis.

  19. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rakesh; Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles moving in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. They can also occur in a constant perpendicular magnetic field when the particle density is made nonuniform as realized at a pn junction in a semiconductor, or in graphene. We examine the correspondence of such trajectories in monolayer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric perpendicular magnetic field and (b) antisymmetric carrier density distribution in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Although, these families support different internal symmetries, the pattern of the boundary and interface currents is the same in both cases. We demonstrate that these two physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these two problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p-wave paired state.

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_003803.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003803.1 chr2 The Three-dimensional Structure of Bothropasin, the Main Hemorrhag...ic Factor from Bothrops jararaca venom. p3dslb_ chr2/NP_003803.1/NP_003803.1_holo_295-726.pdb blast 300Y,302

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_068566.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_068566.2 chr1 The Three-dimensional Structure of Bothropasin, the Main Hemorrhag...ic Factor from Bothrops jararaca venom. p3dslb_ chr1/NP_068566.2/NP_068566.2_holo_199-624.pdb blast 204Y,206

  2. Overcoming depolarizing resonances with dual helical partial Siberian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Ahrens, L A; Bai, M; Brown, K; Courant, E D; Gardner, C; Glenn, J W; Lin, F; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Okamura, M; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Takano, J; Tepikian, S; Tsoupas, N; Zelenski, A; Zeno, K

    2007-10-12

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is challenging. In a medium energy accelerator, the depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant polarization loss but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are also not feasible since straight sections usually are too short. Recently, two helical partial Siberian snakes with double pitch design have been installed in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). With a careful setup of optics at injection and along the energy ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances otherwise encountered during acceleration to maintain a high intensity polarized beam in medium energy synchrotrons. The observation of partial snake resonances of higher than second order will also be described.

  3. Overcoming Depolarizing Resonances with Dual Helical Partial Siberian Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; Mackay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Takano, J.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2007-10-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is challenging. In a medium energy accelerator, the depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant polarization loss but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are also not feasible since straight sections usually are too short. Recently, two helical partial Siberian snakes with double pitch design have been installed in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). With a careful setup of optics at injection and along the energy ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances otherwise encountered during acceleration to maintain a high intensity polarized beam in medium energy synchrotrons. The observation of partial snake resonances of higher than second order will also be described.

  4. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  5. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.; Pearson, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-12-31

    Snakes have been observed in many tokamaks as a novel form of MHD activity which consists of a long lived small region of high electron pressure on the q = 1 magnetic surface. They have a m = n = 1 topology and are often formed during the injection of solid pellets of D{sub 2} which reach in to the q = 1 surface. Snakes have also been observed, at the onset of sawtoothing, after neutral beam heating of the plasma centre, and in discharges with rather flat central profiles of electron density and pressure. The name `snake` arises from their characteristic appearance when observed by a soft X-ray camera. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Enumeration of snakes and cycle-alternating permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Springer numbers are an analog of Euler numbers for the group of signed permutations. Arnol'd showed that they count some objects called snakes, that generalize alternating permutations. Hoffman established a link between Springer numbers, snakes, and some polynomials related with the successive derivatives of trigonometric functions. The goal of this article is to give further combinatorial properties of derivative polynomials, in terms of snakes and other objects: cycle-alternating permutations, weighted Dyck or Motzkin paths, increasing trees and forests. We obtain the generating functions, in terms of trigonometric functions for exponential ones and in terms of J-fractions for ordinary ones. We also define natural q-analogs, make a link with normal ordering problems and combinatorial theory of differential equations.

  7. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben T.; Jacobsen, Lars Magnus W.; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend...... on both fasting time and prey size. In the ball pythons fed with mice of a relative prey mass RPM (mass of the prey/mass of the snake×100) of 15%, we observed a satiety response that developed between 6 and 12h after feeding, but after 24h pythons regained their appetite. With an RPM of 10% the pythons...... a significant decrease in handling time between the first and the second prey and a positive correlation between handling time and the mass of the snake....

  8. Area Variation Based Color Snake Algorithm for Moving Object Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoum-ik ROYCHOUDHURY; Young-joon HAN

    2010-01-01

    A snake algorithm has been known that it has a strong point in extracting the exact contour of an object.But it is apt to be influenced by scattered edges around the control points.Since the shape of a moving object in 2D image changes a lot due ta its rotation and translation in the 3D space,the conventional algorithm that takes into account slowly moving objects cannot provide an appropriate solution.To utilize the advantages of the snake algrithm while minimizing the drawbacks,this paper proposes the area variation based color snake algorithm for moving object tracking.The proposed algorithm includes a new energy term which is used for preserving the shape of an object between two consecutive inages.The proposed one can also segment precisely interesting objects on complex image since it is based on color information.Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective in various environments.

  9. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nezaminia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait

  10. Live blind snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) in eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nests: a novel commensalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, F R; Baldridge, R S

    1987-03-01

    Eastern screech owls bring live blind snakes to their nestlings, whereas all other prey are delivered dead. Some of the snakes are eaten but most live in nest debris, where they eat soft-bodied insect larvae from the decomposer community in fecal matter, pellets, and uneaten prey. Consumption of larvae may reduce larval parasitism on owl nestlings or larval competition with nestlings for food stored in the nest, because nestlings with live-in blind snakes grow faster and experience lower mortality than same-season broods lacking snakes. We propose a commensalistic association in which the screech owl benefits reproductively and the live-in blind snake is not affected.

  11. Snake Bite-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Report of a Successful Outcome during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikrant, Sanjay; Parashar, Anupam

    2017-02-06

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropics. Snake envenomation in pregnancy may cause fetal death and maternal mortality or morbidity. However, little is known about the toxic effects and optimal management during pregnancy after snake envenomation because of the rarity of cases. Herein, we report a case of a pregnant woman who was successfully treated for snake bite-induced acute kidney injury during the third trimester. She was treated with equine-derived polyvalent anti-snake venom without development of any adverse effects, hemodialysis, and supportive therapy. She fully recovered and subsequently gave birth to a healthy child.

  12. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  13. Helical FOFO snake for 6D ionization cooling of muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    A channel for 6D ionization cooling of muons is described which consists of periodically inclined solenoids of alternating polarity, liquid hydrogen absorbers placed inside solenoids and RF cavities between them. Important feature of such channel (called Helical FOFO snake) is that it can cool simultaneously muons of both signs. Theoretical considerations as well as results of simulations with G4Beamline are presented which show that 200MHz HFOFO snake has sufficient acceptance to be used for initial 6D cooling in muon colliders and neutrino factories.

  14. Fascinating and forgotten: the conservation status of marine elapid snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Australia. Three of the seven threatened species occur at Ashmore and Hibernia Reefs in the Timor Sea, while the remaining threatened taxa occur in the Philippines, Niue, and Solomon Islands. The majority of Data Deficient species are found in Southeast Asia. Threats to marine snakes include loss of coral...... reefs and coastal habitat, incidental bycatch in fisheries, as well as fisheries that target snakes for leather. The presence of two Critically Endangered and one Endangered species in the Timor Sea suggests the area is of particular conservation concern. More rigorous, long-term monitoring...

  15. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  16. Rediscovery of the Rare Sea Snake Hydrophis parviceps Smith 1935

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Arne R.; Elmberg, Johan; Sanders, Kate L.

    2012-01-01

    Smith's small-headed sea snake, Hydrophis parviceps, was originally described in 1935 from a single type specimen collected in southern Vietnam. Since this time there has been only one further record for the species-a specimen collected near the type locality in 1960 that has since been lost....... Through field surveys in southern Vietnam in 2001, we obtained three additional specimens of this poorly known sea snake from fisheries bycatch. In the current paper, we present morphological and molecular data for the three new specimens and the holotype, and redescribe H. parviceps based on data...

  17. Optimizing snake locomotion in the plane. I. Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a numerical scheme to determine which planar snake motions are optimal for locomotory efficiency, across a wide range of frictional parameter space. For a large coefficient of transverse friction, we find that retrograde traveling waves are optimal. The optimal snake deflection scales as the -1/4 power of the coefficient of transverse friction, in agreement with an asymptotic analysis. At the other extreme, zero coefficient of transverse friction, we propose a triangular direct wave which is optimal. Between these two extremes, a variety of complex, locally optimal motions are found. Some of these can be classified as standing waves (or ratcheting motions).

  18. Snake-in-the-Box Codes for Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yehezkeally, Yonatan

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the rank-modulation scheme with applications to flash memory, we consider Gray codes capable of detecting a single error, also known as snake-in-the-box codes. We study two error metrics: Kendall's $\\tau$-metric, which applies to charge-constrained errors, and the $\\ell_\\infty$-metric, which is useful in the case of limited magnitude errors. In both cases we construct snake-in-the-box codes with rate asymptotically tending to 1. We also provide efficient successor-calculation functions, as well as ranking and unranking functions. Finally, we also study bounds on the parameters of such codes.

  19. [Snake venom metalloproteinases: structure, biosynthesis and function(s)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limam, I; El Ayeb, M; Marrakchi, N

    2010-01-01

    The biochemical and the pharmacological characterization of snake venoms revealed an important structural and functional polymorphism of proteins which they contain. Among them, snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) constitute approximatively 20 to 60% of the whole venom proteins. During the last decades, a significant progress was performed against structure studies and the biosynthesis of the SVMPs. Indeed, several metalloproteases were isolated and characterized against their structural and pharmacological properties. In this review, we report the most important properties concerning the classification, the structure of the various domains of the SVMPs as well as their biosynthesis and their activities as potential therapeutic agents.

  20. One snake or two: the symbols of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Carol R; Skandalakis, John E

    2008-04-01

    In antiquity, Asklepios was portrayed with a stout staff around which was coiled a snake. Hermes (Mercury), the messenger of the gods, was portrayed with a wand, often with wings, around which were coiled two snakes. During the Renaissance and up to modern times, in varied locales, each icon has been termed the caduceus and afforded the status of the symbol of medicine. It is proposed that this confusion did not arise from ignorance, but from the loss of the deeper significance of the symbols, and from the replacement of religious iconographic constraints by aesthetic and decorative considerations.