Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.
Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…
Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...
Flannery, Maura C., Ed.
Presents a variety of writers who have published books that demonstrate the art of botany. The following sections are included: (1) Herbal; (2) Printed Books; (3) Flowers; (4) British Botany; (5) Printing Advances; and (6) Art and Science. Contains 23 references. (ZWH)
Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A
This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.
The South African Journal of Botany, the official journal of the South African Association of Botanists publishes papers which make an original contribution to any field of Botany. Papers are accepted on the understanding that their contents have not been published, or submitted for publication, elsewhere. All submitted ...
Lysenkoism by PAN came with the Sixth General Assembly of its members on June 11-12, 1956. The second tier of propagating Lysenkoism consisted in activities aimed at the general public, including the teaching of creative Darwinism (obligatory for pupils of various levels of education), in the school years 1949/50-1956/57. There were few botanists who published studies in Lysenkoism: only 55 persons did so. Among them, there were only a few botanists who could boast of significant previous scientific achievements--they included Stefan Białobok (1909-1992), Władysław Kunicki-Goldfinger (1916-1995), Edmund Malinowski (1885-1979), Konstanty Moldenhawer (1889-1962), Józef Motyka (1900-1984), Szczepan Pieniazek. A majority of the authors of publication in Lysenkoism were young scientists or people who did publish anything later on. Basing on the available bibliographies, it is possible to ascertain that there were ca. 140 Lysenkoist botanical publications (out of the total of 3410), i.e. 4.1% (fig. 1) of all the botanist publications in Poland in that period. Their number in the years 1949-1953 was higher than in the next period, and oscillated between 15 and 24 publications annually (fig. 2). The percentage of Lysenkoist studies among all publications in botany published each year was highest in 1949 (11.5%), and decreased systematically in the following years (fig. 3). Lysenkoism was a marginal phenomenon in Polish botany. Among the Lysenkoist publications, most summarized papers delivered at successive conferences, or consisted in reprints of Soviet studies. A significant group was made up of publications popularizing the principles and achievements of Lysenkoism (on the basis of Soviet publications). There were relatively studies presenting the results of research conducted in Poland on the basis of Lysenko's theory. Botanists who remember those times recollect that topics connected with Michurinian-Lysenkoist biology were avoided. It is symptomatic that not a single
Headrick, Daniel R.
Examines the role played by botany and chemistry in the development, exploitation, and later deterioration of tropical economies. Although near equals in 19th-century international trade, the development of synthetics by European scientists in the early 20th century crippled the tropical economies. Research, innovation, and investment protected…
The Botany of the Commelins deals with the plants pictured in the Moninckx Atlas and the four books by Jan and Caspar Commelin on the exotic plants in the Hortus Medicus of Amsterdam. Water-colours were painted of 420 plants during the years 1686-1709 by a number of artists,
In the early 18th century, at the founding of Edinburgh University Medical School, the study of botany was regarded as an essential component of medical training. Botanical teaching began as basic instruction in the recognition of medical plants, considered a vital aspect of a physician's Materia Medica studies. Over the next hundred years growing importance was given to the study of botany as a science, its popularity peaking under John Hutton Balfour's tenure as Professor (1845-1879). The relevance of botanical study later declined in the undergraduate medical curriculum until its cessation in 1961 .This paper considers the history of botanical studies in Edinburgh, including the reasons for its introduction and its changing importance over time.
This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.
Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena; Gómez Garay, Aranzazu; Ávalos García, Adolfo; Martín Calvarro, Luisa; Pintos López, Beatriz; Saco Sierra, M. Dolores; Martín Gómez, M. Soledad; Pérez Alonso, M. José; Puelles Gallo, María; Palá Paúl, Jesús; Cifuentes Cuencas, Blanca; Llamas Ramos, José Eugenio
Complutense University of Madrid through the "Vicerrectorado de Calidad" develops projects to innovate and improve teaching quality. Among these projects is "Gastronomic Botany and Molecular Gastronomy" which aims to develop new materials and tools for the Virtual Campus and consequently offer new possibilities for teaching and training. Also this project organize and structure a new teaching matter for post-graduate education that will be an example of approach, relationship and cooper...
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Hershey, David R.
Discusses how the many problems in botany teaching are interrelated and most have existed since at least the early 1900s. Considers botany teaching at both the precollege and introductory college levels. Discusses botany neglect in biology teaching, botanical illiteracy, uninteresting or irrelevant botany teaching, zoochauvinism, research…
Mailing Address. South African Journal of Botany Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development University of Natal Pietermaritzburg Private Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, South Africa Street address: Carbis Road, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201 ...
Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.
Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)
The South African Association of Botanists. The association is open to all scientists interested in Plant Biology. Information on the Association, its membership directory, membership applications and meetings are available on its website: http://botany.ru.ac.za/saab/SAAB.htm ...
Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu
Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.
Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla
Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…
The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…
A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…
For thousands of years the plants were considered only as a source of food and medicine, and as ornamental objects. Only from the fifth century BC, some philosophers of Ancient Greece realized that the plants were living organisms but, unfortunately, their works have come to us as fragments that we often know from the biological works of Aristotle. This eminent philosopher and man of science, however, did not give us a complete work on the plants, which he often promised to write. From scattered fragments of his conspicuous biological work, it emerges a concept of nutritive soul that, in the presence of heat and moisture, allows plants to grow and reproduce. The task of writing a comprehensive botanical work was delegated to his first pupil, Theophrastus, who left us two treatises over time translated into the various languages up to the current versions (Enquiry into plants, On the causes of plants). The plant life is described and interpreted on the basis of highly accurate observations. The physiological part of his botany is essentially the nutrition: According to Theophrastus, plants get matter and moisture from the soil through root uptake and process the absorbed substances transforming them into food, thanks to the heat. The processing (pepsis, coction) of matter into the food represents an extraordinary physiological intuition because individual organs of a plant appear to perform its specific transformation. Despite that Theophrastus did not do scientific experiments or use special methods other than the sharpness of his observations, he can be considered the forerunner of a plant physiology that would take rebirth only after two millennia.
Pellack, Lorraine J
The American Journal of Botany (AJB) is available on the shelves of most college and university libraries in the U.S., as well as in many faculty offices, and in research libraries affiliated with botanical gardens. This article presents information on how librarians view AJB, the role that scientific associations play in the perceived quality of the journals they publish, the unique nature of botany literature (compared to other sciences), AJB as a core journal, and a general discussion of the factors that influence librarians decisions when deciding to cancel a subscription or keep a journal in their collection.
botany of many members of this genus and consequently also spurred taxonomic research of the taxa in speciﬁc geographic regions. Recent taxonomic studies on the genus Aloe in eastern and northeastern Africa indicated the presence of a large number of endemic species. For example in eastern Africa, of the 83 species ...
Boyd, Amy E.
Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)
Baldwin, Lyn; Crawford, Ila
Good observations are often fundamental to good science, and drawing has long been recognized as a tool to develop students' observation skills. Yet when drawing in illustrated journals was introduced into botany laboratories in an undergraduate, teaching-focused university, students reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated by the required…
Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.
Goldberg, Nisse A.; Ingram, Kathleen W.
Active-learning techniques have been advocated as a means to promote student engagement in lower-division biology courses. In this case study, mini-lectures in combination with active-learning activities were evaluated as strategies to promote a culture of learning and participation in a required botany course. These activities were designed to…
Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo
An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…
This essay argues that the modern literary anthology—and specifically its aspiration to delimit both aesthetic merit and historical representativeness—emerged as a response to changes in eighteenth-century botanical collecting, description, and illustration. A dramatic upsurge in botanical metaphors for poetic collections around 1800 was triggered by shifts in the geographies, aims, and representational practices of botany in the previous century. Yoking Linnaean taxonomy and Buffonian vitali...
The development of Slovenian botanical textbooks is an issue that in the past has not been widely discussed and published even less. We represented our research of the topic in four parts: general overview of the school system in Slovenia, development of botany in the curriculum over time, a general overview of 21 botanical textbooks in Slovenian language (in the period from 1864 to 1969) and a more precise analysis of the three selected Slovenian botanical textbooks within approximately 50 y...
This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.
Saxena, R. B.
Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743
Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping
Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.
Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty
This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.
Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.
The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915
Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano,Paulo Takeo
Generally, the teaching of botany is seen as mainly based on the transmission of knowledge and on empirical-logical thinking, in a context of scientific knowledge and with the purpose of affirming truth about the world. From this perspective, both in Brazil and in Portugal botany is usually seen as a list of scientific names remote from the daily life of students, which might make classes demotivating. This project was designed with the aim of understanding the prior conceptions of higher ...
Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina
The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.
Sri Innayah Wahid
Full Text Available Abstrak—Pariwisata merupakan salah satu sumber devisa yang sangat potensial dan mempunyai andil besar dalam membangun perekonomian yang memiliki nilai jual menjadi objek yang menguntungkan bagi kemajuan Makassar. Tujuan wisata yang hanya ada di Makassar menciptakan rasa ingin tahu pengunjung untuk berkunjung.Pengunjung yang datang menginvestasikan akomodasi seluruh kegiatan wisata dengan pengusaha lokal setempat.Pengunjung domestik maupun asing juga menjadi sumber pendapatan bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar objek wisata. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk menata elemen-elemen fisik kawasan seperti tata guna lahan, bentuk dan massa bangunan, jalur pejalan kaki, sirkulasi dan parker signage atau penanda, serta fasilitas pendukung kedalam suatu kawasan kebun raya botani yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai kenyamanan bagi para pengguna lahan dan menerapkan sistem WTP dalam bentuk desain yang bersifat berkelanjutan (sustainable.dan tujuan non arsitektural yang lain untuk merumuskan kegiatan rekayasa tumbuhan secara alami sehingga kebun raya botani dapat menjadi alternatif pusat pendidikan, mengelompokkan tanaman yang sesuai dengan iklim dan kondisi tapak kebun raya botani, untuk menentukan sistem kerja WTP dalam kebun raya botani yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman. Hasil laporan ini berupa desain penataan kebun raya botani dengan sistem WTP (water Treatment Plan di Makassar Kata Kunci :kebun raya botani, WTP Abstract- Tourism is one potential source of foreign exchange and have a larger share in building an economy that has a sale value into an object that is beneficial to the progress of Makassar. Tourist destinations that exist only in Makassar creates curiosity of visitors to visit. Visitors who come to invest accommodation all over the local tourism activities with local entrepreneurs. Domestic and foreign visitors are also a source of income for the people who live around the attraction. This report aims to restructure the physical elements
de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl
Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country.
Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina
The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zunic, Lejla; Skrbo, Armin; Dobraca, Amra
Pharmacy and medicine belong to the oldest human activities, so the development of these sciences is closely related to the socio-economic, cultural and religious opportunities of the nations within which they have been developing. To present the historical influence of pharmacy on the development of the human being from its very beginning; To present the historical link between pharmaceutical and medical activity, as well as early development of independent pharmaceutical activity; To present the historical influence of pharmacists on the development of botany and pharmacognosy and to present the historical influence of the first written herbarium and incunabula on the development of pharmacognosy. The article has a descriptive character, and represents a systematic review of the literature dealing with this topic. The roots of pharmacy started to the very beginning of human civilization, when people collected various medicinal herbs and try to alleviate their health problems, pain and suffering. The scientific foundations of the pharmacy were set up in the antique period by the books of Dioskurides and Galen, and its further development continued in the mid-century, at the beginning by rewriting famous parts of ancient literature, and later by writing new discoveries (the base of this development was represented by South Italy) so that in 1240, for the first time in history, came the separation of doctors and pharmacists, and at the beginning of the 13th century the opening of the first pharmacy. The effort to maintain knowledge of medicinal herbs and its practical application has led to the writing of a large number of recipes books, the forerunners of today's pharmacopeia, while the aspiration to classify medicinal herbs, and the desire to present medicinal herbs to ordinary people, has led to a large number of herbaria, making the knowledge and descriptions of plants available to many, not just the nobility. Descriptions of plants in herbaria and later in
Vlahakis, George N.; Economou-Amilli, Athina
Botany in Greece during the 19th Century: A Periphery at the CenterThe science of botany is exemplified as a blueprint of the approach of scientific knowledge in Greece during the nineteenth century, a period in which the Greek flora is of particular interest to European researchers in the framework of general scientific missions or specific visits. In the time before theGreek Independence (1834) it seems that botanology established itself a pseudoscience and the importan...
The relationship of certain teacher background variables to their attitudes priorities, expectations, and instructional practices regarding botany and zoology was investigated. Teachers were grouped into three categories: botanists, zoologists, and neutrals; the academic achievement of the students of the teachers in the three categories was…
VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Rost, Bob; Eckel, Rick
A noncredit, online training module on botany was offered to participants in the Oregon Master Gardener program. The 48 participants felt the module was a useful training tool. They also noted that the convenience of completing the material at their own pace and during a time that fit into their schedule. (SK)
Zangori, Laura; Koontz, Jason A.
Undergraduate biology majors require biological literacy about the critical and dynamic relationships between plants and ecosystems and the effect human-made processes have on these systems. To support students in understanding systems relationships, we redesigned an undergraduate botany course using an ecological framework and embedded systems…
Barbatt, Natalie M.
A group exercise, suggested to be most effective when used near the semester-end, enables entry-level students to appreciate the application of plant biology and makes botany labs experimental. It is believed that this series of labs helps students to appreciate their own learning when they teach and explain things to others.
Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao
In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.
Guimarães,Fernando; Santos, Fernando S.
We have privileged the study of Botany contents in our research. Such contents derive from reorganizational approaches within the teaching of Natural Sciences at the elementary level in Portugal and Brazil. Along with the development of scientific knowledge on biological classifications and attempts to solve existing weaknesses in both countries, various governments introduced, throughout the last century, new programmatic Botany contents within the teaching of Natural Sciences at...
Jackson, Michael B
Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
H. P. van der Schijff
Full Text Available Just like the Afrikaans language itself, the use of Afrikaans as a technical language in Botany made meaningful progress during the last 75 years. It cannot, however, be divorced from the general use of Afrikaans by the Afrikaner in his daily contact with his non-Afrikaans speaking compatriots in all other spheres of activities, such as business, sports or politics. Unless Afrikaans as a spoken language can hold its own in a growing English-speaking community and world, it will not survive as a technical scientific language in Botany. As a technical language only, no language can hold its own. The publishing of scientific papers in international journals by Afrikaans-speaking scientists cannot be attributed to selfishness or a lack of appreciation for their mother tongue. It must also be seen as a means of enhancing the scientific image of his country and of the Afrikaner.
Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology.
Prior to the eighteenth-century, a similar approach towards the vegetable kingdom, mainly influenced by the tradition of the Chinese pharmacopoeias, could be observed in China and Japan. During the eighteenth-century, the interest for "Dutch learning" led some Japanese physicians and interpreters to be more and more interested in Western knowledge about medicinal plants. At the beginning of the nineteenth-century, a few scholars, through direct contact with foreigners or with foreign books, realised that there was a specific scientific field called "botany" and began to introduce the Japanese scholarly community to this new science which became one of the subjects taught at the "University of Tokyo" in 1877. In China, up to the middle of the nineteenth-century, no trace of modern botany can be found in any published document. In the second half of the century, a few botanical treatises were published, all being adaptations or translations of Western books, done by foreign-Chinese teams of translators. This situation began to change when Chinese students had the opportunity to go and study abroad, mainly to Japan, at the beginning of the twentieth-century, and, actually, it is between 20 and 30 years later that botany became a real scientific practice in China. We will analyse these two processes, their specificities and their interactions.
H.P. van der Schijff
Just like the Afrikaans language itself, the use of Afrikaans as a technical language in Botany made meaningful progress during the last 75 years. It cannot, however, be divorced from the general use of Afrikaans by the Afrikaner in his daily contact with his non-Afrikaans speaking compatriots in all other spheres of activities, such as business, sports or politics. Unless Afrikaans as a spoken language can hold its own in a growing English-speaking community and world, it will not survive as...
A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål.......A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål....
Cook, William J
This paper seeks to provide a full account of the life and career of Dr. Thomas Dale (1700-1750), with particular reference to his botanical works and correspondence. Born in Hoxton, London, Dale studied medicine at Leiden and engaged fully in the social, literary and epistolary network in which botany was practised in eighteenth-century England. In 1730, however, Dale relocated to the British colonial port of Charles Town, South Carolina. Here he continued to engage in a transatlantic network of botanical exchange and discussion, corresponding on equal and reciprocal terms with his former colleagues in England. Where Dale differs from naturalists in South Carolina before him is that his motives for pursuing botany and for corresponding with English naturalists were located firmly in the New World. Such a conclusion forms a valuable, albeit small contribution to models for the development of national scientific cultures in the imperial world. Similarly, Dale's pursuit of botanical information in South Carolina provides a small amount of material with which to illustrate currently fashionable models for the mediated exchange and circulation of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei
Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.
Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim
Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Robert R. Ziemer
Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates
Zhou, Rui; Schneider, Gerhard
Wireless positioning technologies make it possible to keep track of mobile devices, and Web technologies make Web applications highly interactive. The combination of them gives rise to location-based Web applications, which generate and deliver Web content tailored to user locations. Location-based Web applications are able to utilize the enormous resources on the Web and allow users to use different location-based services without installing specific software. The paper presents a prototype of Web-based tracking and guiding - the Location-Based Botany Guide, which is a Web-based multimedia guiding system used in botanical gardens for biology students and visitors. The system adopts a general architecture for Web-based tracking and guiding, which consists of the Location Server, the Content Server, the Botanical Guiding Web Server and the clients. Personalization technology is applied to provide the users with personalized recommendations and presentations.
Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b2, c, and d were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.
Wang, Tianqi; Ramnarayanan, Ashwin; Cheng, Huanyu
The growing demand for real time analysis of bioanalytes has spurred development in the field of wearable technology to offer non-invasive data collection at a low cost. The manufacturing processes for creating these sensing systems vary significantly by the material used, the type of sensors needed and the subject of study as well. The methods predominantly involve stretchable electronic sensors to monitor targets and transmit data mainly through flexible wires or short-range wireless communication devices. Capable of conformal contact, the application of wearable technology goes beyond the healthcare to fields of food, zoology and botany. With a brief review of wearable technology and its applications to various fields, we believe this mini review would be of interest to the reader in broad fields of materials, sensor development and areas where wearable sensors can provide data that are not available elsewhere.
Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M
Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.
Gruca, Marta; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Macía, Manuel J; Balslev, Henrik
The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) has been successfully followed by ethnobotanists investigating plant uses in many parts of the world. However, we have encountered some cases in our study of traditional medicine where the standard seems incomplete and inaccurate when it is applied to plant uses of rural or indigenous societies in developing countries. We propose two categories to be added to the EBDCS: Cultural Diseases and Disorders, and Ritual/Magical Uses. Adding these categories, we believe will give a more accurate insight into traditional medicine and will contribute to developing an integrative ethnomedicinal data collection protocol, which will make ethnomedicinal studies more comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Timsina, Binu; Bhattarai, Krishna Ram
Rheum australe D. Don (Polygonaceae) has been commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory and skeletal systems as well as to infectious diseases. To provide the up-to-date information that is available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Rheum australe. Additionally, to highlight the possible uses of this species to treat different diseases and to provide a basis for future research. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2011. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science and ScienceDirect). Ethnomedical uses of Rheum australe have been recorded from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan for 57 different types of ailments. The phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to anthraquinones, stilbenes, anthrones, oxantrone ethers and esters, chromones, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Rheum australe show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective and immune-enhancing activities, as well as a usefulness for improving renal function. Rheum australe has been widely used source of medicine for years without any adverse effects. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a need for additional studies of the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models. The present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Upaya pengendalian hama Plutella xylostella. L (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae terutama pada tanaman kubis umumnya dilakukan dengan insektisida sintetik, namun hal diatas dinilai kurang bijaksana karena, biasanya terjadi penumpukan residu pestisida yang sangat tinggi sehingga kurang baik untuk kesehatan. Dalam masalah ini perlu dilakukan upaya pengendalian yang lebih bijaksana seperti pemakaian insektisida botanis.Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb merupakan salah satu tanaman sumber bahan pestisida botanis yang sangat potensial, karena getah daun gambir mengandung alkaloid berupa senyawa kimia seperti catechin, tannin catecu (tannin/tannat, querchitin, flouresin dan beberapa senyawa lainnya, dimana senyawa katechin, tannin dan querchitin bersifat anti mikrobial dan anti oksidan. Sehubungan dengan itu telah dilakukan penelitian tentang uji kemampuan beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak daun gambir terhadap serangga Plutella xylostella, L di Kebun Percobaan Laing Solok mulai bulan November 2011 sampai bulan Maret 2012. Penelitian memakai rancangan acak lengkap dengan 7 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan, masing-masing perlakuan adalah ekstrak daun gambir konsentrasi 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 7500 ppm dan tanpa ekstrak (0 ppm sebagai kontrol. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tingkat kematian dan volume makan larva, serta panjang siklus hidup.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun gambir memiliki sifat insektisidal yang baik sehingga mampu mempengaruhi sifat fisiologis serta horman dari serangga Plutella xylostella. L. Dalam konsentrasi 5000 ppm dan 7500 ppm bahan ini dapat menyebabkan kematian terhadap larva instar (II, III dan IV sebesar sebesar (60,70%, 58,70%, 55,06% dan (71,48%, 61,20%, 56,80%. Kedua konsentrasi juga mampu menekan volume makan sebesar (27,16%, 79,19%, 12,73% dan (30,77%, 84,36%, 26,49%. Serta dapat memperpanjang siklus hidup (13,96-17,49 hari.Kata kunci: Plutella xylostella . L, aspek biologis, Uncaria gambir,Roxb, insektisida
Modern methods of analysing biological materials, including protein and DNA sequencing, are increasingly the objects of historical study. Yet twentieth-century taxonomic techniques have been overlooked in one of their most important contexts: agricultural botany. This paper addresses this omission by harnessing unexamined archival material from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), a British plant science organization. During the 1980s the NIAB carried out three overlapping research programmes in crop identification and analysis: electrophoresis, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and machine vision systems. For each of these three programmes, contemporary economic, statutory and scientific factors behind their uptake by the NIAB are discussed. This approach reveals significant links between taxonomic practice at the NIAB and historical questions around agricultural research, intellectual property and scientific values. Such links are of further importance given that the techniques developed by researchers at the NIAB during the 1980s remain part of crop classification guidelines issued by international bodies today.
Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva
The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.
Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.
Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario
The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni
Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.
Euclea undulata (E. undulata) is traditionally used for the treatment of body pains, chest complaints, cough, diabetes, diarrhoea, headaches, heart diseases and toothaches in southern Africa. This study was aimed at reviewing the botany, ethnopharmacology and biological activities of E. undulata in southern Africa. Results presented in this study are based on review of literature using search engines such as Science Direct, Springerlink, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, BioMed Central and Google Scholar. Herbal medicine is prepared from the decoctions of the roots, bark and leaves, and extracts of these plant parts have demonstrated anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antiplasmodial, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities. Multiple classes of phytochemical compounds such alkaloids, diterpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, glycosides, naphthoquinones, phenolics, phytosterols, reducing sugars, saponins and tannins have been isolated from the species. E. undulata has a lot of potential as herbal medicine in tropical Africa, and advanced research is required aimed at correlating its medicinal uses with the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Guo-Wei; Hu, Wen-Ting; Huang, Bao-Kang; Qin, Lu-Ping
The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Chinese star anise) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and food industry with the actions of dispelling cold, regulating the flow of Qi and relieving pain. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books including Chinese herbal classic, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched for the available information on I. verum. I. verum is an aromatic evergreen tree of the family Illiciaceae. It is sometimes contaminated with highly toxic Japanese star anise (I. anisatum L.) and poisonous star anise (I. lanceolatum A. C. Smith), which contain several neurotoxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of I. verum are recorded throughout Asia and Northern America, where it has been used for more than 10 types of disorders. Numerous compounds including volatiles, seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other constituents have been identified from I. verum. Modern pharmacology studies demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions, especially in antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, analgesic, sedative and convulsive activities. In addition, it is the major source of shikimic acid, a primary ingredient in the antiflu drug (Tamiflu). This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of I. verum together with the toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for future research of I. verum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei
Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.
Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S
The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guo, Rixin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Guohong; Xu, Mengying; Yu, Xiankuo; Zhang, Xiao; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju
Strychnos nux-vomica L. belongs to the genus Strychnos of the family Loganiaceae and grows in Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The traditional medicinal component is its seed, called Nux vomica. This study provides a relevant and comprehensive review of S. nux-vomica L., including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, thus providing a foundation for future studies. Up to the present day, over 84 compounds, including alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, triterpenoids, steroids and organic acids, among others, have been isolated and identified from S. nux-vomica. These compounds possess an array of biological activities, including effects on the nervous system, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions, antitumor effects, inhibition of the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and regulation of immune function. Furthermore, toxicity and detoxification methods are preliminarily discussed toward the end of this review. In further research on S. nux-vomica, bioactivity-guided isolation strategies should be emphasized. Its antitumor effects should be investigated further and in vivo animal experiments should be performed alongside in vitro testing. The pharmacological activity and toxicology of strychnine [Formula: see text]-oxide and brucine [Formula: see text]-oxide should be studied to explore the detoxification mechanism associated with processing more deeply.
Govindarajan, V S
The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.
Jackson, Michael B
The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J
Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.
Xie, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Tian; Hu, Jianjun
Apocynum venetum L. (Apocynaceae, Luobuma ) has a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine with uses to calm the liver, soothe the nerves, dissipate heat, and promote diuresis. Recently, Luobuma tea has been commercialized as a sedative and anti-aging supplement that has become increasingly popular in North American and East Asian health food markets. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the botany, chemical constituents, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and safety aspects of Apocynum venetum in order to assess its ethnopharmacological use and to explore its therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. The accessible literature on Apocynum venetum written in English, Chinese and Japanese were collected and analyzed. The literatures included ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias and articles that included in Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Wanfang. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that Apocynum venetum possess wide pharmacological activities that include antihypertensive, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, which can be explained by the presence of various flavonoid compounds in this plant. The traditional (Lop Nor region) use of Apocynum venetum with tobacco as an agent to detoxify nicotine may receive interest as a possible therapeutic option to detoxify the body from smoking. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, Apocynum venetum causes no severe side effects, even in a stable daily dosage (50mg/person/day) for more than three years. Apocynum venetum potentially has therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for the cardiovascular and neurological diseases, especially for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, neurasthenia, depression and anxiety. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these in vitro and in vivo
Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a
Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M
forensic botany. Based on obtained results, we recommend the adoption of a two-locus combination with rbcL+trnH-psbA plastid markers, which currently best satisfies forensic needs for botanical species identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Li, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong
Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonum cuspidatum), also known as Reynoutria japonica Houtt and Huzhang in China, is a traditional and popular Chinese medicinal herb. Polygonum cuspidatum with a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects has been used for treatment of inflammation, favus, jaundice, scald, and hyperlipemia, etc. The present paper reviews the traditional applications as well as advances in botany, phytochemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of this plant. Finally, the tendency and perspective for future investigation of this plant are discussed, too. A systematic review of literature about Polygonum cuspidatum is carried out using resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science and others. Polygonum cuspidatum is widely distributed in the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for a long history in China. Over 67 compounds including quinones, stilbenes, flavonoids, counmarins and ligans have been isolated and identified from this plant. The root of this plant is used as the effective agent in pre-clinical and clinical practice for regulating lipids, anti-endotoxic shock, anti-infection and anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and other diseases in China and Japan. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum has been used for treatment of hyperlipemia, inflammation, infection and cancer, etc. Because there is no enough systemic data about the chemical constituents and their pharmacological effects or toxicities, it is important to investigate the pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of this plant based on modern realization of diseases' pathophysiology. Drug target-guided and bioactivity-guided isolation and purification of the chemical constituents from this plant and subsequent evaluation of their pharmacologic effects will promote the development of new drug and make sure which
Peng, Wei; Liu, Yu-Jie; Wu, Na; Sun, Tao; He, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Chun-Jie
Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae), widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia, is a popular traditional herbal medicine that can be chewed for the purpose of dispersing accumulated fluid in the abdominal cavity and killing worms. The present paper aims to provide an up-to-date review on the traditional uses and advances in the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible trends and a perspective for future research of this plant are also discussed. A literature search was performed on A. catechu based on classic books of herbal medicine, PhD. and MSc. dissertations, government reports, the state and local drug standards, scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. Various types of information regarding this plant are discussed in corresponding parts of this paper. In addition, perspectives for possible future studies of A. catechu are discussed. The seeds of A. catechu (areca nut) have been widely used in clinical practice in China, India and other South and Southeast Asian Countries. Currently, over 59 compounds have been isolated and identified from A. catechu, including alkaloids, tannins, flavones, triterpenes, steroids, and fatty acids. The extracts and compounds isolated from A. catechu have many pharmacological activities. These include antiparasitic effects, anti-depressive effects, anti-fatigue effects, antioxidant effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, antihypertensive effects, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, anti-allergic effects, the promotion of digestive functions, suppression of platelet aggregation, regulatory effects on blood glucose and lipids, etc. Although arecoline is the primary active constituent of A. catechu, it is also the primary toxic compound. The main toxicities of arecoline are the promotion of oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF) and cytotoxic effects on normal human cells, which involve inducing apoptosis. As an
Lin, Longfei; Ni, Boran; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Li, Xuechun; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which is known as Heshouwu ( in Chinese) in China. It is traditionally valued and reported for hair-blacking, liver and kidney-tonifying and anti-aging effects as well as low toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum, based on the scientific literature. Moreover, trends and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are discussed. It will build up a new foundation for further study on Polygonum multiflorum. A systematic review of the literature on Polygonum multiflorum was performed using several resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Polygonum multiflorum is widely distributed throughout the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries in China. The ethnomedical uses of Polygonum multiflorum have been recorded in many provinces of China and Japan for nine species of adulterants in six families. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major components have been determined to be stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids and others. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in pre-clinical and clinical practice due to their anti-aging, anti-hyperlipidaemia, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and to promote immunomodulation, neuroprotection, and the curing of other diseases. However, these extracts can also lead to hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and embryonic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of Polygonum multiflorum, such as 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and emodin are distributed among many organs and tissues. Therapeutic potential of Polygonum multiflorum has been
Jackson, Michael B.
Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090
J. Marc MacDonald
Full Text Available Modernity does not possess a monopoly on mass incarceration, population fears, forced migration, famine, or climatic change. Indeed, contemporary and early modern concerns over these matters have extended interests in Thomas Malthus. Yet, despite extensive research on population issues, little work explicates the genesis of population knowledge production or how the process of intellectual transfer occurred during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper examines the Delessert network’s instrumental role in cultivating, curating, and circulating knowledge that popularized Malthusian population theory, including the theory’s constitutive elements of political economy, philanthropy, industry, agriculture, and botany. I show how deviant, nonconformist groups suffered forced migration for their political philosophy, particularly during the revolutionary 1790s, resulting in their imprisonment and migration to America. A consequence of these social shifts was the diffusion and dissemination of population theory—as a pursuit of scientific knowledge and exploration—across both sides of the Atlantic. By focusing on the Delesserts and their social network, I find that a byproduct of inter and intra continental migration among European elites was a knowledge exchange that stimulated Malthus’s thesis on population and Genevan Augustin Pyramus Candolle’s research on botany, ultimately culminating in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and human evolution.
Hosseini, Zohreh; Lorigooini, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirmardi, Hamzeh Ali; Solati, Kamal
This review was conducted to investigate the botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Echinophora species. The information of this review was obtained by searching for keywords Apiaceae , Echinophora , pharmacological effects, and traditional and modern medicine in scientific articles and books published in search engines Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science. The traditional uses of Echinophora and the existence of valuable phytochemicals in the plant have led to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs, and the beneficial effects of these plants can widely be used in healthcare. Echinophora species are medicinal and aromatic plants that are belong to Apiaceae family. This genus have four species in Iran. The botany, geographical distribution, traditional and pharmacological effects of Echinophora genus were described. Also, the major chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of different species of Echinophora that have been reported. Overall, the existence of valuable phytochemicals purpose Echinophora species as novel candidate to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs.
Chik, Wai-I; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Lan-Lan; Yi, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Yi-Na; Xu, Jun; Yeung, Wing-Ping; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hu-Biao
Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine. To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicology of S. involucrata. An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information. The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the
In 1845, Robert Graham's death created a vacancy for the traditionally dual appointment to the University of Edinburgh's chair of botany and the Regius Keepership of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic Garden. John Hutton Balfour and Joseph Hooker emerged as the leading candidates. The contest quickly became embroiled in long running controversies over the nature and control of Scottish university education at a time of particular social and political tension after a recent schism in Church of Scotland. The politics of the appointment were complicated by the fact that the Edinburgh Town Council (which preferred Balfour) chose the chair while the keepership was under the patronage of the Westminster government (which preferred Hooker). Balfour eventually emerged triumphant after a bitter campaign marked on all sides by intense politicking. The struggle to replace Graham provides a case study in how Victorian men of science adapted their aspirations to the practical realities of life in industrial, reforming, imperial, multinational Britain.
In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.
Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Wang, Ting; Guo, Rixin; Zhou, Guohong; Zhou, Xidan; Kou, Zhenzhen; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju
Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China. This plant, which is distributed primarily in the southwest of China, has wide-ranging pharmacological effects and can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and trauma as well as internal and external bleeding due to injury. This paper provides up-to-date information on investigations of this plant, including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. The possible uses and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are also discussed. The relevant information on Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was collected from numerous resources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases, including Pubmed, SciFinder, ACS, Ebsco, Elsevier, Taylor, Wiley and CNKI. More than 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, including saponins, flavonoids and cyclopeptides. The plant has pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, haemostatic and anti-tumour activities, etc. Panax notoginseng is a valuable traditional Chinese medical herb with multiple pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. notoginseng, and presents the constituents and their corresponding chemical structures found in P. notoginseng comprehensively for the first time. Future research into its phytochemistry of bio-active components should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Further work on elucidation of the structure-function relationship among saponins, understanding of multi-target network pharmacology of P. notoginseng, as well as developing its new clinical usage and comprehensive utilize will enhance the therapeutic potentials of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016
The plant ecology of Amchita Island, Alaska: Report on a research contract between the Department of Botany, the University of Tennessee and Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories for the period 1 August 1967 through 30 June 1968
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee is conducting a study of the plant ecology of Amchitka Island, Alaska, as a subcontractor for Battelle...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from BOTANY BAY and other platforms in South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24 January...
Botany Facility tests were performed in an environmental laboratory in order to determine the heat transfer at the glass disk of the breadboard model and the temperature distribution in the fluorescent tube under different environmental conditions. The test objects, test facility, instrumentation, environmental conditions, and test procedures are described. The tests were successful since all data needed were obtained with the required accuracy. The extent of the data was substantially increased during the tests, allowing safe predictions.
Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chunjie
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum, including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied. PMID:29057808
Full Text Available Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum, including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.
Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong
There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.
Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chunjie
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum , including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.
Airton José Vinholi Júnior
Full Text Available The study was conducted in a school of the black community of Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Mato Grosso do Sul State. For its realization, initially, a test with questions of botany was applied to the students to identify the absence or presence of subsumers classified into adequate or partially adequate. This analysis was used for the planning and production of instructional strategies in order to facilitate interaction between new information and background on the student's cognitive structure in order to promote learning. After, educational interventions have been proposed based on dialogue between traditional knowledge and science in the classroom. Based on the results of these strategies and concept maps based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning of David Ausubel, built by students on the proposed content, we concluded that learning was satisfactory. Taking into account the methodology used to investigate the local knowledge about medicinal plants, it is concluded that this contribution was significant to the learning of botany.
This paper demonstrates the importance of the reception and development of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework in the history of botanical theories. It proposes a focus on the textbooks written by the German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach and his first attempt to use Goethe's idea of metamorphosis of plants as fundamental to his natural system of plants published under the title 'Botany for Women', in German Botanik für Damen (1828). In this book, Reichenbach paid particular attention to Goethe's sensitive views on the essence of nature; he regarded Goethe's idea of metamorphosis in the plant kingdom as an ideal model to interpret connections of natural phenomena, in particular as a conceptual frame for a natural system. Furthermore, he aimed to develop the philosophical statement of the metamorphosis, in which he called for nature-philosophical conceptions in order to materialize his representation of plant "affinities," and of a kind of "ontogeny" of the whole plant kingdom. This paper demonstrates that, between speculative views and empirical attempts, the extent to which Reichenbach actually belonged to a new "school" of thought, which left its mark on the history and philosophy of botany.
Dr. Si He (MO) has put an annotated list of Thai mosses on the web. Especially many Peninsular species are Malesian as well. The introductory chapters are of general botanical interest. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/moss/Thailand/thailand.htm Dr. A. Touw (L) has started a survey of all 19th century
A. Jacot Guillarmod
In the latter part of this century, the high Drakensberg region has been well served botanically, both by extensive scientific studies and by well illustrated more general popular works which have included much on the flora.
Musci. Mr. A. Touw, Leyden, revised the family Hypnodendraceae in which many species from Malesia are included. This exemplary work was published in Blumea 19 (1971) and served as a thesis for the doctor’s degree, Dec. 1971. Mr. R.M. del Rosario worked in Illinois University on Musci and spent
Bryophyta. The new collections built up during the last years under the supervision of Prof. R. van der Wijk, Groningen, have now all been arranged and provisionally been identified by him and his collaborator Mr Margadant. Revisional work has started. Pteridophyta. A most important collaboration,
Anacardiaceae — Mr. K.M. Kochummen (KEP) is revising the family for the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Araliaceae — The family has been revised by Dr. P.P. Lowry (MO) for the Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)
Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.
The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...
Rop, Charles J.
This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…
Rybczynski, Stephen; Li, Zheng; Hickey, R. James
Civilization simply would not exist without plants, yet their importance is often overlooked. As the nation's ability to respond to the botanical challenges associated with food production, climate change, invasive species, and biodiversity loss continues to decrease (Kramer, Zorn- Arnold, and Havens 2010), educators must discourage this…
One of the world's greatest plant collections has won a top heritage award at a time when it is highlighting with a tree-top walkway the need to study the forest canopy which is one of the most crucial but least understood habitats.
D. J. B. Killick
Full Text Available Five papers cover different aspects of the contributions to and role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa. Two papers sum up the contributions for the non-agricultural and agricultural sectors. The introductory paper by D. J. B. Killick provides a short historical account of the Botanical Research Institute, followed by a discussion of the contributions of the Institute to botany in South Africa through its National Herbarium and identification service as well as researches in taxonomy, plant anatomy, cyto-genetics, ecology, economic botany and data processing. B. de Winter emphasizes the fundamental role of taxonomy and bio-systematics for planning and the optimal use of the natural plant resources. The current support for taxonomy and biosystematics is examined and proposals made for improving progress in the Flora of Southern Africa series. For plant physiology, N. Grobbelaar discusses, firstly, the ways whereby the productivity of a plant species with its characteristic genetic constitution can be raised by determining and modifying for optimal response the effects of environmental factors such as spacing, mineral nutrition, water provision, etc.; and, secondly, usually when the first means has been achieved, of improving plant productivity by altering the genetic constitution of the plant so that it can perform better than its ancestors under the prevailing conditions. After discussing and illustrating the applications and roles of plant ecology, D. Edwards concludes that basic plant ecological research is required, firstly, at the regional level through regional plant ecological studies to supply the essential local knowledge needed by researchers, planners and users of the land; and, secondly, at the more detailed level where knowledge is needed of the processes and factors that govern the behaviour of vegetation so that it can be properly used, managed and manipulated. M. J. Wells discusses the role of economic
Bruce L. Parker
Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.
Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Gouli, Svetlana; Gouli, Vladimir; Kim, Jae Su
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard(®) with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA) as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 10⁷ conidia mL(-1), causing 67%-80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%-100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.
Parker, Bruce L.; Skinner, Margaret; Gouli, Svetlana; Gouli, Vladimir; Kim, Jae Su
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA) as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious. PMID:26463187
D. J. B. Killick
Full Text Available Five papers cover different aspects of the contributions to and role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa. Two papers sum up the contributions for the non-agricultural and agricultural sectors. The introductory paper by D. J. B. Killick provides a short historical account of the Botanical Research Institute, followed by a discussion of the contributions of the Institute to botany in South Africa through its National Herbarium and identification service as well as researches in taxonomy, plant anatomy, cyto-genetics, ecology, economic botany and data processing. B. de Winter emphasizes the fundamental role of taxonomy and bio-systematics for planning and the optimal use of the natural plant resources. The current support for taxonomy and biosystematics is examined and proposals made for improving progress in the Flora of Southern Africa series. For plant physiology, N. Grobbelaar discusses, firstly, the ways whereby the productivity of a plant species with its characteristic genetic constitution can be raised by determining and modifying for optimal response the effects of environmental factors such as spacing, mineral nutrition, water provision, etc.; and, secondly, usually when the first means has been achieved, of improving plant productivity by altering the genetic constitution of the plant so that it can perform better than its ancestors under the prevailing conditions. After discussing and illustrating the applications and roles of plant ecology, D. Edwards concludes that basic plant ecological research is required, firstly, at the regional level through regional plant ecological studies to supply the essential local knowledge needed by researchers, planners and users of the land; and, secondly, at the more detailed level where knowledge is needed of the processes and factors that govern the behaviour of vegetation so that it can be properly used, managed and manipulated. M. J. Wells discusses the role of economic
V diplomskem delu smo preverjali živost semen kukavičevk, nabranih na področju Slovenije, in shranjenih v semenski banki Botaničnega vrta v Ljubljani. Za preverjanje živosti 21 vrst kukavičevk, nabranih med leti 2007 in 2012, smo preiskusili in primerjali dve metodi: metodo s terazolijevim kloridom (TTC) in fluorescein diacetatom (FDA). Metoda FDA se je izkazala za primernejšo
Dumin, Laura Marie
Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…
Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S
The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.
Deswal, Renu; Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Sehrawat, Ankita; Gupta, Ravi; Kashyap, Prakriti; Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Bhavana; Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Chanu, Sougrakpam Yaiphabi; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Dunn, Michael J; Renaut, Jenny; Rakwal, Randeep
International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) outlined ten initiatives to promote plant proteomics in each and every country. With greater emphasis in developing countries, one of those was to "organize workshops at national and international levels to train manpower and exchange information". This third INPPO highlights covers the workshop organized for the very first time in a developing country, India, at the Department of Botany in University of Delhi on December 26-30, 2013 titled - "1(st) Plant Proteomics Workshop / Training Program" under the umbrella of INPPO India-Nepal chapter. Selected 20 participants received on-hand training mainly on gel-based proteomics approach along with manual booklet and parallel lectures on this and associated topics. In house, as well as invited experts drawn from other Universities and Institutes (national and international), delivered talks on different aspects of gel-based and gel-free proteomics. Importance of gel-free proteomics approach, translational proteomics, and INPPO roles were presented and interactively discussed by a group of three invited speakers Drs. Ganesh Kumar Agrawal (Nepal), Randeep Rakwal (Japan), and Antonio Masi (Italy). Given the output of this systematic workshop, it was proposed and thereafter decided to be organized every alternate year; the next workshop will be held in 2015. Furthermore, possibilities on providing advanced training to those students / researchers / teachers with basic knowledge in proteomics theory and experiments at national and international levels were discussed. INPPO is committed to generating next-generation trained manpower in proteomics, and it would only happen by the firm determination of scientists to come forward and do it. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Plumel, M M
After a general survey of botanical exploration in Amazonia in the past and a summary of the present situation, an account is given of the work carried out in the field and the herbarium is search of plant species of potential therapeutic interest. The potential resources of these vast forests are far from being completely explored and still contain a number of unstudied species. Despite the low probability of major discoveries in this field, a promising approach involves the rational collection of data on traditional medicine, the precise identification of species utilized, and the scientific evaluation of their true properties. As an example, a short list of plants commonly utilized for folk medicine in Amazonia and north-eastern Brazil illustrates the importance of phytotherapy for peoples often deprived of other therapeutic means.
The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...
Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...
Airton José Vinholi Júnior
Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em uma escola da comunidade quilombola Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Para sua realização, inicialmente, um teste com questões de Botânica foi aplicado aos alunos para identificar ausência ou presença de subsunçores, classificados em adequados ou parcialmente adequados. Esta análise foi utilizada para o planejamento e confecção de estratégias instrucionais, visando a facilitar a interação entre as novas informações e as preexistentes na estrutura cognitiva do aluno, com o intuito de promover aprendizagem. Posteriormente, foram propostas intervenções pedagógicas baseadas no diálogo entre conhecimento tradicional e científico em sala de aula. Baseando-se nos resultados dessas estratégias e em Mapas Conceituais fundamentados na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, de David Ausubel, construídos pelos alunos sobre os conteúdos propostos, concluiu-se que a aprendizagem foi satisfatória. Quanto à metodologia utilizada, verificou-se que essa contribuição foi significativa para a aprendizagem de Botânica.The study was conducted in a school of the black community of Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Mato Grosso do Sul State. For its realization, initially, a test with questions of botany was applied to the students to identify the absence or presence of subsumers classified into adequate or partially adequate. This analysis was used for the planning and production of instructional strategies in order to facilitate interaction between new information and background on the student's cognitive structure in order to promote learning. After, educational interventions have been proposed based on dialogue between traditional knowledge and science in the classroom. Based on the results of these strategies and concept maps based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning of David Ausubel, built by students on the proposed content, we concluded that learning was satisfactory. Taking into
Remagnino, Paolo; Wilkin, Paul; Cope, James; Kirkup, Don
This book discusses innovative methods for mining information from images of plants, especially leaves, and highlights the diagnostic features that can be implemented in fully automatic systems for identifying plant species. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, it explores the problem of plant species identification, covering both the concepts of taxonomy and morphology. It then provides an overview of morphometrics, including the historical background and the main steps in the morphometric analysis of leaves together with a number of applications. The core of the book focuses on novel diagnostic methods for plant species identification developed from a computer scientist’s perspective. It then concludes with a chapter on the characterization of botanists' visions, which highlights important cognitive aspects that can be implemented in a computer system to more accurately replicate the human expert’s fixation process. The book not only represents an authoritative guide to advanced computational tools fo...
Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K
Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety.
Gupta, Deepika; Gupta, Rajinder K; Bleakley, Bruce
... indigenous medicines. Dragon's blood is a deep red resin, which has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. The term “Dragon's blood” refers to reddish resinous products, usually encountered as granules, powder, lumps or sticks used in folk medicine. Dragon's blood has been used for diverse medical and artistic applicat...
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Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is native to areas around the Tibetan Plateau and has been cultivated for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. The roots (rhizomes) of species in this genus are rich in anthraquinones and other biochemicals that may show promise in treating or preventing cancer, dia...
Logan, Gabriella Berti
The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.
Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Present tables and figure captions on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. If possible, consult a recent issue of the journal to become familiar with layout and conventions. Number all pages consecutively. Preparation of manuscripts, using the following format ...
Carter, C G
Classification is a fundamental skill that impacts on our abilities to read and to write text. The structure and sequence inherent in the science of taxonomy can be used as the basis for instruction in reading comprehension and in writing. The use of concrete, readily manipulated materials enhances vocabulary development by allowing the teacher to label objects and processes as the student experiences them. There are numerous activities which can be employed to enrich experiential learning; these can be directly related to reading and writing exercises. Processes learned with simple materials can be generalized to more abstract content as the students' proficiency improves. The instructor can control the level of difficulty of the class by writing or selecting materials appropriate to the skills levels of the students involved. Language facility is developed as students progress from the known to the less well known in a series of carefully constructed steps.
Majumdar, Shyamal K.; Castellano, John M.
Callus induction from species of Haworthia can be done quickly in the laboratory with minimal equipment to study tissue dedifferentiation and cellular redifferentiation. It is shown that the cultured cell can also be used to study and evaluate the effects of various mutagens, carcinogens, and pesticides in controlled environments. (Author/MA)
A survey study was undertaken in eight districts of the Somali Region, southeastern Ethiopia to identify gum producing species; their distribution and abundance; gum-tapping practices; and local uses. Nine gum producing Acacia species; widely known by pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in the Region were identified.
Full Text Available This paper describes the importance of herbal plants on the example of two species of linden and Sorbus aucuparia. Authors reminded the rules of traditional collection of this plants as well as the perspective of sales derived from them raw materials. Article emphasized the importance of returning to the traditional activity of the inhabitants of rural areas and highlighted the role of such activities to maintain the sustainability and biodiversity.
Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping
Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development.
March, Kathryn A.
Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…
Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) as an 'essentialist', 'Aristotelian', or even 'scholastic' one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that: (1) Linnaeus's species concept took account of reproductive relations among organisms and was therefore not metaphysical, but biological; (2) Linnaeus did not favour classification by logical division, but criticized it for necessarily failing to represent what he called 'natural' genera; (3) Linnaeus's definitions of 'natural' genera and species were not essentialist, but descriptive and polytypic; (4) Linnaeus's method in establishing 'natural' definitions was not deductive, but consisted in an inductive, bottom-up procedure of comparing concrete specimens. The conclusion will discuss the fragmentary and provisional nature of Linnaeus's 'natural method'. I will argue in particular that Linnaeus opted for inductive strategies not on abstract epistemological grounds, but in order to confer stability and continuity to the explorative practices of contemporary natural history.
Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi
Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.
Methodology: This review was carried out using a comprehensive and systematic literature search on the following databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. Searches were undertaken using the key word “Arctotis arctotoides” and the six synonyms of Arctotis arctotoides identified in the Plant List.
Egan, Todd P.; Meekins, J. Forrest; Maluso, Diane
This laboratory exercise affords students a hands-on experience learning about traditional dyes, fiber strength, and paper making. It is economical, simple to prepare, provides satisfactory results, and is student friendly. Dyes were extracted from plant leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Hard-boiled eggs were place in the dyes for 15 minutes to…
Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea
Full Text Available This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.
El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundidas como el tomate, el tabaco, etc., formaron parte del conocimiento botánico europeo, haciendo especial referencia a la de obra de Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. Su herbario, sus colecciones iconográficas y manuscritos que contienen listas de semillas, maderas y otros materiales, se conservan en su Museo y algunas de las especies crecen en el Jardín Botánico de Bolonia.
Grossi, F; Battista, A; Ricci, B; Di Lascio, F; Gurgo, A M; Mastroianni, S
It is remembered that, in contemporary era, the thermal parks arose in U.S.A. and in Canada: they represent the first example of national parks in the world. Are described legislation, classifications and various types of protected areas. The species of recommended plants for the formation, increase and/or improvement of italian thermal are mentioned.
Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.
Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Díaz, Sandra; De Longhi, Ana L.
People's diminished awareness of plants, affected by anthropogenic environmental deterioration, has challenged science education to overcome the obstacles impeding a better understanding of their meaning and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the socioeconomic status of high-school students, as indicated by their…
Full Text Available The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers.
Herba terrestris infirma ca. 7—13 cm alta, iolio profunde cordato margine subtilissime crenulato, bracteis late ovatis acutis ovario sub-aequilongis, sepalo dorsali attenuatim lineari, sepalis lateralibus petalisque filiformibus, labello latissime rhombico glabro, in fauce callo
Kenny, Michael G
In 1941 a proposal was made to Nazi SS Reichsführer, Heinrich Himmler, that extracts of a South American plant, Dieffenbachia seguine, might be used for the mass sterilization of racially undesirable war prisoners. The proposal was based on published animal fertility research conducted by Dr Gerhard Madaus, co-founder of a firm that produced and marketed natural medicinals. His fertility experiments were part of a broader series aimed at evaluating the scientific validity of ethnobotanical folk-knowledge. This article traces the historical background to the Madaus research: first, the role of homeopathy in the introduction of Dieffenbachias to western medicine; secondly, the social context of German 'alternative' medicine in the interwar period; and finally, the role of Madaus himself, whose homeopathically-oriented research on botanical medicinals inadvertently initiated the chain of events described here.
Brown, A G
From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.
Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana
Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity) and…
Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…
In 1868, Lydia Becker (1827-1890), the renowned Manchester suffragist, announced in a talk before the British Association for the Advancement of Science that the mind had no sex. A year later, she presented original botanical research at the BAAS, contending that a parasitic fungus forced normally single-sex female flowers of Lychnis diurna to develop stamens and become hermaphroditic. This essay uncovers the complex relationship between Lydia Becker's botanical research and her stance on women's rights by investigating how her interest in evolutionary theory, as well as her correspondence with Charles Darwin, critically informed her reform agendas by providing her with a new vocabulary for advocating for equality. One of the facts that Becker took away from her work on Lychnis was that even supposedly fixed, dichotomous categories such as biological sex became unfocused under the evolutionary lens. The details of evolutionary theory, from specific arguments on structural adaptations to more encompassing theories on heredity (i.e., pangenesis), informed Becker's understanding of human physiology. At the same time, Becker's belief in the fundamental equality of the sexes enabled her to perceive the distinction between inherent, biological differences and culturally contingent ones. She applied biological principles to social constructs as she asked: Do analogous evolutionary forces act on humans?
Hibert, Fabrice; Sabatier, Daniel; Andrivot, Judith; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Gonzalez, Sophie; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Grenand, Pierre; Chave, Jérome; Caron, Henri; Richard-Hansen, Cécile
While the populations of large herbivores are being depleted in many tropical rainforests, the importance of their trophic role in the ecological functioning and biodiversity of these ecosystems is still not well evaluated. This is due to the outstanding plant diversity that they feed upon and the inherent difficulties involved in observing their elusive behaviour. Classically, the diet of elusive tropical herbivores is studied through the observation of browsing signs and macroscopic analysis of faeces or stomach contents. In this study, we illustrate that the original coupling of classic methods with genetic and ethnobotanical approaches yields information both about the diet diversity, the foraging modalities and the potential impact on vegetation of the largest terrestrial mammal of Amazonia, the lowland tapir. The study was conducted in the Guianan shield, where the ecology of tapirs has been less investigated. We identified 92 new species, 51 new genera and 13 new families of plants eaten by tapirs. We discuss the relative contribution of our different approaches, notably the contribution of genetic barcoding, used for the first time to investigate the diet of a large tropical mammal, and how local traditional ecological knowledge is accredited and valuable for research on the ecology of elusive animals.
In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.
Acharya, Niyati; Acharya, Sanjeev; Shah, Unnati; Shah, Ripal; Hingorani, Lal
Symplocos racemosa Roxb. belongs to a unigeneric family Symplocaceae, known as lodhra in Sanskrit; is a small evergreen tree, found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Ethnobotanical literature indicates use of S. racemosa in treatment of eye disease, skin diseases, ear diseases, liver and bowel complaints, tumors, uterine disorders, spongy and bleeding gums, asthma, fever, snake-bite, gonorrhea and arthritis. The main aim of this review is to provide detailed phytopharmacological profile on S. racemosa in support with the traditional practices and ethnomedicinal uses. All relevant worldwide accepted databases have been searched for the name "S. racemosa" along with other literature from Indian Classical texts and Pharmacopoeias. The accessible literatures available on S. racemosa, were collected through electronic search on Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and traditional reports. S. racemosa is important Indian traditional drug used in many Ayurvedic and herbal formulations for treatment of liver as well as uterine disorders and leucorrhea. Majority of phytopharmacological reports are on stem bark of the plant which include anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-androgenic effect, anti-inflammatory, wound healing activity and anti-diabetic effects. Phytochemical studies indicated presence of many phenolic glycosides like symplocoside, triterpenoids like betulinic acid, acetyloleanolic acid and oleanolic acid and flavonoids like quercetin which might have contributed to the observed protective effects. Many ethnobotanical claims have been confirmed through systematic in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies on different extracts of stem bark and isolated constituents. However, systematic studies on the bio-markers are desirable to establish mode of action and to validate the traditional claim in clinical practice after proper safety assessment. The conservation data of genus Symplocos showed risk of extinction due to restricted distribution in the wild hence systematic techniques should be developed for the maintenance of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…
Dr. S. P. Vander Kloet, botanist, traveled the world examining and obtaining specimens to redefine infrageneric taxonomic units within Vaccinium L., family Ericaceae. Besides his botanical treatises, his legacy includes herbarium voucher specimens and ex situ genetic resource collections including a...
Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod
Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence.
Elian Bravo Alé
Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Topes de Collantes with the objective of evaluating two me -thods of “vernalization” of Allium cepa L. var., Caribe 71 in natural conditions. Two groups of bulblets (from the previous harvest were selected and subjected to methods different vernalization, the conventional (storage in cold storage at temperatures between 2 and 3 0C, for 100 days and natural (storage during 125 days within a rustic house with walls of palm board and a thatched roof, at room temperature. The bulblets from both treatments were planted randomly in different field plots. During the development of the plantation were eva-luated, agronomic variables related to seed production and the yield of onion bulbs. The conventional method was tatistically superior to natural, on the seed production; although the natural method was superior in the commercial yield of the onion bulbs. It is concluded that can be used method of natural vernalization in the climatic conditions of Topes de Collantes , because the seeds production are lower than the conventional ver-nalization, but higher yields of commercial onion bulbs are obtained, and is an economical method accessible to the producers
Full Text Available Ecosystem services are the benefits resulting from resources and processes in nature. Trees and stand densities constitute a significant element of the landscape (both in urban and rural areas and serve a number of ecosystem functions, forming an inherent part of each group of benefits singled out on the basis of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In the thesis, selected ecosystem services of trees and stand densities were detailed - provisioning, regulatory, supporting and cultural functions. Diagnosis of services performed by trees and their valuation may contribute to taking increased care of them and protection during performing various investments, it is therefore appropriate to launch multifaceted ecological education to each person, particularly to those directly responsible for trees and bushes in towns and rural areas. In order to restrict construction stress to trees and bushes, environmental impact assessment has to be made as soon as the construction planning is being made (natural, cultural and landscape conditions should be provided additionally, it is advisable to conduct a dendrological inventory for planning purposes. Appropriate protection of trees and standing densities is also legally regulated by the Nature Conservation Act and the Construction Law. During the investment process, the trees and their settlement conditions should be adequately secured , so that it will not affect their viability. After completed investment, the condition of the tree stand should be monitored.
Shamkant B. Badgujar
Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.
Leonard, Carmen M; Viljoen, Alvaro M
The genus Warburgia (Canellaceae) is represented by several medicinal trees found exclusively on the African continent. Traditionally, extracts and products produced from Warburgia species are regarded as important natural African antibiotics and have been used extensively as part of traditional healing practices for the treatment of fungal, bacterial and protozoal infections in both humans and animals. We here aim to collate and review the fragmented information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Warburgia species and present recommendations for future research. Peer-reviewed articles using "Warburgia" as search term ("all fields") were retrieved from Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Google Scholar with no specific time frame set for the search. In addition, various books were consulted that contained botanical and ethnopharmacological information. The ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activity of Warburgia are reviewed. Most of the biological activities are attributed to the drimane sesquiterpenoids, including polygodial, warburganal, muzigadial, mukaadial and ugandensial, flavonoids and miscellaneous compounds present in the various species. In addition to anti-infective properties, Warburgia extracts are also used to treat a wide range of ailments, including stomach aches, fever and headaches, which may also be a manifestation of infections. The need to record anecdotal evidence is emphasised and conservation efforts are highlighted to contribute to the protection and preservation of one of Africa's most coveted botanical resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032
Khanam, Zakia; Singh, Ompal; Singh, Rampal; Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq
Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) is an eminent medicinal plant of India and considered as a 'white gold' or 'divya aushad' in Indian systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Chlorophytum borivilianum belongs to the group of "Vajikaran Rasayana" corroborated to its rejuvenating, aphrodisiac, natural sex tonic properties and effective in alleviating sexual disorders. It is largely used as ethnic medicine by local healers of indigenous communities of India. A thorough bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted scientific data base (Pub Med, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science), thesis, recognized books, non impact and non indexed journals. Traditionally, Chlorophytum borivilianum is well known for treating male impotency in India. The multi therapeutic and nutritional importance of Chlorophytum borivilianum is attributed to the rich source of phytochemicals particularly saponins. Recently, Chlorophytum borivilianum has gained a well established domestic (Indian) and international market for being the herbal alternative of "Viagra" without any side effects. Under the trade name 'Nai Chetna', the state government of Gujarat, India, has launched a novel potency drug from Chlorophytum borivilianum. Modern pharmacological studies of Chlorophytum borivilianum have demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities, most importantly aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. The increased commercial exploitation of Chlorophytum borivilianum and low productivity of this endangered plant has raised the concern over its conservation. It has been envisaged that efforts should be made to standardize, encourage and popularize the cultivation of Chlorophytum borivilianum as a commercial crop. The analysis of previous pharmacological investigations suggested lack of substantial scientific evidences in various studies and do not stand the test of critical assessment. Due to high economic value, Chlorophytum borivilianum has also encountered a problem of adulteration with closely resembling medicinally inferior species. The studies available on toxicity, safety and quality of Chlorophytum borivilianum are inadequate for providing information on commercial utilization. Thus, the present review summarizes comprehensive information on Chlorophytum borivilianum and possible scope for future research to fill the existing lacunae on its different aspects of the study. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pardo de Santayana, Manuel
Full Text Available The botanical and zoological references that appear in La Celestina are analysed and cuantified to provide an insight of the knowledge about plants and animals included in a literary work of the Rennaisance, in this case one of the most important of the Spanish literature. The plants and animals products were used by the healer for the care, health and beauty of the body. Many other plants, animals and some mineral products were used for love remedies. Moreover, references to plant and animal names and their products are also commented as linguistic sources, i.e. metaphoric references to plants, set phrases, and other literary figures of speech. All the 86 plant species and 70 animals and the complete textual passages are included in two apendixes.
En este trabajo se analizan y cuantifican las referencias botánicas y zoológicas que aparecen en La Celestina como ejemplo de los conocimientos sobre plantas y animales que incorpora una obra de la literatura renacentista española. Dado el oficio de la protagonista, el interés del uso de muchas plantas y animales se centra en el cuidado, cura y aseo del cuerpo, que entonces se hacía sobre todo a base de productos vegetales y animales. Éstos también aparecen empleados en la magia de amor. Se comentan asimismo la utilización de nombres de plantas y animales, así como de productos derivados de éstos, como recursos lingüisticos o literarios; es decir, cuando se emplean como metáforas, en dichos, frases hechas y otras figuras literarias. Se incluyen en 2 anexos las 86 especies vegetales y las 70 animales, así como las citas encontradas.
Full Text Available While the populations of large herbivores are being depleted in many tropical rainforests, the importance of their trophic role in the ecological functioning and biodiversity of these ecosystems is still not well evaluated. This is due to the outstanding plant diversity that they feed upon and the inherent difficulties involved in observing their elusive behaviour. Classically, the diet of elusive tropical herbivores is studied through the observation of browsing signs and macroscopic analysis of faeces or stomach contents. In this study, we illustrate that the original coupling of classic methods with genetic and ethnobotanical approaches yields information both about the diet diversity, the foraging modalities and the potential impact on vegetation of the largest terrestrial mammal of Amazonia, the lowland tapir. The study was conducted in the Guianan shield, where the ecology of tapirs has been less investigated. We identified 92 new species, 51 new genera and 13 new families of plants eaten by tapirs. We discuss the relative contribution of our different approaches, notably the contribution of genetic barcoding, used for the first time to investigate the diet of a large tropical mammal, and how local traditional ecological knowledge is accredited and valuable for research on the ecology of elusive animals.
The present article offers a descriptive survey of the most important plants used by the Southeast Surmic-speaking Me'en in southwestern Käfa, Ethiopia, based on information gathered over a period of 14-months field research (1989-1991). Data covering the Me'en name of each plant, the scientific
Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.
Lord, Thomas; Shelly, Chad; Zimmerman, Rachel
Can you imagine a class where students cover the content with each other rather than simply listening to the professor's lecture? Can you envision students developing their own laboratory investigations and quizzing each other weekly to check for understanding? Well, that's pretty much how the major science organizations across the nation are…
Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.
conclusion: Lushly wooded Caroline Atoll, with the majority of its 39 islets (399 ha of land) either in near-pristine condition or having recovered remarkably from past disturbance, is one of the least spoiled atolls in the Pacific. Uninhabited, it harbors plant ecosystems and breeding seabirds (Pt. II) of national and international importance. Its marine and terrestrial ecosystems are prime outdoor ecological laboratories for research on geological processes including ground water, sea level changes, the dynamics of motu formation, fish poisoning, and numerous facets of ecology including plant succession and Pisonia growth rates. Caroline boasts prime coral reefs thickly studded with Tridacna clams, substantial numbers of coconut crabs, breeding sites for green turtles, wintering grounds for shorebirds including the rare Bristle-thighed Curlew, ancient Tuamotuan marae, and a crystalline, unpolluted lagoon. The variety, abundance, and quality of its flora and fauna qualify it for status as an officially recognized international preserve (Pt. II, Sect. G). Efforts toward its conservation have thus far been unsuccessful: in 1992 it was leased to a private French businessman who is currently fishing the reefs for commercial profit, as well as disturbing seabird, turtle and coconut crab populations.
Charles Darwin hoped that a large body of working naturalists would embrace evolution after the Origin of Species appeared in late 1859. He was disappointed. His evolutionary ideas at first made painfully little progress in the scientific community. But by 1863 the tide had turned dramatically, and within five years evolution became scientific orthodoxy in Britain. The Origin's reception followed this peculiar trajectory because Darwin had not initially tied its theory to productive original scientific investigation, which left him vulnerable to charges of reckless speculation. The debate changed with his successful application of evolution to original problems, most notably orchid fertilization, the subject of a well-received book in 1862. Most of Darwin's colleagues found the argument of the Origin convincing when they realized that it functioned productively in the day-to-day work of science-and not before. The conceptual force of the Origin, however outwardly persuasive, acquired full scientific legitimacy only when placed "in the harness of daily labour".
Reyes, Raquel A G
Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.
Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S
Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.
Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette
Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…
Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando
In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
María Alejandra Puerta Olaya,; Jorge Manuel Escobar Ortiz
The levelling of plants is usually recognized as one of the main concepts in the works and the thought of Francisco José de Caldas. There are different interpretations about this concept, but in general, the treatment is not very careful and does not really go into the details concerning its theoretical assumptions and consequences. In this article, we identify the diverse interpretations that historians have offered regarding the origin, the function and the definition of this concept. Our i...
This curriculum for gifted/talented students in kindergarten through grade 2 focuses on the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in the areas of language arts, mathematics, music, physical education (dance), science, social studies, theatre, and visual arts. The curriculum is student centered, experientially based, exploratory,…
Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.
Background Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. Scope The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. Conclusions The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed. PMID:23558912
ADABELLA SUÁREZ VARGAS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mexican plum (Spondias purpurea L. ‘Cuernavaqueña’ was harvested at four ripening stages, with the aim of evaluating the concentration of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in the pulp and the epicarp. The highest ethylene production (9.43 mL kg h-1 and total soluble solids concentration (23.9 °Brix was observed in the fully ripe stage. Titratable acidity was higher in green stage compared to other analyzed ripening stages in both pulp (0.48 % and epicarp (0.32 %. Fully ripe plum epicarp presented the highest content of total phenols (GAE 190 mg g-1, flavonoids (QE 214 mg g-1, and carotenoids (853 mg g-1 compared to other ripening stages. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the epicarp of the fully ripe fruit compared to the other ripening stages: DPPH (1087 µM TE /100 g, ABTS (1534 µM TE/100 g, and FRAP (1764 µM TE/100 g. Significant correlations (r = 0.60 *** to 0.95 ** between bioactive compounds concentrations and antioxidant activity were obtained.
Cervantes Sánchez, Juan Manuel.
ResumenLos cuentos didácticos son una pieza básica en la consecución de losobjetivos educativos, son, así mismo, complemento a las diferentesactividades educativas. Tiene como finalidad introducirá al estudiante en un área muy bien definida del conocimiento, en un corto tiempo.SummaryThe didactic stories are a basic piece in the attainment of the educative objectives, are, also, complement to the different educative activities.
Cabral, João Paulo
The journal Broteria has covered a long path, since its foundation in 1902 until the mid 20's, when it stands as one of the best journals of natural history and a voice of the renewal of the natural sciences in Portugal. Broteria's success was due, mainly, to the remarkable qualities of its founders and main editors: their working capacity, intellectual standards and perseverance as well as the ability to establish a network of naturalists who sent them biological collections from remote regions and the ability to adapt to exile, while continuing to work and focusing their studies on the natural history of the exile country. The maintenance, in regular functioning, of their schools, and the opening to the collaboration of non Jesuit naturalists, such as the botanists from Oporto, also contributed to the success of Broteria.
Manafzadeh, Sara; Staedler, Yannick M; Conti, Elena
Ever since the 19th century, the immense arid lands of the Orient, now called the Irano-Turanian (IT) floristic region, attracted the interest of European naturalists with their tremendous plant biodiversity. Covering approximately 30% of the surface of Eurasia (16000000 km 2 ), the IT region is one of the largest floristic regions of the world. The IT region represents one of the hotspots of evolutionary and biological diversity in the Old World, and serves as a source of xerophytic taxa for neighbouring regions. Moreover, it is the cradle of the numerous species domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Over the last 200 years, naturalists outlined different borders for the IT region. Yet, the delimitation and evolutionary history of this area remain one of the least well-understood fields of global biogeography, even though it is crucial to explaining the distribution of life in Eurasia. No comprehensive review of the biogeographical delimitations nor of the role of geological and climatic changes in the evolution of the IT region is currently available. After considering the key role of floristic regions in biogeography, we review the history of evolving concepts about the borders and composition of the IT region over the past 200 years and outline a tentative circumscription for it. We also summarise current knowledge on the geological and climatic history of the IT region. We then use this knowledge to generate specific evolutionary hypotheses to explain how different geological, palaeoclimatic, and ecological factors contributed to range expansion and contraction, thus shaping patterns of speciation in the IT region over time and space. Both historical and ecological biogeography should be applied to understand better the floristic diversification of the region. This will ultimately require evolutionary comparative analyses based on integrative phylogenetic, geological, climatic, ecological, and species distribution studies on the region. Furthermore, an understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes will play a major role in regional planning for protecting biodiversity of the IT region in facing climatic change. With this review, we aim to introduce the IT floristic region to a broader audience of evolutionary, ecological and systematic biologists, thus promoting cutting-edge research on this area and raising awareness of this vast and diverse, yet understudied, part of the world. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Obón, Concepción; Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José; Valdés, Arturo; Alcaraz, Francisco; Carvalho, Ana Maria
Medicinal plant complexes of different species sharing vernacular names, morphological and aromatic characteristics and uses are common in traditional medicine of different cultures. A quantitative methodology as a tool for ethnopharmacological studies is presented for systematically analyzing morphological and therapeutic features shared by several species integrating such complexes. The aim of this paper is to apply a novel methodology to determine whether complexes are homogeneous and species within the complexes are completely interchangeable or not. Moreover, to find out if those species giving the name to the complex are also those which provide a large number of complex descriptors. For this purpose we study the complex of medicinal plant species which share the vernacular name "Árnica" in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, through the systematic recording of past and current local therapeutic uses and administration forms, plant-parts and localities where the different species are used. Being a newly introduced name in the region, "Árnica" offers an interesting field to study the genesis and dynamics of ethnopharmacological categories and medicinal plant complexes. A systematic review of the botanical, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature from 1895 to 2010 and of databases was performed in order to obtain information on the use of plants locally named as "Árnica" or with binomials that include the word "Árnica", in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The "Árnica" complex includes 32 different plant species in the Iberian Peninsula, belonging to six families of Angiosperms, which partially share morphological characteristics and therapeutic properties. These are some of the most popular medicinal species of the Iberian Peninsula and are mainly used to treat inflammation, wounds, hematoma, and contusion. The vegetal materials are primarily macerated or decocted, and the methods of administration are plasters, washes, frictions or direct application of the plant. Medicinal plant complexes are frequent in ethnopharmacological contexts and require being clearly detected, and systematically studied. Plant species within each complex are only partly interchangeable because the sharing of characters, including medicinal uses, is low. "Árnica" medicinal plant complex is extremely dynamic in the Iberian Peninsula. In less than two hundred years up to 32 different plant species belonging to six different plant families became labeled "Árnica". Medical staff was extremely influential in the adoption of "Árnica" as a vernacular name between 1785 and 1864 in Spain and Portugal but not in the repertory of uses adopted for the plants within the complex. In terms of total descriptors shared in the complex, Arnica montana L. is less relevant than other three species, belonging to the Inuleae Cass. tribe, of the Asteraceae (Chiliadenus glutinosus (L.) Fourr., Inula montana L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter). Thus "Árnica" complex is labeled by three different Inuleae Cass. species and receives the name from a fourth Madieae Jeps. species (Arnica montana L.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cherevchenko, T. M.; Zaimenko, N. V.
Epiphytic orchids are shown to be more stable in a long stay on board an orbital station than terrestrial species. Simulations revealed that the activity of native growth stimulators (free auxins and gibberellines) under the prolonged clinostating conditions varied in epiphytic orchids to a lesser extent than in terrestrial orchids. This factor, together with a weaker geotropic reaction, seems to be a cause of their stability in microgravitation conditions. The authors found also that orchids with the monopodial type of shoot system branching are less stable at microgravity than the sympodial species.
Wasternack, C; Hause, B
Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed.
Paulo Cabral, João
Full Text Available The journal Broteria has covered a long path, since its foundation in 1902 until the mid 20’s, when it stands as one of the best journals of natural history and a voice of the renewal of the natural sciences in Portugal. Broteria’s success was due, mainly, to the remarkable qualities of its founders and main editors: their working capacity, intellectual standards and perseverance as well as the ability to establish a network of naturalists who sent them biological collections from remote regions and the ability to adapt to exile, while continuing to work and focusing their studies on the natural history of the exile country. The maintenance, in regular functioning, of their schools, and the opening to the collaboration of non Jesuit naturalists, such as the botanists from Oporto, also contributed to the success of Broteria.
La revista Broteria recorrió un largo camino, desde su fundación en 1902, hasta mediados de la década de 1920, cuando se consolida como una de las mejores revistas de historia natural y una voz de la renovación de las Ciencias Naturales en Portugal. El éxito de Broteria se debió, principalmente, a las notables calidades de sus fundadores y principales redactores: capacidad de trabajo, nivel intelectual y perseverancia; capacidad para establecer una red de naturalistas que les enviaban colecciones biológicas de regiones mal conocidas; capacidad de adaptación en el exilio continuando su trabajo y enfocando sus estudios en la historia natural del país de exilio. La manutención, en regular funcionamiento, de sus colegios y la apertura a la colaboración de naturalistas no jesuitas, especialmente a los botánicos de Oporto, también contribuyeron al éxito de Broteria. Los documentos epistolares tratados en este trabajo demuestran que A. Luisier, J.S. Tavares, y G. Sampaio lideraron una red de jesuitas naturalistas y botánicos de Oporto, que intercambiaron plantas e ideas. Este intercambio fue determinante en el estudio de la flora de musgos y plantas vasculares portuguesas y el progreso de los Herbarios de los colegios jesuitas y de la Academia Politécnica de Oporto.
[The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].
In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.
Biotechology, Guiyang 550002, China. 2State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences,. Guiyang 550002, China. 3State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences,. Beijing 100093, China.
An English-Spanish glossary of terminology used in forestry, range, wildlife, fishery, soils, and botany (Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de terminologia usada en forestales, pastizales, fauna, silvestre, pesqueria, suelos, y botanica)
Alvin Leroy Medina
The English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms (jargon) commonly used in the field of natural resource management are presented. The glossary is useful in improving communications and fostering understanding between Spanish- and English-speaking persons.
An English-Spanish Glossary of Terminology Used in Forestry, Range, Wildlife, Fishery, Soils, and Botany = Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de Terminologia Usada en Forestales, Pastizales, Fauna, Silvestre, Pesqueria, Suelos, y Botanica.
Medina, Alvin Leroy
This document presents English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms commonly used in the field of natural resource management. The glossary is composed of two sections. Section 1 contains the English to Spanish translations, while Section 2 provides the Spanish to English translations. Each section is…
Dubois, Alain; Crochet, Pierre-André; Dickinson, Edward C; Nemésio, André; Aescht, Erna; Bauer, Aaron M; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Bour, Roger; De Carvalho, Marcelo R; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Frétey, Thierry; Jäger, Peter; Koyamba, Victoire; Lavilla, Esteban O; Löbl, Ivan; Louchart, Antoine; Malécot, Valéry; Schatz, Heinrich; Ohler, Annemarie
In zoological nomenclature, to be potentially valid, nomenclatural novelties (i.e., new nomina and nomenclatural acts) need first to be made available, that is, published in works qualifying as publications as defined by the International Code of zoological Nomenclature ("the Code"). In September 2012, the Code was amended in order to allow the recognition of works electronically published online after 2011 as publications available for the purpose of zoological nomenclature, provided they meet several conditions, notably a preregistration of the work in ZooBank. Despite these new Rules, several of the long-discussed problems concerning the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts have not been resolved. The publication of this amendment provides an opportunity to discuss some of these in detail. It is important to note that: (1) all works published only online before 2012 are nomenclaturally unavailable; (2) printed copies of the PDFs of works which do not have their own ISSN or ISBN, and which are not obtainable free of charge or by purchase, do not qualify as publications but must be seen as facsimiles of unavailable works and are unable to provide nomenclatural availability to any nomenclatural novelties they may contain; (3) prepublications online of later released online publications are unavailable, i.e., they do not advance the date of publication; (4) the publication dates of works for which online prepublications had been released are not those of these prepublications and it is critical that the real release date of such works appear on the actual final electronic publication, but this is not currently the case in electronic periodicals that distribute such online prepublications and which still indicate on their websites and PDFs the date of release of prepublication as that of publication of the work; (5) supplementary online materials and subsequent formal corrections of either paper or electronic publications distributed only online are nomenclaturally unavailable; (6) nomenclatural information provided on online websites that do not have a fixed content and format, with ISSN or ISBN, is unavailable. We give precise examples of many of these nomenclatural problems. Several of them, when they arise, are due to the fact that the availability of nomenclatural novelties now depends on information that will have to be sought not from the work itself but from extrinsic evidence. As shown by several examples discussed here, an electronic document can be modified while keeping the same DOI and publication date, which is not compatible with the requirements of zoological nomenclature. Therefore, another system of registration of electronic documents as permanent and inalterable will have to be devised. ZooBank also clearly needs to be improved in several respects. Mention in a work of its registration number (LSID) in ZooBank would seem to be possible only if this registration has occurred previously, but some works that have purportedly been registered in ZooBank are in fact missing on this web application. In conclusion, we offer recommendations to authors, referees, editors, publishers, libraries and the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, in the hope that such problems can be limited along with the potential chaos in zoological nomenclature that could result, if careful attention is not paid to the problems we highlight here, from a somewhat misplaced, and perhaps now widespread, understanding that electronic publication of nomenclatural novelties is now allowed and straightforward. We suggest that, as long as the problematic points linked to the new amendment and to electronic publication as a whole are not resolved, nomenclatural novelties continue to be published in paper-printed journals that have so far shown editorial competence regarding taxonomy and nomenclature, which is not the case of several recent electronic-only published journals.
Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. ** Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. *** Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: Abolade O. Bolaji, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Subir Bera1 Sudha Gupta2 Mahasin Ali Khan1 Aniruddha De1 Radhanath Mukhopadhyay3. Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, B.C. Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal, India. Department of Botany, University of Kalayni, Nadia 741 235, West Bengal, India. Department of Botany ...
Bonser, Stephen P.; de Permentier, Patrick; Green, Jacinta; Velan, Gary M.; Adam, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh K.
Student interest in botany and enrolment in plant sciences courses tends to be low compared to that in other biological disciplines. One potential way of increasing student interest in botany is to focus on course material designed to raise student enthusiasm and satisfaction. Here, we introduce and evaluate virtual microscopy in botany teaching.…
Forni, C; Riov, J; Grilli Caiola, M; Tel-Or, E
Dipartimento di Biologia, II Universita di Roma, Via Emanuele Carnevale, 00173 Roma, Italy Department of Horticulture Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel Department of Agricultural Botany...
... 137-Northwest White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay to conduct a review of... review, general management and maintenance concerns such as ensuring that all signs and boundary markers... White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay. Dates August 15, 2012 to August 31...
The botany of mangroves by P.B. Tomlinson has been published in the Cambridge Tropical Biology Series, Cambridge University Press. Checklist of the generic names used for Spermatophytes in Malesian botany. During their last years Dr. R.C. BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK f. and Dr. C.G.G.J VAN STEENIS have
Collected plants of medicinal and economic value and carried out valuable studies on the cytology of several plant taxa. Studies in ethnobotany particularly in use of plants by tribals in. Kerala are of great value. Last Address: Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University Botany Laboratory,. Triplicane, Madras 600 005.
Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...
Dilip Amritphale1 Santosh K Sharma2. Professor of Botany, School of Studies in Botany, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, MP, India; BKS Naveen PG College, Shajapur. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 8 · Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 8. August 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues ...
Benth Amoo, Stephen Oluwaseun; Department of Botany Faculty of Science Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria Ayisire, Benjamin Erhinmeyoma; Department of Botany Faculty of Science Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria Parkia biglobosa, callus induction, somatic embryogenesis, cotyledon explants To ...
2Botany and Microbiology Department, Science College, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 3Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria ... conditions which enabled this plant to grow successfully in drought and heat prone areas (Hedge and Patil, 1982;. Shubneet et al.
El-Naggar, Moustafa Y. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Physiological factors affecting the production of an antimicrobial substance by Streptomyces violatus in batch cultures. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Isolation and characterisation of an antimicrobial substance produced by Streptomyces ...
Feb 18, 2009 ... stenocarpa (Hochst ex A. Rich) Harms to phosphate enrichment of soil. B. Ikhajiagbe1*, G. C. Mgbeze2 and H. A. Erhenhi3. 1Raw Materials Research and Development Council, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Botany, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 3Department of Botany, Delta State University, ...
Apr 20, 2017 ... On 20 April 2017 in Edinburgh, Scotland, Africa lost one of its foremost botanists and. University teachers of botany after a brief illness. Brian James Harris was born on 27 August. 1929 in Neath, South Wales. By 1949 he had obtained his BSc in Agricultural Botany from the University College of Wales, ...
1Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar university, Agra- 282004, India. 2Department of Botany, RBS College, Agra- 282004, India. Accepted 1 ... K2O. 14%. 32.48 kg method of rapid multiplication in potatoes (Ranalli et al.,. 1994) and in blueberry by Zimmerman and Broome.
The completion of the fifth volume of this Flora brings the pleasant task of dedicating it to the memory of my former teacher in systematic botany, the late professor doctor August Adriaan Pulle, of Utrecht University. As I have explained on a former occasion, descriptive botany and plant geography
Sheteawi, Soad A. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Water relations, transpiration rate, stomatal behaviour and leaf sap pH of Aloe vera and Aloe eru. Abstract · Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Growth and aloin production of Aloe vera and Aloe eru under different ecological conditions. Abstract. ISSN: 1110-6859.
Tawfik, Kawther M. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Water relations, transpiration rate, stomatal behaviour and leaf sap pH of Aloe vera and Aloe eru. Abstract · Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Growth and aloin production of Aloe vera and Aloe eru under different ecological conditions. Abstract. ISSN: 1110-6859.
Aug 9, 2012 ... 2. 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassiae 11566, Cairo-Egypt. 2Department of Botany, National Research ... (growth promotors, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, nitrogenous constituents and minerals). ...... associated with a reduction in the photochemical.
The Ethiopian Flora Project was started in 1980 with the objectives of writing up a Flora of Ethiopia within the shortest time possible; build-up of the National Herbarium and a related library and promoting scientific activities in taxonomic botany, economic botany, forestry, plant ecology, plant physiology, etc. The writing up of ...
THE OLD ANATOLIAN TURKISH PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS AND THE TERMS MEDICAL, BOTANY, ZOOLOGY, CHEMICAL, MINING TERMS RELATIONS WITH ESKİ ANADOLU TÜRKÇESİNDE ECZACILIK TERİMLERİ ve BU TERİMLERİN TIP, BOTANİK, ZOOLOJİ, MADENCİLİK, KİMYA TERİMLERİYLE İLİŞKİLERİ
Full Text Available Old Anatolian Turkish used in this study, the term Tertìb-i MuèÀlece pharmaceutical samples were analyzed with the movement. Examination of the extent of medical and pharmaceutical studies nested in the classical medical work has been questioned in the Tertìb-i MuèÀlece. Pharmaceutical terms determined by examining the grammar, vocabulary and the place of the Old Anatolian Turkish. In the history of the Turkish language as well as shed light on Turkish history of science findings have been revealed. Bu çalışmada Eski Anadolu Türkçesinde kullanılan eczacılık terimleri Tertìb-i MuèÀlece örneğinden hareketle değerlendirilmiştir. İncelemede tıp ve eczacılık çalışmalarının ne derece iç içe olduğu klasik bir tıp eseri olan Tertìb-i MuèÀlece’de sorgulanmıştır. Belirlenen eczacılık terimleri dilbilgisi özelliklerine göre incelenerek Eski Anadolu Türkçesinin söz varlığındaki yerleri değerlendirilmiştir. Türk dili tarihi açısından olduğu kadar Türk bilim tarihine ışık tutacak bulgular ortaya konmuştur.
Individual and classroom learning activities that involve "no-cook cookery" (cooking without heat) and that teach concepts in the areas of science, mathematics, social studies, language arts, visual arts, and botany are described. (CJ)
Hershey, David R.
Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)
Author Affiliations. E Yuvaraj1 K Dharanirajan1 S Jayakumar2 Saravanan1. Department of Disaster Management, Pondicherry University, Port Blair, Andamans 744 112, India. Department of Botany, JNRM College, Port Blair, Andamans 744 101, India.
Keywords: botany; Colophospermum mopane; composition change; drought; impact; mopane; Mopani Veld; mortality; Northern Province; perennial grass; recruitment; savanna; semi-arid; South Africa; vegetation changes; abundance; browsing; browsing pressure; combretum apiculatum; condition; decline; dominance; ...
Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.
Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)
Thomasson, Joseph R.
Explains how to use digital cameras and related basic equipment during indoor and outdoor activities. Uses digital imaging in general botany class to identify unknown fungus samples. Explains how to select a digital camera and other necessary equipment. (YDS)
Sundberg, Marshall D.
Explains the procedures used in a general botany course to obtain polarization, fluorescence, and dark field images using a standard student microscope. Provides sources for materials and references. (JM)
2202, Bangladesh. 2Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh. Accepted 29 November, 2007. A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop ...
... the public scoping process is to determine relevant issues that will influence the scope of the..., botany, lands and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology, and economics. Authority: 40 CFR 1501.7 and 43 CFR...
... of the public scoping process is to determine relevant issues that will influence the scope of the..., paleontology, botany, special status species, wildlife and fisheries, hydrology, sociology and economics...
Keywords: Acacia sieberana; Ecosystems; Fertile islands; Mycorrhizas; Panicum maximum; Patchiness; Plant growth parameters; Savanna; Soil fertility; Soil mycorrhizal infectivity; Soil nutrients; Soil properties; Tree density; Trees; soil; ecology; paperbark acacia; botany; nutrients; mycorrhiza; kwazulu-natal; south africa; ...
Focus and Scope. JOPAT is a peer reviewed journal published by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. It covers all areas of subject as: Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology, Immunology, Virology, Bacteriology, Pharmacology, Botany, Chemistry of medicinal plants and Pharmacognosy.
Author Affiliations. HALA M. ABDELMIGID1 2 ASHRAF EL-SAYED1. Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt; Faculty of Science, Biotechnology Department, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia ...
Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 1983–1988. Ramanuja Rao, Dr I V . Date of birth: 23 May 1954. Specialization: Plant Physiology Address during Associateship: Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007.
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0190-9215 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mineral cost and benefit * stimulation of roots * growth stimulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany
.... In recent years, the Committee On Natural Region Classification of the Chinese Academy of Science has organized science workers in the fields of meteology, soil science, botany and physical geography...
Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the waters of Botany Bay and Georges and Cooks Rivers vary mainly as a result of tidal water movements, algal and macrophytic growth and decay, and effects of storms...
Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria
Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)
Keywods: botany; browsing; carbohydrates; carbon; carbon allocation; Eastern Sweet Grassveld; Eriocephalus ericoides; palatability; photosynthesis; polyphenols; Pteronia tricephala; response; semi-arid; sheep; shrubs; South Africa; stocking rates; water relations; acceptability; elevation; karoo; photosynthetic rate; plant ...
article/11784 2018-02-25T08:45:56Z njnpm:ART ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM FOUR SELECTED VARIETIES OF CAPASIUM ANNUUM Odoemena, SC; Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Uyo, ...
Noronha, L.; Lourenco, N.; Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.; Lieopart, A.; Feoli, E.; Sawkar, K.; Chachadi, A.
sociology, economics, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geography and botany. The objective is to highlight (1) the interface between social and environmental issues in a coastal tourism context, (2) the issues that need to be considered in planning...
botany, zoology, genetics, etc. Animal anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Care and breeding of laboratory animals. Bionics : Study of biological...technology, physical therapy, and prosthesis . Environmental Biology: External influences on the V biological processes of organism. Ecology
g., botany, zoology, genetic , etc. Animal anatomy, physiology, and path- ology. Care and breeding of laboratory animals. Bionics : Study of...ophtha lmology; psychiatry; dentistry. Include s nursing, first aid, medical technolo gy, physical therapy, and prosthesis . Environmental Biology
Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1 2. Teacher in Botany Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India. Chotonilpur Pirtala Burdwan 713103, West Bengal, India.
Keywords: afrikaans; botany; carbohydrate; crude protein content; cutting; digestibility; drought; elyonurus argenteus; fire; flowering; grasses; grazing; heteropogon contortus; in vitro digestibility; moisture content; moisture stress; orange free state; pasture management; production; protein; regrowth; seed production; shoot ...
Oct 20, 2008 ... 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos. 2Nigerian Institute ... preparations used in traditional healthcare systems are popular remedies ... to extract the active ingredients. Water extract.
.D. (Madras). Date of birth: 23 January 1927. Date of death: 27 January 1994. Specialization: Plant Pathology, Microbiology and Biochemistry Last known address: Centre for Advanced Studies in, Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, ...
Specialization: Seed Biology, Seed Pathology & Technology, Molecular Plant Pathology and Biotechnological Approach to Plant Disease Management Address: Life-time Honorary Distinguished Professor, Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, ...
... through local media and at the following BLM Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/fo/st__george.html . In... involved in the planning process: Air quality, archeology, biology, botany, climate change, ecology, lands...
Wim eVan den Ende; Marlies eCoopman; Rudy eVergauwen; André eVan Laere
from raffinose family oligosaccharide to fructan metabolism in leaves of boxtree (Buxus sempervirens) Wim Van den Ende1,* Marlies Coopman1, Rudy Vergauwen1, André Van Laere11 KU Leuven, Laboratory of Molecular Plant Biology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium* Correspondence: Wim Van den Ende, Laboratory of Molecular Plant Biology,Institute of Botany and Microbiology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium tel +32 16321952; fax +32 1...
This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.
Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards. The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons. The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.
During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany). More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from...
Full Text Available This essay examines the Spanish natural history expeditions to Latin America in the late 18th Century —particularly the Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva Granada, directed by José Celestino Mutis— as an approach to an analysis of the importance of visual culture in European natural history, especially in imperial contexts. It explains the connections between economic botany and taxonomic botany, and highlights the role of visual epistemology in bringing them together. It proposes that the scientific expeditions constituted visualization projects that, through the circulation of images and collections, transformed locally rooted natures into global natures in motion.
Клечак, Інна Рішардівна; Бісько, Ніна Анатоліївна; Митропольська, Надія Юріївна; Антоненко, Лариса Олександрівна
The article investigates the impact of natural sources of carbon and nitrogen nutrition and their quantitative ratio of biomass accumulation by medicinal basidiomycetes of the genus Trametes. The objects of the study were 18 strains of basidiomycetes species T. versicolor, T. suaveolens, T. gibbosa, T. hirsuta, T. zonatus, T. pubescens, T. serialis, T. trogii from Institute of Botany of N.G. Kholodny Institute of botany National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine collection of mushrooms. It is sh...
Full Text Available AbstrakPerkembangan pusat perbelanjaan yang semakin meningkat di Kota Bogormendorong Ekalokasari Plaza (sekarang menjadi LIPPO Plaza Bogor untukmelakukan perubahan agar dapat bersaing dengan berbagai pusat perbelanjaanmodern lainnya, khususnya yang berada di Kota Bogor.Ekalokasari Plaza yang sekarang sudah berubah menjadi LIPPO Plaza Bogormerupakan salah satu pusat perbelanjaan tertua di Kota Bogor, bahkan lebih tuadibandingkan Botani Square yang menjadi pesaing utama pusat perbelanjaan moderndi Kota Bogor. Berdasarkan sebuah situs blog yang bernama “Hello Bogor” terdapatinformasi tiga besar pusat perbelanjaan modern terbesar di Kota Bogor pada tahun2012, yaitu Botani Square, Ekalokasari Plaza (LIPPO Plaza Bogor, dan CibinongCity Mall.
Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim
This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.
Tethyan group of Syntrichia (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta): The S. caninervis complex. Systematic Botany 27 (4): 643-653. Kürschner HF (2000) Bryophyte flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra. Bryoph. Bibl. 55: 1-131. Magill RE (1976) Mosses of Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Bryologist 79: 269-295. Magill RE (1981) ...
Jul 25, 2011 ... Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant, Meconopsis impedita. Rong Li and Zhiling Dao*. Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming. 650204, Yunnan, People's Republic of China. Accepted 6 April, 2011.
When the "Journal of Biological Education" was first published in 1967, biology was still very much the Cinderella of the three school sciences in many countries. Most selective secondary school biology courses readily betrayed their origins as an unconvincing coalition of botany and zoology. In the non-selective secondary modern…
Mar 25, 2015 ... 1193, Japan. 2Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr Elsheikh 33516, Egypt. Received 29 January, 2015 ..... Fukushima Pref. Agric. Exp. Stn. 2: 1-14. Hemmi T, Abe T (1931). On the relation of temperature and period of continuous wetting to the infection of the ...
There are two web-based outreach projects based in the botany department at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), providing high-school level learning resources in the area of Biology and Environmental Education. An analysis of guestbook submissions and server logs was made to determine if the resources were ...
Demand for space have necessitated the closure of the Herbarium associated with the Botany Department, University of Queensland, Saint Lucia (BRIU, formerly listed under BRISBANE). The collections went to BRI. The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) together with the Forest Departments of
Botanic Garden at the University of Malaya. A plan was submitted by Professor W.R. Stanton, head of the Botany Division, University of Malaya, K.L., to establish a new botanic garden of some 100 acres as a teaching facility and for the benefit of biological education institutes and the general
Tanzania Fisherics Research Institute, PO Box 46, Shirati, Tarime. Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, PO Box 78850, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, PO Box 90, Kigoma. "Botany ... that there was a flora rich in large diatoms, particularly Aulacoseira spp. and. Stephanodiscus spp., in 1960 and ...
Jun 18, 2007 ... Preliminary studies on cytotoxic effect of fungal taxol on cancer cell lines. V. Gangadevi and J. Muthumary*. Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai – 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India. Accepted 19 January, 2007. Taxol is an important anticancer drug used widely ...
This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…
c Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Fungal Biotechnology, Natural Products and Plant Tissue Culture Lab, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamilnadu, India. d Center of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamilnadu, ...
Oct 29, 1992 ... skaaplammersof ander middel-groottesoogdiere in die studiegebied vreet nie. • To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Department of Botany, University of Natal, P.O. Box 375,. Pietermaritzburg, 3200 Republic of South Africa. Conservation biology and natural ecosystem functioning on.
Apr 17, 2012 ... 1Department of Organic Chemistry and Plant Physiology, University of Kragujevac, Faculty of agriculture Čačak,. Republic of Serbia. 2Mr. Sci. Senad Murtić, Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Faculty of agriculture and food science,. University Of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 8, 71000 Sarajevo, ...
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamilnadu, India; Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Republic of Korea; Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Fungal Biotechnology, Natural Products and Plant Tissue Culture Lab, ...
Nov 13, 2012 ... 2Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo,. Bosnia and Herzegovina. 3Department of Organic Chemistry and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kragujevac, Čačak, Serbia. 4Department of Organizational and ...
May 10, 2013 ... 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, BP 24 157 Cameroon. 2Ministry of Environment and Nature .... licenses were provided to Cameroonian entrepreneurs, the level of regulation of bark ... ecology, regeneration and subsequent protection. Such information is often lacking, ...
article/20120 2017-12-08T15:34:34Z ostrich:ART Observations of Cape Parrot, Poicephalus robustus, nesting in the wild Symes, Craig; School of Botany and Zoology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, KwaZulu-Natal, ...
Micro hairs, silica bodies, short cells, anticlinal wall pattern, epidermal ... Keywords: Digitaria iburua, microhairs, foliar, silica bodies, Digitaria exilis ..... Andropogon gayanus. (Kunth) and. Andropogon tectorum (Schum and Thonns) in Nigeria. Thaiszia Journal of Botany 19: 27-35. Freire, S.E., A. M. Arambarri, N.D. Bayon, ...
Editor-in-Chief (Biological Sciences): Dr. I.O. Adewale Editor-in-Chief (Physical Sciences): Prof. A. O. Ogunfowokan. Associate Editors. Dr. A. O. Shittu - Microbiology Prof. T. O. Obilade - Mathematics Prof. G. A. O. Arawomo - Zoology Prof. J. O. Ajayi - Geology Prof. A. P. Akinola - Mathematics Prof. H. C. Illoh - Botany Prof.
Date of birth: 1 February 1959. Specialization: Plant Molecular Biology Address during Associateship: Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Good Governance: Contribution of Vigilance · Vigilance Awareness Talk by K Jairaj, Former ...
Mukesh1 R K Manhas2 A K Tripathi1 A K Raina3 M K Gupta3 S K Kamboj3. Earth and Environmental Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, 804-1 Yangcheong, Ochang, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883, Republic of Korea. Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar 190 001, India. Forest Soil & Land Reclamation ...
geology, biology, botany, entomology, embryology , and nutrition. Administering this variety of programs would prove to be good training.85 In 1939 and early...first reaction was that they were raiding the chicken coop. They were taking away my baby. They were giiiing to somebody else a job that we had
chemistry, geology , and botany, winning a second class honors degree in Natural Science Tripos in 1910. The following two years he studied law at...current conflict in Southeast Asia, the 1962 Sino-Indian conflict, and the Yemen civil war could have been avoided. As early as the summer of 1949
... respectively, and towards under optimal water conditions, 2.47; 1.67 and 0.23 kg ha -1mm -1, respectively. Keywords: afrikaans; basal cover; botanical composition; botany; composition; decreaser species; drought; efficiency; free state; grasses; grazing; increaser ii species; mortalities; mortality; soil moisture; south africa; ...
Harris, Mary Elizabeth
This annotated bibliography lists 203 special features or special issues of science and technology periodicals with emphasis on compilations of information that appear in periodicals on a regular basis. Subjects covered in the guide include aeronautics, air-conditioning and refrigeration engineering, astronomy, automobiles, biology, botany,…
Zipko, Stephen J.
Describes a four- to six-week minicourse featuring topics from language arts, law, history, sociology, mathematics, art, and woodworking in addition to botany, zoology, genetics, ecology, and evolution. Student study is divided into five phases: tree-ring analysis; forest history; seedling competition; genetic improvement and cloning; and a…
Williams, Benjamin W.; Fawcett, W. Peyton
Founded in 1894 to support museum research, the Field Museum of Natural History Library specializes in fields of anthropology, archaeology, botany, geology, palaeontology, and zoology. A rich serials collection and numerous special collections serve both the scientific community and wider public as noncirculating reference collection and through…
Since the recommendation of biology (or natural history, as it used to be called) in 1893 as part of the high school science curriculum, biology was considered a descriptive subject. In the late 1890s biology consisted of zoology, botany, and physiology. The group that decided on the high school science course configuration was the Committee of…
1.00 War and Peace. By Leon Tolstoy , .. , 3.00 Flamingo Road. By Robert lr’ilder . , 2.50 The Sun Is My Undoing. By Marguerite Steen , 3.00 Botany...field artillery including tactics, and motor transportation have been added to the curriculum. Among the latter group are two officers from the Chilean
Items 101 - 150 of 208 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany), How do carbon dioxide and ozone affect the basal respiration and soil microbial population in the rhizosphere of Glycine max ? Abstract. AA Ali, YA El-Zawahry, SJ Angle. Vol 5 (2003), Humoral immune response of Swiss mice after immunization with E-selenium adjuvated ...
El-Zawahry, YA. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles How do carbon dioxide and ozone affect the basal respiration and soil microbial population in the rhizosphere of Glycine max ? Abstract. ISSN: 1110-6859. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
high content of starch, lysine, vitamin A and ascorbic acid. Sweetpotato is also an alternative source of bio-energy .... photoperiod under the same temperature for shoot regeneration as reported by Cuenca et al. (2000). ..... in sweet potato using the ethylene inhibitor silver nitrate. South African Journal of Botany. 71:110-113.
. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 547–555. 10. Kolwalkar JP, Sawant SS, Dharkalkar VK (2007) Fate of Enteromorpha (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implication for ballast water management. Aquatic Botany 86: 86–88. 11. Raffaelli DJ...
It is proposed that topography acts to modify the factors that directly influence plant growth by modifying solar radiation patterns. Keywords:aspect; botanical composition; botany; c3 grasses; c4 grasses; discriminant analysis; grassland; grasslands; lesotho; relationships; solar radiation; subtropical grasses; vegetation
The Cassia alata leaf was obtained from the Botanical garden of the Department of Botany, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and ethanolic extraction was got using cold extraction method. The extract was further diluted to four levels of concentration thus: 250, 175, 87.5 and 48.75 mg/ml. The sensitivity pattern of the isolated ...
The content of Polish textbooks of botany, zoology and rudiments of evolutionism of Lysenkoist times was analysed, along with a methodological manual for biology and a set of guidelines. On this basis, and taking into account the memories of eyewitnesses, it can be stated that Mendelian genetics was not taught in schools in Poland during the Lysenkoist period.
A Study to Determine Whether General Concepts Which are Commonly Taught by Motion Pictures can be Learned as Effectively by Sequential Still Photographs During Traditional Versus Self Paced Study Periods.
Wells, Russell Frederick
Reported is a study investigating the use of sequential still photographs rather than motion picture or slides as a media for instructional purposes for a botany course at the university level. Six experimental groups of randomly chosen students viewed visual materials presenting given concepts by three modes--motion pictures, slides, and…
Edelman, Jack R.
The purpose of this book is to increase awareness of the numerous seminars, short courses, field courses, workshops, and programs for teachers, students, naturalists, and independent scholars. These programs emphasize the natural sciences including general biology, botany, zoology, ecology, marine biology, ichthyology, microbiology, natural…
Davis, Roger M.; Grimm, Floyd M., III
Discusses the properties desirable in a natural area to be used as a teaching tool in college courses such as general biology, botany, zoology, entomology, and ecology. Describes the use of a natural area at Harford Community College, Maryland, and outlines the community involvement in planning and utilizing the area. (JR)
Dexter, Ralph W.
This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)
Oliver, J. Steve; Nichols, B. Kim
Summarizes a debate over biology education that took place during a symposium sponsored by the School Science and Mathematics editors in 1908. The six published symposium contributions were meant to address such questions as whether zoology, botany, and human physiology should be studied in one biology course, and what the general purposes for…
POSTLETHWAIT, S.N.; AND OTHERS
THE USE OF AUDIOTUTORIAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING INTRODUCTORY COLLEGE BOTANY IS DESCRIBED. SPECIFIC PRACTICES USED AT PURDUE UNIVERSITY TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENT FACETS OF THE APPROACH ARE ANALYZED. INCLUDED ARE INDEPENDENT STUDY SESSIONS, SMALL ASSEMBLY SESSIONS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY SESSIONS, AND HOME STUDY SESSIONS. ILLUSTRATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS…
Stafleu, Frans A.
On 31 May 1938 our predecessor professor Pulle delivered an address on the ”stocktaking of the heritage of our forefathers” on the occasion of the opening of the enlarged and reorganized Laboratory of special Botany and Plant Geography” of the University of Utrecht. The ”renewal” had been radical: a
West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 24(1), 2016: 43–58. Mass Loss and Nutrient Release through Leaching in Tectona grandisand Theobroma cacao leaf litter in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A. I. Odiwe*, C. F. Akinye and O. O. Agboola. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,. 22005, Osun ...
Jun 17, 2009 ... 1Department of Botany, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 2Department of Environmental Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Accepted 19 May, 2009. Industrial processes are causing continuous discharges of effluents into open drains which enter into.
The Natural History of Rennell Island, British Solomon Islands. Scientific Result of the Danish Rennell Expedition, 1951, and the British Museum (Natural History) Expedition, 1959. Vol. 5 (Botany and Geology), ed. by Torben Wolff. Danish Science Press, Copenhagen, 1960, 7-152 pp., many figs and
... botany, ethnobotany, forestry, agroforestry and agrogeology. It is also devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of chemistry including chemistry of natural products, organic synthesis, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, industrial chemistry, clinical chemistry, ...
Laboratory for Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, University of ... rank second in importance only to cassava. ... The culture flasks containing the media were sealed with parafilm and sterilized by autoclaving at. 1210C and 1.05 kg cm-2 pressure for 20 min. The surface – sterilized explants were.
INTRODUCTION. 1. Stellaria media (L.) Vill of the plant family ... Plant materials. Fresh leaves of S. media were collected from Mokuro,. Ile-Ife, Nigeria in September, 2008 by Mr. Ademoriyo of Herbarium section, Department of Botany, Obafemi. Awolowo University. ..... central nervous system, such as narcotics, inhibit both.
Apr 24, 2008 ... William Hooker's income from botany had always been meagre. His position at Glasgow was not well-paid, ... useful source of income, but Joseph Hooker never put much time or energy into producing them, ... matters such as the geographical distribution of plants; merely classifying plants was not enough, ...
Nov 23, 2011 ... Ahmad Bybordi. Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of East Azarbaijan, Tabriz, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. ...... Ph.D. Thesis Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Cairo. University, Egypt. Mendham NJ, Salisbury PA (1995). Physiology . Crop developmentin.Growth and ...
34dredging." But anyway, I think that we have a bunch of words that my mother used to say ’simply do not belong in polite society." Especially now that...Ruppia maritima L.," Aquatic Botany, Vol 24, pp 185-197. Fonseca, M. S. 1987. "Habitat Development Applications: Use of Seagrass Transplanting for
Full Text Available Some new material of Anisoptera kostermansiana Dilmy, described bythe present author in Reinwardtia 3: 347. 1956, was put at his disposal bythe kindness of Mr. J. S. Womersley, Chief, Division of Botany at Lae, T.N.G.
If you think of the sciences as a tower, with one field resting on another until you reach, say, botany or physiology, then particle physics represents the bottommost floor....A full of mysterious particles - "sparticles" - that have yet to be detected; that is is not a universe at all, but a multiverse. (7,5 pages)
Angle, SJ. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles How do carbon dioxide and ozone affect the basal respiration and soil microbial population in the rhizosphere of Glycine max ? Abstract. ISSN: 1110-6859. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...
Winter, Charles A.
This book provides job descriptions and discusses career opportunities in various fields of the biological sciences. These fields include: (1) biotechnology, genetics, biomedical engineering, microbiology, mycology, systematic biology, marine and aquatic biology, botany, plant physiology, plant pathology, ecology, and wildlife biology; (2) the…
of animals was also on similar lines: for example, different animals were grouped into flying, swimming and running animals. De Materia Medica remained the mainstay of European botany till the 16th century, when many well illustrated herbals appeared, often in the form of illustrated commentaries on Discorides' text.
... . Fax: (760) 337-4490. Mail: 1661 So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS are available in the El ] Centro Field Office at the above address and at the BLM...: Recreation; transportation and public access; wildlife and botany; cultural resources and paleontology...
Climatic and edaphic conditions in central Botswana and north-eastern Namibia generally range between those in south-eastern Arizona and the Cape Province, RSA and we expect that seeded Lehmann lovegrass stands in these areas would enhance semi-desert grassland productivity. Keywords: arizona; botany ...
Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be re-established from seedfall if the appropriate management practices are applied, and may thus function as a perennial fodder crop. Annual seedbed preparation and seeding are eliminated in this way. Keywords: botany; fodder; grasses; italian ryegrass; lolium multiflorum; ...
Mar 30, 2012 ... considered as a new subspecies in these two species. Some of the populations showed the ... Mantel test performed did not show significant correlation between morphological/molecular distance and geographical distance of the ..... New Zealand Journal of Botany, 30,. 13–24. Rettig JH, Wilson HD, ...
Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 3Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health. Sciences, University of Sana'a, Sana'a, Yemen, 4Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt, 5Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Dhamar University, Yemen, 6Department of ...
JOPAT is a peer reviewed journal published by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. It covers all areas of subject as: Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology, Immunology, Virology, Bacteriology, Pharmacology, Botany, Chemistry of medicinal plants and Pharmacognosy. Authors can submit their ...
Sep 1, 2009 ... Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Accepted 5 July, 2007. The study shows the presence of moisture, ash, crude fiber, proteins, fats and oils, and carbohydrates in proximate percentage in Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus and Rumex nepalensis (Family.
Institution. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang. Institution Country. China. Project Leader. Dr Fang Jing. Institution. Kunming Medical University as represented by Jiang Runsheng. Institution Country. China. Institution Website. http://www.kmmu.edu.cn ...
Institution. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang. Institution Country. China. Project Leader. Dr Fang Jing. Institution. Kunming Medical University as represented by Jiang Runsheng. Institution Country. China. Institution Website. http://www.kmmu.edu.cn ...
dairying , poultry raising, and husbandry,” as well as “seed and soil study,” botany, marketing and farm practice, livestock production, farm machinery...76 4.1.3 Finding for Criterion C — Design/Construction/ Planning ....................................... 76 4.1.4 Finding for Criterion D...4 Figure 3. First Farm dairy barn with house in background
Margaret S. Devall; Elaine K. Sutherland
The 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability was held in Beijing, China from 11 to 17 June 2006. The conference was organized and hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IB_CAS) in conjunction with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Group 5.01.07 (Tree-...
Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing Botanical Garden, Mem. Sun Yat-Sen, Nanjing 210014, PR China; Golden Yuanta Construction Engineering Co., Ltd., Zhejiang 311200, PR China; Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue ...
1Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing Botanical Garden, Mem. Sun Yat-Sen,. Nanjing 210014, PR China. 2Golden Yuanta Construction Engineering Co., Ltd., Zhejiang 311200, PR China. 3Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee ...
BIO-ASSAY OF HEAVY METALS BY ASPERGILLUS. NIGER—SENSITIVITY OF A NEW STRAIN. BY (MISS) L. SARAswathi Devi i (University Botany Laboratory, Madras). Received November 18, 1953. (Communicated by Professor T. S. Sadasivan, F.A.Sc.) THE ability of some fungi to utilize minute traces of Some heavy ...
Good Times in Tübingen. Wolfgang Engelmann. Book Review Volume 16 Issue 8 August 2011 pp 776-777. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/08/0776-0777. Author Affiliations. Wolfgang Engelmann1. Department of Botany, University of Tübingen, Germany.
Mohan Ram, Prof. Holenarasipur Yoganarasimham Ph.D. (Delhi), FNA, FNASc, FNAAS Council Service: 1983-88; Vice-President: 1986-88. Date of birth: 24 September 1930. Specialization: Plant Growth & Development and Economic Botany Address: No. 174, SFS DDA Flats, Mukherjee Nagar, Delhi 110 009, U.T.
Ducháček, M.; Chrtek, Jindřich
Roč. 36, 1-2 (2017), s. 47-53 ISSN 0231-9616 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Phleum exaratum * Poaceae * Eastern Bohemia * alein species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany
Bartušková, Alena; Malíková, Lenka; Klimešová, Jitka
Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 337-343 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : adventitious bud * root * hypocotyl Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016
Mrs. Delia D. Adefuin, Museum Research Assistant, Manila, is pursuing her M.S. in Botany degree. She is currently the Secretary of the Fern Society of the Philippines. She is working on the Fern Flora of Metro Manila and is preparing the manuscript of a pictorial encyclopedia which will include
The metabolic features of both oils are considered having juvenilizing action, where some morphogenetic abnormalities in treated larvae as well as developed pupae and adults were observed. KEY WORDS: Plodia interpunctella, biochemistry, morphogenetic. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 2003: 155-163. AJOL African ...
This thesis presented eight studies in the field of systematic botany, with a focus on the molecular phylogenetics, taxonomy, and pollen morphology of the tribe Miliuseae (formerly known as the miliusoid clade) of the pantropical flowering plant family Annonaceae. The general aims were: (1) to
Balslev, Henrik; Trisonthi, Chusie; Srithi, Kamonnate
Mai University, which is the subject of this presentation. Three graduate students have completed their doctoral training with research projects covering botany of ethnic groups in Thailand, taxonomic and ecological studies of Thai Nymphaeaceae, and ecophysiological studies of aquatic plants. Two...
"Univesity of Nairobi Department of Botany, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi Kenya; + lntermational Potato Center (ClP), Sub-Saharam. Africa Region, P.O. Box 25171, Nairobi, Kenya; and + international Livestock Research Institute (lLRl), P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi,. Kenya '. Abstract. To maximize the availability of pro-vitamin A ...
Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.
... washing out and sediment deposition. It is normally grown in relatively moist soils where in addition to the role it plays in soil conservation, it produces large quantities of palatable grazing for cattle. Keywords: angiosperms; botany; distribution; phragmites australis; propagation; sediment deposition; soil conservation; uses ...
Mar 6, 2009 ... 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. 3Department of Botany and ... perfumery, fragrance or flavors industries, Rhynchosia minima was selected ... GC-MS analysis was performed as previously described using a. Hewlett Packard 6890 ...
Ramsay, Jodie L.
The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…
Oct 2, 2006 ... motor mechanic workshops in Asaba and Benin City,. Nigeria: Identification of oil tolerant plant species. Anoliefo, G. O.1*, Ikhajiagbe, B. 2, Okonofhua, B. O.3 and Diafe, F. V. 1. 1Department of Botany, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 2Raw Materials Research and Development Council, Abuja, ...
We study the geography and botany of symplectic spin four-manifolds with abelian fundamental group. By building on the constructions of J. Park and of B. D. Park and Szabó, we can give alternative proofs and extend several results on the geography of simply connected four-manifolds to the nonsimply connected realm.
Dec 18, 2006 ... Identification and extraction of Piper nigrum. The identity of P. nigrum was authenticated at the botany unit of the. Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Babcock University. The method of Sofowora (1982) was slightly modified in carrying out extraction of the seeds, fruits and leaves of the plants. These.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.
This expanded catalog lists over 8,000 films, filmstrips, videotapes, transparencies, audiotapes, and records dealing with environmental and ecological topics. Subjects include: amphibians, botany, birth control, city planning, evolution, food chains, farming, oceanography, and sea life. Titles are listed alphabetically. Though entries are not…
In my early years, I was tremendously fascinated by music, dance and culture, and my family thought that I would become an artist. In class five, I had a great biology teacher and I started taking interest in botany. After that, I was fascinated by plants; with a fairly good memory, it was possible to identify and classify them and ...
Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard E.
College students learned about botany through an agent-based multimedia game. Students received either spoken or identical on-screen text explanations. Results reveal that students scored higher on retention, transfer, and program ratings in narration conditions than in text conditions. The media--desktop displays or headmounted displays--did not…
Berney, Cédric; Ciuprina, Andreea; Bender, Sara; Brodie, Juliet; Edgcomb, Virginia; Kim, Eunsoo; Rajan, Jeena; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Adl, Sina; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Caron, David A.; Cochrane, Guy; Czech, Lucas; Dunthorn, Micah; Geisen, Stefan
Universal taxonomic frameworks have been critical tools to structure the fields of botany, zoology, mycology, and bacteriology as well as their large research communities. Animals, plants, and fungi have relatively solid, stable morpho-taxonomies built over the last three centuries, while
2Service of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Medical Pharmacy and Odontology Faculty, Cheikh Anta Diop. University of Dakar BP ... saponin, alkaloids and cardiotonic heterosides, explains why traditional medicine uses both plants together to treat certain diseases. ..... Medicinal Plants. The Pharma Innovation Journal, (1)12.
It is represented in most spheres of human activity: in agriculture, traditional and alternative medicine, human and animal health, forestry and botany. This article discusses how Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge (IAK) is accessed ... of IAK into research, and education and training is essential. Innovation, No.44, June 2012 ...
Botany 2000-Asia — From the Newsletter 3/2 (June 1994) the following: — Workshop on Piperaceae to be held in 1995. For more information write to Mr. M. van Alphen, UNESCO/ROSTEA, 8 Poorvi Marg, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi-11057, India. — The second Symposium on the Zingiberaceae will be held between 9
A refresher course on 'Experimental Biology: Orthodox to Modern' will be held at PG and Research Department of Botany, St.Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli , Tamil Nadu for two weeks from 07 November to 19 November. 2016. The objective of this course is to improvise on teaching methodologies and also get familiar ...
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1934 Section: Plant Sciences. Maheshwari, Panchanan D.Sc., FNA, FNASc 1952-61; Vice President 1952-61. Date of birth: 9 November 1904. Date of death: 18 May 1966. Specialization: Embryology, Plant Anatomy,Economic Botany. YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog ...
Mar 27, 2012 ... 1Department of Botany, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan. 2Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. ... they have been used as medicinal or cosmetic material since ancient times (Jo et al., 2006; Sharma and Mishra,. 2009). They are known to ...
Buot, I.E.; Hernaez, B.F.; Tandang, D.N.
With the founding of the Museum of Natural History (MNH) at the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) the former Department of Botany Herbarium (CAHUP) has been transferred to this. This required the establishment of another herbarium to cater to the increasing need by courses in
Participants in the present study were 87 college students who learned about botany using an agent-based instructional program with three different learning approaches: individual, jigsaw, or cooperative learning. Results showed no differences among learning approaches on retention. Students in jigsaw groups reported higher cognitive load during…
Mar 20, 2009 ... The cultures used in the study were obtained from cyanobacterial culture collection of CAS in Botany, University of Madras. Eight strains of non heterocystous, filamentous Oscillatoria spp. and four strains of Lyngbya spp. were used. The details of the cultures used as sources of DNA are presented in Table ...
Diab, Atef M. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): (Botany) - Articles Bacteriological studies on the potability, efficacy and EIA of desalination operations at Sharm El-Sheikh region, Egypt Abstract. ISSN: 1110-6859. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Doorn, van W.G.
In a previous paper (Woltering and van Doorn, 1988, Journal of Experimental Botany39: 1605–1616) we identified three types of flower life cessation: by petal wilting or withering, which was either ethylene-sensitive or insensitive, and by abscission of turgid petals, which was ethylene-sensitive.
The laboratory curriculum of the International Biology Olympiad. (IBO) involves activities in different areas of botany and zoology. In addition, every year some other areas, such as biochemistry, genetics, ethology and ecology are also included. The IBO curriculum, both at the theory and practical levels, includes topics at the ...
Wiener, Morris; Wade, Dot
The wife of the late Doug Wade discusses the course of his career in outdoor education and nature interpretation; the relationship he had with his mentor, Aldo Leopold; his success as a teacher and his relationship with his students; and how a background in botany enabled her to assist her husband with field trips. (LP)
capacity of this species to acquire and assimilate mineralized N. .... production systems have adopted ridge tillage (RT) practices in an effort to increase yield. RT is a cultural practice widely used throughout the world with many different modifications but with the ..... Australian Journal of Botany, 32,. 217-235. Atkins, C.A. ...
K. S. Joseph1 H. N. Murthy1 K. V. Ravishankar2. Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India; Division of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore 560 089, India ...
Matt, Megan Mason
As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…
Kelly Johnson introduces a series of lessons that incorporate literacy, observation, botany, history, place studies, writing, and art, with a long-term eco-literacy goal of connectedness and a conservation ethic. Johnson's initial idea to use Beatrix Potter as a model in the Lower Elementary classroom came after extensively researching…
Morales, Carlos O
In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.
The Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM) is based in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Its aim is to publish original research output in the area of Geography, Ecology, Botany, Conservation studies, Food and Nutrition, Water ...
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, ...
As a student, I used to enjoy ’Karsten and Schenck’ propped up on the breakfast-table. With equal familiarity I treated ’Kerner’, 'Schimper', and other great picture-books of botany. The time came to translate the dreams of youth into vocation. ”Protista”, said the professor of zoology, ”are the
Pichi Sermolli, R.E.G.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.
A dedication to ODOARDO BECCARI, the greatest botanist ever to study in Malesia, is long overdue. Although best known as a plant taxonomist, his versatile genius extended far beyond the basic field of this branch of Botany, his wide interest leading him to investigate the laws of evolution, the
Presented topics varied over many fields in science and engineering. Botany on grasses in California, real time face recognition technology, thermogravimetric studies on corrosion and finite element modeling of the human pelvis are examples of discussed subjects. Further fields of study are carcinogenics, waste management, radar imaging, automobile accessories, document searching on the internet, and shooting stars. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.
of many strains of pepper in cultivation. Key Words: Capsicum mutant L; C. frutescens L.; intra- and inter-specific .... 6 $01 "Atasombo' Capsicum annum var. Has long pointed fruits with hot taste acwminatum Fmgerh. ... Early evolution of chilli peppers. Economic Botany 36(4): 361—368. Nwankiti, 0.0 1976. Cytogenetics of ...
Kevin T. Smith
Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...
in any society. It is at the centre for producing resources necessary for socio- economic, scientific and technological development needed for advancement of any nation. The above notwithstanding, much ... botany, ecology, genetics, morphology, anatomy, physiology, histology, microbiology, biochemistry, evolution and the ...
Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer
The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004-2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash...
Nov 16, 2009 ... Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Accepted 12 September, 2008. Various organic and aqueous extracts of aerial part of Boenninghausenia albiflora (Rutaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight animal and ...
Phytochemical methods. 3rd ed., Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, pp. 135 – 203. 6. Khan, M. R., Omoloso, A. D. and Barewai, Y. (2006) Antimicrobial activity of the Derris elliptica, Derris indica and Derris trifoliate extractives. Fitoterapia. 77: 327 – 330. 7. Kochhar, S. L. (1981). Tropical crops: A textbook of economy botany.
treatment on the in-situ and ex-situ regeneration of Dalbergia melanoxylon in Pugu forest reserve. Seed germination experiments was conducted for three months between November and December 2005 in the nursery Botany Department of the University of Dare s Salaam while seedling growth rate measurements were ...
Jan 19, 1991 ... Department of Botany, University of the Witwatersrand,. Johannesburg. A. CADMAN, M.Se. Aettp,ed 18 lan 1990. have changed considerably since his surveys were undertaken. Not only are there the effects of industrialisation"and changing land-use panerns, but also the results of altered gardening.
Researchers at the Kunming Institute of Botany in China will develop regional bioclimatic maps and model climate scenarios to predict climate change impacts in the Asian Highlands. HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation will partner with the Kunming Institute to assess vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate change in ...
... in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Illustrates with a table. Keywords: Botanical surveys; Grass density; Grasslands; Mixed Bushveld; Nylsvley Nature Reserve; Quadrat size species density; Small-quadrat method; Species density; Species richness; botany; sample size; method; survey; south africa
Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria. (Submitted: 31 May 2004; Accepted: 31 October 2004). Abstract. Epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia biglobosa (Locust bean) were cultured in vitro to investigate their callogenic capacity. Established cultures were obtained and maintained on MS ...
Jul 4, 2008 ... 2Department of Botany, Bose Institute, 93/1 A.P.C. Road Kolkata 700009 India. Accepted 3 June, 2008. The use of Gymnema sylvestris as an alternative remedy for diabetes was well known from ancient times in India and the plant is valuable for its pharmaceutical properties. The present study describes.
Nov 19, 2007 ... persica. Mohammad Ahanjan1, Mohana, D. C1, Raveesha, K. A.1* and M. Azadbakht2. 1Microbiology laboratory, Department of studies in Botany and Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India. 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mazandaran Medical Sciences, Sary, Iran.
Nov 11, 1973 ... CABORA BASSA FISH POPULATIONS BEFORE AND DURING. THE FIRST FILLING PHASE. P. B. N. JACKSON. J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown and. K. H. ROGERS. Department of Botany, Natal University, PietermtJl'itzburg. ABSTRACT. Pre-impoundment surveys ...
problem arises as a result of the fact that aloes are one of the highly sought-after plants, due to their use in horticulture, medicine and commerce. It is therefore imperative to document information on the botany, ecology, distribution and chemistry of these species, in the hope that such knowledge will stimulate research and ...
Institution. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang. Pays d' institution. China. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr Fang Jing. Institution. Kunming Medical University as represented by Jiang Runsheng. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet. http://www.kmmu.edu.cn. Chargé(e) de projet.
Crude protein electrophoresis of seeds of eight species of Crotalaria L. Nig. J. Botany 1:106 -110. Atkinson MD, Lyndsey A, MIA Simpson (1986). Characterization of. Cocoa germplasm using isoenzyme markers. 1. A preliminary survey of diversity using starch gel electrophoresis and standardization of procedure. Euphytica.
Calvert, H. E., Pence, M. K., Pierce, M., Malik, N. S. A., and Bauer, W. D. ( 1984). Anatomical analysis of the development and distribution of Rhizobium infection in soybean roots. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2375-2384. Cardenas, L., Vidali, L., Domsnguez, J., Pirez, H., Sanchez, F., Helper, P.K. and. Quinto, C. (1998).
Apr 3, 2008 ... Bikalga is a product of traditional alkaline fermentation of Hibiscus sabdariffa used as food condiment in African countries ... sites of Burkina Faso where the different steps of the technology were recorded, specific diagram of production of ... conservation, the culture, the botany and the physico- chemical ...
Its aim is to publish original research output in the area of Geography, Ecology, Botany, Conservation studies, Food and Nutrition, Water Resources, Urban Studies, Environmental Design and Management and other allied disciplines. It is devoted to disseminating results of original research in these fields. Review papers ...
J. A. Larsen
Records which furnish information regarding weather conditions on mountains have alwavs been of interest to the public and to scientists. To the United States Forest Service these are of great use in constructing the ground work for better forest fire protection. Students of climate, botany, ecology, and animal life are always eager for such data.
New York State Museum, Albany.
Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…
Hurford, Amanda A.; Runyon, Carolyn F.
Charles E. Bracker was a professor of botany and plant pathology at Purdue University from 1964 to 1999. His late wife, Anri, was an orchid enthusiast who began collecting and housing orchids in the 1980s. In 2009, Bracker's 30,000 digital orchid photographs were donated to Ball State University Libraries, where both of this article's authors…
Mar 19, 2007 ... J. K. Mensah*, and B. Obadoni. Department of Botany Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Accepted 22 January, 2007. The mutagenic effects of different concentrations of sodium azide (0.01 – 0.05%) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv SS1145B and RMP 91) were investigated. The characters ...
This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between "scientists" and "artisans" in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as…
A A Essiett
Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...
Niger Delta Biologia . 4(2): 50- 60. Anyanwu,D.I.; Tanee, F.B.G. (2008). Tolerance of cassava (Var. TMS 30572) to different concentrations of post-planting crude oil pollution. Nigerian Journal of Botany. 21(1):. 203-207. Chronopoulos, J.; Hadouti, C.; Chronopolou Sereli A. Mas. (1997). Variations in plant and soil lead.
In addition physiological differences between the two forms are established with regard to photosynthetic rates, transpiration rates, and boundary layer and stomatal resistances. The C4 form was found to be more efficient with respect to water utilization efficiency. Keywords: alloteropsis semialata; botany; characteristics; ...
This study highlights the potential use of behavioural and physiological response of a sentinel organism for monitoring the pesticides in the marine environment. KEY WORDS: LC50, glyphosate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, valve movement, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, energy lost. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 ...
thesis, Botany Dept., Univ. Calif. [Alleopathy, Eleocharis, Phytotoxicity] Westlake, D. F. 1982. "Ecology-community metabolism and production: The primary...be growth stimulatory while I. aquatica is growth inhibitory. They suggest that the growth-promoting effect may be due to terpenoids and that the
All rights reserved. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v6i3.24. Original Paper http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on in vitro growth of Scleroderma sinnamariense Mont., a pantropical ectomycorrhizal fungus. Eneke Esoeyang TAMBE BECHEM. Department of Botany and Plant Physiology ...
This set of botany demonstrations is a continuation of the inquiry-based lecture activities that provide realistic connections to the history and nature of science and employ technology in data collection. The demonstrations also provide examples of inquiry-based teaching practices in the life sciences. (Contains 5 figures.) [For Part 1, see…
Maixner, Michael R.; Noyd, Robert K.; Krueger, Jerome A.
To assist student understanding of heat transfer through woody stems, we developed an instructional package that included an Excel-based, one-dimensional simulation model and a companion instructional worksheet. Guiding undergraduate botany students to applying principles of thermodynamics to plants in nature is fraught with two main obstacles:…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Talipot: A Forgotten Palm of the Western Ghats A Plea for its Conservation. M D Subash Chandran ... Author Affiliations. M D Subash Chandran1. Department of Botany Dr Baliga College of Arts and Science Kumta 581 343, Karnataka, India ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Environmental Biology - Man and his Environment. M D Subhash Chandran. Book Review Volume ... Author Affiliations. M D Subhash Chandran1. Department of Botany, Dr Baliga College of Arts and Science, Kumta 581343, Karnataka, India.
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…
Micheal C. Wiemann; G. Bruce Williamson
Following the 2010 publication of Measuring Wood Specific Gravityâ¦ Correctly in the American Journal of Botany, readers contacted us to inquire about application of wood density and specific gravity to biomass research. Here we recommend methods for sample collection, volume measurement, and determination of wood density and specific gravity for...
McQueen, David R.
Outlines the steps necessary to conduct a science fair project and examines two specific examples of how a basic idea for a science fair topic can be followed to its completion. Provides examples of day-to-day operational science in a basic botany project and a lunar geography project. (JJK)
Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria
Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…
Berney, Cedric; Ciuprina, Andreea; Bender, Sara; Brodie, Juliet; Edgcomb, Virginia; Kim, Eunsoo; Rajan, Jeena; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Adl, Sina; Audic, Stephane; Bass, David; Caron, David A.; Cochrane, Guy; Czech, Lucas; Dunthorn, Micah; Geisen, Stefan; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Mahe, Frederic; Quast, Christian; Kaye, Jonathan Z.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; del Campo, Javier; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Vargas, Colomban
Universal taxonomic frameworks have been critical tools to structure the fields of botany, zoology, mycology, and bacteriology as well as their large research communities. Animals, plants, and fungi have relatively solid, stable morpho-taxonomies built over the last three centuries, while bacteria
the performance of the treated plants was better with short exposure time and 4 hr of treatment produced best agronomical traits and ..... 86. Ananthaswamy, H. M., Vakil, V. K. and Shrinivas, A.,. 1971. Biological and physiological changes in gamma irradiated wheat during germination. Radiation. Botany, 11: 1-12. Biswas ...
McLure, John W.
Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)
the higher secondary school and the undergraduate levels and not as phylogenic group-based subdisciplines like botany, zoology and microbiology or functional subdisciplines like genetics and biochemistry. This is possible only if we conceptualize biology and try to understand its philosophical underpinnings. Introduction.
2National Herbarium, Department of Botany and Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FAST),. University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP 526, ..... dont 01 économique (forte valeur marchande),. 9 culinaires et technologiques et 11 ...... Available online at URL: www.fao.org. Gbaguidi AA, Dansi A, Loko LY, Dansi ...
tolerance in wheat. Waqas Manzoor Bhutta* and Muhammad Hanif. Department of Botany, Government College University Faisalabad, 38040-Pakistan. Accepted 24 August, 2009 ... Key words: Marker, RAPD, root length, salinity, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Salinity is a ..... to leaf rust resistance in barley. Theor. Appl. Genet.
ABSTRACT. Activity in two unrelated genera of mol~rats, Tachyoryctes and Heiiophobius, was studied in the field by recording ... Heliophobius occurs over much of central and eastern Africa (de Graaff 1968). The foraging ...... soil moisture and. Miss S. Moorjani, Botany Department, University of Nairobi, identified the plants.
*Samuel, T. O. and Odunigba, O. Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State ... identification of aflatoxins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Proximate analysis of the stored feed were also carried out. .... electronic Chromatographic machine used is the. Agilent Machine which was ...
El Harmeen Press, Cairo. Egyptian British Biological Society (EBB Soc)_. Populus galls induced by Pemphigus aphids in Sinai. Somia El-Akkad“ and Samy Zalat2. 1. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 2. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, ...
Feb 26, 2014 ... metal-ion-inhibited xylanase is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Fungal strain and culture conditions. The fungus F. heterosporum was newly isolated from local soil from. Cascavel, Paraná state, Brazil and identified at the Instituto de. Botânica (Institute of Botany), São Paulo, Brazil. The fungus strain.
A Refresher Course in 'Plant Taxonomy and Ethnobotany' will be held in the Department of Botany,. Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, from 18 to 31 January 2018 for the benefits of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will gain practical and theoretical experience ...
... Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM) are based in Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Its aim is to publish original research out put in the area of Geography, Ecology, Botany, Conservation studies, Water Resources, Urban Studies, Environmental Design and ...
Flora and vegetation study of Suluan Island, Eastern Samar, Philippines — A group of botanists from the University of San Carlos Botany Research Group (USCBRG) and CEBU (Ms. E. Elumbaring, Dr. B. Heeger, Dr. F. Seidenschwarz, and Ms. S. Semblante) is studying the flora and vegetation of Suluan
Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 9. Nwankwo DI. 1998. The influence of sawmill wood wastes on diatom population at. Oko-baba, Lagos, Nigeria. Nigerian. Journal of Botany, 11: 15 – 24. Nwankwo DI, Akinsoji A. 1992. Epiphyte community on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in coastal waters of southwestern Nigeria.
Botany 2000-Asia is a co-operative programme, recognised and sponsored by UNESCO, of Asian botanists aiming to raise the standard of Asian descriptive botanical research. The primary field is plant taxonomy. Following the formal establishment of the UNESCO program in 1989 a steering Committee headed
Nov 12, 2016 ... 1 Doctorado en Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, 04960 México, D.F.,. México. 2 Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University, Po 32511, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt. 3 Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Departamento de Zootecnia, 56230, ...
Kalkman, C.; Vink, W.
Dispela ripot i toktok long wok bilong Dr C. Kalkman na Mr W. Vink, bilong Rijksherbarium long Leiden, Holland, wantaim Mr A. N. Gillison na Mr D. G. Frodin bilong Division bilong wok long Botany, long Lae. Oli bin mekim dispela wok long yar 1966 long ol dispela pies klostu long Tari: mauden Ambua,
article/29971 2017-11-01T21:24:48Z ejb:ART Hormone levels and protein patterns in dormant and non-dormant buds of strawberry, and induction of bud break by gibberellic acid Ahmed, Hala F. S.; Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain ...
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India; Departamento de Botânica, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 277, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biologıa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 3er Circuito de Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacan ...
Mannering, S. I., J. Zhong, and C. Cheers. 2002. T-cell activation, proliferation and apoptosis in primary Listeria monocytogenes infection. Immunology...mouse TCR *Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle WA 98101; †Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331
and Abiotic Stress” will be held at PG and Research Department of Botany, Vivekananda College of. Arts and Sciences for Women (Autonomous), Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu for two weeks from 6 to 18 November 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
The conclusion is drawn that stock correctly managed are an indispensible tool in the rehabilitation of poor veld and that research on the use of the animal to oversow veld at low cost is urgently required in dry areas of South Africa. Keywords: bitterbush; botany; chrysocoma tenuifolia; grasses; grassveld; grazing; hillside; ...
... Department of Agricultural Botany,Post Graduate Institute, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, India; Department of Plant Pathology, Post Graduate Institute, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, India; Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research ...
The fruits of Triumfetta cordifolia were collected from. Afaha Oku in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa. Ibom State in October, 2005. The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr. (Mrs.) Margaret Bassey of the. Department of Botany, University of Uyo, where the specimen voucher was deposited. Preparation of Extract.
Dr. J.A.R. Anderson, who retired from the Sarawak Forest Service, and now lives at 15 Church Hill, Edinburgh EH10 4BG, will continue his interest in Malesian botany and ecology as a consultant forester and ecologist. The MS. of a project on which he had been working for several years is now in the
music, dance, and debates, and won many prizes but the curiosity about nature remained with me. After school I did my intermedi- ate in science from Nirmala College, Ranchi University and then enrolled for my bachelor's degree at Women's College, Banaras. Hindu University where I studied Botany. I went on to do my.
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433,. P. R. China,3 Department of Nuclear ..... inevitable side effects of the drugs currently available, there is a strong interest in medicinal plants with a history of traditional use for the treatment of above diseases.
L Boulos (Botany Department, Alexandria University) for critically reading the manuscript. REFERENCES. Abdallah M (1983) The vegetation of Gebel Elba. Unpublished report submitted to The Academy of Scientific Research and. Technology, Cairo. Abdallah M & Sa'ad FM (1975) Taxonomical studies in the flora of Egypt.
All pathogenic microorganisms were obtained from Culture Collection of Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University. The best results were obtained by acetone extracts with inhibition activity (36.7%), followed by the methanol extracts (32.9%), and then ethanol extracts (30.2%) for all tested microorganisms.
Apr 24, 2013 ... species. Acta Oecol. 23:23-30. Singh F, Diwakar B (1995). Chickpea botany and production practices. Skill Development Series N°16. ICRISAT. Smita KJ, Nayyar H (2005). Carbendazim alleviates effects of water stress on chickpea seedlings. Biol. Plant. 49:289-291. Tejera NA, Soussi M, Lluch C (2006).
Jul 20, 2009 ... 1Department of Botany, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa, 3886, South Africa. 2Bioprospecting, Biosciences, CSIR, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. 3School of Chemistry (Pietermaritzburg), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
Burrowes, Patricia; Nazario, Gladys
The authors engaged in an education experiment to determine if the integration of lab and lecture activities in zoology and botany proved beneficial to student learning and motivation toward biology. Their results revealed that this strategy positively influenced students' academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and ability to apply…
Colpitts, D. Corinne
The information sources for the life sciences and allied fields listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Citations include indexes and abstracts dealing with national and international literature in medicine, the biological sciences, environmental science, veterinary medicine, agriculture, botany, and zoology, as…
Downs, C. T.
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, students performed best in the…
article/20288 2018-02-26T04:03:38Z ostrich:ART The effect of grassland shifts on the avifauna of a South African savanna Krook, Krissie; Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa Bond, William J; ...
The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of confusion throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide new insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early de...
Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.
Selosse, Marc-Andre; Brundrett, Mark; Dearnaley, John
A recent publication in Botany introduced two new taxa: a fossil orchid seed (Mycophoris) and a fossilized basidiomycete fungus (Synaptomitus) in an alleged relationship with this orchid, encased in 15–20 million year old Dominican amber (Poinar, G. 2017. Two new genera, Mycophoris gen. nov......., (Orchidaceae) and Synaptomitus gen. nov. (Basidiomycota) based on a fossil seed with developing embryo and associated fungus in Dominican amber. Botany, 95: 1–8). From the working knowledge of extant orchid seeds, seedlings, and mycorrhiza shared among us, we cannot support these interpretations. Here we...... analyse: (i) why Mycophoris may not be an orchid seed, (ii) why Mycophoris is not a germinating seed, (iii) why fungal hyphae and a symbiotic fungus are absent in Mycophoris, and (iv) why Synaptomitus is likely not a fossil basidiomycete....
Full Text Available Previous studies examining the dynamics of succession on artificial reefs have predominantly focussed on fish communities and largely ignored the role of fouling assemblages in explaining the patterns of community structure associated with artificial reefs. The objective of this study was to record the development of epibiotic assemblages on three "design specific" (Reef Ball® estuarine artificial reefs systems located in Lake Macquarie, Botany Bay and St Georges Basin in New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment to the artificial reefs was relatively rapid with the majority of taxa identified over the two-year study period observed within the first year post-deployment. The artificial reefs in Lake Macquarie and St Georges Basin were characterised by low diversity with four and nine taxa recorded respectively in contrast to the sixteen taxa observed on the Botany Bay reefs. Results indicated no significant differences in percentage cover of taxa among reefs in either St Georges Basin or Lake Macquarie. In contrast, comparisons between individual Botany Bay reefs identified significant differences in the percentage cover of species between artificial reefs. Analysis of assemblage structure with reef age indicated discrete patterns among estuaries with an overall reduction in the percentage cover of filamentous turfing algae (FTA identified for all reef systems with an increase in reef age. Variations in environmental and physical conditions (turbidity, water flow, wave action and proximity to naturally occurring reef may have contributed to the observed differences in fouling assemblages between estuaries and between artificial reefs within Botany Bay.Estudos prévios que examinaram a dinâmica de sucessão em recifes artificiais foram focalizados nas comunidades de peixes, e sempre ignoraram o papel exercido pelos organismos incrustantes sobre a estruturação das comunidades associadas aos recifes artificiais. O presente estudo tem por objetivo
Temperature sensitivity (Q10), and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in permafrost soils with different carbon quality and under experimental warming. R. Bracho1, E.A.G Schuur1, E. Pegoraro1, K.G. Crummer1, S. Natali2, J. Zhou, Y Luo3, J. L. Wu3, M. Tiedje4, K. Konstantinidis5 1Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA. 3Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 4Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; 5Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics and School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
Bracho, R. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Pegoraro, E.; Crummer, K. G.; Natali, S.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Luo, Y.; Tiedje, J. M.; Konstantinidis, K.
Permafrost soils contain approximately1700 Pg of carbon (C), twice the amount of C in the atmosphere. Temperatures in higher latitudes are increasing, inducing permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of previously frozen C. This process is one of the most likely positive feedbacks to climate change. Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10) and dynamics of SOM decomposition under warming is essential to predict the future state of the earth - climate system. Alaskan tundra soils were exposed to two winter warming (WW) seasons in the field, which warmed the soils by 4°C to 40 cm depth. Soils were obtained from three depths (0 - 15, 15 - 25 and 45 - 55 cm) and differed in initial amounts of labile and recalcitrant C. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic conditions, at 15 and 25°C over 365 days. Q10 was estimated at 14, 100 & 280 days of incubation (DOI); C fluxes were measured periodically and dynamics of SOM decomposition (C pool sizes and decay rates) were estimated by fitting a two pool C model to cumulative respired C (Ccum, mgC/ginitialC). After two WW seasons, initial C content tended to decrease through the soil profile and C:N ratio was significantly decreased in the top 15 cm. After one year of incubation, Ccum was twice as high at 25°C as at 15°C and significantly decreased with depth. No significant WW field treatment was detected, although Ccum tended to be lower in warmed soils. Labile C accounted for up to 5% of initial soil C content in the top 15 cm and decreased with depth. Soils exposed to WW had smaller labile C pools, and higher labile C decay rates in the top 25 cm. Q10 significantly decreased with time and depth as labile pool decreased, especially for WW. This decrease with time indicates a lower temperature sensitivity of the most recalcitrant C pool. The deepest WW soil layer, where warming was more pronounced, had significantly lower Q10 compared to control soils at the same depth. After two seasons, the warming treatment affected decomposition by reducing labile C pools and increasing its decay rates. Warming also reduced temperature sensitivity, showing acclimation of the most recalcitrant C pool in the tundra ecosystem.
completes its life cycle, from seed to seed, in one year. Autonym: A subspecies or variety name that is the duplicate of the specific epithet ...for support, without drawing nutrients from it. Epithet : The part of a taxonomic name identifying a subordinate unit within a genus. ERDC/CRREL TN...the genus and specific epithet are identical. This practice is permitted in zoological nomenclature, but not in botany, so only old, no-longer-valid
© 2015, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. This study compares soluble phenolics and lignin content in two wetland macrophytes with contrasting life strategies grown under a varying nutrient supply in the field and in a greenhouse experiment. The differences are explained in terms of the protein competition model (PCM) hypothesis relating changes in secondary metabolites to changing nutrient limitation. The two study species, Eleocharis cellulosa (EC) and Typha do...
Diailison Teixeira De Carvalho; Eduardo Gomes Salgado
Biotechnology companies are technology companies characterized by the systematic application of various types of technology. They involve the fundamentals of biochemistry, genetic engineering, physiology, microbiology, botany, zoology, and chemical engineering. The development of new products (DNP) is a characteristic of these companies. DNP is a complex process that involves several types of risks and critical success factors, especially in technology-based companies (TBCs). The key risks an...
Tennessee consist primarily of mature hickory-oak forest, as well as red, white, and scarlet oak (NFS, 1977). Black gum, sweet gum, and 3-4 maple are...Cleveland Pneumatic Company, the Tennessee Apparel Corporation, the Wilson Sporting Goods Company, the Coca Cola and Dr. Pepper Bottling Company, and the... Botany . American Book Company, New York, New York. FICWD, 1989. Federal Manual for Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands. U.S. Army Corps of
Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir
Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...
Piomelli, D; Pollio, A
Various historical sources from the Renaissance--including transcripts of trials for witchcraft, writings on demonology and textbooks of pharmaceutical botany--describe vegetal ointments prepared by women accused of witchcraft and endowed with marked psychoactive properties. Here, we examine the botanical composition and the possible pharmacological actions of these ointments. The results of our study suggest that recipes for narcotic and mind-altering salves were known to Renaissance folk he...
Full Text Available index to Koedoe: volumes 26-35/1 Authors ..............131Aves ..............143 Subjects ...............139Mammalia ...........144 Botany ..............139Archaeology and History .....146 Ecology and behaviour ......140Bibliography ...........146 Wildlife conservation & techniques141Geology and Pedology ......146 Zoology ..............142Maps ...............147 Invertebrata ..........142Palaeontology ...........147 Pisces ..............143Law ................147 Amphibia ............143Social Science ...........147 Reptilia ...... ^ ......143Parks (vol 26-35/1, ..^.^^ ..147
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate: Mgr. Petra Suchánková Consultant: Doc. RNDr. Lubomír Opletal, CSc. Title of Rigorous Thesis: Biological activity of plant metabolites II. Screening of alkaloid plants on human cholinesterases inhibition. The extracts of selected plants, which were expected to have an effect on brain tissue metabolism, were subjected to the screening of their biological activity. Summa...
Marhold, Karol; Stuessy, Tod; Agababian, Mariam; Agosti, Donat; Alford, Mac H; Crespo, Ana; Crisci, Jorge V; Dorr, Laurence J; Ferencová, Zuzana; Frodin, David; Geltman, Dmitry V; Kilian, Norber; Linder, H Peter; Lohmann, Lucia G; Oberprieler, Christoph
Monographs are fundamental for progress in systematic botany. They are the vehicles for circumscribing and naming taxa, determining distributions and ecology, assessing relationships for formal classification, and interpreting long-term and short-term dimensions of the evolutionary process. Despite their importance, fewer monographs are now being prepared by the newer generation of systematic botanists, who are understandably involved principally with DNA data and analysis, especially for ans...
he thesis proposes a teaching programme for general botany in the school garden. On the basis of a literary analysis of framework educational programmes, school educational plans, secondary-school textbooks of biology, assessment and evaluation of the school garden of The Secondary school of Agriculture and Food processing in Klatovy, a set of more than 85 questions and tasks has been made. The additional worksheets for pupils have been prepared just for the educational activity in the school...
are vectors for many pathogens that cause human diseases including dengue fever, yellow fever, and malaria. These illnesses can result in high rates...32608. 6 Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608. 7 Botany and...Kivanc, M. 1988. Antimicrobial activity of “çörtük” (Echino- phora sibthorpiana Guss.) spice , its essential oil and methyl eugenol. Die Nahrung. 32
Hall P, Bawa K. 1993. Methods to assess the impact of extraction of non timber tropical forest products on plant population. Economic Botany, 47(3): 234-. 247. Havyarimana F. 2009. Impact de la distribution spatiale des espèces arborescentes sur la diversité végétale dans la réserve naturelle forestière de. Bururi (Burundi).
Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei
The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and U...
the potential danger of women attempting to gain an education, “…she may work her brain over mathematics, botany, chemistry, German, and the like...Diseases of Women and Children stressed the importance of preserving pubescent girls’ energy by not taxing their brains at school so their...woman in 1899 wrote, “The boys were lucky. They did gymnastics . They exercised. They were allowed to romp around freely… Snow and ice was theirs
Full Text Available Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.
Maryam Akaberi; Milad Iranshahy; Mehrdad Iranshahi
Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order...
González-García, Francisco; Universidad de Granada; Contreras-Fernández, Domingo Evandro; Universidad Católica del Maule
This paper summarizes the contributions of a doctoral thesis on the botany knowledge of students of Mapuche descent. Social problems of the Mapuche people are described, especially those related to education and environment. By examining the botanic taxonomy in Mapuche language, the importance of vegetable diversity to the Mapuche people and their traditions and vision of the cosmos was revealed. Mapuche students at middle schools were shown to have much more knowledge of vegetable biology th...
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate Ing. Kateřina Macáková Supervisor Doc. RNDr. Lubomír Opletal, CSc. Title of Doctoral Thesis Biological activity of selected taxons of mushrooms from divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Though they are relatively insufficiently explored, mushroom are considered to be important source of bioactive substances, which is evident especially in Asian countries where some ...
In this survey the organizational structure, the acquisition practice and collection development at the LuEsther T. Mertz Library of the New York Botanical are analyzed and discussed. The Mertz Library specializes in botany and horticulture and it collects materials published in all core botanical subjects as comprehensively as possible. The library serves both as an institutional research library and a public library. It is sought by a broad constituency, locally and abroad, for plant inform...
around trees Sheppard-Melville method Woody vegetation Bridges-Foundations & piers Scour (Hydraulic engineering ) Roots (Botany) Trees Levees Embankments Numerical analysis ...Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and...to develop prediction methods for scour associated with fallen trees. ERDC TR-16-10 4 The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) guidance for
575-588. 1975. "Germination of Botrytis cinerea conidia in vitro in Relation to Nutrient Conditions on Leaf Surfaces," Transactions of the British...and Botrytis cinerea conidia in vitro in Relation to Nutrient Conditions on Leaf Surfaces," Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol 29, pp 854-861. 19 19 Table...Surface Micro-organisms and Germination of Conidia of Botrytis cinera," Physiological Plant Pathology, Vol 9, pp 227-239. Conway, K. E., and Freeman, T. E
architecture so that the effects of parameters such as moisture content can be evaluated (Figure 3). They found that virtual experiments are easier...Anchorage Integrating Soil Mechanics and Real Root System Architecture . American Journal of Botany 94 (9): 1506–1514. Ennos, A. R. 1990. The...and Landscape Evolution, ed. D. C. Flanagan, J. C. Ascough II, and J. Nieber. Anchorage, AK, 18–21 September, Paper number 11055. St. Joesph, MI
Rourke, J. P.
John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.
Ce projet vise à faciliter une gestion efficace des ressources hydriques dans les hautes terres d'Asie en intégrant les analyses d'impact des changements climatiques à l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité, des moyens de subsistance et des politiques sur l'eau. Les chercheurs du Kunming Institute of Botany en Chine élaboreront ...
Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis (ACERA) School of Botany The University of Melbourne Australia phone: +61 3 8344 4405 email: markab...the framework for assessing the population consequences of acoustic disturbance for marine mammals originally developed by a panel appointed by the...sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC), Bahamas, and at the Pacific Missile Range Facility
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate Mgr. Jana Baroňová Consultant Doc. RNDr. Lubomír Opletal, CSc. Title of Thesis Biological Activity of Macromycetes - C Keywords: fungi, Cortinariaceae, cholinestherase inhibition activity, antioxidant activity, ABTS + , phenolic compounds, alkaloids 15 species of mushrooms from the family Cortinariaceae were tested for their biological activity. The extra...
540-553. Bagyaraj, C. J., A. Manjunath, and R. B. Patil. 1979. Occurrence of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas in some tropical aquatic plants...39-45. Chaubal, R., G. D. Charma, and R. R. Mishra. 1982. Vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhiza in subtropical aquatic and marshy plant communities...11A:29-35. Clayton, J. S. and D. J. Bagyaraj. 1984. Vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas in submerged aquatic plants of New Zealand. Aquatic Botany. 19:251
Fábio A. Machado
Full Text Available The present contribution explores the impact of the QUALIS metric system for academic evaluation implemented by CAPES (Coordination for the Development of Personnel in Higher Education upon Brazilian Zoological research. The QUALIS system is based on the grouping and ranking of scientific journals according to their Impact Factor (IF. We examined two main points implied by this system, namely: 1 its reliability as a guideline for authors; 2 if Zoology possesses the same publication profile as Botany and Oceanography, three fields of knowledge grouped by CAPES under the subarea "BOZ" for purposes of evaluation. Additionally, we tested CAPES' recent suggestion that the area of Ecology would represent a fourth field of research compatible with the former three. Our results indicate that this system of classification is inappropriate as a guideline for publication improvement, with approximately one third of the journals changing their strata between years. We also demonstrate that the citation profile of Zoology is distinct from those of Botany and Oceanography. Finally, we show that Ecology shows an IF that is significantly different from those of Botany, Oceanography, and Zoology, and that grouping these fields together would be particularly detrimental to Zoology. We conclude that the use of only one parameter of analysis for the stratification of journals, i.e., the Impact Factor calculated for a comparatively small number of journals, fails to evaluate with accuracy the pattern of publication present in Zoology, Botany, and Oceanography. While such simplified procedure might appeals to our sense of objectivity, it dismisses any real attempt to evaluate with clarity the merit embedded in at least three very distinct aspects of scientific practice, namely: productivity, quality, and specificity.
occurring endemic infestation. Two other pathogenic fungi, Fusarium sporotrichoides and Acre- monium curvulum, were also shown to be potent...t. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisun satimw L.), vetch (Vicia sp.), and wheat (Triticum satiwn) plants were exposed to M. t. grown in PDSB...of Weeds," Aquatic Botany, Vol 3, No. 2, pp 111-123. Andrews, J. H., and Hecht, E. P. 1981. "Evidence of Pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichoides to
campus. It was in an area known as Interstate Research Park, a modern , privately developed research area zoned for light industrial use. The...Soon after this meeting, General Clarke, who was then Acting Chief of Engineers, wrote to Representative L. Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed... Biology 8 1 Botany 7 1 Chemistry 3 68 Chemical Engineering I 2 13 17 3 Civil Engineering 6 II 12 51 124 61 42 Computer Science 1 2 1 7 16 6
Full Text Available Index to Koedoe: volumes 35/2 - 44/1 Authors85 Subjects98 Botany 98 Ecology and behaviour 100 Wildlife conservation & techniques 100 Zoology102 Invertebrata 102 Pisces 103 Amphibia 103 Reptilia 103 Aves104 Mammalia 104 Archaeology and History 105 Bibliography 106 Climate 106 Geologyand Pedology 106 Environmental impact on rivers & water quality 106 Check list 107 Issues in conservation 107 Maps 108 Social Science 108 Parks
stands in the Solling mountain region of Lower Saxony (northwest Germany) Method: 42 spruce and 27 beech trees were selected for sampling above- and... Saxony ) Germany Method: Root cores were taken through the soil layers. Species were visually distinguished. Vegetation: Fagus sylvatica and Quercus...Botany 81: 213-223, 1998). A detailed picture of water absorption in all roots comprising the root system is thus provided. Moreover, the influence
H Javadi; M. J Seghatol Eslami; seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi
To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl) concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1). The measure...
INTRODUCTION ............................................ III.i RESULTS OF A PRELIMINARY PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS OF BIO- SILICATE SAMPLES FROM SITES 221T576 AND...I were from the related fields of soil morphology, fluvial geomorphology, botany (including pollen, phytoliths , seeds, and spores), zoology...were examined for opal phytoliths . The results of this study are presented in Appendix III. A phytolith is a deposit of c.’ -id 0O 2N’ 2 ) that forms
Madella, M; Alexandre, A; Ball, T
Phytoliths (microscopic opal silica particles produced in and between the cells of many plants) are a very resilient, often-preserved type of microfossil and today, phytolith analysis is widely used in palaeoenvironmental studies, botany, geology and archaeology. To date there has been little standardization in the way phytoliths are described and classified. This paper presents the first International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature (ICPN), proposing an easy to follow, internationally accepted protocol to describe and name phytoliths.
Raphael N Okigbo; Omokaro Obire
Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L.) and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Iso...
Full Text Available ., Local benefits of retaining natural vegetatio Botany (2009), doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2009.06.008 D P ROO F function of vegetation cover, including leaf litter. Vegetation cover intercepts rainfall, and lessens raindrop impact. Rainfall interception... that eroded soils in Patagonia, Argentina were not able to store water as effectively as stable soils and produced greater run-off volumes. Changes in interception, leaf litter production and infiltration influence erosion, and increased erosion decreases...
AlSalhi MS; Devanesan S; Alfuraydi AA; Vishnubalaji R; Munusamy MA; Murugan K; Nicoletti M; Benelli G
Mohamad S AlSalhi,1,2 Sandhanasamy Devanesan,1,2 Akram A Alfuraydi,3 Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji,4 Murugan A Munusamy,3 Kadarkarai Murugan,5 Marcello Nicoletti,6 Giovanni Benelli7 1Research Chair in Laser Diagnosis of Cancers, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, 4Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School o...
Rakesh K. Joshi
It is with pleasure that we introduce the first issue of online journal “International Journal of Herbal Medicine (IHJM)” a bimonthly publication of AkiNik Publications. The Journal is peer-reviewed, broad-spectrum and committed to the promotion of research and dissemination of knowledge in Phytochemistry, Pharmacognosy, Essential oil chemistry, Natural product chemistry, Botany, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Marine research and related multidiscipline. IJHM also provides an advanced internati...
Fay, Michael F; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W
Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Farkašovský M.: Biological activity of plant metabolites XXIX. Alkaloids of selected cultivars of Narcissus triandrus L. and their influence on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Diploma thesis. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of pharmaceutical botany and ecology, Hradec Králové 2015, 70 pages Screening of seven bulb samples of Narcissus genus was performed. It included cultivars Narcissus triandrus cv. Hawera, Narcissus triandrus c...
On January 12 th 1877, the Grim Reaper visited Wilhelm Hofmeister (Figure 1) for the last time. Having recently witnessed the death of a wife, two daughters, and two sons (only two of his nine children survived him), the German botanist, perhaps succumbing to the weight of his own grief, suffered a series of strokes and then promptly died at the age of 52 in Lindenau, Germany. He has since faded into the dusty annals of 19 th century botany, his contributions to our knowledge about plants, how they come into being, develop and interact with their environment, mostly forgotten. In an ode to Hofmeister marking 100 years since his birth, Douglas Haughton Campbell of Stanford University, referring to Hofmeister's studies in comparative morphology, wrote, "…there is no question that Hofmeister's work will remain as probably the most brilliant contribution ever made to this fundamental department of botany" . And in an essay published in Plant Physiology, Donald Kaplan and Todd Cooke went further still, writing, "Frederich Wilhelm Benedikt Hofmeister stands as one of the most remarkable figures in the history of botany and one who made fundamental contributions to all areas of plant biology" . If that wasn't enough, Kaplan and Cooke added "In terms of native genius, he is certainly the peer of both Darwin and Mendel and may have even exceeded them in the breadth and depth of his talents." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Andreas Stynen, Native wealth charted. Belgian botanists, scientific zeal and patriotic motivesThis article analyses the importance of patriotic motives in nineteenth-century Belgian botany, without reducing the study of indigenous plants to a vehicle of aggressive, blatantly biased chauvinism. Different forms of more subtle nationalism enabled Belgian field botanists to define their activities as a mature and internationally respected field among the natural sciences. Four different phases can be discerned. During the period of Austrian and French domination, botany was first and foremost a means to economically enrich the state, by reducing its dependence on imports. After Belgian independence (1830, striving for utility was increasingly overshadowed by a longing for completeness: field trips were fuelled by a desire to collect and chart all Belgian species. From 1860 onwards, individual species mattered less than the geobotanical regions: the national territory was discovered to offer a rich variety of landscapes. The popularity of laboratories at the end of the century threatened to dismiss field botany as merely amateurish, but an ecological approach to the national vegetation, combined with explicit pleas for the protection of Belgian’s natural wealth, provided the impetus for a new round of research.
This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####
Zheng, Chantal; Shun-de, Zheng
Au cours de leurs voyages d’évangélisation, les missionnaires occidentaux ont contribué au développement de la science botanique en faisant connaître au monde des plantes jusqu’alors inconnues. L’exemple du père Faurie, des Missions étrangères de Paris, montre que la vocation religieuse pouvait, en effet, aller de pair avec une activité scientifique. In the course of their evangelization travels, Western missionaries contributed to the advancement of botany by introducing to the wider worl...
Full Text Available Annals of Botany 113: 695–709, 2014 doi:10.1093/aob/mct284, available online at www.aob.oxfordjournals.org Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study... of factors affecting cell and ice structures JamesWesley-Smith1,2, Patricia Berjak1, N.W. Pammenter1 and ChristinaWalters3,* 1Plant Germplasm Conservation Research, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu- Natal(Westville Campus), Durban, 4001...
this book Bukharin wrote from the medical classification of mental disorders to the development of astronomy, geology, zoology, and botany , and from...fertilizer was like sprin- kling " pepper ." In the 1970’s, applying chemical fertil- izer was like using a "catalyst." By the 1980’s, chemical...side of a plowed field that what had been shiny black soil had turned white as if all moisture had been squeezed out of it. When we stepped on a
Flavio A. de Oliveira Camargo; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V.; Baveye, Philippe C.
The present essay is meant to provide some background on the evolution of the soil science community in Brazil, since its inception, to describe its current situation, and to outline a number of opportunities and challenges facing the discipline in decades to come. The origin of Brazilian agronomy dates back to the beginning of the 19th century as a subdiscipline of botany, and its association with chemistry would later establish it as a science. In the middle of the 19th century, agricultura...
Full Text Available of the Natural History Museum, Vienna). 1964. VIII, 736 pages. Clothbound. DM150.? (3 37.50) Thh is the first and only enisring flora of the area concerned. It i~ intended for the student as well as for any per son inserested in the botany of Iraq and adjacent...: E. Y. DAWSON, C. Aci.svo and N. FoLnvIK, The Seaweeds of Peru. 1964. VU!, 112 pages, 81 plates. DM 60.? (3 15.?) Heft 14: S. L. vnz Lnwmon~r, Miocene Non-Marhie Diatoms from the Yaldms Region, South Central Washington. 1964. IV, 80 pages, 56...
earlier studies Jagtap and Inamdar, 1991 . ()T.G. JagtaprAquatic Botany 60 1998 397–408 399 These beds were evaluated for their structural components, from 1–8 November 1993, . when the seagrass standing crop remains at peak in the tropics Fortes, 1986..., and hence were the major contributors of total biomass. The higher biomass at shallower depths obviously resulted . from higher shoot densities of the standing crop Table 1 . A similar trend of seagrass . distribution has been reported, except the more...
Chopra, Bhawna; Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar; Dhar, Kanaya Lal
Psoralea corylifolia is an important medicinal plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. The plant extracts have been reported to possess antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and immunomodulatory activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including psoralen, isopsoralen, bakuchiol, psoralidin, bakuchalcone, bavachinin, flavones, volatile oils, lipids etc. are found in different parts of the plant. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its botany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology along with special emphasis given on pharmacological activities of plant P. corylifolia. © 2013.
Misra, Malaya K.; Mohanty, Manoj K.; Das, Pradeep K
The paper reviews the economic and traditional medicinal uses of the plants, Calotropis gigantean and C. procera from the published literature from various of India. The ethno-medicinal uses of the former species in Orissa are also incorporated. Their distribution in India, Botany, Physical and Chemical properties of the plant parts are provided. Uses of the traditional medicines and their authentication as evidence by the available clinical trials are discussed. Besides, uses and standardization of doses against various ailments are suggested. PMID:22556631
Vladimir A. Zryanin
Full Text Available Georgiy A. Anufriev, Doctor of Science, famous entomologist, leading expert in systematics of Cicadinea of Russia and Palearctics, adjunct professor of the Department of Botany and Zoology of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, died suddenly on May 13, 2017 after suffering a massive stroke without regaining consciousness. Georgiy A. Anufriev is the author of more than 230 scientific papers on fauna, systematics, and ecology of Cicadinea (Hemiptera: Cicadinea and insects of other groups. The biography and a complete list of the published works of G.A. Anufriev are included in this review.
Julio César Rifa Téllez
Full Text Available A competence approach to the systematic identification and classification of vegetal organisms is described in connection with the training of Biology professors for integrating citizens’ attitude to plants, with strictly professional methods. Several theoretical methods were used to construct a general framework together with the application of surveys to experts. The findings include three units of competence together with its components, essential knowledge and performance indicators; patterns of achievement were set in three levels: 1 empirical distinction of the phytodiversity; 2 characterization in the context of wise range use and 3 systematization of systematic botany contents involved in leading the educational process characterized by protagonist strategic actions in management.
Full Text Available Journal of Botany http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT13237 Seasonal variation in the nitrogen nutrition and carbon assimilation in wild and cultivated Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea) Daleen LötterA,B, Emma Archer van GarderenA,D, Mark Tadross... different methods of adapting to nitrogen (N) nutrition and carbon (C) assimilation during wet and dry seasons. In particular, the wild plants were better able to tolerate summer drought by increased water use efficiency and maintaining higher levels...
MacRoberts, M H
L. H. Bailey cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing, and Mendel is mentioned once in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant-Breeding." Bailey claimed to have copied his 1892 references to Mendel from Focke. It seems, however, that while he may have first encountered references to Mendel's work in Focke, he actually copied them from the Royal Society "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." Bailey also saw a reference to Mendel's 1865 paper in Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany." Bailey's 1895 mention of Mendel occurs in a passage he translated from Focke's "Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge."