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Sample records for bothnian sea shore-level

  1. Depth profiles of 129I species in the Bothnian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Bothnian Sea which is located between Finland and Sweden represents an important source of fresh water to the Baltic Sea. We here present new data on the radioactive isotope 129I species from water samples collected in December 2009 at different depths in the Bothnian Sea. Concentrations of 129......, SiO3–Si, but rather poor with NH4–N. The correlations suggest comparable source pathway of 129I− and nutrient parameters, while the source of NH4–N may be different. The small amounts and negligible change of 129IO3 − indicate prevailing extensive reduction of iodate in the Baltic Sea....

  2. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdmark, Anna; Östman, Örjan; Nielsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Mortality of small pelagic fish due to marine mammals is generally considered to be low compared with other sources of mortality. With recent recoveries of marine mammal predators worldwide, this may no longer hold. The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population in the Bothnian Sea has increased...... impact on Bothnian Sea herring will need to be reassessed if stock age composition, grey seal feeding preferences, or total stock development change...

  3. 129I in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea: Application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Possnert, G.; Aldahan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report here new data and a mass balance model for 129I in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea covering the period from November-December 2009. The results showed that the general 129I concentrations in the Bothnian Sea were two-four folds lower than in the Baltic Proper for both surface and...

  4. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  5. Cadmium tolerance and adsorption by the marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea and the Bothnian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Loredana; Nygård, Charlotta A; Dring, Matthew J; Gavrilescu, Maria; Benning, Liane G

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake capacities and Cd tolerance of the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea (salinity 35 psu) and from the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic, 5 psu) were quantified. These data were complemented by measurements of changes in maximal photosynthetic rate (P(max)), dark respiration rate and variable fluorescence vs. maximal fluorescence (F(v):F(m)). At concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mmol Cd l(-1), F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea adsorbed significantly more (about 98%) Cd compared with F. vesiculosus from the Irish Sea. The photosynthetic measurements showed that the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus were more sensitive to Cd exposure than the Irish Sea algae. The algae from the Irish Sea showed negative photosynthetic effects only at 1 mmol Cd l(-1), which was expressed as a decreased P(max) (-12.3%) and F(v):F(m) (-4.6%). On the contrary, the algae from the Bothnian Sea were negatively affected already at Cd concentrations as low at 0.1 mmol Cd l(-1). They exhibited increased dark respiration (+11.1%) and decreased F(v):F(m) (-13.9%). The results show that F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea may be an efficient sorption substrate for Cd removal from Cd contaminated seawater and this algae type may also have applications for wastewater treatment.

  6. Metagenomic potential for and diversity of N-cycle driving microorganisms in the Bothnian Sea sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasigraf, Olivia; Schmitt, Julia; Jetten, M.S.M.; Lüke, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle is driven by a plethora of reactions transforming nitrogen compounds between various redox states. Here, we investigated the metagenomic potential for nitrogen cycle of the in situ microbial community in an oligotrophic, brackish environment of the Bothnian Sea

  7. Long-term changes in the sublittoral zonation of brown algae in the southern Bothnian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Klemens; Johansson, Gustav; Snoeijs, P.

    The algal vegetation of five diving profiles situated at exposed sites of the outer Oregrund archipelago, southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, was investigated by SCUBA diving in 1996. The vegetation of the same profiles had been described earlier in 1943-4 and 1984. In the present study, special

  8. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  9. Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Grimvall, Anders; Omstedt, Anders; Rolff, Carl; Wikner, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R2Adj. = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  10. Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Elinor; Telford, Richard J.; Jonsson, Per

    2017-11-01

    Reference total nitrogen (TN) concentrations for the Gårdsfjärden estuary in the central Bothnian Sea, which receives discharge from an industrial point-source, have been estimated from diatom assemblages using a transfer function. Sedimentological and diatom evidence imply a good ecological status before 1920 with an assemblage dominated by benthic taxa indicating excellent water transparency, high diatom species richness and less organic sedimentation resulting in homogeneous well oxygenated sediments. A change in the diatom assemblage starts between 1920 and 1935 when the species richness declines and the proportion of planktic taxa increases. Increased organic carbon sedimentation after 1920 led to hypoxic bottom waters, and the preservation of laminae in the sediments. The trend in the reconstructed TN-values agrees with the history of the discharge from the mill, reaching maximum impact during the high discharge between 1945 and 1990. The background condition for TN in Gårdsfjärden is 260-300 μg L-1, reconstructed until 1920.

  11. Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyttinen, O.; Kotilainen, A. T.; Virtasalo, J. J.; Kekäläinen, P.; Snowball, I.; Obrochta, S.; Andrén, T.

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level

  12. A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the

  13. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.

  14. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  15. Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J.; Lind, E. E.; Corell, H.; Grahn, M.; Smolarz, K.; Lönn, M.

    2017-08-01

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity.

  16. Does thalli complexity and biomass affect the associated flora and fauna of two co-occurring Fucus species in the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagerström, Ellen; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pärnoja, Merli; Kotta, Jonne

    2014-08-01

    On rocky shores, fucoids provide habitat, shelter and food for associated biota. In the northern parts of the Baltic, the Bothnian Sea, the new fucoid species Fucus radicans (Bergström et Kautsky) was recently described. This study compares the thallus complexity and size as well as quantified the abundance and biomass of epiphytic algae and invertebrate taxa of the two fucoid species F. radicans and Fucus vesiculosus L. from sympatric sites in the Bothnian Sea on the Swedish coast and around the Estonian island Saaremaa. We found that F. radicans was more complex than F. vesiculosus within the whole study range, but both species had a more complex thallus structure in the Bothnian Sea compared to Estonia. The complexity of host algae did not contribute to their associated flora and fauna taxon richness; instead, the size of thalli was a good proxy for associated communities. Specifically, on a biomass basis, F. vesiculosus displayed highest species richness and highest faunal abundance in the Bothnian Sea, whereas no such differences were found around Saaremaa, probably because both Fucus species had similar height around Saaremaa whereas F. vesiculosus grew much taller and larger in the Bothnian Sea. There were some unique associated macroalgal and invertebrate species that were found only on either of the fucoids, indicating the importance of separating them as species in surveys and monitoring.

  17. Vulnerability and diet breadth predict larval and adult parasite diversity in fish of the Bothnian Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Sean A; Marcogliese, David J; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of aquatic food webs show that parasite diversity is concentrated in nodes that likely favour transmission. Various aspects of parasite diversity have been observed to be correlated with the trophic level, size, diet breadth, and vulnerability to predation of hosts. However, no study has attempted to distinguish among all four correlates, which may have differential importance for trophically transmitted parasites occurring as larvae or adults. We searched for factors that best predict the diversity of larval and adult endoparasites in 4105 fish in 25 species studied over a three-year period in the Bothnian Bay, Finland. Local predator-prey relationships were determined from stomach contents, parasites, and published data in 8,229 fish in 31 species and in seals and piscivorous birds. Fish that consumed more species of prey had more diverse trophically transmitted adult parasites. Larval parasite diversity increased with the diversity of both prey and predators, but increases in predator diversity had a greater effect. Prey diversity was more strongly associated with the diversity of adult parasites than with that of larvae. The proportion of parasite species present as larvae in a host species was correlated with the diversity of its predators. There was a notable lack of association with the diversity of any parasite guild and fish length, trophic level, or trophic category. Thus, diversity is associated with different nodal properties in larval and adult parasites, and association strengths also differ, strongly reflecting the life cycles of parasites and the food chains they follow to complete transmission.

  18. The first Danish family reported with an AQP5 mutation presenting diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, hyperhidrosis and frequent Corynebacterium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Hetland, Liv Eline; Clemmensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    in the epidermis of the palms and soles. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first Danish family diagnosed with diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type in which fourteen individuals are potentially affected. The proband, a 36-year-old male had since childhood been affected by pronounced......BACKGROUND: An autosomal dominant form of diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, is caused by mutations in the AQP5 gene encoding the cell-membrane water channel protein aquaporin 5 leading to defective epidermal-water-barrier function...... recurrent fungal infections, a wellknown feature of the condition, but also periodic worsening with pitted keratolysis and malodour due to bacterial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, which may be associated with hyperhidrosis, is frequently complicated by fungal infections...

  19. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Ardehed

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a

  20. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  1. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the potential influence of terrestrially derived DOM on the Baltic Sea, a year-long study of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was performed in three river catchments in Sweden. One catchment drains into the Bothnian Sea, while two southern catchments drain into the Baltic proper. Dissolved...... times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment than in the two southern catchments. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help...

  2. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea - an assessment of patterns and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Tomczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. The current study represents a first example of a coordinated assessment of ecosystem development in 13 coastal systems of the Baltic Sea. The data covers different geographical areas, ranging from the Kattegat and Skagerak in the southwest to the Bothnian Bay...... decades, our results also highlight limitations and gaps in available monitoring data to support integrated environmental status assessments of Baltic ecosystems as required in current international directives as the Baltic Sea Action Plan and Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as well as the potenital...

  3. Fractionation of iron species and iron isotopes in the Baltic Sea euphotic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gelting

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To indentify sources and transport mechanisms of iron in a coastal marine environment, we conducted measurements of the physiochemical speciation of Fe in the euphotic zone at three different locations in the Baltic Sea. In addition to sampling across a salinity gradient, we conducted this study over the spring and summer season. Moving from the riverine input characterized low salinity Bothnian Sea, via the Landsort Deep near Stockholm, towards the Gotland Deep in the Baltic Proper, total Fe concentrations averaged 114, 44, and 15 nM, respectively. At all three locations, a decrease in total Fe of 80–90% from early spring to summer was observed. Particulate Fe (PFe was the dominating phase at all stations and accounted for 75–85% of the total Fe pool on average. The Fe isotope composition (δ 56Fe of the PFe showed constant positive values in the Bothnian Sea surface waters (+0.08 to +0.20‰. Enrichment of heavy Fe in the Bothnian Sea PFe is possibly associated to input of aggregated land derived Fe-oxyhydroxides and oxidation of dissolved Fe(II. At the Landsort Deep the isotopic fractionation of PFe changed between −0.08‰ to +0.28‰ over the sampling period. The negative values in early spring indicate transport of PFe from the oxic-anoxic boundary at ∼80 m depth. The average colloidal iron fraction (CFe showed decreasing concentrations along the salinity gradient; Bothnian Sea 15 nM; Landsort Deep 1 nM, and Gotland Deep 0.5 nM. Field Flow Fractionation data indicate that the main colloidal carrier phase for Fe in the Baltic Sea is a carbon-rich fulvic acid associated compound, likely of riverine origin. A strong positive correlation between PFe and chl-a indicates that cycling of suspended Fe is at least partially controlled by primary production. However, this relationship may not be dominated by active uptake of Fe into phytoplankton, but instead may reflect scavenging and removal of PFe during phytoplankton

  4. Fractionation of iron species and iron isotopes in the Baltic Sea euphotic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelting, J.; Breitbarth, E.; Stolpe, B.; Hassellöv, M.; Ingri, J.

    2010-08-01

    To indentify sources and transport mechanisms of iron in a coastal marine environment, we conducted measurements of the physiochemical speciation of Fe in the euphotic zone at three different locations in the Baltic Sea. In addition to sampling across a salinity gradient, we conducted this study over the spring and summer season. Moving from the riverine input characterized low salinity Bothnian Sea, via the Landsort Deep near Stockholm, towards the Gotland Deep in the Baltic Proper, total Fe concentrations averaged 114, 44, and 15 nM, respectively. At all three locations, a decrease in total Fe of 80-90% from early spring to summer was observed. Particulate Fe (PFe) was the dominating phase at all stations and accounted for 75-85% of the total Fe pool on average. The Fe isotope composition (δ 56Fe) of the PFe showed constant positive values in the Bothnian Sea surface waters (+0.08 to +0.20‰). Enrichment of heavy Fe in the Bothnian Sea PFe is possibly associated to input of aggregated land derived Fe-oxyhydroxides and oxidation of dissolved Fe(II). At the Landsort Deep the isotopic fractionation of PFe changed between -0.08‰ to +0.28‰ over the sampling period. The negative values in early spring indicate transport of PFe from the oxic-anoxic boundary at ∼80 m depth. The average colloidal iron fraction (CFe) showed decreasing concentrations along the salinity gradient; Bothnian Sea 15 nM; Landsort Deep 1 nM, and Gotland Deep 0.5 nM. Field Flow Fractionation data indicate that the main colloidal carrier phase for Fe in the Baltic Sea is a carbon-rich fulvic acid associated compound, likely of riverine origin. A strong positive correlation between PFe and chl-a indicates that cycling of suspended Fe is at least partially controlled by primary production. However, this relationship may not be dominated by active uptake of Fe into phytoplankton, but instead may reflect scavenging and removal of PFe during phytoplankton sedimentation.

  5. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  6. Nutrient land sea fluxes in oligothrophic and pristine estuaries of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humborg, Christoph; Danielsson, Åsa; Sjöberg, Björn; Green, Mattias

    2003-03-01

    Estuaries are often seen as important filters between land and the sea for inorganic and organic nutrients. This paper aims at estimating the estuarine fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved silicate for the major oligothrophic and pristine rivers running into the Bothnian Bay (BB) and the Bothnian Sea (BS), the northern subarctic subbasins of the Baltic Sea. Long-term data sets for these rivers and their estuaries as well as for the BB and BS were analyzed to assess whether these estuaries are sinks for inorganic nutrients. Most studied estuaries can be characterized as salt wedge estuaries with little exchange between the fresh seaward-flowing river water and the inward-flowing seawater. Estimates of water transit times ranged between 1 and 14 days. In most estuaries of the BB, N-depleted river water meets P-depleted seawater during the growth period. These findings were corroborated by mixing diagrams showing that the inner areas of the estuaries were N-depleted in summer. In the BS, on the other hand, both rivers and seawater were mostly N-depleted during summer. Thus, for most estuaries of this region of the Baltic Sea, primary productivity is presumably lower than or equal to that of offshore. The low productivity is also reflected in the sediments. The coastal sediments did not differ from the offshore stations in accumulation rates as well as the content of organic matter and nutrients, indicating that estuarine nutrient burial is not always higher as normally observed in other temperate systems. Finally, the estuaries of the pristine rivers in the northernmost part of the BB import DIN during summer, whereas the estuaries of the rivers in the BS import DIP during winter, from the sea.

  7. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  8. Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löptien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are distributed as prognostic variables, but their actual usefulness is difficult to measure, and the ship captains must determine their relative importance and relevance for optimal ship speed and safety ad hoc. The present study provides a more objective approach by comparing the ship speeds, obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS, with the respective forecasted ice conditions. We find that, despite an unavoidable random component, this information is useful to constrain and rate fore- and nowcasts. More precisely, 62–67% of ship speed variations can be explained by the forecasted ice properties when fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical fit is based on a test region in the Bothnian Sea during the severe winter 2011 and employs 15 to 25 min averages of ship speed.

  9. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using ship-borne GNSS data for geoid model validation at the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Maaria; Kuokkanen, Jaakko; Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam; Koivula, Hannu; Häkli, Pasi; Lahtinen, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    We present a study of geoid model validation using ship-borne GNSS data on the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea. In autumn 2015 a dedicated gravity survey took place in the Bothnian Bay on board of the surveying vessel Airisto as a part of the FAMOS (Finalising surveys for the Baltic motorways of the sea) Freja project, which is supported by the European Commission with the Connecting Europe Facility. The gravity data was collected to test older existing gravity data in the area and to contribute to a new improved geoid model for the Baltic Sea. The raw GNSS and IMU data of the vessel were recorded in order to study the possibilities for validating geoid models at sea. In order to derive geoid heights from GNSS-measurements at sea, the GNSS measurements must first be reduced to sea level. The instant sea level, also called sea surface height, must then be modelled and removed in order to get the GNSS positions at the zero height. In theory, the resulting GNSS heights are the geoid heights, giving the distance between the ellipsoid and the geoid surface. There were altogether 46 lines measured during the campaign on the area. The 1 Hz GNSS-IMU observations were post-processed using the Applanix POSPac MMS 7.1 software. Different processing options were tested and the Single Base -solution was found to be the best strategy. There were some issues with the quality of the data and cycle slips and thus, 37 of the lines were of adequate quality for the geoid validation. The final coordinates were transferred to the coordinate systems related to the geoid models used. Translation of the processed heights to sea level was performed taking the pitch and roll effects of the vessel into account. Also the effects of static and dynamic draft (squat) were applied. For the reduction from sea surface to geoid surface, the sea surface heights were derived from tide gauge data and also from a physical model for the Baltic Sea. The residual errors between the GNSS-derived geoid heights

  11. Seabed geomorphic features in a glaciated shelf of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskela, A. M.; Kotilainen, A. T.; Al-Hamdani, Z.; Leth, J. O.; Reker, J.

    2012-03-01

    Due to a continuous increase in human activities occurring throughout marine and coastal areas worldwide (e.g., marine traffic and construction), the lack of in-depth information on vast marine areas is problematic. However, the spatial informatics field has enabled the development of new applications based on pre-existing spatial data. This paper discusses the physical structure and complexity of the continental shelf seafloor, using geospatial modelling and GIS analysis to gain insight into the physical environment of the Baltic Sea seafloor as a basis for ecosystem management. We demonstrate the mapping of coherent features over a broad region and identify geomorphic features of the seabed by analysing and modelling bathymetric, seabed substrate, and photic depth datasets. The analysis was performed at the kilometre scale using a grid size of 200 m. In total, 18 unique seabed geomorphic features were identified from the entire Baltic Sea (including the Skagerrak). The features are similar to geomorphic seafloor structures typically occurring on glaciated continental shelves. The Baltic Sea is primarily characterized by various plains and basins, and on average, one-third of the seafloor can be regarded as a sediment accumulation area. Other seabed geomorphic features are mainly present in certain local sub regions. The archipelagos as well as the coastal areas of southern Sweden and the Bothnian Bay have a heterogeneous seafloor environment. These areas are characterized by sea valleys and holes, sea troughs, and bedrock elevations, partly due to a crystalline basement and glacial erosion. In addition, the shallow coastal areas suffer from intense wave exposure and have erosional features that differ from those in open sea areas. Effective transnational marine spatial planning requires extensive knowledge of the environmental characteristics of the region in question. Background data for marine spatial planning can be obtained through an analysis of seabed

  12. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  13. Composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Manecki, Marcus; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Deutsch, Barbara; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Jürgens, Klaus; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE) DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area) is 1.6 - 1.9 Tg C per year which is 43 to 51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area towards the North Sea is 1.8 - 2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years), seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur-containing organic molecules

  14. Composition and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seidel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area is 1.6–1.9 Tg C per year which is 43–51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area toward the North Sea is 1.8–2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years, seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur

  15. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-06-01

    To examine the potential influence of terrestrially derived DOM on the Baltic Sea, a year-long study of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was performed in three river catchments in Sweden. One catchment drains into the Bothnian Sea, while two southern catchments drain into the Baltic proper. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were positively correlated with discharge from forested catchments over the year. While the overall concentrations of DOC were several times higher in the southern two catchments, higher discharge in the northern catchment resulted in the annual loadings of DOC being on the same order of magnitude for all three catchments. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction) in Ume river was four times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment than in the two southern catchments. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help to explain the higher concentrations of labile carbon in the northern catchment. Lower lability of DOM as well as higher colour in the southern catchments suggest that wetlands (i.e. peat bogs) may be the dominant source of DOM in these catchments, particularly in periods of low flow. With climate change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply to the Baltic Sea from boreal rivers will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially have a lower bioavailability.

  16. The conditions of the seas around Sweden. Haven runt Sverige 1991; Rapport fraan SMHI, Oceanografiska Laboratoriet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Carlberg, S.R.; Edler, L. (and others)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes SMHIs environmental monitoring in the open sea around Sweden, from the Skagerrak to the northern part of the Bothnian sea. Physical, chemical and biological parameters are studied in water samples, zoobenthos is studied in sediment grab samples and samples of fish and mussels are collected for the determination of harmful substances in the Kattegat, the Sound, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Bothnia. The temperature of the sea surface layer was higher than normal most part of the year, just as in 1989. The oxygen conditions in the south eastern Kattegat once again were unfavourable in late summer and early autumn. Also in the Baltic proper the bad oxygen situation in the deep water prevailed in several basins the whole year. In the Bornholm Basin hydrogen sulphide was present under the halocline the whole year with the exception of the August cruise. In the Gdansk Basin there is no longer any stratification and oxygen is mixed into the water from the atmosphere. This has improved the conditions in the bottom water. In the Eastern Gotland Basin hydrogen sulphide has been present in the bottom water for more than 13 years continuously. The Northern Central Basin, including the Landsort Deep, and the Western Central Basin were free from hydrogen sulphide the whole year. Nutrient conditions did not show any remarkable or unexpected changes during 1990. During the winter period phosphate and nitrate were present in about normal concentrations, which decreased to near detection limit during the production period in the spring and early summer and then increased again during autumn. The petroleum hydrocarbons showed during the spring roughly the same concentrations as during the previous years, whereas the autumn values were normal in the surface water only and all other values were high or very high. The reason for this has not been identified.

  17. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  18. A multibiomarker approach to the assessment of pollution impacts in two Baltic Sea coastal areas in Sweden using caged mussels (Mytilus trossulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, R; Höher, N; Snoeijs, P; Baršienė, J; Butrimavičienė, L; Kuznetsova, T; Kholodkevich, S V; Devier, M-H; Budzinski, H; Lehtonen, K K

    2014-03-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were transplanted in cages for three months in two Swedish coastal areas in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic Sea) to investigate the interactions between analysed environmental chemicals and biological responses. A wide array of biological parameters (biomarkers) including antioxidant and biotransformation activity, geno-, cyto- and neurotoxic effects, phagocytosis, bioenergetic status and heart rate were measured to detect the possible effects of contaminants. Integrated Biomarker Response index and Principal Component Analysis performed on the individual biological response data were able to discriminate between the two study areas as well as the contaminated sites from their respective local reference sites. The two contaminated sites outside the cities of Sundsvall (station S1) and Gävle (station G1) were characterised by different biomarker response patterns. Mussels at station S1 showed a low condition index, increased heart rate recovery time and phagocytosis activity coinciding with the highest tissue concentrations of some trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotins. At station G1 the highest organochlorine pesticide concentration was recorded as well as elevations in glutathione S-transferase activity, thiamine content and low lysosomal membrane stability. Significant variability in the geno- and cytotoxic responses and bioenergetic status was also observed at the different caging stations. The results obtained suggest that different chemical mixtures present in the study areas cause variable biological response patterns in organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omstedt, Anders; Edman, Moa; Claremar, Björn; Rutgersson, Anna

    2015-04-01

    We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions from land and shipping of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the period 1750 to 2014, a period when land and ships emissions have under gone large changes with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, increasing emissions of SOx, NOx, NHx and increasing loads of nutrients. The results from the present study illustrates that acidification in the Baltic Sea due to atmospheric deposition of acids reached its maximum around 1980, with a pH decrease of about 0.01 in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the acidification due to increased CO2 in the atmosphere. The contribution from shipping is one order of magnitude less than the acidification from land emissions. However the pH decline due to atmospheric acids has started to recover due to reductions in land emissions, but the effect caused by shipping remains. As the deposition of acidic species from land has decreased, the alkalinity levels are recovering, but are still affected and have changed about 30 µmol/kg during the study period. In the Bothnian Bay the recovery rate is much lower than the earlier loss rate. However, the alkalinity loss due to shipping is still ongoing. The largest AT sink per surface area has occurred in the south-western Baltic Sea where the shipping is intense and the surface areas of the basins are small. The sink due to shipping is around 10% of the total during the150 years.

  20. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Günter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P

    2002-08-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from

  1. A statistical approach to coastal upwelling in the Baltic Sea based on the analysis of satellite data for 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of Baltic Sea upwelling has been carried out to cover, for the first time, the entire sea area for the period 1990-2009. Weekly composite SST maps based on NOAA/AVHRR satellite data were used to evaluate the location and frequency of upwelling. The results obtained were analysed and compared with earlier studies with excellent agreement. Our study enables the most intense upwelling areas in the entire Baltic Sea to be evaluated. According to the analysis of 443 SST maps, the most common upwelling regions are found off the Swedish south and east coasts (frequency 10-25%, the Swedish coast of the Bothnian Bay (16%, the southern tip of Gotland (up to 15%, and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland (up to 15%. Pronounced upwelling also occurs off the Estonian coast and the Baltic east coast (up to 15%, the Polish coast and the west coast of Rügen (10-15%; otherwise the upwelling frequency was between 5 and 10%. Additionally, simulated SST distributions derived from a Baltic Sea numerical model were analysed for the same period. Furthermore, at specific positions close to the coastline, surface winds based on the SMHI meteorological data base were analysed for the same 20-year period. Wind components parallel to the coast were discriminated into favourable and unfavourable winds forcing upwelling. The obtained frequencies of upwelling-favourable winds fit very well the observed upwelling frequencies derived from satellite SST maps. A positive trend of upwelling frequencies along the Swedish east coast and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland was calculated for the period 1990-2009.

  2. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research; Gustafsson, Bo [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden); Omstedt, Anders [SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times.

  3. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  4. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  5. The conditions of the seas around Sweden. Report from the activities in 1991; Haven runt Sverige 1991. Rapport fraan SMHI, Oceanografiska Laboratoriet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Carlberg, S.R.; Edler, L. [and others

    1992-04-01

    This report describes SMHIs environmental monitoring in the open sea around Sweden, from the Skagerrak to the northern part of the Bothnian sea. Physical, chemical and biological parameters are studied in water samples, zoobenthos is studied in sediment grab samples and samples of fish and mussels are collected for the determination of harmful substances in the Kattegat, the Sound, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Bothnia. The temperature of the sea surface layer was higher than normal most part of the year, just as in 1989. The oxygen conditions in the south eastern Kattegat once again were unfavourable in late summer and early autumn. Also in the Baltic proper the bad oxygen situation in the deep water prevailed in several basins the whole year. In the Bornholm Basin hydrogen sulphide was present under the halocline the whole year with the exception of the August cruise. In the Gdansk Basin there is no longer any stratification and oxygen is mixed into the water from the atmosphere. This has improved the conditions in the bottom water. In the Eastern Gotland Basin hydrogen sulphide has been present in the bottom water for more than 13 years continuously. The Northern Central Basin, including the Landsort Deep, and the Western Central Basin were free from hydrogen sulphide the whole year. Nutrient conditions did not show any remarkable or unexpected changes during 1990. During the winter period phosphate and nitrate were present in about normal concentrations, which decreased to near detection limit during the production period in the spring and early summer and then increased again during autumn. The petroleum hydrocarbons showed during the spring roughly the same concentrations as during the previous years, whereas the autumn values were normal in the surface water only and all other values were high or very high. The reason for this has not been identified.

  6. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  7. Sea Level Acceleration in the China Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Yongcun Cheng; Tal Ezer; Hamlington, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in sea level. In this work, three acceleration detection techniques are used to demonstrate the robust SLA in the China Seas. Interannual to multidecadal sea level variations (periods >2 years), which are mainly related to ...

  8. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  9. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  10. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    .................................. 1143 13.1.4 Models Used to Interpret Past and Project Future Changes in Sea Level .............................................. 1144 13.2 Past Sea Level Change ................................................. 1145 13.2.1 The Geological Record....6.5 Regional Relative Sea Level Changes ...................... 1194 13.6.6 Uncertainties and Sensitivity to Ocean/Climate Model Formulations and Parameterizations ............ 1197 13.7 Projections of 21st Century Sea Level Extremes and Waves...

  11. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  12. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    The North Indian Ocean consists of three marginal seas; The Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the west and the Andaman Sea in the east. Oceanographic features of these semi-enclosed basins have been discussed in this article. While circulation...

  13. Photosynthetic activity in marine and brackish water strains of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae) at different light qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Carina; Maria Gylle, A; Ekelund, Nils G A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of different light qualities on the photosynthetic capacity of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, from the Norwegian Sea, and Fucus radicans and F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea. The electron transport rates (ETR) obtained for F. vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea showed significantly higher levels of light saturation compared with both species of algae from the Bothnian Sea. The maximum of ETR values for the Norwegian Sea strain showed no significant changes due to varying light quality compared with the initial values. For F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea, treatment with blue light showed an effect after 1 week of 30 and 90 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) (P<0.01), and for F. radicans from the Bothnian Sea, at the irradiance of 90 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and 1 week (P<0.01). After 1 week in the Bothnian Sea species and after 2 weeks in F. vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea, the photosynthetic efficiency (α) was significantly higher regardless of light quality and irradiance compared with the initial values. Variation in light quality and irradiance had minor effects on the F(v):F(m) values of the three algal strains studied. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  15. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    of component waves of various periods and heights. This is the most commonly used theory for practical applications like design of ships, oil rigs and coastal structures such as jetties, ports, and sea walls. This theory also provides sufficient intellectual... of wind waves in the sea is a wide and interesting field with ap- plications in marine exploration ac- tivities, underwater pipe laying, pol- lution control, ports and shipping in- volving billions of dollars worth of transactions. Not all sea waves look...

  16. Lead in Sea Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Simth D.R.; Flegal A.R.; Estes J.A:

    1991-01-01

    As yet there is no direct evidence that environmental pollutants affect sea otter populations. However, this may be from lack of looking. The first steps in these investigations are to measure levels of potential environmental contaminants in sea otters, determine whether these levels vary among populations, and compare the findings with those from other mustelids/otters for which there is a known or suspected impact. Our approach is to compare measurements between Alaska, where sea otter pop...

  17. SEA in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available advocated by SEACAM (Audouin et al, 2003). Some examples of processes broadly reflecting the principles of SEA are provided in Box 9.1. These examples show that SEA tends to be undertaken as part of other processes, such as integrated land-use planning... Development Challenge Rural Development Programme, SEA for the central Namib Uranium Rush and SEA of the Karas Land Use Plan. References Audouin, M., Govender, K. and Ramasar, V. (2003) Guidelines for the Strategic Environmental Assessment, prepared...

  18. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper......, and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  19. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-07

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  20. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  1. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  2. White Sea - Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  3. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  4. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    in the implementation of SEA in the sector, and they concern, e.g., strategic choices in transmission network development and ministerial choices on location of energy production units. The paper outlines the roots of the dilemmas as well as their implications for timing and content of SEA. The verdict is that we (in...

  5. Black Sea in Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  6. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  7. A retrospective view of the development of the Gulf of Bothnia ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosa, Harri; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Nygård, Henrik; Raateoja, Mika; Raitaniemi, Jari; Tuimala, Jarno; Uusitalo, Laura; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2017-03-01

    We analysed long-term monitoring data from 1979 to 2012 in the Gulf of Bothnia, the northernmost extension of the Baltic Sea, to examine changes in the summer food web structure, and to reveal the factors causing the observed changes. Of the two sub-basins in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bothnian Sea is more dynamic in its hydrography and food web structure than the Bothnian Bay, due to the variable influence of the more eutrophic and more saline Baltic Proper. Variation in deep-water intrusion from the main Baltic Proper, and its effect on salinity and stratification, had a clear effect on the phyto- and zooplankton communities in the Bothnian Sea. Probably due to this intrusion, the nutrient status in this basin has also changed in terms of nitrogen limitation, with subsequent class- and genus-level changes in phytoplankton community composition. The migration of cod to the Bothnian Sea during the 1980s had profound effects on the herring population, but cascading effects affecting the basis of the food web were not obvious. In contrast to a more pronounced interplay of both top-down control and bottom-up nutrient limitation of the Bothnian Sea, the Bothnian Bay food web was mostly driven by hydrography and climate, and major changes were observed in the basis of the food web. Community changes were observed in both basins in the Gulf of Bothnia throughout the entire time period. Human influence considerably affects both the basis of the food web and its very top, where man has replaced the natural top predators. Though the eutrophication status of the Gulf has been rather stable, the results indicate that the potential symptoms should be surveyed specifically in the Bothnian Sea, and that management of Baltic herring stocks requires an understanding, and thus monitoring, of the entire food web.

  8. An Introduction to the Black Sea Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Balearic ( Iberian ) Sea, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Ionic Sea, Aegean Sea, Sea of Marmara, and Levantine Sea. In its turn, in some...sheep-dog and other domestic dogs belong to one biological species that was raised 10–15,000 years ago from the wild species of wolf (Саnis lupus). The

  9. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  10. Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  11. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  12. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  13. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    gauge record and makes the reconstruction much less prone to drifting away over time.Unfortunately, many of the Russian-sector tide gauge records end around 1990,leaving a fairly sparse record after this. This project examines the effect of introducing a subset of the altimetric dataset as “virtual tide......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  14. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  15. Sea Hero Quest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    Sea Hero Quest has been developed to help fight dementia. The mobile game is a collaboration between Alzheimer's Research UK and scientists from University College London and the University of East Anglia.

  16. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  17. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  18. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  19. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  20. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  1. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpen, T.; Haas, C.; Itkin, P.

    2016-12-01

    Interannual variability and trends in sea ice export out of the Laptev Sea were investigated using a combination of observations and satellite data. The Laptev Sea shows a statistically positive trend in ice area export that is likely associated to an increase in ice drift velocity being the consequence of a thinning ice cover further north. Moreover, we could show that there is a high statistical connection of the late winter (Jan-May) sea ice export and ice formation in Laptev Sea polynyas to the summer sea ice concentration. By means of a sensitivity study using a coupled sea ice-ocean model (MITgcm), we could highlight the importance of winter sea ice processes for summer sea ice conditions in the Laptev Sea and likewise in the adjacent Siberian Seas. Years of high ice export have a thinning effect on the ice cover, which in turn preconditions early fast ice break up, pack ice melt and the occurrence of negative sea ice extent anomalies in summer. Our model simulation also indicate that observed increase in the sea ice export from the Laptev Sea is accompanied by an increase in the volume export, which is important for the Arctic sea ice budget.

  2. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  3. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  4. Seasonal change of steric sea level in the GIN seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Huijuan; Sun, Ruili

    2011-03-01

    The Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, and Norwegian Sea (GIN seas) form the main channel connecting the Arctic Ocean with other Oceans, where significant water and energy exchange take place, and play an important role in global climate change. In this study steric sea level, associated with temperature and salinity, in the GIN seas is examined based on analysis of the monthly temperature and salinity fields from Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0). A method proposed by Tabata et al. is used to calculate steric sea level, in which, steric sea level change due to thermal expansion and haline contraction is termed as the thermosteric component (TC) and the halosteric component (SC), recpectively. Total steric sea level (TSSL) change is the sum of TC and SC. The study shows that SC is making more contributions than TC to the seasonal change of TSSL in the Greenland Sea, whereas TC contributes more in the Norwegian and the Iceland Seas. Annual variation of TSSL is larger than 50 mm over most regions of the GIN Seas, and can be larger than 200 mm at some locations such as 308 mm at 76.5°N, 12.5°E and 246 mm at 77.5°N, 17.5°W.

  5. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  6. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  7. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  8. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    There has been considerable research on sea-level-rise caused by global warming. The various reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made assessments of observed sea level rise and future projections. Figure 1 shows a global...

  9. Sailing New Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    forum. The Navy needs a better forum fo r ideas . One can be built on the Internet . That job should be done now. Who among us will do it? The Navy...For coevolution to occur, diversity of ideas must be catalyzed by communication (diversity wi thout 86 Sail ing New Seas communicatio n among

  10. Sea Basing Logistiek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    flexibiliteit, dynamiek en configureerbaarheid afhankelijk van de missie behoefte is wat hen aanspreekt: ’Joint Sea Base is a frame of mind, not a...en dat tijdens de sustain fase selectief gelost kan worden, is bet van belang orn voorafgaand aan de close fase stil te staan bij de manier waarop

  11. The European sea bass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Freitas, V.; Quilez, I.; Jouta, J.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the population dynamics, growth and feeding ecology of Dicentrarchus labrax in order to gain a better understanding of its present role in the western Dutch Wadden Sea ecosystem. Otolith analysis showed that the population is mostly comprised of individuals aged 3–5 years old and

  12. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  13. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  14. Camp Sea Lab Visit

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited On Wednesday July 8th, CAVR hosted 32 eight to thirteen year olds from California State Monterey Bay’s summer Camp SEA Lab. The students had the opportunity to interact with robotic dogs, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

  15. North Sea reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Joop Waltherus Petrus

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis was to understand the patterns of benthic biodiversity on reefs in the North Sea. To gain this understanding, I studied which species are present on natural and artificial reefs, what environmental and biotic variables influence the presence and

  16. Northern Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  18. Armada puts to sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esau, I.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes the operational success of British Gas in exploiting the Armada gas field. Armada consists of three separate reservoirs (Fleming, Drake and Hawkins) and lies in the central North Sea. British Gas has successfully exploited this field on behalf of a group of co-venturers. This article describes the economic, technical and political difficulties faced by the company in operating this innovative method of management. (UK)

  19. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    pressure of 10 MPa (73). Several species of Aspergillus showed abnonnal morphology immediately afterisola~ tion. These showed extremely long conidiophores with vesicles that were covered with long hyphae, instead of phialides or metulae or conidia... at SoC and pH 9.0 (17). In contrast, out of 22 fungi isolated from shallow \\vater, only 14% showed Iow-temperature-active protease production. The deep-sea fungi when grown under elevated pressure synthesized extracellular protease, albeit in very low...

  20. Quantification of sea ice production in Weddell Sea polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan; Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The regional climate model COSMO-CLM was used to perform simulations the Weddell Sea region in Antarctica for the time period 2002-2015 with the focus on atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interactions. The original model was adapted to polar regions by the use of a thermodynamic sea ice module with snow cover and an temperature-dependent albedo scheme for sea ice. The recently published topography RTopo2 was used. The model was run with nesting in ERA-Interim data in a forecast mode. Sea ice concentrations were taken from satellite measurements (AMSR-E, SSMI/S, AMSR2) and were updated daily to allow for a close-to-reality hindcast. Simulations were done with 15 km resolution for the whole period 2002-2015 with the goal to force the sea-ice ocean model FESOM. In a second step a 5 km simulation was one-way nested for the winter period (April - September) 2002-2015 to allow for a better quantification of sea ice production in the Weddell Sea. Estimates of sea ice production and comparisons of the results to remote sensing data will be presented.

  1. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  2. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  3. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although

  4. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  5. Beside the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Olmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are delighted to publish an extract from "Beside the Sea" by Véronique Olmi. Bord de Mer was first published in 2001 by Peirene Press which is an award-winning, independent publishing house. It specializes in contemporary European literature in English translation. Peirene's books are all under 200 pages and can be read in the same time it takes to watch a DVD. Peirene's authors are award-winners and bestsellers in their own countries. 'Two-hour-books to be devoured in a single sitting: literary cinema for those fatigued by film.' Times Literary Supplement. www.peirenepress.com

  6. Rough Sea Transfer Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Azimuthing propulsion pods were chosen to provide the maneuverability needed for skin-to-skin interface. Annex H contains more information on the engine...single pod can be seen on the keel towards the stern of the ship. 4.0 Summary The RSTS ship concept provides a dedicated LCAC carrier that has the...knots) 20 Density (kg/m3) 1025 1.188E- 06 Kinematic Viscosity (m2/s) Results Rt (kN) 545.83 Pe (MW) 5.61 Pea (MW) 6.17 Ps (MW) 9.50 Sea

  7. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage. 697...

  8. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR data of sea ice have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) during a mission at the Greenland Sea in August 1994. Video recordings from a low-altitude acquisition have been used for interpretation of the SAR data. Also, ERS-1 SAR data and NOAA AVHRR-data have been...

  9. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  10. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  11. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  12. Sea modeling and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  13. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  14. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard,

  15. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  16. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  17. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary emis...... with decreasing temperature. Unique surface images of bubble size distributions allow the investigation of temperature, bubble size, and particle production......Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary...... entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years......, with a negligible temporal trend when compared against drifting and moored buoys. Analysis of the SST CDR reveals that the monthly anomalies for the North Sea, the Danish straits, and the central Baltic Sea regions show a high degree of correlation for interannual and decadal time scales, whereas the monthly...

  19. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    . Further analysis has shown that the sea surface anomalies are well correlated to the anomalies of air temperature and latent heat flux values; whereas they are least correlated to the anomalies of wind stress and net radiation values, except over...

  20. Sea otters and Alaska's developing sea farming industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this paper are to give an overview of the current status of the industry in Alaska, identify potential problems between mariculture and sea otters...

  1. Deep-sea geohazards in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Dawei; Völker, David

    2018-02-01

    Various geological processes and features that might inflict hazards identified in the South China Sea by using new technologies and methods. These features include submarine landslides, pockmark fields, shallow free gas, gas hydrates, mud diapirs and earthquake tsunami, which are widely distributed in the continental slope and reefal islands of the South China Sea. Although the study and assessment of geohazards in the South China Sea came into operation only recently, advances in various aspects are evolving at full speed to comply with National Marine Strategy and `the Belt and Road' Policy. The characteristics of geohazards in deep-water seafloor of the South China Sea are summarized based on new scientific advances. This progress is aimed to aid ongoing deep-water drilling activities and decrease geological risks in ocean development.

  2. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  3. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  4. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The South Asian Seas region lies in the northern extreme of the Indian Ocean. It includes the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) along with their marginal basins as well as the Laccadive Sea and the Andaman Sea. Counties...

  5. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea. Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be ...

  6. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave; sea breeze; coastal processes; energy density spectra; Arabian Sea. ... We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  7. ISLSCP II Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of the state of the earth climate system as well as a key variable in the coupling between the atmosphere and...

  8. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  9. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enable the animals to be passively tracked. Acoustic receivers set up in an array...

  10. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  11. USGS Sea Ice Email Script

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Daily sea ice imagery and charting benefits logistics and navigational planning in the Alaskan Arctic waters, yet access to these data often requires high bandwidth...

  12. ISLSCP II Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of the state of the earth climate system as well as a key variable in the coupling between the...

  13. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Estimates of the amount of denitrification in the Arabian Sea are inconsistent, and so two methods of calculations of 'original' nitrate concentrations used in earlier studies have been reviewed. Nitrite at intermediate depths was not restricted...

  14. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  15. Remigial molt of sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Molt is a dynamic process occurring throughout much of the year in waterfowl. The molt of flight feathers by waterfowl, especially sea ducks, however, occurs over a compressed period of time and in spcific areas used each year. We provide an overview of the flight feather molt of sea ducks. We focus on the need to molt and why, the timing and duration of flight feather mot, and the duration birds remain at molting areas; energetics of molt and strategies for managing energetic needs; molt migration' food resources and foraging behavior; predation risks; temporal constraints and competition; response to disturbance; and molt habitats and seasonal differences in habitat used by sea ducks. We conclude by presenting and discussing data gaps and emphasize the continuing need for a holistic approach to sea duck management and international cooperation among countries.

  16. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  17. Sea Turtle Radio Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enabled us to track and measure surfacing time of each turtle. Determining location of...

  18. Sea Turtle Stranding Network Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network (STSSN) was formally established in 1980 to collect information on and document the stranding of marine turtles along...

  19. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  20. Sea-ice production in the northern Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    Sinking of the dense water plays a significant role in the global climate system by driving thermohaline (overturning) circulation and biogeochemical cycles. Deep water convection occurs also in the Japan Sea, and the convection has been considered to be mainly caused by intense cooling of the sea surface. Another possible cause of the convection is brine rejection associated with high sea-ice production in a coastal polynya (thin sea-ice) area in the northern Japan Sea. We have developed an algorithm which detects the thin ice area and estimates the thickness using passive microwave satellite data. Based on a heat flux calculation with the satellite-derived ice thickness, the total sea-ice production in winter (December-March) averaged over 2002/03-2010/11 is estimated to be 4.27 × 1010 m3. This indicates that the ice production was underestimated by about half in a previous study in which the polynya was unrealistically treated as a low ice concentration area. The main determinant factor for the total ice production is the surface air temperature in early winter (December-January), which shows a rapid warming trend of 0.7 °C/decade for this 40-years. Based on a linear regression approach, the total ice production is estimated to have decreased by 5%/decade due to air temperature warming. If brine rejection due to the ice production contributes to the deep water formation in the Japan Sea, this is consistent with the fact that the deep water formation has been decreasing for the last 50-100 years.

  1. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  2. Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua

  3. Sea ice ridging in the eastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, V. I.; Ackley, S. F.

    1991-10-01

    In August 1986, sea ice ridge heights and spatial frequency in the eastern Weddell Sea were measured using a ship-based acoustical sounder. Using a minimum ridge sail height of 0.75 m, a total of 933 ridges were measured along a track length of 415 km. The ridge frequency varied from 0.4 to 10.5 ridges km-1. The mean height of the ridges was found to be about 1.1 m regardless of the ridge frequency. These results are compared to other ridging statistics from the Ross Sea and found to be similar. Comparison with Arctic data, however, indicates that the height and frequency of the ridges are considerably less in the Weddell Sea than in the Arctic. Whereas in the Arctic the mean ridge height tends to increase with the ridge frequency, we found that this was not the case in the Weddell Sea, where the mean ridge height remained constant irrespective of the ridge frequency. Estimates of the contribution of deformed ice to the total ice thickness are generally low except for a single 53-km section where the ridge frequency increased by an order of magnitude. This resulted in an increase in the equivalent mean ice thickness due to ridging from 0.04 m in the less deformed areas to 0.45 m in the highly deformed section. These values were found to be consistent with values obtained from drilled profile lines during the same cruise.

  4. Sea level pressure climatology in black sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, to achieve a comprehensive view of pressure conditions in the Black Sea region, sea level pressure data in Reanalysis II database in National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR were used. The data temporal resolution is daily and the spatial resolution is 2.5×2.5 degrees of arc. The investigated framework covers the areas between -30-70 degrees east longitude and 20-70 degrees north latitude and has dimensions equal 41×21 pixels consisting of 861 pixels. The studied period of time is 33-year (1979 to 2012 and includes 12419 days and 861 spatial pixels. Therefore, sea level pressure data matrix is 12419×861, which has 12419 temporal pixels and 861 spatial ones. In other words, the arrangement of the data is S-shaped. The rows of the matrix represent time while columns represent space. At the end, using the cluster analysis, six sea level pressure circulation patterns based on the spatial - temporal features were obtained: Red Sea trough is fall pattern; Iraq trough is spring pattern; Persian Gulf trough is transitional pattern; Persian Gulf deep trough is summer pattern; Caucasian high pressure is fall - winter pattern and the Caucasian Strong high pressure is winter pattern. In most of these patterns, intensive allobaric conditions can be observed in the troughs and ridges.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  7. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  8. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  9. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice leads in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Hutchings, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Shapiro, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Leads in sea ice play an important role in the polar marine environment where they allow heat and moisture transfer between the oceans and atmosphere and act as travel pathways for both marine mammals and ships. Examining AVHRR thermal imagery of the Beaufort Sea, collected between 1994 and 2010, sea ice leads appear in repeating patterns and locations (Eicken et al 2005). The leads, resolved by AVHRR, are at least 250m wide (Mahoney et al 2012), thus the patterns described are for lead systems that extend up to hundreds of kilometers across the Beaufort Sea. We describe how these patterns are associated with the location of weather systems relative to the coastline. Mean sea level pressure and 10m wind fields from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to identify if particular lead patterns can be uniquely forecast based on the location of weather systems. Ice drift data from the NSIDC's Polar Pathfinder Daily 25km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors indicates the role shear along leads has on the motion of ice in the Beaufort Gyre. Lead formation is driven by 4 main factors: (i) coastal features such as promontories and islands influence the origin of leads by concentrating stresses within the ice pack; (ii) direction of the wind forcing on the ice pack determines the type of fracture, (iii) the location of the anticyclone (or cyclone) center determines the length of the fracture for certain patterns; and (iv) duration of weather conditions affects the width of the ice fracture zones. Movement of the ice pack on the leeward side of leads originating at promontories and islands increases, creating shear zones that control ice transport along the Alaska coast in winter. . Understanding how atmospheric conditions influence the large-scale motion of the ice pack is needed to design models that predict variability of the gyre and export of multi-year ice to lower latitudes.

  10. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  11. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean...... Basin. Samples were taken from 2 of these. Both have a genetic signature indicative of the Black Sea and their age and small size further suggest they originated from the Black Sea rather than the Atlantic population. These results are the first to indicate probable movement of porpoises out...... of the Black Sea and into the Mediterranean Sea....

  12. Alone by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ferić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.At first the island is just a sign on a yellow board with a drawing of a vessel and the letters saying “Car Ferry,” then it is a grayish silhouette in the blue of the sea, and then, later still, an acquaintance working on the ferry, who just nods briefly in greeting. Jablanac, ferry port, its pleasant lobby, and then, from the upper deck, a giant rock approaching. That is the object of a year-long desire: the moment of stepping off the boat and smelling the rosemary, diesel and sheep droppings, seeing the sharp rocks looking at the Strait of Senj, coarse limestone in sharp opposition to the signs that say: Benvenuti, Welcome, Willkommen!At home, on the terrace, in the shade of the oleander, there’s no wish to eat. Only swimming trunks are put on and then, barefoot, without a towel or sun-tanning lotion, off to the beach.“Why won’t you eat something?” grandma asks.She knows that there’s an exciting world waiting out there, but she knows nothing of the details. All friends went on a boat trip. And suddenly one step from the shade of a path covered with oleanders and acacias leads into the burning sun of the afternoon. The light screams, just like children in the water, just like white objects that radiate as if there are some powerful light bulbs within. The feeling of freedom of someone who has just arrived in a foreign place and can now do anything. There’s no one familiar on the beach, they all got in the boat and left. The seafront leading to the camp is full of people, naked children with dirty faces licking ice cream, young families pushing strollers, groups of teenagers who have just woken up from their last night’s party. But there’s no one that must be greeted. The feeling of freedom that’s at the same time close to death. Suddenly, all paths are open. That there are no obligations or friends waiting, this afternoon, until they come back, is a complete boon.

  13. South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, J. C.; Gao, J.; Zhao, M.; Wu, J.; Ding, W.; Yeh, Y. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma (Briais et al., JGR 1993) and 20.5 Ma (Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014)). Recently, Sibuet et al. (Tectonophysics 2016) pointed out that post-spreading magmatic activity ( 8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin. Their compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that, if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS, suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions deformed and uplifted the already formed oceanic crust and oldest overlying sediments, resulting in the formation of a double post-spreading ridge belt previously identified as the shoulders of the extinct spreading rift axis. This preliminary work will be used to identify magnetic lineations not polluted by the post-spreading magmatism. The unfolded Manila trench

  14. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  15. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean sea level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal seas this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean Sea involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean sea level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean sea level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean sea level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities

  16. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  17. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection. Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater phase of host development, although recordings exist that the virus is carried on in surving samples which succeed in making it to the sea. As the number of sea fish species increases in controlled culture a increasing number of pathological cases are observed, which is caused by viruses. Therefore, in this area it is necessary to emphasize future investigations.

  18. Difference of sea level rising rate from steric and altimeter sea level in the regional Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. K.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Foreman, M. G. G.; Kim, E.

    2016-12-01

    Regional sea level rise is examined in the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS) for the Topex/Poseidon and Jason altimetry period. Coastal tidal data, altimetry and steric sea level data are examined and compared from 1993 to 2015. As usual, temperature and salinity data sampled at regular intervals are available for only a limited number of stations around the Korean Peninsula. The regional sea level rising rate from altimetry compares well with the sea level rising rate from coastal sea level data around Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands around the YECS where data are available. However, differences between the sea level rising rate from altimetry and the steric sea level rising rate are rather large, as expected, since mass effects can not be reflected in the steric sea level rising rate. This is significantly different from the results of the sea level rising trend in the deep East/Japan Sea where thermosteric sea level compares well with the altimetry sea level trend during 9 year period from 1992 to 2001 (Kang et al., 2005). This may suggest that the cause of variability in sea level rising may change with the global trend change in sea level rise with increasing melting effect.The difference of steric sea level and altimetry data for the last 23 years (1993-2015) is expected to be mainly due to mass effects or the addition of mass and dynamic effects. The limited number of data from CTD stations may cause inaccuracies in estimating regional steric sea level in the YECS. The steric sea level rising rate computed from Argo data in the northwestern Pacific (D. Roemmich, 2013), upstream of East China Sea, seems to indicate a negative steric sea level rising pattern during 2006-2013. This suggests that water characteristics affecting the East China Seas through the Kuroshio may contribute to a negative sea level rising trend. More discussion will be given during the meeting.This work is partially supported from research funds from KIOST project (PE99392).

  19. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  20. How SEA can inform lenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    SEA can be a powerful tool to improve decision-making for plans, policies and programmes, but it can also be a useful for banks. SEA can help lenders address the reputational risks they are exposed to through financing projects that may have a negative impact on the environment and it can also help...... with identifying the financial incentives that ‘green’ projects attract. Although bank lending decisions apply to projects, examination of the lending practices of an Australian and a Hungarian bank have shown that decisions about the type of projects to target or avoid are also made at strategic level...

  1. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  2. Sea-State Engineering Analysis System (SEAS). Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IOENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I(If apoehile) USAry orpof Enne Sc ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP Co*.) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING...TEEEH ,:: ; .B3 S. _ -. ° • , - .. -. S -- . .-_ . ° - SEA"STATE ENGINEERING ANALiSIS SYSTEM PAGE: STATION DICTIONAr,/INDEX FILE LIST 4 REPORT NO. 901

  3. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Data collected during the 10th (October 1976) and 31st (March-April 1978) cruises of R V Gaveshani suggest that water movements, considered typical of island-arc regions, are responsible for high levels of productivity observed in the Laccadive Sea...

  4. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  5. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  6. Sea Turtle Research Program Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The USACE Sea Turtle Research Program (STRP) was conducted to minimize the risk to sea turtle populations in channels along the southeast Atlantic region of the United States from hopper-dredging activities...

  7. Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moffett, J.W.; Vedamati, J.; Goepfert, T.J.; Pratihary, A.K.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea is a productive basin where seasonal upwelling and convective mixing result in high surface nutrient concentrations and widespread algal blooms. The factors controlling primary productivity in the Arabian Sea are of interest because...

  8. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  9. 2010 USGS Lidar: Salton Sea (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Salton Sea project encompasses a 5-kilometer buffer around the Salton Sea, California. Dewberry classified LiDAR for a project boundary that touches 623...

  10. Assessment of the Wadden Sea Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Dankers, N.; Jong, F. de

    Rapporten er baseret på material ... 8th Trilateral Governmental Wadden Sea Conference, Stade, Germany, 22 October 1997......Rapporten er baseret på material ... 8th Trilateral Governmental Wadden Sea Conference, Stade, Germany, 22 October 1997...

  11. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  12. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Bendtsen, J.; Pedersen, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice......The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...

  13. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as...

  14. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  15. Redescription of the sea anemone Bunodeopsis Pelagica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Elaine

    1976-01-01

    There are two species of sea anemone occurring on the floating sea weed Sargassum natans in the Caribbean sea: Bunodeopsis pelagica (Quoy & Gaimard) and Anemonia sargassensis Hargitt. The anemones are readily distinguished from one another by their colour and the nature of their tentacles. B.

  16. Messinian events in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Radionova, Eleanora P.; Golovina, Larisa A.; Raffi, Isabella; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Past hydrological interactions between the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are poorly resolved due to complications in establishing a high-resolution time frame for the Black Sea. We present a new greigite-based magnetostratigraphic age model for the Mio-Pliocene deposits of DSDP Hole 380/380A,

  17. Mind the gap in SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessm...

  18. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    This book addresses a timely and important theme in the debate on how to create good governance at sea in general, but specifically in the Western Indian Ocean. In a security milieu where the number of piracy attacks originating from Somalia has decreased, there is an urgent need to address...

  19. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  20. Chaetognatha of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Madhupratap, M.

    Chaetognatha of the Andaman Sea were studied during 51 and 52 cruises of R.V Gaveshani (Jan to Feb 1979) The area between southeast of Andaman island and north of Nicobar island had relatively higher density Total population of chaetognaths ranged...

  1. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  2. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...

  3. IAHR List of Sea Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.

    1997-01-01

    A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....

  4. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  5. Management of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, W. J.; Zijlstra, J. J.

    1980-03-01

    The Wadden Sea situated along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands represents one of the world's largest bar-built type of estuaries. The area is a typical sedimentation and mineralization basin, with a large influx of organic matter from the adjoining North Sea, consequently a delicate oxygen balance and a rich benthic macrofauna, poor in species, which serves as food for juveniles of some commercially important North Sea fishes and for large numbers of migrating and wintering waders and waterfowl. Past and present activities of the human society in the area include fisheries (mainly for shrimp and mussels, semi-culture), shipping, land reclamation, recreation, dredging for sand and shells, and waste discharge from industries and human communities. Until the present these activities, although sometimes conflicting, did not fundamentally affect the area and its biota (pollution excluded), but future claims, including the construction of large deep-sea harbours, drilling for natural gas and oil, large-scale land reclamation and increased industrialization etc., might gradually induce degradation. For instance, area reduction by continued land reclamation could lead to irreversible losses of specific biotopes (e. g. salt-marshes, mud-flats), which could affect the size of bird and fish populations in a much wider region. Increased pollution, which has already inflicted damage on bird and seal populations, could reduce the fauna and hence the value of the area as a natural sanctuary. In the event of a proposal for a new human activity in the area, the present standing practice in the countries concerned requires an evaluation of its safety and economic aspects and its environmental impact. However, the various plans are considered separately and there is a general need for integrated management of the area.

  6. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  7. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  8. Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00 Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40 Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74 Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75 Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.

  9. FORMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF NORTHERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Shaboyants

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern part of Caspian sea is the richest on biological efficiency. Rich with biogene elements and an organic substratum of water of Northern Caspian sea render a great influence on a variety of flora and fauna of all Caspian sea. Now researches of elements of an ecosystem of northern part of Caspian sea in the conditions of planned and conducted on a shelf of the sea and sites litoral oil-and-gas production and presence of other elements of an anthropogenous press, are extremely important.

  10. A scattering approach to sea wave diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L., E-mail: letizia.corradini@unicam.it; Garbuglia, M., E-mail: milena.garbuglia@unicam.it; Maponi, P., E-mail: pierluigi.maponi@unicam.it [University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032, Camerino (Italy); Ruggeri, M., E-mail: ru.marco@faggiolatipumps.it [Faggiolati Pumps S.p.A., Z.Ind Sforzacosta, 62100, Macerata (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    This paper intends to show a model for the diffraction of sea waves approaching an OWC device, which converts the sea waves motion into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This is a preliminary study to the optimisation of the device, in fact the computation of sea waves diffraction around the device allows the estimation of the sea waves energy which enters into the device. The computation of the diffraction phenomenon is the result of a sea waves scattering problem, solved with an integral equation method.

  11. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  12. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  13. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  14. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  15. Sea ice and iceberg dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Comeau, Darin

    2011-05-01

    A model of iceberg motion has been implemented in the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE). Individual bergs are tracked under the influence of winds, currents, sea surface tilt, Coriolis, and sea ice forcing. In turn, sea ice is affected by the presence of icebergs, primarily as obstacles that cause the sea ice to ridge on the upstream side or create open water on the downstream side of the bergs. Open water formed near icebergs due to sea ice ridging and blocking of sea ice advection increases level and ridged ice downstream of the bergs through increased frazil ice formation. Resulting anomalies in sea ice area and thickness (compared with a simulation without icebergs) are transported with the sea ice flow, expanding over time. Although local changes in the sea ice distribution may be important for smaller-scale studies, these anomalies are small compared with the total volume of sea ice and their effect on climate-scale variables appears to be insignificant.

  16. Climate modulation on sea surface height in China seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Xidong; Cao, Yingzhi; Zhang, Lianxin; Shao, Caixia; Sun, Chunjian; Wu, Xinrong; Fu, Hongli; Xuan, Lili

    2015-09-01

    The climate modulation on the sea surface height (SSH) in China seas is investigated using a China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA) dataset from 1958-2008. The dataset is constructed by assimilating the temperature/salinity profiles derived from the satellite altimetry data and historical observational temperature/salinity profiles. Based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), the CORA sea surface height anomaly (SSHa) is decomposed, and the interannual and decadal variability of the first three leading modes are analyzed. On the interannual timescale, the first principal component (PC1) is significant positively correlated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). On the decadal timescale, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) has significant negative correlation with PC1 whereas Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is in phase with PC3. Analysis shows that the decadal variability of SSH is mainly modulated by the wind stress curl variability related to the NPGO and PDO. In addition, the effect of net heat flux associated to the NPGO and PDO on SSH is also investigated, with net heat flux variability in the Luzon strait and tropic Pacific found to influence the decadal variability of SSH.

  17. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    surface temperature as these satellites are equipped with an altimeter to measure sea level height as well as an along track scanning radiometer (ATSR) to measure the sea surface temperature. Consistent increase in both sea level and sea surface temperatures are found in most parts of the Atlantic Ocean...... over this period. In the Indian Ocean and particularly the Pacific Ocean the trends in both sea level and temperature are still dominated by the large changes associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation. In terms of contribution to the total global sea level change, the contribution of the central...... Pacific Ocean is as large as the contribution of the whole North Atlantic. The regional changes detected by ERS sea level and sea surface temperature observations are highly correlated with independent finding from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea level observations and the Reynolds advanced very high resolution...

  18. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition......'s attempt to "wave the Danish flag". The expedition was the first scientific expedition to have on board a separate press section communicating its scientific results as well as Danish nationality to the wider public. In this poster, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench are placed within this context...

  19. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  20. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...... for hurricane generates seas by Young (1998, 2003, and 2006), requiring maximum wind speeds, forward velocity and radius to maximum wind speed. An averaged radius to maximum sustained wind speeds, according to Hsu et al. (1998) and averaged forward speed of cyclonic storms are applied in the initial state...

  1. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D; Le, Hai N; Stachurski, Zbigniew H

    2012-01-01

    The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  2. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  3. Survival on Land and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-01-01

    flower, leaf steams, and young leaves may be eaten cooked as greens provided you cook them in several changes of water to remove the bitter taste and...and become a weed almost throughout the tropics. Its bladdery pods contain a single retl tomato-like fruit that is edible. Raspberries, blackberries ...plant that 108 SURVIVAL OK LAND AND SEA is about one foot In height and has blue flowers and inflated leaf stems. The young leaves, leafy stalks

  4. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Mato Hacmanjek; Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Emin Teskeredžić

    1996-01-01

    Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection). Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater ph...

  5. Growing halophytes floating at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Radulovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733 days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5 mm yr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0 kg m−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

  6. Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Fadel

    At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

  7. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  8. Zooplankton in Arabian Sea, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadoss Kalaiarasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of zooplankton in marine environment has direct influence on fishery resources and it is influenced by environmental parameters such as circulatory movements (eddies and vertical turbulent mixing. The important role of plankton including both microzooplankton and macrozooplankton in supporting life in the sea was recognized in the past, but the study related to ecology of these organisms has still recently formed as intractable aspect in marine ecosystem. Life in the sea has been broadly classified into three groups, viz., the plankton, the nekton and the benthos. The majority of the faunal assemblages of the plankton consists of zooplankton. Among the various levels of production in the sea the secondary production, i.e., production of zooplankton, attains significance as it serves as a link between primary production and tertiary production. The zooplankton chiefly consumes the primary producers and forms the major food source for tertiary producers. Zooplankton plays an important role in coral reef ecosystem. They serve as food for corals, and a variety of other invertebrates and reef fishes. From the fishery point of view, zooplankton forms food of/ from important batfishes belonging to the families Clupeidae, Caesionidae and Apogonidae. Some fishes are exclusively zooplankton feeders and therefore their abundance is directly linked to the presence of zooplankton.

  9. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  10. On optical and physical properties of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Uusikivi, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice has been recognized as one of the key elements of polar and sub-polar seas, including Baltic Sea. The existence of sea ice cover and its properties have influence to many aspects of marine biology, climate and seafaring. This thesis is concentrated on describing physical and optical properties of landfast ice, and also pack ice, in the Baltic Sea. The aim of the thesis is to use measurements to study the interactions between optical and physical properties of sea ice and how these can...

  11. Analysis of Principal Components of the Sea Ice Concentration Fields in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Mikhailova; A.V. Yurovsky

    2017-01-01

    The processes of interaction within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system which influence a multiyear ice cover dynamics in the Barents Sea are investigated. Being analyzed, the principal components of the sea ice concentration fields in the Barents Sea make it possible to distinguish three modes of inter-annual variability of the sea ice concentration. It is shown that the first mode describes 65.4 % of the sea ice concentration total variance and its multiyear trend. The second mode (10.8 %) ...

  12. A checklist of the deep sea fishes of the Levant Sea, Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Menachem; Galil, Bella S

    2015-08-04

    We list sixty five fish species collected at depths greater than 500 m in the Levant Basin, including 10 depth records. The Levantine bathyal ichthyofauna is characterized by its eurybathy, with an upper bathymetric boundary that permitted penetration of the shallow Gibraltar and Siculo-Tunisian sills, and a much lower bathymetric boundary than recorded for conspecifics elsewhere. The opportunistic and resilient ichthyofauna re-colonized recently the deep-sea following the last anoxic event (~ 6 kyr), forming assemblages notably distinct from those in the western Mediterranean. The exploration and production of deep seabed hydrocarbons have raised the specter of severe direct impacts to the deep habitats. There is an urgent need for documenting the full extent of deep-sea biodiversity, and for providing information for the development of competent and pragmatic management plans and effective conservation policies.

  13. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  14. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Krumpen, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  15. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  16. Skillful prediction of Barents Sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Eldevik, Tor; Årthun, Marius; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2015-07-01

    A main concern of present climate change is the Arctic sea ice cover. In wintertime, its observed variability is largely carried by the Barents Sea. Here we propose and evaluate a simple quantitative and prognostic framework based on first principles and rooted in observations to predict the annual mean Barents Sea ice cover, which variance is carried by the winter ice (96%). By using observed ocean heat transport and sea ice area, the proposed framework appears skillful and explains 50% of the observed sea ice variance up to 2 years in advance. The qualitative prediction of increase versus decrease in ice cover is correct 88% of the time. Model imperfections can largely be diagnosed from simultaneous meridional winds. The framework and skill are supported by a 60 year simulation from a regional ice-ocean model. We particularly predict that the winter sea ice cover for 2016 will be slightly less than 2015.

  17. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  18. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  19. Retrieval of chlorphyll from the sea-leaving radiance in the Arbaian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Jadhav, N.

    Error estimates in chlorophyll retrieval in the sea from satellite data have always been higher compared to the errors in retrieval of sea surface temperature or wind speed from satellite data. This is due to the higher percentage of noise...

  20. Arctic Sea Ice Concentration and Extent from Danish Meteorological Institute Sea Ice Charts, 1901-1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides estimates of Arctic sea ice extent and concentration from 1901 to 1956 created from a collection of historic, hand-drawn sea ice charts from...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  2. Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia): e0119393

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marzia Bo; Giorgio Bavestrello; Michela Angiolillo; Lucio Calcagnile; Simonepietro Canese; Rita Cannas; Alessandro Cau; Marisa D'Elia; Filippo D'Oriano; Maria Cristina Follesa; Gianluca Quarta; Angelo Cau

    2015-01-01

      Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities...

  3. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  4. Analysis of Principal Components of the Sea Ice Concentration Fields in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Mikhailova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The processes of interaction within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system which influence a multiyear ice cover dynamics in the Barents Sea are investigated. Being analyzed, the principal components of the sea ice concentration fields in the Barents Sea make it possible to distinguish three modes of inter-annual variability of the sea ice concentration. It is shown that the first mode describes 65.4 % of the sea ice concentration total variance and its multiyear trend. The second mode (10.8 % is related to the variations of the heat inflow due to the sea currents governed by the atmospheric circulation. The third one (7.8 % is associated with variability of the total turbulent heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere at the boundary of the ice edge in the northern Barents Sea.

  5. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  6. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  7. Northern Sea Route and Icebreaking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Bering: Coming to grips with a circumpolar giant. Northern Perspectives, July-August, 16(4): 4-5. Armstrong, T. (1988b) Soviet proposals for the Arctic: A... geopolitics of the Northern Sea Route. Interna- tional Challenges, 12(1): 21-25. Ostreng, W. and A. Jorgensen-Dahl (1991) The Northern Sea Route pro- ject...ronment in the context of circumpolar cooperation. In Proceedings from the Northern Sea Route Expert Meeting, 13-14 October, 1992, Tromso, Norway (H

  8. Navigation Issues in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Ziru

    2005-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the most important sea lanes with numerous competing sovereignty disputes. The freedom of navigation in this region is critical to all major trading States in the world. After an introduction to the navigational regimes of UNCLOS, this article describes the whole navigation situation in this region, by separately introducing the navigation issues in the territorial sea, straits, archipelagic waters and the Spratly area. Meanwhile, since the legal status of the ma...

  9. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  10. Sustainable Development and High Seas Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Spijkers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the concept of sustainable development in the legal regime governing the exploitation of the natural resources of the oceans, particularly fisheries on the high seas. General documents on sustainable development and legal instruments on high seas fisheries are analyzed in order to see in which way they refer to each other and whether they provide a sufficiently comprehensive framework to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries in the high seas.

  11. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  12. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  13. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Danovaro; Joan Batista Company; Cinzia Corinaldesi; Gianfranco D'Onghia; Bella Galil; Cristina Gambi; Gooday, Andrew J.; Nikolaos Lampadariou; Gian Marco Luna; Caterina Morigi; Karine Olu; Paraskevi Polymenakou; Eva Ramirez-Llodra; Anna Sabbatini; Francesc Sardà

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to mo...

  14. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    key regional processes in southern Beaufort Sea affecting MY ice recruitment 3) Improved predictability of the future states of the Arctic ice pack ...will improve understanding of the fate of multiyear sea ice in an increasingly seasonal ice pack and lead to reduced uncertainty in sea ice forecasting...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort

  15. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Schuit, M.; Put, van der, EJE; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van, MW Michiel

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The STCB undertakes research in order to monitor the nesting activity of the two sea turtles species which nest on Bonaire: the hawksbill turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) and the loggerhead turtle ( Car...

  16. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  17. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  18. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  19. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    and a sea breeze during the day. At Ceuta and Tarifa near the Strait clima - tological data do not show a strong land-sea breeze, N but sea breezes occur...China- 196). (Uhiers )ceano.raphiques 22(4):343-351. tology 9(3):123-174, Drexel Institute of Technology. Anon .,nous (1982). Guia Resumida del Clima ...rever- Presentation d’observat ions. C’ahiers Oceanograph- sal of currents. In The Mediterranean Sea.- A Sediment iques 17(1):15-32. Laborator ’Y, Dowden

  20. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  1. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  2. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  3. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The

  4. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  5. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in

  6. Biogeochemical Coupling between Ocean and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Jeffery, N.; Maltrud, M. E.; Elliott, S.; Wolfe, J.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in ocean and sea ice are tightly coupled at high latitudes. Ongoing changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice domain likely influence the coupled system, not only through physical fields but also biogeochemical properties. Investigating the system and its changes requires representation of ocean and sea ice biogeochemical cycles, as well as their coupling in Earth System Models. Our work is based on ACME-HiLAT, a new offshoot of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), including a comprehensive representation of marine ecosystems in the form of the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling Module (BEC). A full vertical column sea ice biogeochemical module has recently been incorporated into the sea ice component. We have further introduced code modifications to couple key growth-limiting nutrients (N, Si, Fe), dissolved and particulate organic matter, and phytoplankton classes that are important in polar regions between ocean and sea ice. The coupling of ocean and sea ice biology-chemistry will enable representation of key processes such as the release of important climate active constituents or seeding algae from melting sea ice into surface waters. Sensitivity tests suggest sea ice and ocean biogeochemical coupling influences phytoplankton competition, biological production, and the CO2 flux. Sea ice algal seeding plays an important role in determining phytoplankton composition of Arctic early spring blooms, since different groups show various responses to the seeding biomass. Iron coupling leads to increased phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean, which also affects carbon uptake via the biological pump. The coupling of macronutrients and organic matter may have weaker influences on the marine ecosystem. Our developments will allow climate scientists to investigate the fully coupled responses of the sea ice-ocean BGC system to physical changes in polar climate.

  7. SeaWiFs satellite data analysis of Black Sea water discharge pattern into the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, L

    2002-01-01

    Satellite data from the SeaWiFS sensor has been used to determine chlorophyll-a contents in the North Aegean Sea using SEADAS 3.3 software. The data is used to extract knowledge on water movements/flow phenomena using chlorophyll as a "tracer" but will also indicate water quality. More than 100 SeaWiFS scenes from 1998 up to 2001 have been analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic phenomena, mainly the transport and spreading pattern of Black Sea Water in the North Aegean Sea but also concerning the water quality and its seasonal and yearly variation at the mouth region of the Dardanelles. Some comparison with earlier studies using NOAA AVHRR thermal data and historical CZCS scenes is also made.

  8. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  9. THE LAW OF THE SEA: OFFSHORE BOUNDARIES AND ZONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    certain aspects of the law of the sea. Among the topics covered in this book are fisheries resources in offshore waters, mining in the sea, the law and new technologies, and international control of high seas’ resources. (Author)

  10. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  11. Observed variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Johnson, Z.; Salgaonkar, G.; Nisha, K.; Rajan, C.K.; Rao, R.R.

    variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons V. V. Gopalakrishna, 1 Z. Johnson, 2 G. Salgaonkar, 1 K. Nisha, 1 C. K. Rajan, 2 and R. R. Rao 3 Received 19 April 2005; revised 3 August 2005; accepted.... Rajan, and R. R. Rao (2005), Observed variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18605, doi:10.1029/2005GL023280. 1. Introduction [2] In the Lakshadweep Sea (LS: 8...

  12. Albedo of the ice-covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.I.; King, J C; T. A. Lachlan-Cope; Ladkin, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albed...

  13. Sea salt concentrations across the European continent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.M.; Schaap, M.; Querol, X.; Albert, M.F.M.A.; Vercauteren, J.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oceans are a major source for particles that play an important role in many atmospheric processes. In Europe sea salt may contribute significantly to particulate matter concentrations. We have compiled sodium concentration data as a tracer for sea salt for 89 sites in Europe to provide more

  14. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  15. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  16. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  17. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current and poten...

  18. More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tian

    2005-01-01

    "Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from…

  19. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  20. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  1. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal...

  2. Sea level adaptation decisions under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorarinsdottir, T.L.; Guttorp, P.; Drews, M.; Kaspersen, P.S.; Bruin, de K.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise has serious consequences for harbor infrastructure, storm drains and sewer systems, and many other issues. Adapting to sea level rise requires comparing different possible adaptation strategies, comparing the cost of different actions (including no action), and assessing where and at

  3. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  4. Sea Level Rise and Decadal Variations in the Ligurian Sea Inferred from the Medimaremetre Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Coulomb, A.; Vallee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of sea level rise over the last centuries are mostly based on the rare historical sea level records from tide gauge stations usually designed for navigational purposes. In this study, we examine the quality of sea level measurements performed by a mean sea level gauge operated in Nice from 1887 to 1909 and transferred to the nearby town of Villefranche-sur-Mer in 1913 where it stayed in operation untill 1974. The mean sea level gauges, called medimaremetres, were invented for geodetic studies and installed in many French ports since the end of the XIX century. By construction, the medimaremetre was connected to the sea through a porous porcelain crucible in order to filter out the tides and higher frequency sea level oscillations. Ucontrolled properties of the crucible and some systematic errors made the medimaremetre data to be ignored in the current sea level researches. We demonstrate that the Nice-Villefranche medimaremetre measurements are coherent with two available historical tide gauge records from Marseille and Genova and a new century-scale sea level series can be build up by combining the medimaremetre data with the those recorded by a tide gauge operating in Nice since the 1980s. We analyse the low frequency variabilities in Marseille, Nice-Villefranche and Genova and get new insights on the decadal sea level variations in the Ligurian Sea since the end of the XIX century.

  5. Arctic Sea ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Bogren, E. J.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    The decline in extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice is an active area of scientific effort with significant implications for ecosystems and communities. Forecasting sea ice extent for seasonal timescales, which is of particular interest to many stakeholders, is challenging due to variable weather and ocean behavior over that timescale as well as the current limits to data and modeling capabilities. The Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN) is developing a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to advance research on sea ice prediction and to communicate sea ice knowledge and tools. The project objectives are to coordinate and evaluate predictions; integrate, assess, and guide observations; synthesize predictions and observations; and disseminate predictions and engage key stakeholders. These objectives are advanced with projects such as the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO), efforts of the SIPN Action Teams, and a series SIPN webinars on topics relevant to the sea ice research community.

  6. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  7. Climate change, sea ice, and RADARSAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.G. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1998-12-31

    The role of sea ice in climate variability and change was discussed. It was suggested that since oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns are driven by polar processes, sea ice is a good potential indicator of the impacts of climate variability and change. Sensors such as RADARSAT are ideal for direct measurement and monitoring of the effects of climate change in polar regions. This presentation described the nature of the surface energy balance over sea ice and described how energy fluxes affect both the geophysical and electrical properties of sea ice over the annual cycle of growth and decay. The concept of the time series evolution in the average relative scattering coefficient as a means of directly measuring the thermodynamic state of the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system was introduced. Work recently completed in the North Water Polynya study, the Collaborative Interdisciplinary Cryosphere Experiment (C-ICE), and the Surface Heat and Energy Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) was also described.

  8. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure...... general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors...... identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were...

  9. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  10. Do Indicators Influence Communication in SEA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    , the results suggest that indicators are used mainly in internal communication although a change of approach, with more external communication and stakeholder engagement, is taking place as a consequence of working with indicators in the SEA. However, the external communication mainly involves the experts......Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication...... between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey...

  11. Quantifying the impact of basin dynamics on the regional sea level rise in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubryakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry measurements show that the magnitude of the Black Sea sea level trends is spatially uneven. While the basin-mean sea level rise from 1993 to 2014 was about 3.15 mm yr−1, the local rates of sea level rise varied from 1.5–2.5 mm yr−1 in the central part to 3.5–3.8 mm yr−1 at the basin periphery and over the northwestern shelf and to 5 mm yr−1 in the southeastern part of the sea. We show that the observed spatial differences in the dynamic sea level (anomaly relative to the basin-mean are caused by changes in the large- and mesoscale dynamics of the Black Sea. First, a long-term intensification of the cyclonic wind curl over the Black Sea, observed in 1993–2014, strengthened divergence in the center of the basin and led to the rise of the sea level in coastal and shelf areas and a lowering in the basin's interior. Second, an extension of the Batumi anticyclone to the west resulted in  ∼  1.2 mm yr−1 higher rates of sea level rise in the southeastern part of the sea. Further, we demonstrate that the large-scale dynamic sea level variability in the Black Sea can be successfully reconstructed using the wind curl obtained from an atmospheric reanalysis. This allows for the correction of historical tide gauge records for dynamic effects in order to derive more accurate estimates of the basin-mean sea level change in the past, prior to the satellite altimetry era.

  12. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  13. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  14. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  15. Antibacterial and anti-PAF activity of lipid extracts from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Andriotis, Michalis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2008-11-15

    The anti-PAF and the antibacterial activities of lipid extracts obtained from cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were evaluated. Total lipids of sea bass and gilthead sea bream exerted PAF-like activity while, in higher amounts they inhibited this PAF activity. Neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream contained only PAF antagonists while the polar lipid fractions contained both PAF antagonists and agonists. Total lipids of sea bass exhibited stronger PAF-like activity than did those of gilthead sea bream; however, neutral lipids of sea bass contained stronger PAF antagonists than did gilthead sea bream. Total lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream exhibited antibacterial activity only towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with those of sea bass being more potent. Subsequently, neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and less so towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), while only neutral lipids of sea bass showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcusfaecalis (E. faecalis). Sea bass neutral lipids were more active against S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activity towards E. coli was similar. Polar lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream showed antibacterial activity against all bacteria strains. Sea bass polar lipids were more active towards S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activities against E. faecalis and E. coli were the same. The detected antibacterial activities of the lipid extracts isolated from sea bass and gilthead sea bream were observed in amounts equal to those that exerted either PAF inhibition or PAF-like activity, suggesting that PAF antagonists and agonists of fish lipids may be responsible for the antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geomagnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, K.; Putman, N.; Lohmann, C.

    2011-12-01

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Newly hatched turtles (hatchlings) begin the migration with a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries. In laboratory experiments, young turtles that had never before been in the ocean were exposed to fields like those that exist at various, widely separated locations along their transoceanic migratory route. Turtles responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help them remain within the North Atlantic gyre currents and advance along the migratory pathway. The results demonstrate that turtles can derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, and provide strong evidence that hatchling loggerheads inherit a remarkably elaborate set of responses that function in guiding them along their open-sea migratory route. For young sea turtles, couplings of oriented swimming to regional magnetic fields appear to provide the fundamental building blocks from which natural selection can sculpt a sequence of responses capable of guiding first-time ocean migrants along complex migratory routes. The results imply that hatchlings from different populations in different parts of the world are likely to have magnetic navigational responses uniquely suited for the migratory routes that each group follows. Thus, from a conservation perspective, turtles from different populations are not interchangeable. From an evolutionary perspective, the responses are not incompatible with either secular variation or magnetic polarity reversals. As Earth's field gradually changes, strong selective pressure presumably acts to maintain an approximate match between the responses of hatchlings and the fields that exist at critical points along

  17. Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

  18. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere

  19. Investigation of sea level trends and the effect of the north atlantic oscillation (NAO) on the black sea and the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgenc Aksoy, Aysegul

    2017-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has significant effects on sea levels, weather, and climate. In this study, the sea level trends and the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation Indices (NAOI) on annual mean sea level data were assessed for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The trends of sea level and NAOI were determined using Mann-Kendall dimensionless z statistics. Generally, upward sea level trends were detected for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In the Black Sea, significant and continuous upward trends were detected after the year 1950. Weaker trends were detected for the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Sea level trends were correlated with trends in NAO indices; negative correlations were detected for the Black Sea, whereas positive correlations were found for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Paired t tests were performed to determine the turning points for all sea level data sets. The value of t was positive for all data sets, which means that the mean value of the data set before the turning point was smaller than the mean value of the data set after the turning point.

  20. Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, K.; Emunah, M.; Hatfield, J.; Kiyasu, J.; Packard, E.; Ching, L.; Zhao, K.; Sanderson, L.; Turmon, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 2000, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of this student-run project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Each fall student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects and, using randomly determined points, within two permanent 200 m2 areas, in fall, winter, and late spring. Using data from the previous years, we will compare population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species, including Tegula funebralis, three separate Anthopluera sea anemone species, and two rockweed species. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature, pH and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the Duxbury Reef ecosystem, in particular, the high and mid-intertidal zones experiencing the greatest amount of human impacts.

  1. Mitochondria during sea urchin oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Maria; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Morici, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Anna Maria

    2017-04-01

    Sea urchin represents an ideal model for studies on fertilization and early development, but the achievement of egg competence and mitochondrial behaviour during oogenesis remain to be enlightened. Oocytes of echinoid, such as sea urchin, unlike other echinoderms and other systems, complete meiotic maturation before fertilization. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, contain a multi-copy of the maternally inherited genome, and are involved directly at several levels in the reproductive processes, as their functional status influences the quality of oocytes and contributes to fertilization and embryogenesis. In the present paper, we report our latest data on mitochondrial distribution, content and activity during Paracentrotus lividus oogenesis. The analyses were carried out using confocal microscopy, in vivo incubating oocytes at different maturation stages with specific probes for mitochondria and mtDNA, and by immunodetection of Hsp56, a well known mitochondrial marker. Results show a parallel rise of mitochondrial mass and activity, and, especially in the larger oocytes, close to germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown, a considerable increase in organelle activity around the GV, undoubtedly for an energetic aim. In the mature eggs, mitochondrial activity decreases, in agreement with their basal metabolism. Further and significant information was achieved by studying the mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp56 and mtDNA. Results show a high increase of both Hsp56 and mtDNA. Taken together these results demonstrate that during oogenesis a parallel rise of different mitochondrial parameters, such as mass, activity, Hsp56 and mtDNA occurs, highlighting important tools in the establishment of developmental competence.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  3. Climate variability, extremes and trends of total sea level variations of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Herrford, Josefine; Höflich, Katharina; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The total sea level change of the Baltic Sea is a combination of wind-driven large volume changes (LVCs), local sea level variations (water level raised by wind and seiche) and wind waves including the sea level change by climatic-driven water density changes and the global sea level rise. The ocean surface velocity is a combination of Ekman surface flow, baroclinic and barotropic flow components and Stokes drift. The first two components can be calculated by standard hydrodynamic 3-dimensional ocean circulation models. But the calculation of the Stokes drift needs an additional approach. The Stokes velocity is a function of the significant wave height and period. It is important for the generation of Langmuir circulation which in turn contributes to the vertical mixing near the ocean surface and to the wind-driven surface transport. We used the Kiel Baltic Sea ice-ocean model (BSIOM) coupled with a simple fully integrated wave model to determine total sea level changes of the entire Baltic Sea for the period 1979-2016. BSIOM has been forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1979-2016). The coupled model system allows the calculation of the total sea level change on a 2.5 km model grid of the entire Baltic Sea as a combination of large volume changes (LVCs), local sea level variations and wind waves including the sea level rise due to climatic-driven water density changes. Thus, combining sea level changes of different time and space scales. Different areas of the Baltic Sea show different trends in significant wave heights over different seasons. During winter, an increase of significant wave height is mainly associated with the retreat of the sea ice cover. There is also an increase of significant wave height of about 5 cm/decade in the eastern Gotland basin during winter. In summer and autumn we found negative trends strongest in the south-western Baltic Sea. Extreme total sea level variations occur if LVCs coincide with local sea level variations and wind waves.

  4. The Adriatic Sea: A Long-Standing Laboratory for Sea Level Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Pasarić, Mira; Orlić, Mirko

    2017-10-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of Adriatic Sea level research covered by the literature. It discusses changes occurring over millennial timescales and documented by a variety of natural and man-made proxies and post-glacial rebound models; mean sea level changes occurring over centennial to annual timescales and measured by modern instruments; and daily and higher-frequency changes (with periods ranging from minutes to a day) that are contributing to sea level extremes and are relevant for present-day flooding of coastal areas. Special tribute is paid to the historic sea level studies that shaped modern sea level research in the Adriatic, followed by a discussion of existing in situ and remote sensing observing systems operating in the Adriatic area, operational forecasting systems for Adriatic storm surges, as well as warning systems for tsunamis and meteotsunamis. Projections and predictions of sea level and related hazards are also included in the review. Based on this review, open issues and research gaps in the Adriatic Sea level studies are identified, as well as the additional research efforts needed to fill the gaps. The Adriatic Sea, thus, remains a laboratory for coastal sea level studies for semi-enclosed, coastal and marginal seas in the world ocean.

  5. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  6. Stress and deformation characteristics of sea ice in a high resolution numerical sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is due to the applied wind and ocean currents. The deformations of sea ice over ocean basin length scales have observable patterns; cracks and leads in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover. Here we investigate the link between observable deformation characteristics and the underlying internal sea ice stresses and force balance using the Los Alamos numerical sea ice climate model. In order to mimic laboratory experiments on the deformation of small cubes of sea ice we have developed an idealised square domain that tests the model response at spatial resolutions of up to 500m. We use the Elastic Anisotropic Plastic and Elastic Viscous Plastic rheologies, comparing their stability over varying resolutions and time scales. Sea ice within the domain is forced by idealised winds in order to compare the confinement of wind stresses and internal sea ice stresses. We document the characteristic deformation patterns of convergent, divergent and rotating stress states.

  7. Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

    2013-04-01

    An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

  8. STUDY OF SEA LEVEL RISE USING SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN THE SEA OF DUMAI, RIAU, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming has impacted the entire world. It has caused ice melting at the poles, climate extreme event, land subsidence which further affected sea level to rise, such as particularly, in Dumai coastal areas. To date, sea level rise is one of the important global issues. This increases the vulnerability effect in coastal areas which threatens human life, especially those living in coastal regions. Sea level rise can be forecasted by satellite imagery like ENVISAT, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2. This paper presents an approach to quantify the sea-level variations and sea level trend based on a combination of multi-mission satellite altimetry data over a period of 21 years (1993-2014. Monitoring of sea level rise was conducted by taking data from 6 stations. SLA was calculated using a typical moving average to reduce fluctuation. Sea level rise was calculated using a linear regression. Positive sea-level linear trends for the analysis period were estimated for sea level rise. The results showed that the range sea level rise reaching 4.80 mm/year to 5.61 mm/year has occured in Dumai. Dumai is predicted to have an additional sea level of 0.17-0.20 m by the year 2050, 0.41-0.48 m by the year 2100 and 0.65-0.76 m by the year 2150. The sea level rise trends in the North West part Dumai were higher than the other stations and down to South East. Based on the predicted results, Dumai should prepare plans to mitigate the rising of sea levels.

  9. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  10. Hölder Scales of Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sea level is essential in the field of geosciences, ranging from ocean dynamics to climates. The fractal properties of sea level, such as long-range dependence (LRD or long memory, 1/f noise behavior, and self-similarity (SS, are known. However, the description of its multiscale behavior as well as local roughness with the Hölder exponent h(t from a view of multifractional Brownian motion (mBm is rarely reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this research, we will exhibit that there is the multiscale property of sea level based on h(ts of sea level data recorded by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The contributions of this paper are twofold as follows. (i Hölder exponent of sea level may not change with time considerably at small time scale, for example, daily time scale, but it varies significantly at large time scale, such as at monthly time scale. (ii The dispersion of the Hölder exponents of sea level may be different at different stations. This implies that the Hölder roughness of sea level may be spatial dependent.

  11. Surge hindcast in the East China sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B. H.

    Two typhoon surges generated during July-August 1978 are investigated numerically with the use of a vertically-integrated finite-difference model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The hindcast scheme involves processing pressure data from weather charts to provide the necessary meteorological forcing to a sea model that computes the response in terms of water levels and currents. Computed residuals are compared with hourly records from selected tide gauges (Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Jeju and Yeosu) along the coast of Korea. Some of the preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  12. Sea level changes along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ALPAR

    2000-06-01

    On the average, there is a pronounced sea-level difference (55 cm along the Turkish Straits System. However, the slope is nonlinear, being much steeper in the Strait of Istanbul. This barotrophic pressure difference is one of the most important factors causing the two-layer flow through the system. The topography and hydrodynamics of the straits, the dominant wind systems and their seasonal variations make this flow more complicated. For secular sea level changes, a rise of 3.2 mm/a was computed for Karsiyaka (1935-71 and a steady trend (-0.4 mm /a has been observed for annual sea levels at Antalya (1935-77. The decreasing trend (-6.9 mm/a at Samsun is contrary to the secular rising trend of the Black Sea probably because of its rather short monitoring period (1963-77.

  13. Assessment of Altimetric Range and Geophysical Corrections and Mean Sea Surface Models—Impacts on Sea Level Variability around the Indonesian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Yuli Handoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the assessment of the main range and geophysical corrections needed to derive accurate sea level time series from satellite altimetry in the Indonesia seas, the ultimate aim being the determination of sea level trend for this region. Due to its island nature, this is an area of large complexity for altimetric studies, a true laboratory for coastal altimetry. For this reason, the selection of the best corrections for sea level anomaly estimation from satellite altimetry is of particular relevance in the Indonesian seas. The same happens with the mean sea surface adopted in the sea level anomaly computation due to the large gradients of the mean sea surface in this part of the ocean. This study has been performed using altimetric data from the three reference missions, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2, extracted from the Radar Altimeter Database System. Analyses of sea level anomaly variance differences, function of distance from the coast and at altimeter crossovers were used to assess the quality of the various corrections and mean sea surface models. The selected set of corrections and mean sea surface have been used to estimate the sea level anomaly time series. The rate of sea level rise for the Indonesian seas was found to be 4.2 ± 0.2 mm/year over the 23-year period (1993–2015.

  14. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Brightness temperatures at 1.4. GHz (L-band) measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission have been used to derive the thickness of sea ice. The retrieval method is applicable only for relatively thin ice and not during the melting period. Hitherto, the availability of ground...... truth sea ice thickness measurements for validation of SMOS sea ice products was mainly limited to relatively thick ice. The situation has improved with an extensive field campaign in the Barents Sea during an anomalous ice edge retreat and subsequent freeze-up event in March 2014. A sea ice forecast...... system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...

  15. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  16. Developing advanced tools for modelling extreme sea level climate change in European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun; Murawski, Jens; Hintz, Kasper S.

    2017-04-01

    With increasing speed of global warming, sea level rise in the European coasts has become increasing threats to our social-economy and safety. "Hundred-year storm surge events" have been reported in different locations in recent years. Ocean hydrodynamic modelling is one of the major tools for reconstructing and predicting sea level changes in climate scales. Although storm surge modelling is one of the most classic applications of ocean models, there still exist changes in producing accurate sea level variability in all European Sea coasts, especially for the extreme events. This presentation addresses major challenges in pan-European storm surge modelling, presenting sea level simulation results from a two-way nested pan-European Sea (with 10 sub-domains) three-dimensional hydrodynamic model HIROMB-BOOS (HBM). The difference of using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models for storm surge prediction is also analyzed based on past years' operational experiences.

  17. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica, E-mail: j.craig@abdn.ac.u [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-21

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships among Deep-Sea and Chemosynthetic Sea Anemones: Actinoscyphiidae and Actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa. PMID:20532040

  19. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among deep-sea and chemosynthetic sea anemones: actinoscyphiidae and actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa.

  1. Knowledge-based sea ice classification by polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR images acquired at C- and L-band over sea ice in the Greenland Sea, Baltic Sea, and Beaufort Sea have been analysed with respect to their potential for ice type classification. The polarimetric data were gathered by the Danish EMISAR and the US AIRSAR which both are airborne...

  2. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  3. Sea level monitoring in Africa | Woodworth | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (ODINAfrica) programme are described and a survey of currently existing and planned sea level stations in Africa is presented, together with information on where data for existing stations may be found. Keywords: sea level data applications, sea level data telemetry, sea level networks. African Journal of Marine Science ...

  4. 75 FR 13803 - SeaCo Ltd.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ..., positioning, re-leasing or sale of ] its containers. SeaCo also states that, working in partnership with GECC... incentivizing GE SeaCo management; makes container asset purchase decisions; reviews and sets marketing and.... With respect to GE SeaCo, SeaCo has and intends to consistently report its strategy as participating...

  5. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; De Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head

  6. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L. eversa by Zhang et al. (2016). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Galgani; Judith Piontek; Anja Engel

    2016-01-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice ...

  8. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  9. Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  10. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts there is...reflection to the atmosphere, absorption in the snow and sea ice, and transmission to the ocean. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic sea ice, sunlight, albedo ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUNLIGHT, SEA ICE, AND THE ICE ALBEDO FEEDBACK IN A

  11. Sea level variability in East China Sea and its response to ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-cheng ZUO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea level variability in the East China Sea (ECS was examined based primarily on the analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry data and tide gauge data as well as numerical simulation with the Princeton ocean model (POM. It is concluded that the inter-annual sea level variation in the ECS is negatively correlated with the ENSO index, and that the impact is more apparent in the southern area than in the northern area. Both data analysis and numerical model results also show that the sea level was lower during the typical El Niño period of 1997 to 1998. El Niño also causes the decrease of the annual sea level variation range in the ECS. This phenomenon is especially evident in the southern ECS. The impacts of wind stress and ocean circulation on the sea level variation in the ECS are also discussed in this paper. It is found that the wind stress most strongly affecting the sea level was in the directions of 70º and 20º south of east, respectively, over the northern and southern areas of the ECS. The northwest wind is particularly strong when El Niño occurs, and sea water is transported southeastward, which lowers the sea level in the southern ECS. The sea level variation in the southern ECS is also significantly affected by the strengthening of the Kuroshio. During the strengthening period of the Kuroshio, the sea level in the ECS usually drops, while the sea level rises when the Kuroshio weakens.

  12. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  13. Quantification of sea ice production at coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph; Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice production and associated High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) formation in the southern Weddell Sea is an important driver for the global thermohaline ocean circulation and determines the properties of shelf water inflow that fuels ice shelf basal melting. In the southern Weddell Sea, coastal polynyas cover 1% of the area, but contribute about 10% to the total winter sea ice production. This project aims to improve estimates of the sea ice production and HSSW formation in the southern Weddell Sea coastal polynyas by a synergy of numerical simulations and remote sensing data. Sea ice-ocean simulations are performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) with a horizontal resolution close to the Rossby radius over the whole Weddell Sea to better represent eddy dynamics. In order to asses sensitivity of polynya characteristics and HSSW formation rates to the atmospheric forcing, FESOM is forced with different reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR). Mean sea ice growth for the simulated period (1979-2012) is lower and more localized along the coastline/ice shelf front in the NCEP-CFSR run. Differences may be attributed to the colder air temperatures and stronger offshore winds in ERA-Interim forcing. FESOM will be forced with output from the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) to further investigate sensitivity with respect to different atmospheric forcing. The best and most realistic ice production and HSSW formation estimates are expected to be obtained by assimilation of thin ice thickness data derived from MODIS retrievals into FESOM. This will lead to a high resolution data set of sea ice coverage and ice thickness fields that can be used as reference data set for other sea ice models and as an input for high-resolution atmospheric models.

  14. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  15. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  16. The Sea, the Future Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain Mohebbi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oceans as ‘mother of origin of life’ are a unique source that provide a various collection of natural products from sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, algae and molluscs as well as cyanobacteria and the other marine organisms. In the past few decades, a significant number of marine natural products with potent pharmacological properties have been discovered from these organisms. Here, we evaluate the history of drug discovery and theire development, from sea natural compounds, providing an outlook into the future. Material and Methods: For our aims, we collected the data for this review by searcheing pubmed (in 2014. 26.06, Marine Lit in addition to archives of ISMJ site through google. Search terms were “marine venoms to drugs” and “marine bioactive compounds” for pubmed, and a total of 69 papers were found, that 50 more related articles were selected. From Search terms of “marine bioactive compounds to drugs” and “marine bioactive compounds” in Marine Lit were obtained, 67 and 105 English-language papars, respectevily that in the end 99 articles were selected. In addition from search for “marine bioactive compounds in bpums or ISMJ” 11 related publications were selected. Results: At the present time, specific bioactive compounds such as cytarabine are accessible in market some of them are present in different phases of the clinical trials, Phase I, Phase II or Phase III , as wll as in the preclinical pipeline, or either expected to be approved soon. Many marine products are useful for cancer, chronic pains, infectious diseases, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, arthritis, inflammations, and the other therapeutic paybacks. Conclusion: The authors believe that the sea can be a promising drug discovery for patients who have disappointed and give up of land resources. History of these compounds shows that initial efforts that led to the isolation of active compounds can be the start point for the next

  17. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  18. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  19. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  20. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  1. China's Territorial Claims at Sea : The East China and South China Sea (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The sea trial of China's first aircraft carrier in August 2011 and a spate of recent incidents over disputed maritime territory in the East and South China Sea have prompted a new interest in the objectives and capacity of the People's Liberation Army Navy. This issue of Eurasian Border Review presents the first part of a special two-part feature on China's sea "frontiers." Part One of this analysis introduces China's varying interpretations of the International Law of the Sea and a case stud...

  2. Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trommer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the response of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation changes during termination II and across the last interglacial, in comparison with termination I and the Holocene. Sediment cores from the central and northern part of the Red Sea were investigated by micropaleontological and geochemical proxies. The recovery of the planktic foraminiferal fauna following high salinities during marine isotopic stage (MIS 6 took place at similar sea-level stand (~50 m below present day, and with a similar species succession, as during termination I. This indicates a consistent sensitivity of the basin oceanography and the plankton ecology to sea-level forcing. Based on planktic foraminifera, we find that increased water exchange with the Gulf of Aden especially occurred during the sea-level highstand of interglacial MIS 5e. From MIS 6 to the peak of MIS 5e, northern Red Sea sea surface temperature (SST increased from 21 °C to 25 °C, with about 3 °C of this increase taking place during termination II. Changes in planktic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the development of the Red Sea oceanography during MIS 5 was strongly determined by insolation and monsoon strength. The SW Monsoon summer circulation mode was enhanced during the termination, causing low productivity in northern central Red Sea core KL9, marked by high abundance of G. sacculifer, which – as in the Holocene – followed summer insolation. Core KL11 records the northern tip of the intruding intermediate water layer from the Gulf of Aden and its planktic foraminifera fauna shows evidence for elevated productivity during the sea-level highstand in the southern central Red Sea. By the time of MIS 5 sea-level regression, elevated organic biomarker BIT values suggest denudation of soil organic matter into the Red Sea and high abundances of G. glutinata, and high reconstructed chlorophyll-a values, indicate an intensified NE Monsoon

  3. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone surge risk to changes in sea level and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ross; Dailey, Peter; Hopsch, Susanna; Ponte, Rui; Quinn, Katherine; Hill, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Sea level is projected to continue to rise. Even small differences in sea level have significant impacts on storm surge risk to life and property. Projecting losses to property in the future as sea level rises is made difficult by several factors that result in uncertainty in the future inventory of real estate along the coast. Here the focus is directly on property loss for the current real estate inventory. In addition climate change will affect many other geophysical factors. We make a first order attempt to include the impact on storm surge risk of the interaction of rising sea surface temperatures with rising sea level. The change in expected risk is quantified for a sea level rise immediately by an amount equivalent to a conservative projection of sea level rise over twenty years. Upper and lower bounds of this projection are also evaluated. We then apply a state-of-the-science catastrophe model to quantify the change in risk of storm surge to property along the U.S.~Gulf and East Coasts. In twenty years, we estimate that U.S. expected annual losses will increase by 8% due to sea level rise alone and by 19% if tropical storm activity increases to a level similar to that of those recent years that had warmer than normal SST. There is considerable variation with location of these results reflecting the varying rates of sea-level rise and vulnerability to storm surge along the coast .

  4. Sea state estimation from an advancing ship – A comparative study using sea trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Stredulinsky, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Onboard sea state estimation is relevant for evaluation of ship operations at sea. Means to obtain the sea state at a fixed position include a traditional wave rider buoy, where motion measurements of the buoy are processed to give the (directional) wave spectrum. The analogy between a ship....... The complete distribution of wave energy is also compared, however, with poorer agreement. Finally, it is shown that the wave buoy analogy, for the studied data, provides, on average, slightly better sea state estimates than a wave radar system....

  5. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  6. Sea ice algal biomass and physiology in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Arrigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice covers approximately 5% of the ocean surface and is one of the most extensive ecosystems on the planet. The microbial communities that live in sea ice represent an important food source for numerous organisms at a time of year when phytoplankton in the water column are scarce. Here we describe the distributions and physiology of sea ice microalgae in the poorly studied Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean. Microalgal biomass was relatively high in sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, due primarily to well developed surface communities that would have been replenished with nutrients during seawater flooding of the surface as a result of heavy snow accumulation. Elevated biomass was also occasionally observed in slush, interior, and bottom ice microhabitats throughout the region. Sea ice microalgal photophysiology appeared to be controlled by the availability of both light and nutrients. Surface communities used an active xanthophyll cycle and effective pigment sunscreens to protect themselves from harmful ultraviolet and visible radiation. Acclimation to low light microhabitats in sea ice was facilitated by enhanced pigment content per cell, greater photosynthetic accessory pigments, and increased photosynthetic efficiency. Photoacclimation was especially effective in the bottom ice community, where ready access to nutrients would have allowed ice microalgae to synthesize a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus. Surprisingly, the pigment-detected prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica was an important component of surface communities (slush and surface ponds where its acclimation to high light may precondition it to seed phytoplankton blooms after the sea ice melts in spring.

  7. Climate Change and Biodiversity Effects in Turkish Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea temperature change in the Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea coasts of Turkey and its possible biodiversity effects are investigated. The surface sea water temperatures of the Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea region of Turkey for last 41 years showed increased trends in Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun, Mersin and Antalya, Marmara Sea (Istanbul and Black Sea (Samsun. On the other hand, the number of Indo-Pacific species is getting rapidly increased for the last decade that caused increased invasion of the Indo-Pacific species and significant shift of biodiversity in Turkish Seas. This settlement process is probably accelerated or facilitated by global climate change and overfishing of native species. Nowadays, the occurrence of Atlantic-Mediterranean (Lithognathus mormyrus, Serranus hepatus and Callinectes sapidus and Indo-Pacific (Stephanolepis diaspros, Lagocephalus spadiceus originated species in the Marmara and Black Seas can also be an important indicator of the process of Mediterranization of the Marmara and Black Seas.

  8. Leatherback sea turtle age and growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in scleral ossicle bones of 33 leatherback sea turtles stranded dead along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico US...

  9. Sea turtle photo-identification database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ability to correctly and consistently identify sea turtles over time was evaluated using digital imagery of the turtles dorsal and side views of their heads and...

  10. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  11. Primary productivity of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pant, A.

    Reversal of surface circulation during the monsoons, patchy nutrient distributions and high light intensity drive phytoplankton production processes in the tropical Arabian Sea. Available data are discussed in the light of these driving phenomena...

  12. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  13. Climate Prediction Center Darwin Sea Level Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  14. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  15. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  16. Census summary of southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Census summary of southern sea otter 2016" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the...

  17. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  18. Deep Sea Actinomycetes and Their Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Hong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea is a unique and extreme environment. It is a hot spot for hunting marine actinomycetes resources and secondary metabolites. The novel deep sea actinomycete species reported from 2006 to 2016 including 21 species under 13 genera with the maximum number from Microbacterium, followed by Dermacoccus, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora, and one novel species for the other 9 genera. Eight genera of actinomycetes were reported to produce secondary metabolites, among which Streptomyces is the richest producer. Most of the compounds produced by the deep sea actinomycetes presented antimicrobial and anti-cancer cell activities. Gene clusters related to biosynthesis of desotamide, heronamide, and lobophorin have been identified from the deep sea derived Streptomyces.

  19. Living coccolithophorids from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mohan, R.; Muralinath, A.S.

    Coccolithophorids collected from the euphotic zone in the Arabian Sea during the tail end of summer monsoon (Sept. 20 to Oct. 06, 1992) were studied. Nineteen species were recorded, most abundant among them were, Emiliania buxleyi, Umbellosphaera...

  20. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  1. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  2. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  3. The old man and the sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D. F. (Physics)

    2010-01-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) the origin and structure of the sea remain critical themes in the physics of the nucleon and nucleus; (2) We need to push to higher x values and E906/SeaQuest is especially well suited for this. We start this summer and run for two years; (3) The other really key measurement is improved precision in the spin carried by the sea quarks and the spin-correlations in the sea - COMPASS, RHIC, J-PARC, JLAB 12 GeV.; and (4) This is difficult and may require the next generation of polarized Drell-Yan experiments. Whatever we measure, Tony Thomas will have thought of it first and helped stimulate the experiments.

  4. Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle Activity Report 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper presents results from the 9th Annual Study (using Army Corp of Engineers funds) of nesting by the Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) along...

  5. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  6. Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G

    2008-01-01

    ...-be requirements. The objective of the SM2l-JDDSP sea based logistics architecture is to support the timely distribution of the right classes of supply in sufficient quantities to allow sustained joint combat operations...

  7. Freezing at sea: a Canadian opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollivar, D.R; Cadegan, E; Demone, E.H; Matthew, P; Nicholson, P.J; Shannon, C.P; Stirling, R.C

    This report was prepared for the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association in an effort to set out as clearly as possible the issues relating to introduction of freezing at sea technology to the Canadian...

  8. Observer and At Sea Monitor Database (OBDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Observer Database System (OBDBS) contains data collected on commercial fishing vessels by observers from 1989 - present and at-sea monitors...

  9. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  10. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  11. Physical processes in the Indian seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Das, V.K.; Antony, M.K.

    The proceedings volume comprise 38 papers covering air-sea boundary problems, open-ocean dynamics, nearshore processes, observational and analysis techniques, etc. This volume helps in taking stock of physical oceanographic activities in India...

  12. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  13. Albedo evolution of seasonal Arctic sea ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald K. Perovich; Christopher Polashenski

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo. Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases...

  14. Denitrification processes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A

    rate in the vicinity of 30 Tg Ny@u-1@@, but the extent of benthic contribution remains unknown. A decoupling of denitrification from primary production, unique to the Arabian Sea, is revealed by nitrite, Electron Transport System (ETS) activity...

  15. Oceanography: Mixed up at the sea floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew L.

    2017-11-01

    Circulation of the ocean's densest waters modulates millennial-scale shifts in climate. Contrary to conventional wisdom, a study finds that the shape of the sea floor constrains where these waters rise towards the surface. See Article p.181

  16. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  17. ISLSCP II Global Sea Ice Concentration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data set is based on the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Sea Ice...

  18. A functional biology of sea anemones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shick, J.M

    1991-01-01

    Sea anemones are among the most ancient of living metazoans. Long a paradigm of the elementary nervous system and constructional simplicity, they have been favourite experimental subjects in behavioural neurophysiology and biomechanic...

  19. Analysed foundation sea surface temperature, global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The through-cloud capabilities of microwave radiometers provide a valuable picture of global sea surface temperature (SST). To utilize this, scientists at Remote...

  20. Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Deployment and Distribution Support Platform (JDDSP) design concept developed by SM21 includes distribution support for joint sea-based forces in its design and will support many of the to...

  1. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  2. The SEA complex – the beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokudovskaya S. S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of distinctive internal membrane compartments, dynamically connected via selective transport pathways, is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. Many of the proteins required for formation and maintenance of these compartments share an evolutionary history. We have recently identified a new conserved protein complex – the SEA complex – that possesses proteins with structural characteristics similar to the membrane coating complexes such as the nuclear pore complex (NPC, the COPII vesicle coating complex and HOPS/CORVET tethering complexes. The SEA complex in yeast is dynamically associated to the vacuole. The data on the function of the SEA complex remain extremely limited. Here we will discuss a possible role of the SEA complex based on the data from genetic assays and a number of functional studies in both yeast and other eukaryotes.

  3. North Pacific High Seas Squid Jig Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated logbook program high seas squid jig fishing, and it is required to be mailed in to PIFSC after a fishing trip. Fishing occurs in the...

  4. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  5. Food components of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Ansari, Z.A.

    is inverse. The Andaman Sea is oligotrophic in nature with low primary and secondary productivity and hence the production of large quantities of detritus appears to supplement the nutritional inadequacy of these waters...

  6. Improved method for sea ice age computation based on combination of sea ice drift and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosov, Anton; Rampal, Pierre; Lavergne, Thomas; Aaboe, Signe

    2017-04-01

    Sea Ice Age is one of the components of the Sea Ice ECV as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) [WMO, 2015]. It is an important climate indicator describing the sea ice state in addition to sea ice concentration (SIC) and thickness (SIT). The amount of old/thick ice in the Arctic Ocean has been decreasing dramatically [Perovich et al. 2015]. Kwok et al. [2009] reported significant decline in the MYI share and consequent loss of thickness and therefore volume. Today, there is only one acknowledged sea ice age climate data record [Tschudi, et al. 2015], based on Maslanik et al. [2011] provided by National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) [http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0611-sea-ice-age/]. The sea ice age algorithm [Fowler et al., 2004] is using satellite-derived ice drift for Lagrangian tracking of individual ice parcels (12-km grid cells) defined by areas of sea ice concentration > 15% [Maslanik et al., 2011], i.e. sea ice extent, according to the NASA Team algorithm [Cavalieri et al., 1984]. This approach has several drawbacks. (1) Using sea ice extent instead of sea ice concentration leads to overestimation of the amount of older ice. (2) The individual ice parcels are not advected uniformly over (long) time. This leads to undersampling in areas of consistent ice divergence. (3) The end product grid cells are assigned the age of the oldest ice parcel within that cell, and the frequency distribution of the ice age is not taken into account. In addition, the base sea ice drift product (https://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0116_icemotion.gd.html) is known to exhibit greatly reduced accuracy during the summer season [Sumata et al 2014, Szanyi, 2016] as it only relies on a combination of sea ice drifter trajectories and wind-driven "free-drift" motion during summer. This results in a significant overestimate of old-ice content, incorrect shape of the old-ice pack, and lack of information about the ice age distribution within the grid cells. We

  7. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  8. Dietary Variation in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris)

    OpenAIRE

    Estes J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of this recent work have altered my view on several aspects of the foraging biology of sea otters. Whereas earlier it appeared that individuals were rather catholic foragers, it now seems that there is considerable variation among highly specialized individuals. This finding has important implications to the ecology and social behaviour of sea otters, particularly in view of the fact that food can be a major limiting resource to this species. What are the costs and benefits of fee...

  9. The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D.; Gallegos, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS) web-app was designed to automatically detect Sargassum at sea, forecast movement of the seaweed, and alert users of potential landings. Inspired to help address the economic hardships caused by large landings of Sargassum, the web app automates and enhances the manual tasks conducted by the SEAS group of Texas A&M University at Galveston. The SEAS web app is a modular, mobile-friendly tool that automates the entire workflow from data acquisition to user management. The modules include: 1) an Imagery Retrieval Module to automatically download Landsat-8 Operational Land Imagery (OLI) from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2) a Processing Module for automatic detection of Sargassum in the OLI imagery, and subsequent mapping of theses patches in the HYCOM grid, producing maps that show Sargassum clusters; 3) a Forecasting engine fed by the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) model currents and winds from weather buoys; and 4) a mobile phone optimized geospatial user interface. The user can view the last known position of Sargassum clusters, trajectory and location projections for the next 24, 72 and 168 hrs. Users can also subscribe to alerts generated for particular areas. Currently, the SEAS web app produces advisories for Texas beaches. The forecasted Sargassum landing locations are validated by reports from Texas beach managers. However, the SEAS web app was designed to easily expand to other areas, and future plans call for extending the SEAS web app to Mexico and the Caribbean islands. The SEAS web app development is led by NASA, with participation by ASRC Federal/Computer Science Corporation, and the Naval Research Laboratory, all at Stennis Space Center, and Texas A&M University at Galveston.

  10. Numerical simulation of Japan Sea effect snowfall

    OpenAIRE

    Estoque, M.A.; Ninomiya, K.

    2011-01-01

    Snowfall associated with the modification of cold air-mass outbreaks by the Sea of Japan is simulated with a simple numerical model. The model incorporates the effects of momentum, heat, and moisture fluxes across the air-sea interface as well as the effects of orography. The simulated distributions of snowfall, temperature, wind, and moisture are compared with observations and reasonable agreement is found. Numerical experiments were made in order to determine the dependence of the snowfall ...

  11. SENTINEL-1 RESULTS: SEA ICE OPERATIONAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto; Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production.......In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production....

  12. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  13. The Optical Properties of Sea Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this section we present an overview of these observations in the context of illustrating how the optical properties of sea ice are affected by...observations of re- flected radiance. The presence of any systematic topographic features, such as sastrugi , will fur- ther complicate the BRDF. the two...models. As the previous section demonstrated, there are several good radiative transfer models for sea ice that include information on the physi- cal

  14. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    the sea-ice extent minimum) is complete. These include, multi-year ice advective flux away from coastlines in winter, Bering Strait heat inflow and...anomalous sea ice extent and position of the MIZ as thermodynamic effect. Results also show a strong correlation (r = 0.8) between the Bering Strait ...melting via radiative/turbulent losses. We define dynamic loss as summer sea ice extent loss via sea ice export through Fram Strait (mainly) or sea

  15. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    Snildal, Knut

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  16. Penetrating Radiation on the Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Pacini, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, two scientists, the Austrian Victor Hess and the Italian Domenico Pacini, developed two brilliant lines of research independently, leading to the determination of the origin of atmospheric radiation. Hess measured the rate of discharge of an electroscope that flew aboard an atmospheric balloon. Because the discharge rate increased as the balloon flew at higher altitude, he concluded in 1912 that the origin could not be terrestrial. For this discovery, Hess was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1936, and his experiment became legendary. At the same time, in 1911, Pacini, a professor at the University of Bari, made a series of measurements to determine the variation in the speed of discharge of an electroscope (and thus the intensity of the radiation) while the electroscope was immersed in a box in a sea near the Naval Academy in the Bay of Livorno (the Italian Navy supported the research). Pacini discovered that the discharge of the oscilloscope was significantly slower than...

  17. The Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Fowler, C.

    2010-12-01

    Summer sea ice may persist along the northern flank of Canada and Greenland for decades longer than the rest of the Arctic, raising the possibility of a naturally formed refugium for ice-associated species. Observations and models indicate that some ice in this region forms locally, while some is transported to the area by winds and ocean currents. Depending on future changes in melt patterns and sea ice transport rates, both the central Arctic and Siberian shelf seas may be sources of ice to the region. An international system of monitoring and management of the sea ice refuge, along with the ice source regions, has the potential to maintain viable habitat for ice-associated species, including polar bears, for decades into the future. Issues to consider in developing a strategy include: + the likely duration and extent of summer sea ice in this region based on observations, models and paleoenvironmental information + the extent and characteristics of the “ice shed” contributing sea ice to the refuge, including its dynamics, physical and biological characteristics as well as potential for contamination from local or long-range sources + likely assemblages of ice-associated species and their habitats + potential stressors such as transportation, tourism, resource extraction, contamination + policy, governance, and development issues including management strategies that could maintain the viability of the refuge.

  18. The deep-sea under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Snelgrove, Paul V R

    2017-06-05

    The deep ocean encompasses 95% of the oceans' volume and is the largest and least explored biome of Earth's Biosphere. New life forms are continuously being discovered. The physiological mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to extreme conditions of the deep ocean (high pressures, from very low to very high temperatures, food shortage, lack of solar light) are still largely unknown. Some deep-sea species have very long life-spans, whereas others can tolerate toxic compounds at high concentrations; these characteristics offer an opportunity to explore the specialized biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with these responses. Widespread symbiotic relationships play fundamental roles in driving host functions, nutrition, health, and evolution. Deep-sea organisms communicate and interact through sound emissions, chemical signals and bioluminescence. Several giants of the oceans hunt exclusively at depth, and new studies reveal a tight connection between processes in the shallow water and some deep-sea species. Limited biological knowledge of the deep-sea limits our capacity to predict future response of deep-sea organisms subject to increasing human pressure and changing global environmental conditions. Molecular tools, sensor-tagged animals, in situ and laboratory experiments, and new technologies can enable unprecedented advancement of deep-sea biology, and facilitate the sustainable management of deep ocean use under global change. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  20. How reversible is sea ice loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Ridley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that increasing atmospheric CO2 results in global warming, leading to a decline in polar sea ice area. Here, the specific question of whether there is a tipping point in the sea ice cover is investigated. The global climate model HadCM3 is used to map the trajectory of sea ice area under idealised scenarios. The atmospheric CO2 is first ramped up to four times pre-industrial levels (4 × CO2, then ramped down to pre-industrial levels. We also examine the impact of stabilising climate at 4 × CO2 prior to ramping CO2 down to pre-industrial levels. Against global mean temperature, Arctic sea ice area is reversible, while the Antarctic sea ice shows some asymmetric behaviour – its rate of change slower, with falling temperatures, than its rate of change with rising temperatures. However, we show that the asymmetric behaviour is driven by hemispherical differences in temperature change between transient and stabilisation periods. We find no irreversible behaviour in the sea ice cover.

  1. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  2. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  3. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  4. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  5. Mapping of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea using KOMPSAT-5 wide swath SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for mapping sea ice because it can observe Earth's surface regardless of sun altitudes and weather conditions. Korea Multi-Purpose SATellte-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is South Korea's first satellite equipped with X-band SAR system that provides high-resolution images in various observation modes. In this study, sea ice mapping model based on Random Forest (RF), a rule-based machine learning approach, was developed for KOMPSAT-5 Enhanced Wide (EW) swath SAR data obtained from August to September 2015 in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. All SAR images were acquired in HH-polarization at incidence angle ranging from 17 to 50°. Each SAR image covers the area of 100 km × 100 km. A total of 12 texture features derived from backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were used as input variables for sea ice mapping model. The sea ice mapping model based on the RF produced sea ice map with a grid size of 125 m, with the overall accuracy of 99.2% and the kappa coefficient of 98.5% in the classification of sea ice and open water. Sea ice concentration (SIC) was computed from the RF-derived sea ice maps and compared with that from the observations of two passive microwave sensors— the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). SSMIS and AMSR2 estimates SIC using the NASA Team (NT) and Turbulence Interaction STudy (ARTIST) Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm, respectively. The SSMIS NT SIC was underestimated in marginal ice zone and compact ice zone, while they were overestimated in sea ice edge. Meanwhile, the AMSR2 ASI SIC was underestimated in compact ice zone and overestimated in other regions. This research was funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under the project titled `SaTellite remote sensing on west Antarctic ocean Research (STAR) (PE16040)'.

  6. Operationally Merged Satellite Visible/IR and Passive Microwave Sea Ice Information for Improved Sea Ice Forecasts and Ship Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    sea ice concentration, we grouped surface types into five classes: sea ice , snow on sea ice , cloud, water, and land . The land surface type is...determined by the 250 m resolution MODIS land mask data; the water surface is identified as very low albedo in the visible spectrum; ice /snow/cloud pixels are...microwave sea ice information for improved sea ice forecasts and ship routing W. Meier NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory

  7. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  8. Spatial-temporal analysis of sea level changes in China seas and neighboring oceans by merged altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Zhifeng; Lei, Hui; Sun, Jiamin; Zhu, Xingrui; Liu, Congjin

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of sea level changes is critical important for social, economic and scientific development in coastal areas. Satellite altimeter makes it possible to observe long term and large scale dynamic changes in the ocean, contiguous shelf seas and coastal zone. In this paper, 1993-2015 altimeter data of Topex/Poseidon and its follow-on missions is used to get a time serious of continuous and homogeneous sea level anomaly gridding product. The sea level rising rate is 0.39 cm/yr in China Seas and the neighboring oceans, 0.37 cm/yr in the Bo and Yellow Sea, 0.29 cm/yr in the East China Sea and 0.40 cm/yr in the South China Sea. The mean sea level and its rising rate are spatial-temporal non-homogeneous. The mean sea level shows opposite characteristics in coastal seas versus open oceans. The Bo and Yellow Sea has the most significant seasonal variability. The results are consistent with in situ data observation by the Nation Ocean Agency of China. The coefficient of variability model is introduced to describe the spatial-temporal variability. Results show that the variability in coastal seas is stronger than that in open oceans, especially the seas off the entrance area of the river, indicating that the validation of altimeter data is less reasonable in these seas.

  9. Dirac Sea and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volfson, Boris

    2013-09-01

    The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the

  10. Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

    2012-07-01

    During the 2009-2010 winter, the Bohai Sea experienced its most severe sea ice event in four decades, which caused significant economic losses, affected marine transportation and fishery, and impacted the entire marine ecosystem in the region. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite from 2002 to 2010 and surface atmosphere temperature (SAT) data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are used to study and quantify the extreme sea ice event in the 2009-2010 winter and the interannual variability of the regional sea ice properties, as well as the relationship between sea ice and the climate variability in the Bohai Sea. The mean sea ice reflectance from MODIS-Aqua visible and near-infrared wavelengths are 9.33%, 13.26%, and 12.60% in the months of December 2009, January 2010, and February 2010, respectively, compared with the monthly average sea ice reflectance values (from 2002 to 2010) of 9.35%, 11.21%, and 11.41% in the same three winter months. The sea ice monthly average coverages are ~ 5427, ~ 27,414, and ~ 21,156 km2 in these three winter months. These values are significantly higher than the averages of monthly sea ice coverage of ~ 2735, ~ 11,119, and ~ 10,287 km2 in the Bohai Sea in December, January, and February between 2002 and 2010. Most of the sea ice coverage was located in the northern Bohai Sea. Both the intra-seasonal and interannual sea ice variability in the Bohai Sea is found to be related closely to SAT. The mechanism of anomalous SAT and intense sea ice severity are also discussed and attributed to large-scale climate changes due to the variability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Siberian High (SH).

  11. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  12. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1995 Project Report and Long Term Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, N.P.; Nugteren, Van P.; Eijck, Van T.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bonaire (12°12’N, 68°77’W), Netherlands Antilles, is famous for its unspoiled coral reefs. Reefs and lush sea grass provide forage and refuge for two species of endangered sea turtle, the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) and the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ) and

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF HEIGHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL ON WATER CONDUCTING TISSUE OF SEA BUCKTHORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Umarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the anatomical description of sea buckthorn, that grows 1200 and 1600 above the sea level in Eastern Caucasus. It analyses quantitative changes of its traits - radial growth, elements of water conducting tissue and the degree of its variability.

  14. Decadal sea level variability in the East China Sea linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae-Hong; Song, Y. Tony

    2017-07-01

    In view of coastal community's need for adapting to sea level rise (SLR), understanding and predicting regional variability on decadal to longer time scales still remain a challenging issue in SLR research. Here, we have examined the low-frequency sea level signals in the East China Sea (ECS) from the 50-year hindcast of a non-Boussinesq ocean model in comparison with data sets from altimeters, tide-gauges, and steric sea level produced by in-situ profiles. It is shown that the mean sea levels in the ECS represent significant decadal fluctuations over the past 50 years, with a multi-decadal trend shift since the mid-1980s compared to the preceding 30 years. The decadal fluctuations in sea level are more closely linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) rather than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which reflects the multi-decadal trend shift. A composite analysis indicates that wind patterns associated with the NPGO is shown to control the decadal variability of the western subtropical North Pacific. A positive NPGO corresponds to cyclonic wind stress curl anomaly in the western subtropical regions that results in a higher sea level in the ECS, particularly along the continental shelf, and lower sea levels off the ECS. The reverse occurs in years of negative NPGO.

  15. Long-term variability and trends of sea level storminess and extremes in European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka

    2010-03-01

    This paper documents the variability and trends of mean storminess and extreme sea level amplitudes at selected long-term operating tide gauge stations located in the European Seas over different frequency bands, seasons and months. Six stations have been chosen for the analyses-Antalya, Ceuta, Rovinj, Newlyn, Wladyslawowo and Lerwick-which possess at least a half-centurial record of hourly or higher frequency sea level data. The data have been carefully inspected for time shifts and drifts in the record. The analyses included the extraction of sea level amplitudes (envelopes) over four frequency bands: super-diurnal frequencies (0-1 days), small-scale synoptic disturbances (1-3 days), large-scale synoptic disturbances (3-10 days) and planetary-scale disturbances (10-100 days). Interannual variability in sea level amplitudes is occasionally found to coincide with some known variability in the atmosphere. For example, the northern European stations have overall positive sea level storminess and extreme trends, which is opposite from the southern stations, confirming a northward shift in atmosphere storm tracks. Redistribution of sea level amplitudes between different seasons and different frequency bands has been observed at some stations in both variability and trends. The latter may be important for the assessment of a region's total hazard risks and vulnerability, as maximum storminess and extremes may or may not coincide with maximum mean sea level.

  16. Impact of sea breeze of the sea off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon, i.e. roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal region of India are dominated by sea breeze. Impact of daily cycle of the breeze on the sea near the coast can...

  17. SST diurnal variability in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2012-01-01

    Five years of sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from a geostationary platform are utilised to identify and characterise diurnal warming in the North and Baltic Seas. Observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation satellite...

  18. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  19. Effect of sea component dissolution on fibrous structure of islands-in-the-sea spunbond nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvari, F.; Ulcay, Y.; Pourdeyhimi, B.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the development of lightweight and more fibrous nonwoven. For this objective, nonwoven webs that contain bicomponent filaments with island-in-the-sea cross section was produced by spunbonding, which involves extruding of sea and island polymer melts through dies, cooling, and attenuating the bicomponent filaments by high velocity air streams. Nylon-6 and Polyethylene were chosen as the island and sea polymers, respectively. Bonding process was applied to web first to keep structural integrity after removing the sea polymer. The web was hydroentangled with high speed water jets prior to the dissolving process to obtain fiber entanglement. Xylene, which is one of the few chemical that can dissolve Polyethylene, was used for the dissolution of the sea component from the fibrous structure of the spunbond nonwoven. Removal of the sea polymer from spunbond nonwovens that contain bicomponent filaments with islands-in-the-sea cross section was achieved by the developed dissolution process. Weight, thickness, and area of the nonwoven samples changed after the dissolution. After removing the sea polymer, spunbond nonwoven contains only thin island fibers and also gets lighter. Lightweight and more fibrous nonwovens can be obtained with the method given in this study.

  20. High waves in Draupner seas — Part 1 : numerical simulations and characterization of the seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, E.; Turnip, P.; Kurnia, R.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme waves are studied in numerical simulations of the so-called Draupner seas that resemble the wave situation near the observation area of the Draupner wave, an iconic example of a freak, rogue wave. Recent new meteorological insights describe these seas as a substantial wind-generated wave

  1. Warming in the Nordic Seas, North Atlantic storms and thinning Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Walsh, John E.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2017-08-01

    Arctic sea ice over the last few decades has experienced a significant decline in coverage both in summer and winter. The currently warming Atlantic Water layer has a pronounced impact on sea ice in the Nordic Seas (including the Barents Sea). More open water combined with the prevailing atmospheric pattern of airflow from the southeast, and persistent North Atlantic storms such as the recent extremely strong Storm Frank in December 2015, lead to increased energy transport to the high Arctic. Each of these storms brings sizeable anomalies of heat to the high Arctic, resulting in significant warming and slowing down of sea ice growth or even melting. Our analysis indicates that the recently observed sea ice decline in the Nordic Seas during the cold season around Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land and Novaya Zemlya, and the associated heat release from open water into the atmosphere, contributed significantly to the increase in the downward longwave radiation throughout the entire Arctic. Added to other changes in the surface energy budget, this increase since the 1960s to the present is estimated to be at least 10 W m-2, which can result in thinner (up to at least 15-20 cm) Arctic ice at the end of the winter. This change in the surface budget is an important contributing factor accelerating the thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  2. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formatio...

  3. "The Mirror of the Sea": Narrative Identity, Sea Kayak Adventuring and Implications for Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Beau; Wattchow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the complex and changing nature of adventure as a form of cultural practice. Borrowing from Joseph Conrad's memoirs "The Mirror of The Sea" (1907), sea kayaking is contextualized here as a journey that takes place just as much between "landfall and departure" as it does between the paddler's ears (i.e., in…

  4. Zooplankton community structure in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study on zooplankton spatial distribution is essential for understanding food web dynamics in marine ecosystems and fishery management. Here we elucidated the composition and distribution of large mesozooplankton on the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and explored the zooplankton community structure in these water masses. Sixty vertical hauls (bottom or 200 m in deep water to surface using a ring net (diameter 0.8 m, 505-μm mesh were exploited in November 2007. The biogeographic patterns of zooplankton communities were investigated using multivariate analysis methods; copepod biodiversity was analyzed using univariate indices. Copepods and protozoans were dominate in the communities. Based on the species composition, we divided the study areas into six station groups. Significant differences in zooplankton assemblages were detected between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Species richness was higher in East China Sea groups than those in Yellow Sea, whereas taxonomic distinctness was higher in Yellow Sea than in East China Sea. There was a clear relationship between the species composition and water mass group.

  5. The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea time series measurements of sea water carbon and nutrient chemistry 1983–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olafsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ways and means of assembling and quality controling the Irminger Sea and Iceland Sea time-series biogeochemical data which are included in the CARINA data set. The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea are hydrographically different regions where measurements of sea water carbon and nutrient chemistry were started in 1983. The sampling is seasonal, four times a year. The carbon chemistry is studied with measurements of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater, pCO2, and total dissolved inorganic carbon, TCO2. The carbon chemistry data are for surface waters only until 1991 when water column sampling was initiated. Other measured parameters are salinity, dissolved oxygen and the inorganic nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Because of the CARINA criteria for secondary quality control, depth >1500 m, the IRM-TS could not be included in the routine QC and the IS-TS only in a limited way. However, with the information provided here, the quality of the data can be assessed, e.g. on the basis of the results obtained with the use of reference materials.

  6. Sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuro; Soma, Tamotsu; Gaman, Keiko; Usui, Masamichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2008-03-01

    Although rare, hand injury caused by puncture with the sea urchin spine can result in serious complications. To emphasize its clinical significance, this article describes a group of patients who sustained chronic granulomatous arthritis induced by puncture with sea urchin spine (designated sea urchin spine arthritis). Five patients who developed sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand after puncture with sea urchin spine were treated at our hospitals. All lesions involved the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (4 index fingers and 1 middle finger). Patients experienced pain, swelling, and discomfort around the site of puncture immediately after the injury. These initial symptoms subsided within a few days, and secondary symptoms including fusiform swelling, limited motion, and mild pain of the PIP joint appeared from 1 to 2 months later. Laboratory tests of inflammation and blood cell counts were negative. Plain radiographs showed soft tissue swelling and osteolysis but no visible spine. Thorough synovectomy of the PIP joint was performed, and the granulation tissue around the joint was also removed. No microorganism was identified from tissue culture or polymerase chain reaction in any of the 5 patients. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, 2 patients exhibited essentially normal active motion of the affected PIP joint, whereas the remaining 3 patients had diminished range of motion. Diagnosis of sea urchin spine arthritis can be made by history of sea urchin spine injury, a symptom-free period before the development of synovitis, and the absence of laboratory test abnormalities. Neither antibiotics nor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are effective. Undertaken early enough, thorough synovectomy might avoid complications and obtain favorable results. Therapeutic IV.

  7. Structural Uncertainty in Antarctic sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The inability of the vast majority of historical climate model simulations to reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice has motivated many studies about the quality of the observational record, the role of natural variability versus forced changes, and the possibility of missing or inadequate forcings in the models (such as freshwater discharge from thinning ice shelves or an inadequate magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion). In this presentation I will highlight another source of uncertainty that has received comparatively little attention: Structural uncertainty, that is, the systematic uncertainty in simulated sea ice trends that arises from model physics and mean-state biases. Using two large ensembles of experiments from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), I will show that the model is predisposed towards producing negative Antarctic sea ice trends during 1979-present, and that this outcome is not simply because the model's decadal variability is out-of-synch with that in nature. In the "Tropical Pacific Pacemaker" ensemble, in which observed tropical Pacific SST anomalies are prescribed, the model produces very realistic atmospheric circulation trends over the Southern Ocean, yet the sea ice trend is negative in every ensemble member. However, if the ensemble-mean trend (commonly interpreted as the forced response) is removed, some ensemble members show a sea ice increase that is very similar to the observed. While this results does confirm the important role of natural variability, it also suggests a strong bias in the forced response. I will discuss the reasons for this systematic bias and explore possible remedies. This an important problem to solve because projections of 21st -Century changes in the Antarctic climate system (including ice sheet surface mass balance changes and related changes in the sea level budget) have a strong dependence on the mean state of and changes in the Antarctic sea ice cover. This problem is not unique to

  8. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  9. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Archambault

    Full Text Available Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea, and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to

  10. From Sea to Sea: Canada's Three Oceans of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Philippe; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Fisher, Jonathan A. D.; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Garbary, David J.; Harvey, Michel; Kenchington, Ellen L.; Lesage, Véronique; Levesque, Mélanie; Lovejoy, Connie; Mackas, David L.; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Nelson, John R.; Pepin, Pierre; Piché, Laurence; Poulin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas) constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea), and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to serve as a

  11. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Philippe; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Fisher, Jonathan A D; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Garbary, David J; Harvey, Michel; Kenchington, Ellen L; Lesage, Véronique; Levesque, Mélanie; Lovejoy, Connie; Mackas, David L; McKindsey, Christopher W; Nelson, John R; Pepin, Pierre; Piché, Laurence; Poulin, Michel

    2010-08-31

    Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas) constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea), and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to serve as a

  12. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  13. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  14. Salton Sea ecosystem monitoring and assessment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case(compiler), H. L.; Boles, Jerry; Delgado, Arturo; Nguyen, Thang; Osugi, Doug; Barnum, Douglas A.; Decker, Drew; Steinberg, Steven; Steinberg, Sheila; Keene, Charles; White, Kristina; Lupo, Tom; Gen, Sheldon; Baerenklau, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The Salton Sea, California’s largest lake, provides essential habitat for several fish and wildlife species and is an important cultural and recreational resource. It has no outlet, and dissolved salts contained in the inflows concentrate in the Salton Sea through evaporation. The salinity of the Salton Sea, which is currently nearly one and a half times the salinity of ocean water, has been increasing as a result of evaporative processes and low freshwater inputs. Further reductions in inflows from water conservation, recycling, and transfers will lower the level of the Salton Sea and accelerate the rate of salinity increases, reduce the suitability of fish and wildlife habitat, and affect air quality by exposing lakebed playa that could generate dust. Legislation enacted in 2003 to implement the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) stated the Legislature’s intent for the State of California to undertake the restoration of the Salton Sea ecosystem. As required by the legislation, the California Resources Agency (now California Natural Resources Agency) produced the Salton Sea Ecosystem Restoration Study and final Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (PEIR; California Resources Agency, 2007) with the stated purpose to “develop a preferred alternative by exploring alternative ways to restore important ecological functions of the Salton Sea that have existed for about 100 years.” A decision regarding a preferred alternative currently resides with the California State Legislature (Legislature), which has yet to take action. As part of efforts to identify an ecosystem restoration program for the Salton Sea, and in anticipation of direction from the Legislature, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR), California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a team to develop a monitoring and assessment plan (MAP). This plan is the product of that effort. The

  15. Wind Wave Climate of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Alisa

    2017-04-01

    Storms in the Baltic Sea in autumn and winter are very frequent. In this research the goal is to estimate decadal and interannual changes of the wave fields for the entire Baltic Sea. The wave parameters, such as significant wave heights and periods, were simulated for the period 1979-2015 years based on NCEP/CFSR Reanalysis data fields and for the period 1948-2010 years based on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. For accuracy estimation of the model the statistical characteristics, such as correlation coefficient, bias, scatter index and RMSE were calculated. Also two computational meshes were compared: rectangular and triangulated. In this study the third generation spectral wind-wave model SWAN was used for simulations. For wind input data two types of wind reanalysis were chosen: NCEP/CFSR with 1-hour time step and NCEP/NCAR with time step of 6 hours. The final computational grid for rectangular mesh for the Baltic Sea is 0.05×0.05°. The simulated data were compared with instrumental data of the Sweden buoys and of the acoustic wave recorder fixed at the Russian oil platform. The results reveal that for the Baltic Sea it is more efficient to use rectangular mesh for the deep open area and irregular mesh near the coast. Simulations using wind data from NCEP/NCAR significantly decreases the quality of the results compared with NCEP/CFSR wind data: Bias increases in 10 times (-0.730), RMSE - in 2-3 times (0.89). The following results of numerical modeling using NCEP/NCAR the storm situations, when the significant wave height exceeded 2 meters, were identified for the 63-year period. An average of about 50 storms per year happened in the Baltic Sea in this time period. The storminess of the Baltic Sea tends to increase. The twenty-year periodicity with the increase in the 70-s and 90-s years of XX century was revealed. The average yearly significant wave height increases in the second part of the century too and differs from 2.4 to 3.3 m. Storm cyclones are connected

  16. Climate influence on deep sea populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B Company

    Full Text Available Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought.

  17. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  18. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  19. Climate influence on deep sea populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Joan B; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate

    2008-01-16

    Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought.

  20. Linking scales in sea ice mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jérôme; Dansereau, Véronique

    2017-02-13

    Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the sea ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the sea ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx. few months) correlations. The associated space and time scaling laws are the signature of the brittle character of sea ice mechanics, with deformation resulting from a multi-scale accumulation of episodic fracturing and faulting events. To translate the short-range-correlated disorder on strength into long-range-correlated mechanical fields, several key ingredients are identified: long-ranged elastic interactions, slow driving conditions, a slow viscous-like relaxation of elastic stresses and a restoring/healing mechanism. These ingredients constrained the development of a new continuum mechanics modelling framework for the sea ice cover, called Maxwell-elasto-brittle. Idealized simulations without advection demonstrate that this rheological framework reproduces the main characteristics of sea ice mechanics, including anisotropy, spatial localization and intermittency, as well as the associated scaling laws.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  2. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  3. Correlated Energy Exchange in Drifting Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice floe speed variations were monitored at the research camp North Pole 35 established on the Arctic ice pack in 2008. A three-month time series of measured speed values was used for determining changes in the kinetic energy of the drifting ice floe. The constructed energy distributions were analyzed by methods of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on the Tsallis statistics for open nonequilibrium systems, such as tectonic formations and drifting sea ice. The nonextensivity means the nonadditivity of externally induced energy changes in multicomponent systems due to dynamic interrelation of components having no structural links. The Tsallis formalism gives one an opportunity to assess the correlation between ice floe motions through a specific parameter, the so-called parameter of nonextensivity. This formalistic assessment of the actual state of drifting pack allows one to forecast some important trends in sea ice behavior, because the level of correlated dynamics determines conditions for extended mechanical perturbations in ice pack. In this work, we revealed temporal fluctuations of the parameter of nonextensivity and observed its maximum value before a large-scale sea ice fragmentation (faulting of consolidated sea ice. The correlation was not detected in fragmented sea ice where long-range interactions are weakened.

  4. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  5. Spatial sea-level reconstruction in the Baltic Sea and in the Pacific Ocean from tide gauges observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Olivieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the Delaunay interpolation, we present a newly implemented 2-D sea-level reconstruction from coastal sea-level observations to open seas, with the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the rate of sea-level change. To test the strengths and weaknesses of this method and to determine its usefulness in sea-level interpolation, we consider the case studies of the Baltic Sea and of the Pacific Ocean. In the Baltic Sea, a small basin well sampled by tide gauges, our reconstructions are successfully compared with absolute sea-level observations from altimetry during 1993-2011. The regional variability of absolute sea level observed across the Pacific Ocean, however, cannot be reproduced. We interpret this result as the effect of the uneven and sparse tide gauge data set and of the composite vertical land movements in and around the region. Useful considerations arise that can serve as a basis for developing sophisticated approaches.

  6. Albedo of the ice covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.I.; King, J C; T. A. Lachlan-Cope; Ladkin, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo, which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albedo o...

  7. Why is the North Sea West of Us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2016-01-01

    . Occurrences of sea names such as the North Sea are examined and analysed to see how they spread from an original one-language form to exist in multiple languages, and analyses them from a linguistic, geographic and nautical perspective. It is found that Seas or bodies of water in stretches of sea are named......This article focuses on the motivations behind sea-naming, by means of examples from Europe but also elsewhere. Why do certain sea names become dominant while others retract into local forms or simply die out? The article takes us back in time to the early days of map-making and, indeed, earlier...

  8. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysgaard, Soeren (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Earth Observation Science, CHR Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)), e-mail: rysgaard@natur.gl; Bendtsen, Joergen (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen O (Denmark)); Delille, Bruno (Unit' e d' Oceanographie Chimique, Interfacultary Centre for Marine Research, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)); Dieckmann, Gerhard S. (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)); Glud, Ronnie N. (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Scotland UK, Southern Danish Univ. and NordCee, Odense M (Denmark)); Kennedy, Hilary; Papadimitriou, Stathys (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom)); Mortensen, John (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)); Thomas, David N. (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom); Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)); Tison, Jean-Louis (Glaciology Unit, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, (Belgium))

    2011-11-15

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO{sub 2} and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO{sub 2} uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO{sub 2} uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake. Net CO{sub 2} uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO{sub 2}-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO{sub 2}-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO{sub 2} drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters

  9. Revealing Holobiont Structure and Function of Three Red Sea Deep-Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have long been regarded as cold-water coral; however a reevaluation of their habitat limitations has been suggested after the discovery of deep-sea coral in the Red Sea where temperatures exceed 20˚C. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals at these temperatures, the work in this PhD employed a holotranscriptomic approach, looking at coral animal host and bacterial symbiont gene expression in Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus sp. sampled from the deep Red Sea. Bacterial community composition was analyzed via amplicon-based 16S surveys and cultured bacterial strains were subjected to bioprospecting in order to gauge the pharmaceutical potential of coralassociated microbes. Coral host transcriptome data suggest that coral can employ mitochondrial hypometabolism, anaerobic glycolysis, and surface cilia to enhance mass transport rates to manage the low oxygen and highly oligotrophic Red Sea waters. In the microbial community associated with these corals, ribokinases and retron-type reverse transcriptases are abundantly expressed. In its first application to deep-sea coral associated microbial communities, 16S-based next-generation sequencing found that a single operational taxonomic unit can comprise the majority of sequence reads and that a large number of low abundance populations are present, which cannot be visualized with first generation sequencing. Bioactivity testing of selected bacterial isolates was surveyed over 100 cytological parameters with high content screening, covering several major organelles and key proteins involved in a variety of signaling cascades. Some of these cytological profiles were similar to those of several reference pharmacologically active compounds, which suggest that the bacteria isolates produce compounds with similar mechanisms of action as the reference compounds. The sum of this work offers several mechanisms by which Red Sea deep-sea corals cope with environmental

  10. Nutrient exchange fluxes between the Aegean and Black Seas through the Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TUGRUL

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data obtained in the Turkish Strait System (TSS including the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits, during 1990-2000, have permitted us to calculate seasonal and annual fluxes of water and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate exchanged between the Aegean and Black Seas through the TSS. Two-layer flow regimes in the TSS introduce the brackish waters of the Black Sea into the Aegean basin of the northeastern Mediterranean throughout the year. A counter flow in the TSS carries the salty Mediterranean water into the Black Sea via the Marmara deep basin. The annual volume influx from the Black Sea to the Marmara upper layer is nearly two-fold the salty water exported from the Marmara to the Black Sea via the Bosphorus underflow. The brackish Black Sea inflow is relatively rich in nitrate and phosphate in winter, decreasing to the lowest levels in late summer and autumn. Biologically labile nutrients of Black Sea origin are utilized in photosynthetic processes in the Marmara Sea and are partly exported to the Marmara lower layer. Eventually, the brackish Black Sea waters reach the Dardanelles Strait, with modified bio-chemical properties. On the other hand, the salty Mediterranean waters with low concentrations of nutrients enter the Marmara deep basin. During threir 6-7 year sojourn in the Marmara basin, the salty waters become enriched in nitrate (DIN and phosphate (DIP, due to oxidation of planktonic particles sinking from the Marmara surface layer. The annual nutrient inputs from the Black Sea to the Marmara basin were estimated as 8.17x108 moles of DIN and 4.25x107 moles of DIP, which are much less than the importation from the Marmara lower layer via the Bosphorus undercurrent. The salty Aegean water introduces nearly 6.13x108 moles of DIN and 2.79x107 moles of DIP into the Marmara lower layer. The estimated DIP outflux from the Aegean Sea is nearly 2 times less than the importation from the Marmara Sea via the Dardanelles

  11. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  12. Mechanisms of variability in decadal sea-level trends in the Baltic Sea over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabil, Sitar; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2017-11-01

    Coastal sea-level trends in the Baltic Sea display decadal-scale variations around a long-term centennial trend. In this study, we analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of the decadal trend variations and investigate the links between coastal sea-level trends and atmospheric forcing on a decadal timescale. For this analysis, we use monthly means of sea-level and climatic data sets. The sea-level data set is composed of long tide gauge records and gridded sea surface height (SSH) reconstructions. Climatic data sets are composed of sea-level pressure, air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and climatic variability indices. The analysis indicates that atmospheric forcing is a driving factor of decadal sea-level trends. However, its effect is geographically heterogeneous. This impact is large in the northern and eastern regions of the Baltic Sea. In the southern Baltic Sea area, the impacts of atmospheric circulation on decadal sea-level trends are smaller. To identify the influence of the large-scale factors other than the effect of atmospheric circulation in the same season on Baltic Sea sea-level trends, we filter out the direct signature of atmospheric circulation for each season separately on the Baltic Sea level through a multivariate linear regression model and analyse the residuals of this regression model. These residuals hint at a common underlying factor that coherently drives the decadal sea-level trends in the whole Baltic Sea. We found that this underlying effect is partly a consequence of decadal precipitation trends in the Baltic Sea basin in the previous season. The investigation of the relation between the AMO index and sea-level trends implies that this detected underlying factor is not connected to oceanic forcing driven from the North Atlantic region.

  13. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  14. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... is to establish a framework for prescribing cost minimising efficient scenarios of reduced nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Nutrient loads derive from both airborne and waterborne emissions. Three scenarios are presented and compared; one where the BSAP target is fulfilled by cost-minimisation, and one where...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  15. Development of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.

    1980-01-01

    Larvicides are used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to sea lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of sea lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.

  16. Decadal Evolution of Wadden Sea morphology, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Markus; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Wadden Sea features tidal channels and intertidal flats whose evolution is highly driven by hydrodynamic conditions in various time and length scales, from short single storms to long term sea level rise. Meso-scale (multi decadal) evolution of channel shoal systems in the German part of the Wadden Sea is quantified by geoprocessing of time-series of digital elevation models (DEMs). The temporal trend of channel-shoal hypsometries is analysed. Preliminary results for the Outer Weser tidal flats show a clear trend of sediment accretion. In contrast, subtidal areas tend to erode. This pattern is consistent for the whole Outer Weser estuary, which indicates an overall steepening of tidal channels. As the Outer Weser estuary is not necessarily representative for the whole German Bight coast with its diverse geomorphologic settings, the method is applied to the larger German Bight.

  17. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  18. Propranolol induces polyspermy during sea urchin fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, A; Schatten, G

    1996-03-01

    Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, is found to induce polyspermy in sea urchin eggs. Unfertilized sea urchin eggs treated for 10 min with 50 microM of propranolol, and then inseminated, become polyspermic and show a fertilization envelope which is barely visible to the light microscope. Examination of treated eggs by transmission and scanning electron microscopy shows that the drug does not alter the cortex of the unfertilized egg. However, after insemination an incomplete cortical reaction occurs. This might well account for both polyspermy and the defective elevation of the fertilization envelope. Since the effects of the drug are reversed by simultaneous treatment with adrenalin, perhaps propranolol interferes with the monoaminergic system that has been proposed to be active. The involvement of the monoaminergic system in the fertilization process is present in the sea urchin egg.

  19. Geologist at sea: aspects of ocean history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Wolfgang H

    2011-01-01

    Ocean history is largely read from deep-sea sediments, using microscopic fossils, notably foraminifers. Ice age fluctuations in the ocean's sediments provided for a new geologic understanding of climate change. The discovery of rapid decay of ice masses at the end of glacial periods was especially important, yielding rates of sea level rise reaching values of 1 to 2 m per century for millennia. Thanks to deep-ocean drilling, the overall planetary cooling trend in the Cenozoic was recognized as occurring in three large steps. The first step is at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and is marked by a great change in sedimentation patterns; the second is in the middle Miocene, associated with a major pulse in the buildup of Antarctic ice masses and the intensification of upwelling regimes; and the third is within the late Pliocene and led into the northern ice ages. Evolution in the sea is linked to these various steps.

  20. The conservation of sea otters: a prelude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Larson, Shawn E.

    2015-01-01

    The story of sea otters over the past 275 years chronicles their decline to near extinction and the roads to recovery that cross various conflicts, and in the end provides lessons that will aid the conservation of other threatened species and compromised ecosystems. Sea otters inspire strong human emotions ranging from adoration to disdain. They are protected internationally, federally, and at state and local levels, yet still face a diversity of threats, representing the legacy of their decline as well as emerging consequences from the ever-deepening imprint of the human endeavor. Here we briefly introduce the species, chronicle its history of near-demise and subsequent recovery, and highlight several conservation successes and challenges. In this volume we bring together scientists with significant knowledge of and experience with the sea otter and its ecosystems to share lessons learned and consider how these might be used to aid in the enterprise of conservation more broadly.

  1. DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initiative is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI molecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea turtles that occur in Brazil were generated. These presented widely divergent haplotypes. All observed values were on the same range as those already described for other animal groups: the overall mean distance was 8.2%, the mean distance between families (Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae 11.7%, the mean intraspecific divergence 0.34%, and the mean distance within Cheloniidae 6.4%, this being 19-fold higher than the mean divergence observed within species. We obtained species-specific COI barcode tags that can be used for identifying each of the marine turtle species studied.

  2. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean in summer, sea ice remains thin in winter only in the Barents–Kara seas. Excessive turbulent heat flux through the sea surface exposed to air due to sea ice reduction warms the atmospheric column. Warmer air increases the downward longwave radiation and subsequently surface air temperature, which facilitates sea surface remains to be free of ice. This positive feedback mechanism is not clearly observed in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, since sea ice refreezes in late fall (November before excessive turbulent heat flux is available for warming the atmospheric column in winter. A detailed seasonal heat budget is presented in order to understand specific differences between the Barents–Kara seas and Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.

  3. On producing sea ice deformation data sets from SAR-derived sea ice motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bouillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to reduce the error generated when computing sea ice deformation fields from synthetic aperture radar (SAR-derived sea ice motion. The method is based on two steps. The first step consists of using a triangulation of the positions taken from the sea ice trajectories to define a mesh on which a first estimate of sea ice deformation is computed. The second step consists of applying a specific smoother to the deformation field to reduce the artificial noise that arises along discontinuities in the sea ice motion field. This method is here applied to RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS sea ice trajectories having a temporal and spatial resolution of about 3 days and 10 km, respectively. From the comparison between unfiltered and filtered fields, we estimate that the artificial noise causes an overestimation of about 60% of opening and closing. The artificial noise also has a strong impact on the statistical distribution of the deformation and on the scaling exponents estimated with multifractal analysis. We also show that a similar noise is present in the deformation fields provided in the widely used four-point deformation RGPS data set. These findings may have serious implications for previous studies as the constant overestimation of the opening and closing could lead to a large overestimation of freezing in leads, salt rejection and sea ice ridging.

  4. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  5. [Evaluation on self-pollution of marine culture in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Bijuan; Chen, Jufa

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied the respective contribution of feeding and non-feeding marine culture on seawater and red tide occurrence. The results showed that the annual output of marine had a positive correlation with the nutrients and COD in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, of which, the correlation between DIN content and shrimp yield was significant. The output also had a positive correlation with the occurrence times of red tide recorded in the Yellow and Sea Bohai Sea. These results illustrated that the self-pollution of marine culture had a significant influence on the eutrophication and red tide occurred in the neighboring waters. It was estimated that the amounts of N, P and COD entered into seawater through the marine culture in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea accounted for 2.8%, 5.3% and 1.8% of the amounts of corresponding land-based pollutants entered to the sea, respectively. Although the discharge of the pollutants produced by marine culture was less than that produced by other human activities, some local waters, especially dense marine culture areas, would bring out some additive effects on environment. Therefore, the pollutants discharged by marine culture were very likely to be an important factor stimulating the eutrophication and red tide occurrence in coastal waters, which should be paid adequate attention.

  6. Sea level change along the Black Sea coast from satellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin B. Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea level change affects human living conditions, particularly ocean coasts. However, sea level change is still unclear along the Black Sea coast due to lack of in-situ measurements and low resolution satellite data. In this paper, sea level change along the Black Sea coast is investigated from joint satellite altimetry, tide gauge (TG and Global Positioning System (GPS observations. The linear trend and seasonal components of sea level change are estimated at 8 TG stations (Amasra, Igneada, Trabzon-II, Sinop, Sile, Poti, Tuapse, and Batumi located along the Black Sea coast, which are compared with Satellite Altimetry and GPS. At the tide gauge stations with long-term records such as Poti (about 21 years and Tuapse (about 19 years, the results obtained from the satellite altimetry and tide gauge observations show a remarkably good agreement. While some big differences are existed between Satellite Altimetry and TG at other stations, after adding vertical motion from GPS, correlation coefficients of the trend have been greatly improved from 0.37 to 0.99 at 3 co-located GPS and TG stations (Trabzon-II, Sinop and Sile.

  7. Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on sea salt aerosol production, dispersion, and fate over Europe is studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models driven by the climate scenario SRES A1B over two periods: 1990–2009 and 2040–2059. This study is focused mainly on European seas: Baltic, Black, North, and Mediterranean. The differences and similarities between the individual models' predictions of the impact on sea salt emission, concentration, and deposition due to changes in wind gusts and seawater temperature are analysed. The results show that the major driver for the sea salt flux changes will be the seawater temperature, as wind speed is projected to stay nearly the same. There are, however, substantial differences between the model predictions and their sensitivity to changing seawater temperature, which demonstrates substantial lack of current understanding of the sea salt flux predictions. Although seawater salinity changes are not evaluated in this study, sensitivity of sea salt aerosol production to salinity is similarly analysed, showing once more the differences between the different models. An assessment of the impact of sea salt aerosol on the radiative balance is presented.

  8. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  9. Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wolski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.

  10. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  11. The study of deep-sea cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Perez, Jose Angel A; Bolstad, Kathrin S R; Braid, Heather E; Evans, Aaron B; Fuchs, Dirk; Judkins, Heather; Kelly, Jesse T; Marian, José E A R; Nakajima, Ryuta; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reid, Amanda; Vecchione, Michael; Xavier, José C C

    2014-01-01

    "Deep-sea" cephalopods are here defined as cephalopods that spend a significant part of their life cycles outside the euphotic zone. In this chapter, the state of knowledge in several aspects of deep-sea cephalopod research are summarized, including information sources for these animals, diversity and general biogeography and life cycles, including reproduction. Recommendations are made for addressing some of the remaining knowledge deficiencies using a variety of traditional and more recently developed methods. The types of oceanic gear that are suitable for collecting cephalopod specimens and images are reviewed. Many groups of deep-sea cephalopods require taxonomic reviews, ideally based on both morphological and molecular characters. Museum collections play a vital role in these revisions, and novel (molecular) techniques may facilitate new use of old museum specimens. Fundamental life-cycle parameters remain unknown for many species; techniques developed for neritic species that could potentially be applied to deep-sea cephalopods are discussed. Reproductive tactics and strategies in deep-sea cephalopods are very diverse and call for comparative evolutionary and experimental studies, but even in the twenty-first century, mature individuals are still unknown for many species. New insights into diet and trophic position have begun to reveal a more diverse range of feeding strategies than the typically voracious predatory lifestyle known for many cephalopods. Regular standardized deep-sea cephalopod surveys are necessary to provide insight into temporal changes in oceanic cephalopod populations and to forecast, verify and monitor the impacts of global marine changes and human impacts on these populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  12. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  13. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  14. Primary and Secondary Aerosol Investigation from Different Sea-Waters in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'anna, B.; Marchand, N.; Sellegri, K.; Sempéré, R.; Mas, S.; George, C.; Meme, A.; Frihi, A.; Pey, J.; Schwier, A.; Delmont, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a special marine environment characterized by low biological activity and high anthropogenic pressure. It is often difficult to discriminate the contribution of Primary and Secondary Aerosol formed at the sea-air interface from background level of the aerosol. We therefore decided to study the sea-air exchanges in a controlled environment provided by a 2m3simulation chamber, using freshly collected sea-water samples from the SEMEX site (43°15'64 N, 05°20'01 E) near Marseille bay. Two types of experiments were conducted for 4 weeks testing 3 different sea-waters. Primary sea-aerosol was generated by bubble-bursting method, then introduced in the simulation chamber and exposed to atmospheric oxidants (O3, OH) and light to simulated primary aerosol aging. A second set of experiments focused on secondary particle formation upon illumination and/or ozone exposure of the sea-water surface (15l of sea-water were deposited in a pyrex container located inside the simulation chamber). New particle formation was only observed for relatively high DOC level of the sea-water sample. Particles detection and analysis was followed by a PSM (1nm size), a CPC (2.5nm size), a SMPS (granulometry), a CCN chamber for hygroscopicity studies, a TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) for chemical analysis of the sub-micrometer fraction. Off-line analysis included TEM-EDX samples for morphology and size distribution studies and a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer) for the molecular identification of the organic fraction. VOCs were measured on-line by PTR-HR-MS. The seawater samples were filtered at 60μm before use and were daily analyzed for chemical (colored dissolved organic matter, particulate matter and related polar compounds, transparent polysaccharides and nutrients concentration) and biological (chlorophyll a, virus, phytoplankton and zooplankton) analyses.

  15. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  16. International Piracy on the High Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-04

    region at a time of significant distress in the world economy. BACKGROUND WHAT IS PIRACY? The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS...U.S. payments to the BarbaiY pirates may have required nearly a quarter of total national revenues by 1800. I 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of...also authorizes the Congress to Hdefine and punfsh Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations." 3 Source

  17. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  18. Sea wave energy based in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Carlos

    2010-09-15

    Application on which it turns east document is the recovery of the energy of the sea waves turning it into electricity by means of the combination of nano-piezoelectric and condensing, the system would be seen like a compound floating fabric of million piezoelectric crystals that turn the oscillating movement of the sea into micro-electrical signals that they are added and they left by means cables to the surface where electronics devices classified to the load of condensers, from the electricity is confined and later is invested and synchronize itself with the great national mains.

  19. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip......Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy...

  20. SEA of river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change...... in their SEAs of RBMPs is weak. In this paper the connections between climate change and water are reviewed. As a result, it is suggested that climate change needs to be considered in three ways: mitigation, adaptation and baseline adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  1. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...

  2. Harry Hess and sea-floor spreading

    OpenAIRE

    Allwardt, Alan O.

    1999-01-01

    Harry Hess's hypothesis of sea-floor spreading brought together his long-standing interests in island arcs, oceanic topography, and the oceanic crust. The one unique feature of Hess's hypothesis was the origin of the oceanic crust as a hydration rind on the top of the mantle -- an idea that was not well received, even by the early converts to sea-floor spreading. Hess never changed his mind on this issue, and his stubbornness illuminates the logic of his discovery. Published and archival reco...

  3. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  4. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Like other inland seas, the Caspian Sea (CS) has been influenced by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance during recent decades, yet the scientific understanding of this water body remains poor. In this study, an eco-geographical classification of the CS based on physical information derived...... to differences in climate and geochemical factors such as distance from river, water depth and currents. A comparison of the annual and monthly mean Chl a concentrations between the different ecoregions shows significant differences (Kruskal–Wallis rank test, P

  5. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  6. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  7. Seasonal iron depletion in temperate shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchill, Antony J.; Milne, Angela; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Harris, Carolyn; Annett, Amber; Rusiecka, Dagmara; Achterberg, Eric P.; Gledhill, Martha; Ussher, Simon J.; Worsfold, Paul J.; Geibert, Walter; Lohan, Maeve C.

    2017-09-01

    Our study followed the seasonal cycling of soluble (SFe), colloidal (CFe), dissolved (DFe), total dissolvable (TDFe), labile particulate (LPFe), and total particulate (TPFe) iron in the Celtic Sea (NE Atlantic Ocean). Preferential uptake of SFe occurred during the spring bloom, preceding the removal of CFe. Uptake and export of Fe during the spring bloom, coupled with a reduction in vertical exchange, led to Fe deplete surface waters (supply from remineralized sinking organic material, and cycled independently of particulate Fe over seasonal timescales. These results demonstrate that summer Fe availability is comparable to the seasonally Fe limited Ross Sea shelf and therefore is likely low enough to affect phytoplankton growth and species composition.

  8. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  9. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mityagina; Olga Lavrova

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the mai...

  10. Holocene hydrological and sea surface temperature changes in the northern coast of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mong-Sin; Zong, Yongqiang; Mok, Ka-Man; Cheung, Ka-Ming; Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing

    2017-03-01

    In order to reconstruct the Holocene environmental history of a coastal site in the northern South China Sea, this study analysed the organic carbon isotope ratios (δ13Corg) and alkenone unsaturation ratios (UK‧37) from a 36.5 m-long sediment core drilled at seabed in the mouth region of the Pearl River estuary and generated a coupled hydrological and temperature record. This record reveals changes of monsoon-induced sediment discharge and sea surface temperature of the Holocene in four stages. In Stage I, the site was under fluvial conditions prior to postglacial marine transgression. Stage II saw an increase of sea surface temperature from c. 23.0 °C to 27.0 °C, associated with a strengthened summer monsoon from c. 10,350 to 8900 cal. years BP. This was also a period of rapid sea-level rise and marine transgression, during which the sea inundated the palaeo-incised channel, i.e. the lower part of the T-shape accommodation space created by the rising sea. In these 1500 years, fluvial discharge was strong and concentrated within the channel, and the high sedimentation rate (11.8 mm/year) was very close to the rate of sea-level rise. In the subsequent 2000 years (Stage III) sea level continued to rise and the sea flooded the broad seabed above the palaeo-incised channel, resulted in fluvial discharge spreading thinly across the wide accommodation space and a much reduced sedimentation rate (1.8 mm/year). Sea surface temperature in this stage reached 27.3 °C initially, but dropped sharply to 26.1 °C towards c. 8200 cal. years BP. The final stage covers the last 7000 years, and the site was under a stable sea level. Sedimentation in this stage varied a little, but averaged at 1.8 mm/year. Whilst fluvial discharge and sea surface temperature didn't change much, two short periods of hydrological and temperature change were observed, which are related to the climatic cooling events of c. 4200 cal. years ago and the Little Ice Age.

  11. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1996 Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Norde, D.J.; Rossum, van, E.N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles (12°12’N, 68°77’W) is an island in the Caribbean sea, situated about 50 km east of Curacao and 80 km north of the South American continent (Venezuela). Its 288 2 km of land hold about 14,000 inhabitants. Bonaire has a strongly growing population, which is mostly due to immigrants settling on the island. The surrounding waters hold much tropical sea life, which attracks a lot of dive tourism. The present reefs and sea grass beds provide a suitable habitat for juve...

  12. NORSEWIND – Mesoscale model derived Wind Atlases for the Irish Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    Offshore Wind Atlases based on the meso-scale model WRF are presented and validated in this paper. The Work has been part of the EU-funded project NORSEWIND (Northern Seas Wind Index Database). Validations show that annual average wind speeds and wind-roses at hub-height (100m) are well represent...

  13. 50 CFR 635.29 - Transfer at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tuna, blue marlin, white marlin, or swordfish at sea in the Atlantic Ocean, regardless of where the... not transfer an Atlantic tuna, blue marlin, white marlin, roundscale spearfish, or swordfish at sea in...

  14. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lluch-Cota, S.E; Tripp-Valdéz, M; Lluch-Cota, D.B; Lluch-Belda, D; Verbesselt, J; Herrera-Cervantes, H; Bautista-Romero, J

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change signals in the seas off Mexico is presented and compared to other regions and the world ocean, and to selected basin scale climatic...

  15. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNSP_LAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  16. SeaWiFS_L3b_MO_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  17. SeaWiFS_L3b_YR_LAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  18. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNSU_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  19. SeaWiFS_L3b_SCSU_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  20. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  1. Sea Basing: A 21st Century Enabling Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Cary J

    2006-01-01

    .... Sea basing meets this guidance regardless of the composition of ground forces. Furthermore, sea basing is especially effective in response to the lesser contingencies that are anticipated due to the effects of globalization...

  2. SeaWiFS_L3b_SCAU_CHL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  3. SeaWiFS_L3b_CU_POC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  4. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNSU_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  5. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  6. SeaWiFS_L3b_MO_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  7. SeaWiFS_L3b_SCSP_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  8. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNSU_CHL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  9. SeaWiFS_L3b_WC_RRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  10. SeaWiFS_L3b_DAY_CHL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  11. SeaWiFS_L3b_SCAU_LAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  12. SeaWiFS_L3b_WC_POC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  13. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNWI_RRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  14. SeaWiFS_L3b_YR_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  15. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNSP_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  16. SeaWiFS_L3b_MC_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  17. SeaWiFS_L3b_CU_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  18. SeaWiFS_L3b_WC_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  19. SeaWiFS_L3b_DAY_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...

  20. SeaWiFS_L3b_SNWI_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWiFS instrument was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation on the OrbView-2 (a.k.a. SeaStar) satellite in August 1997, and collected data from September...