WorldWideScience

Sample records for botany

  1. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  2. Locke and botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.

  3. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism by PAN came with the Sixth General Assembly of its members on June 11-12, 1956. The second tier of propagating Lysenkoism consisted in activities aimed at the general public, including the teaching of creative Darwinism (obligatory for pupils of various levels of education), in the school years 1949/50-1956/57. There were few botanists who published studies in Lysenkoism: only 55 persons did so. Among them, there were only a few botanists who could boast of significant previous scientific achievements--they included Stefan Białobok (1909-1992), Władysław Kunicki-Goldfinger (1916-1995), Edmund Malinowski (1885-1979), Konstanty Moldenhawer (1889-1962), Józef Motyka (1900-1984), Szczepan Pieniazek. A majority of the authors of publication in Lysenkoism were young scientists or people who did publish anything later on. Basing on the available bibliographies, it is possible to ascertain that there were ca. 140 Lysenkoist botanical publications (out of the total of 3410), i.e. 4.1% (fig. 1) of all the botanist publications in Poland in that period. Their number in the years 1949-1953 was higher than in the next period, and oscillated between 15 and 24 publications annually (fig. 2). The percentage of Lysenkoist studies among all publications in botany published each year was highest in 1949 (11.5%), and decreased systematically in the following years (fig. 3). Lysenkoism was a marginal phenomenon in Polish botany. Among the Lysenkoist publications, most summarized papers delivered at successive conferences, or consisted in reprints of Soviet studies. A significant group was made up of publications popularizing the principles and achievements of Lysenkoism (on the basis of Soviet publications). There were relatively studies presenting the results of research conducted in Poland on the basis of Lysenko's theory. Botanists who remember those times recollect that topics connected with Michurinian-Lysenkoist biology were avoided. It is symptomatic that not a single

  4. Gastronomic botany and molecular gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena; Gómez Garay, Aranzazu; Ávalos García, Adolfo; Martín Calvarro, Luisa; Pintos López, Beatriz; Saco Sierra, M. Dolores; Martín Gómez, M. Soledad; Pérez Alonso, M. José; Puelles Gallo, María; Palá Paúl, Jesús; Cifuentes Cuencas, Blanca; Llamas Ramos, José Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Complutense University of Madrid through the "Vicerrectorado de Calidad" develops projects to innovate and improve teaching quality. Among these projects is "Gastronomic Botany and Molecular Gastronomy" which aims to develop new materials and tools for the Virtual Campus and consequently offer new possibilities for teaching and training. Also this project organize and structure a new teaching matter for post-graduate education that will be an example of approach, relationship and cooper...

  5. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  6. Domain-Specific Ontology of Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gu; Cun-Gen Cao; Yue-Fei Sui; Wen Tian

    2004-01-01

    Domain-specific ontologies are greatly useful in knowledge acquisition, sharing and analysis. In this paper, botany-specific ontology for acquiring and analyzing botanical knowledge is presented. The ontology is represented in a set of well-defined categories, and each concept is viewed as an instance of certain category. The authors also introduce botany-specific axioms, an integral part of the ontology, for checking and reasoning with the acquired knowledge. Consistency, completeness and redundancy of the axioms are discussed.

  7. International Cooperation at the Institute of Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yanfeng

    2003-01-01

    @@ The CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS) has a history more than 70 years. During the current drive of China's economic and scientific reforms, the IBCAS,in the context of the world S&T development trend and in line with its own superiorities, is active in carrying out international cooperation and exchanges.

  8. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  9. Elements of plant physiology in theophrastus' botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years the plants were considered only as a source of food and medicine, and as ornamental objects. Only from the fifth century BC, some philosophers of Ancient Greece realized that the plants were living organisms but, unfortunately, their works have come to us as fragments that we often know from the biological works of Aristotle. This eminent philosopher and man of science, however, did not give us a complete work on the plants, which he often promised to write. From scattered fragments of his conspicuous biological work, it emerges a concept of nutritive soul that, in the presence of heat and moisture, allows plants to grow and reproduce. The task of writing a comprehensive botanical work was delegated to his first pupil, Theophrastus, who left us two treatises over time translated into the various languages up to the current versions (Enquiry into plants, On the causes of plants). The plant life is described and interpreted on the basis of highly accurate observations. The physiological part of his botany is essentially the nutrition: According to Theophrastus, plants get matter and moisture from the soil through root uptake and process the absorbed substances transforming them into food, thanks to the heat. The processing (pepsis, coction) of matter into the food represents an extraordinary physiological intuition because individual organs of a plant appear to perform its specific transformation. Despite that Theophrastus did not do scientific experiments or use special methods other than the sharpness of his observations, he can be considered the forerunner of a plant physiology that would take rebirth only after two millennia.

  10. [Half century of botany publishing in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.

  11. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  12. Research in the Botany Department. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Dr. B.C. Stone, the present Head of the Botany Unit, is continuing his investigations on Pandanaceae, which form the major research work; and on Rutaceae and Araliaceae, two other families which are his favorites. The genus Freycinetia is the nearest to completion; it is expected to have about 180-2

  13. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts a...

  15. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  16. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  17. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  18. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2016-02-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  19. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2015-11-07

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  20. On New Spain and Mexican medicinal botany in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country.

  1. Projects Funded by the Division of Botany (NSFC) in 2005: Retrospect and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Zhang WEN; Yue CHEN; Qin-Li WANG; Sheng-Ming DU

    2005-01-01

    The present paper briefly introduces information about proposals received and funded, statistics and analysis of evaluation of peer review, and supporting strategies and reforms in program reviewing and administration in the Division of Botany at the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in 2005. A list of general programs and the abstract of key programs funded by this Division in 2005 are also provided.

  2. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death.

  3. [Recent advances of amplified fragment length polymorphism and its applications in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li

    2008-10-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology.

  4. Botany Facility. Thermal Control (TC) subsystem test report on experiment container of laboratory model and breadboard centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.

    1986-11-01

    The Botany Facility TC (Thermal Control or Thermocouple) subsystem was tested in the environmental laboratory. All data could be generated within the required accuracy and to the required extent. The TC-subsystems of the Laboratory Model and Experiment Container and Centrifuge were successfully tested.

  5. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M

    2005-08-01

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  6. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

  7. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written.

  8. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

  9. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  10. Forensic botany: species identification of botanical trace evidence using a multigene barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.

  11. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events.

  12. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF BOTANY AND EXPLORATION IN MALAYSIA—7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. D. DE WIT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Barchewitz reached the islet of Leti, in the southwestern Moluccas, on September 2, 1714; he returned to Europe in September 1720, having represented the East India Company on Leti for six years. Like so many of his contemporaries he wrote a book on his life's adventures. This work appeared in 1730 and proved a success. A second, slightly enlarged, edition followed in 1751, entitled "Neu-vermehrte Ost-Indianische Reise- Beschreibung." Barchewitz is the earliest author on the natural history of Leti and -he paid attention to a number of plants. The present note is mainly a survey of the botany contained in his book. Ernst Christoph Barchewitz was born at the close of the 17th century at Grosz-Sommerda near Erfurt. He was bound apprentice to a tawer at Erfurt but soon preferred to travel ("Wanderschaft" with his brother to Holland. He visited the larger towns, learned at the Hague the art of dressing and the barber's craft, and became the valet de chambre of the Imperial Ambassador, Baron von Heems, whom he accompanied to Austria and the southern Netherlands. He ended his service at Delft Where he enlisted with the East India Company. As a soldier he embarked at Hellevoetsluis on the "Voorburg," sailing April 1, 1711. The treatment on board he judged to be fair; his only objection was that he had to drink water whereas wine would have seemed very suitable. After a stay at Batavia (December 20, 1711 till January 29, 1712, he was garrisoned on Banda, where he remained till August 15, 1714. He left when he was appointed Corporal of Leti. The following pertains to the second edition of Barchewitz's book, the pages referred to are cited between brackets. All quotations have been translated.

  14. Malthus and the Philanthropists, 1764–1859: The Cultural Circulation of Political Economy, Botany, and Natural Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marc MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity does not possess a monopoly on mass incarceration, population fears, forced migration, famine, or climatic change. Indeed, contemporary and early modern concerns over these matters have extended interests in Thomas Malthus. Yet, despite extensive research on population issues, little work explicates the genesis of population knowledge production or how the process of intellectual transfer occurred during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper examines the Delessert network’s instrumental role in cultivating, curating, and circulating knowledge that popularized Malthusian population theory, including the theory’s constitutive elements of political economy, philanthropy, industry, agriculture, and botany. I show how deviant, nonconformist groups suffered forced migration for their political philosophy, particularly during the revolutionary 1790s, resulting in their imprisonment and migration to America. A consequence of these social shifts was the diffusion and dissemination of population theory—as a pursuit of scientific knowledge and exploration—across both sides of the Atlantic. By focusing on the Delesserts and their social network, I find that a byproduct of inter and intra continental migration among European elites was a knowledge exchange that stimulated Malthus’s thesis on population and Genevan Augustin Pyramus Candolle’s research on botany, ultimately culminating in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and human evolution.

  15. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    forensic botany. Based on obtained results, we recommend the adoption of a two-locus combination with rbcL+trnH-psbA plastid markers, which currently best satisfies forensic needs for botanical species identification.

  16. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in South Pacific Ocean from BOTANY BAY and other platforms from 24 January 1991 to 20 November 1991 (NODC Accession 9400208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from BOTANY BAY and other platforms in South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24 January...

  17. The plant ecology of Amchita Island, Alaska: Report on a research contract between the Department of Botany, the University of Tennessee and Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories for the period 1 August 1967 through 30 June 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee is conducting a study of the plant ecology of Amchitka Island, Alaska, as a subcontractor for Battelle...

  18. Application of LPC Didactics in Botany Teaching%LPC教学法在植物学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金凤; 易华; 苗芳; 姜在民

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience of LPC (Lecture, Presentation and Comments) didactics in botany teaching. In this paper, the author firstly analyzes the characteristics of LPC di-dactics, and then introduces the application of LPC didactics in botany teaching, finally gets some experience from the teaching practice.%本文主要是作者在植物学教学实践中开展LPC教学法的经验总结,论述了LPC教学法的特点,介绍了LPC教学法在植物学教学中的应用,最后得出开展LPC教学法的一些体会。

  19. 药用植物学实习之教学方法的思考%Reflections on Teaching Methods of Practice of Medicinal Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪乐原

    2014-01-01

    文章对我国各有关院校在药用植物学实习中所用的教学方法,指出其不足,并针对性的提出新的教学方法。%This thesis points out the shortcoming in the teaching methods used in the field practice course of Pharmaceutical Botany, and puts forward new teaching method.

  20. Filadelfia y la botánica en Norteamérica Philadelphia and the Botany in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Freire-Fierro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento y el desarrollo de la investigación botánica en Norteamérica se inician con la fundación de tres instituciones de Filadelfia, la American Philosophical Society en 1743, el Departamento de Botánica de la Universidad de Pennsylvania en 1768 y la Academia de Ciencias Naturales (PH en 1812. Algunos de los botánicos más influyentes durante los últimos cuatro siglos y en particular durante los siglos XVIII y XIX, vivieron en Filadelfia, entre ellos William Bartram (1699-1777, fundador del primer jardín botánico de Norteamérica, Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815, escritor del primer libro de texto de botánica en Estados Unidos y posiblemente en toda América, Federico Pursh (1774-1820, autor de una de las floras norteamericanas más completas del siglo XIX, Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859, autor de la primera flora norteamericana a nivel continental y Lewis David von Schweinitz (1780-1834, ampliamente reconocido como el padre de la micología norteamericana. Aunque la botánica alcanzó su cenit en Filadelfia durante el siglo XIX, continúa hoy contribuyendo al desarrollo de la botánica, gracias al aporte de muchas instituciones. El Herbario PH con sus más de 1,4 millones de especímenes y con la proporción más alta de tipos/totalidad de especímenes de todos los herbarios en los Estados Unidos, continúa siendo una fuente importante para estudios sistemáticos, no solo de taxones norteamericanos, sino también de otras regiones del mundo.The establishment and development of botanical research in North America began with the foundation of three Philadelphian institutions: The American Philosophical Society in 1743, the Botany Department at University of Pennsylvania in 1768 and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1812. Some of the most influential botanists of the last four centuries, and in particular, the 18th and 19th centuries lived in Philadelphia, including William Bartram (1699-1777, founder of the

  1. Exploration and Practice on Experimental Teaching of Pharmaceutical Botany%药用植物学实验教学探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚昕; 谷巍; 巢建国; 李琳; 陈燕

    2016-01-01

    药用植物学是一门实践性较强的学科,实验教学是课程教学过程中不可或缺的重要一环。针对南京中医药大学翰林学院药用植物学实验教学中现存的问题和不足,文章从优化实验内容,增设自主设计性开放实验,多元化教学模式,注重理论和实践相结合,建立实践考核体系等方面进行探索与实践,以期提高实验教学质量,强化学生基本操作技能,培养学生独立思考和创新思维能力,全面提升学生的综合素质。%Pharmaceutical botany is a discipline of strong practicality, so the experimental teaching is an indispensable part in the teaching content of pharmaceutical botany. Aiming at the existing problems and insufficiency of pharmaceutical botany experimental teaching, the study takes some explorations and practices in optimizing experiment contents, setting up comprehensive and open experiments; diversifying teaching modes, paying attention to the combination of theories and practices, establishing practical appraisal system and practice to improve the quality of experiment teaching, strengthening students ’ basic skills, training students ’ ability of independent thinking and innovation thinking ability, finally improve our students ’ comprehensive quality.

  2. Reform and Practice on Teaching System of Botany in Higher Vocational College%高职园林专业植物学教学体系的改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 高克利; 曲良谱; 汤庚国

    2012-01-01

    Botany was an important specialized course of landscape architecture and had strong theoreticalness and practicalness. In the paper, how to innovate the didactical content, the didactical means and the assessing standard of examination during the teaching of botany were discussed, which will be helpful to provide the new idea for innovating the teaching of botany.%植物学是园林专业一门重要的专业核心课,具有较强的理论性和实践性,在园林专业培养体系中起着承前启后的作用。从教学内容、教学手段、成绩考核标准和教学方法等方面进行了探讨,为高职植物学教学改革提供了新思路。

  3. Application of concept map in pharmaceutical botany instruction%概念图在药用植物学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎艳; 陈建军

    2015-01-01

    Concept map is two-dimensional level representation of concepts,showing the relationship between concepts.Concept map is widely accepted by teachers and students,resulting from its unique features,that is,effectiveness to achieve knowledge objectives,orientation to carry out teaching goal and openness to cultivate abilities.Implementing ways and application strategies of concept map used in pharmaceutical botany instruction and instruction evaluation were discussed in higher vocational colleges,practical effects showing that the application of concept map could improve pharmaceutical botany instruction.%概念图是对概念的二维等级表征形式,显示了概念之间的关系.概念图由于其独有的特性而受到师生的广泛认同,其特性为实现知识目标方面的有效性,落实教学目标方面的导向性,以及培养能力方面的开放性.本文探讨了概念图在高等职业院校药用植物学教学和评价中的实施途径及其应用策略.实践结果表明,概念图在药用植物学教学中的应用可以提高教学效果.

  4. Botany in children's literature: A content analysis of plant-centered children's picture books that have a plot and characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Sheila Lewis

    This content analysis study examined 36 plant-centered children's science picture books that have a plot and characters published from 1950 to present. Botanical subject matter and learning opportunities offered by these books were analyzed, along with the range and frequency of the National Science Education Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles. The science graphics, artistic innovations, and story plot of these books were also examined. Rubrics and research-based recommendations were developed to offer parents, teachers, and librarians assistance in identifying, evaluating, and using such books to help children of ages 4--8 learn about plants and enjoy plant science. This genre of children's literature was identified and selected primarily through extensive research at four major, nationally recognized children's literature collections: The Kerlan Collection, The de Grummond Collection, The Center for Children's Books, and The Central Children's Room at the Donnell Library. This study determined that there was a substantial increase in the number of books written in this genre of children's literature from 1990 to 2000. Botanical subject-matter knowledge and learning opportunities offered by these books include biodiversity of plants; characteristics of plants; life cycles of plants; economic botany, ecology, and ethnobotany. The range and frequency of National Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles identified within these books, in part, though not exclusively, included the emergent categories of the process of photosynthesis; basic needs of plants; plant structures; external signals affecting plant growth; environmental stress to plants; biodiversity of plants; plants as animal habitats; and common uses of plants. With regard to plant science graphics, 13 books were identified as presenting some type of science graphic, beyond simple illustrations. The most frequently used

  5. 应用型本科院校植物学实验教学改革探索与实践%Exploration and practice on botany experiment teaching reform in applied undergraduate universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白音; 包英华; 石海英; 闫文龙

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the Cultivation Mode of the Applied-type talent has been a exploration and practice focus in applied undergraduate universities.Botany Experiment is a basic curriculum of biological disciplines in applied undergraduate universities.For the traditional botany experiment mode can not adapt to the current situation of the cultivation of applied-type talent,the teaching contents,assessment way and implementation process of botany experiment is optimized in this paper.The results show that 90 percent of students were satisfied to the botany teaching reform.%建立应用型人才培养模式是应用型本科院校当前探索和实践的焦点.《植物学实验》是应用型本科院校生物科学专业的一门专业基础实验课程.针对传统植物学实验教学模式无法适应培养应用型人才的现状,优化调整了植物学实验教学内容、考核方式以及实施过程等教学环节.问卷调查结果显示,有90.0%以上的学生对植物学实验教学改革措施比较满意.

  6. Next Generation Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Stephen; Li, Zheng; Hickey, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Civilization simply would not exist without plants, yet their importance is often overlooked. As the nation's ability to respond to the botanical challenges associated with food production, climate change, invasive species, and biodiversity loss continues to decrease (Kramer, Zorn- Arnold, and Havens 2010), educators must discourage this…

  7. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1975-01-01

    Aponogetonaceae. Revised for Indo-China by Mr. H.W.E. van Bruggen (Heemskerk, Netherlands, associated with the Rijksherbarium). Araliaceae. For Malesia, all that is not Schefflera (of which Dr. D.G. Frodin, Port Moresby, is taking care) is under revision with Professor W.R. Philipson (Christchurch).

  8. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  9. The role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa with special emphasis on the contributions of the Botanical Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Killick

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Five papers cover different aspects of the contributions to and role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa. Two papers sum up the contributions for the non-agricultural and agricultural sectors. The introductory paper by D. J. B. Killick provides a short historical account of the Botanical Research Institute, followed by a discussion of the contributions of the Institute to botany in South Africa through its National Herbarium and identification service as well as researches in taxonomy, plant anatomy, cyto-genetics, ecology, economic botany and data processing. B. de Winter emphasizes the fundamental role of taxonomy and bio-systematics for planning and the optimal use of the natural plant resources. The current support for taxonomy and biosystematics is examined and proposals made for improving progress in the Flora of Southern Africa series. For plant physiology, N. Grobbelaar discusses, firstly, the ways whereby the productivity of a plant species with its characteristic genetic constitution can be raised by determining and modifying for optimal response the effects of environmental factors such as spacing, mineral nutrition, water provision, etc.; and, secondly, usually when the first means has been achieved, of improving plant productivity by altering the genetic constitution of the plant so that it can perform better than its ancestors under the prevailing conditions. After discussing and illustrating the applications and roles of plant ecology, D. Edwards concludes that basic plant ecological research is required, firstly, at the regional level through regional plant ecological studies to supply the essential local knowledge needed by researchers, planners and users of the land; and, secondly, at the more detailed level where knowledge is needed of the processes and factors that govern the behaviour of vegetation so that it can be properly used, managed and manipulated. M. J. Wells discusses the role of economic

  10. Exploration of Examination Reform and Cultivation of Student Ability in Pharmaceutical Botany%《药用植物学》考试改革与学生能力培养的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜泽乡; 曾建红; 李云秋; 王晓华

    2011-01-01

    为了提高教学质量与培养学生能力,对学生的考核方式进行了改革,充分调动了学生的主观能动性.%In order to improve teaching quality of Pharmaceutical Botany and culture students' ability, the assessment mode for students was reformed, which fully motivate students' subjective activity.

  11. 植物学知识在鳞翅目昆虫系统学研究中的应用%Application of Botany in Lepidoptera Insect Systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世林; 郝淑莲; 张志伟

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between Lepidoptera insect and plant are various,especially in selection of food and habitat of Lepidoptera to plant,and pollination of Lepidoptera to plant.The application of botany in Lepidoptera systematics was discussed:specimen collection,classification,identification,biology,systematics and coevolution etc.%鳞翅目昆虫与植物间的相互作用是多方面的,其中最重要的是鳞翅目昆虫选择植物做为其食物和栖息场所、鳞翅目成虫为植物传授花粉.分析了植物在鳞翅目系统学研究中的作用.在鳞翅目标本的采集、分类、鉴定和系统发育研究以及协同进化研究工作中,植物学知识都起着不可替代的重要作用.

  12. First systematic plant proteomics workshop in Botany Department, University of Delhi: transferring proteomics knowledge to next-generation researchers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Renu; Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Sehrawat, Ankita; Gupta, Ravi; Kashyap, Prakriti; Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Bhavana; Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Chanu, Sougrakpam Yaiphabi; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Dunn, Michael J; Renaut, Jenny; Rakwal, Randeep

    2014-07-01

    International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) outlined ten initiatives to promote plant proteomics in each and every country. With greater emphasis in developing countries, one of those was to "organize workshops at national and international levels to train manpower and exchange information". This third INPPO highlights covers the workshop organized for the very first time in a developing country, India, at the Department of Botany in University of Delhi on December 26-30, 2013 titled - "1(st) Plant Proteomics Workshop / Training Program" under the umbrella of INPPO India-Nepal chapter. Selected 20 participants received on-hand training mainly on gel-based proteomics approach along with manual booklet and parallel lectures on this and associated topics. In house, as well as invited experts drawn from other Universities and Institutes (national and international), delivered talks on different aspects of gel-based and gel-free proteomics. Importance of gel-free proteomics approach, translational proteomics, and INPPO roles were presented and interactively discussed by a group of three invited speakers Drs. Ganesh Kumar Agrawal (Nepal), Randeep Rakwal (Japan), and Antonio Masi (Italy). Given the output of this systematic workshop, it was proposed and thereafter decided to be organized every alternate year; the next workshop will be held in 2015. Furthermore, possibilities on providing advanced training to those students / researchers / teachers with basic knowledge in proteomics theory and experiments at national and international levels were discussed. INPPO is committed to generating next-generation trained manpower in proteomics, and it would only happen by the firm determination of scientists to come forward and do it.

  13. 贡疑多数药用植物学教材给花被等概念下的定义%Questioned the Definition under the Concept of Most Medicinal Botany Textbooks to Perianth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪乐原

    2012-01-01

    Purpose, rvvealed that in the majority of our medicinal botany textbooks to perianth, calyx, corolla, vice calyx, vice Corolla various concepts under the definition of the problems, and propose appropriate definition. The method of access to all teaching materials and taxonomic works, examine all the facts related. Results and conclusions, the majority of our med- icinal botany textbook definition to the concept under, have failed to generalize, take care of all the facts related to while Zhan Yahua Professor edited "medicinal botany" textbook (2nd edition) corresponding definitions modeled, formed in a few places amend the definition of the present paper, can be summed up, take care of related facts.%目的:揭示出在我国大多数药用植物学教材给花被、花萼、花冠、副萼、副花冠诸概念所下的定义中,存在的问题。并提出相应的较完善的定义。方法:查阅相关的所有教材和分类学著作,考察相关的所有事实.结果和结论:我国大多数药用植物学教材给上述诸概念所下的定义,均未能概括、照应相关的所有事实,而以詹亚华教授主编的药用植物学教材(第2版)的相应定义为蓝本,按本论文这样对其中少数地方作出修正后所形成的定义,则能概括、照应相关的所有事实。

  14. Exploration and Practice on the Teaching Reform of Botany Field Practice%植物学野外实习教学改革探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠华; 胡刚

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problems in teaching process of botany field practice,some new reformation measures of botany field practice were put forward,such as updating and optimizing the contents and forms of experiment,improving the teaching methods and means,and perfecting examine modes. It has been proved that application of these new teaching methods can improve the teaching quality in field practices, and also inspire students' interest and initiative in field learning,thus improve their learning and practical abilities.%针对植物学野外实习教学过程中存在的问题,提出了更新优化野外实习的内容和形式,改进教学方法和手段及健全考核形式等教学改革的具体措施.这些教学措施既能够提高野外实习的教学质量,又可以激发学生的学习兴趣和积极性,提高学生的实践能力.

  15. The research and practice about field teaching practice of pharmaceutical botany in Chinese medicine specialty%中药学专业药用植物学野外实习研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宝玉; 陈随清; 裴莉昕; 董诚明

    2012-01-01

    By the research and practice about pharmaceutical botany curriculum, in combination with the theory teaching and the field practice of experience, this paper has carried out active exploration and effective reform from base construe -tion, organization and implement, assessment, and has felt for pharmaceutical botany of our school to learn the field of sci -entific practice and has achieved remarkable results. The authors also give a more useful study for organization and imple -ment and the assessment system about the field practice.%通过对药用植物学课程体系系统的研究与实践,结合多年理论教学及野外实习经验,具体从实习基地建设、实习过程组织与实施、实习效果考核等方面进行了积极的探索和有效的改革,并摸索出适宜我校药用植物学野外实习的科学模式,取得了显著的效果.笔者同时又对野外实习的组织实施与建立考评体系等方面做了更为有益的探讨.

  16. 民办高校利用校园植物开展植物学实习的研究%The Research of the Botany Study with the Plants in the Private Higher Learning Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢春玉

    2012-01-01

    The botany exercitation is the indispensable key link in the teaching activities of the biology in higher learning institution. Owing to the shortage of the exercitation base in the private higher learning institution, the botany study with the parietal plants has the important meaning. Through the field investigation, collection of specimens and classification and determination, we find the plants in the school yard represent the local plants floristics to some degrees and meet the need of request of the teaching exercitation.%植物学实习是高校生物类专业教学过程中必不可少的实践教学环节。由于民办院校实验实习基地建设不足。因此充分利用校园植物开展植物学实习具有重要意义。通过实地调查、标本采集和分类鉴定,发现校园植物在一定程度上代表当地的植物类型,可以满足植物学教学实习的要求。

  17. Trend of Development of Plant Science and a Survey of Fund in Division of Botany in the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)%植物学的发展趋势及国家自然科学基金委员会植物学科资助状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温明章; 闫章才; 杜生明

    2004-01-01

    根据植物学的发展趋势和植物学科的特点,对该学科采取的资助策略是"重视前沿领域,扶持弱势学科,关注新的学科生长点";学科资助项目数和经费数逐年增加,2004年投入经费和资助项目数是2001年的2倍;简要介绍了学科遴选项目的原则和2004年度项目申请和资助的情况,提供了2004年度植物学科资助项目一览表.%According to the developing trends of plant science and the traits of the division of botany,"attaching importance to the frontiers in botany, supporting weak subdisciplines, and paying attention to newly growing points" is picked up as the funding strategy of Division of Botany in NSFC. The budget and the number of projects funded have increased year after year in recent four years, and in 2004, the budget and the number of projects funded are twice of that in 2001. The paper presents principle adopted in recommending projects to be funded and briefly introduces the applications as well as a survey of fund. The list of programs funded by Division of Botany in 2004 is provided.

  18. 乳香基原的本草学、植物学和成分分析研究%Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 徐纪民; 金红宇; 田金改; 林瑞超

    2011-01-01

    为理清中药乳香的基原,通过分析本草学、植物学、成分和药理文献并结合气相色谱、高效液相色谱试验,提出中药乳香的原植物至少包括乳香树、纸乳香树和齿叶乳香树,并建议现行标准中两类乳香合并.%In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany,components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  19. 提高《药用植物学》实践教学效果的一些思考%Some Thoughts on Improving Practice Teaching Effect of Pharmaceutical Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万定荣

    2011-01-01

    本文就如何提高高校《药用植物学》课程的实践教学效果,提出了总体思路.并提出了提高药用植物学实践教学效果的6个方面的具体方法与建议,供有关教学单位及同道参考.%General thought on how to improve practice teaching effect of "pharmaceutical botany" of university was presented, and improved methods and specific suggestions were put forward from six aspects to provide reference for relevant teaching units and the peer.

  20. Application of Micro-lecture teaching mode in Pharmaceutical Botany%微课教学模式在药用植物学课程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆叶; 刘春宇; 吴文倩; 陈晶磊; 陈韶华

    2014-01-01

    To discussion the application of teaching mode of Micro-lecture teaching mode first time in pharmaceu-tical botany,a new method for improve the teaching effect and promote teaching efficiency was established.This study laid an important foundation for training the excellent pharmaceutical talents adapt to the new era and society devel -opment.%首次探讨将微课的教学模式应用在药用植物学的教学中,旨在建立改善该课程教学效果和提高教学效率的新教学方法,为培养适应新时代和社会发展的优秀药学人才奠定重要基础。

  1. An Edutainment of Botany and Its Reflection of Science Popularization during the 18th and 19th Centuries%从一款植物学游戏看18、19世纪的科学传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜虹

    2015-01-01

    ,published at the beginning of the nineteenth century,was an edutainment of botany,which adopted the catechism as a means of science education. The botanical knowledge and illustrations of this edutainment were mainly borrowed from , written by Priscilla Wakefield. It aimed to make participators learn Linnaean Botany, which was fashionable during that time. From the innovator Linnaeus and the botanizer Rousseau to Wakefield,there are two directions of science communication, namely the one from elite botanists to popularizers and the other among popularizers. Different from traditional books,this edutainment was a creative try of popular science publication. It was also a new way of public science consumption.%《植物学消遣》(Botanical Pastime )是19世纪初一款寓教于乐的问答游戏,这款游戏的植物学知识和插图主要参考了韦克菲尔德的《植物学入门》,让参与者了解当时盛行的林奈植物学。从知识的原创者林奈和植物学实践者卢梭的《植物学通信》到游戏的参考源《植物学入门》,植物学知识经过了科学家到科普作家和科普作家之间的两种传播方向。这款游戏是当时科学传播的新尝试,也是公众消费科学的一种方式。

  2. Design and Experience of Multimedia Courseware in CAI Teaching of Pharmaceutical Botany%药用植物学CAI教学中多媒体课件的制作和体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海波; 王冰; 许亮; 韩荣春; 张建逵

    2011-01-01

    The use of multimedia courseware in teaching is becoming more and more popular.How better to making courseware for teachinghas very important sense.The courseware use the basic multimedia design software, such as Photoshop, ACDSee, Adob Photoshop CS as auxiliary tools to make a pharmaceutical botany multimedia courseware.It has been obtained good results in practical application,furthermore this article summarizes some experiences in making courseware.%多媒体课件在教学中的使用逐步普及,如何更好地制作课件,对教学具有十分重要的意义.本课件使用基本的多媒体制作软件,以Photoshop、ACDSee、Adob photoshop CS等为辅助工具,制作了多媒体课件,在实际应用中取得了很好的效果,并总结了制作课件的几点体会.

  3. 数码显微互动系统在药用植物实验教学中的应用与实践%Application and Practice of Digital Microscope Experimental Interactive System In Pharmaceutical Botany Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亮; 王冰; 张建逵; 邸学; 尹海波; 韩荣春

    2011-01-01

    数码显微互动系统是IT技术、数码摄像、图像处理与光学生物显微镜等技术有机结合的产物,由显微镜系统、图像处理系统、语音问答系统及投影系统等组成.在药用植物显微实验教学中应用该系统可以显著提高教学效率,促进学生的学习兴趣,提高教学质量,形成本校药用植物学省级精品课的又一教学特色.%Digital microscope experimental interactive system is IT technology, digital camera, image processing and optical technologies including biological microscope combination product, the microscope system, image processing systems, voice answering system and projection system components. The application of the microscope system in Medicinal Plants experimental teaching can significantly improve teaching efficiency, and promote student interest in learning, improve teaching quality, form another teaching characteristics of the provincial Pharmaceutical Botany excellent course in my school.

  4. Botany: a record-breaking pollen catapult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joan; Whitaker, Dwight; Klionsky, Sarah; Laskowski, Marta J

    2005-05-12

    The release of stored elastic energy often drives rapid movements in animal systems, and plant components employing this mechanism should be able to move with similar speed. Here we describe how the flower stamens of the bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis) rely on this principle to catapult pollen into the air as the flower opens explosively. Our high-speed video observations show that the flower opens in less than 0.5 ms--to our knowledge, the fastest movement so far recorded in a plant.

  5. Computational botany methods for automated species identification

    CERN Document Server

    Remagnino, Paolo; Wilkin, Paul; Cope, James; Kirkup, Don

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses innovative methods for mining information from images of plants, especially leaves, and highlights the diagnostic features that can be implemented in fully automatic systems for identifying plant species. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, it explores the problem of plant species identification, covering both the concepts of taxonomy and morphology. It then provides an overview of morphometrics, including the historical background and the main steps in the morphometric analysis of leaves together with a number of applications. The core of the book focuses on novel diagnostic methods for plant species identification developed from a computer scientist’s perspective. It then concludes with a chapter on the characterization of botanists' visions, which highlights important cognitive aspects that can be implemented in a computer system to more accurately replicate the human expert’s fixation process. The book not only represents an authoritative guide to advanced computational tools fo...

  6. 不同葛种质资源的植物学性状、藤蔓产量和营养品质分析%Botany traits and nutritional quality and yield of kudzu vine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕群; 陈建芳; 揭雨成; 邢虎成; 张英; 熊力夫

    2016-01-01

    对8个葛种质的植物学性状、营养成分和产量进行研究,以评价葛根饲用价值。结果表明:桃江粉葛与湘葛2号葛蔓较长,江西野葛和桃江粉葛的叶较大。湘葛3号、桃江野葛1和桃江野葛2的茎皮色为褐色,其它5种为黄褐色。江西粉葛、湘葛3号和桃江野葛1的叶形是近圆形,江西野葛和桃江粉葛是卵圆形,其它3种是菱形。湘葛2号和桃江粉葛的叶面皱纹较少。8个葛种质的叶柄色全是绿色。葛根中粗纤维的含量最高,其次是粗蛋白、灰分、粗脂肪、钙、磷。其中,湘葛2号中粗纤维和钙的含量较高,桃江野葛1的粗蛋白含量较高,湘葛3号的灰分和粗脂肪含量较高,桃江粉葛的磷含量较高。产量最高的是江西野葛。%The botany traits and nutritional quality and yield of eight kudzu germplasm were researched. The results showed that,the vines of Taojiang fenge and Xiangge No.2 was longer than others,the leaf blade of Jiangxi yege and Tao-jiang fenge were larger than others. The bark color of Xiangge No.3,Taojiang yege No.1 and Taojiang yege No.2 were brown,but others were yellow brown.The leaf shape of Jiangxi fenge,xiangge No.3 and Taojiang yege No.1 was nearly circular,the leaf shape of Jiangxi yege and Taojiang fenge was oval,and the others were diamond. There were less leaf wrinkle in Xiangge No.2 and Taojiang fenge than others. The petiole color of 8 kudzu germplasms was green. The highest content of the nutrient of germplasms was crude fibre,followed by crude protein,ash content,crude fat,calcium,phos-phorus. And the crude fibre and calcium content of Xiangge No.2 was higher than others,the crude protein content of Taojiang yege No.1 was higher than others. The crude fat and ash content of Xiangge No.3 was higher than others,Tao-jiang fenge had higher phosphorus content than others. Jiangxi yege had the highest yield.

  7. PARTE III DE HENSLOW A HOOKER: DARWIN Y LOS INICIOS DEL PENSAMIENTO EVOLUTIVO EN BOTÁNICA From Henslow to Hooker: Darwin and the Early Evolutionary Thought in Botany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAVIO GONZÁLEZ

    Full Text Available Aunque no lo suficientemente conocida y difundida, la obra botánica de Darwin aportó una gran cantidad de evidencia empírica fundamental para el establecimiento de la revolución darwinista. Se describe el desarrollo de esta obra, en especial con relación a los dos mentores de Darwin en botánica: J. S. Henslow y J. D. Hooker. Además de numerosos artículos y notas en sus diarios de viaje, su correspondencia y numerosos apartes de sus dos obras magnas El origen de las especies y selección natural, Darwin escribió siete libros relacionados con diversos aspectos de la botánica, incluída la polinización en orquídeas, la morfología y fisiología de plantas trepadoras, la domesticación, las plantas insectívoras, la polinización, las formas florales, y los movimientos de las plantas. Cada uno de estos libros es ahora clásico en cada tema. La introducción de la teoría evolutiva en la sistemática de plantas enriqueció los distintos sistemas de clasificación en los 70 años que siguieron a la publiación de El origen, lo cual está en estrecha relación con las preguntas, aún vigentes, acerca del origen y la diversificación temprana de las angiospermas. A la vez, se revisa la influencia de las contribuciones botánicas de Darwin en las obras de autores en diversos países de Europa y América, y en disciplinas tan diversas y actuales como la biogeografía, la biología reproductiva en muy diversos grupos de plantas con flor, la citología y mecanismos de herencia en la célula vegetal, la teratología vegetal, las variaciones debidas a domesticación, y la reciente integración de evolución, genética y desarrollo en la disciplina conocida como evo-devo.Despite Darwin s botanical works are not sufficiently known, they provided a large amount of critical, empirical evidence in favor of the darwinian revolution. This paper describes the development of such works in connection to the influence of two of Darwin s mentors in botany, J

  8. 如何培养学生的创新思维--以《植物学》“根”一节的教学过程为例%How to cultivate students′innovation thinking---based on the chapter "root"in"botany"curriculum as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓霞; 丁海东; 徐小颖; 耿斌; 金银根

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of innovative thinking ability is an important task of teaching in Colleges and Universities .One of the key factors influencing the cultivation of innovative talents is the process of culturing innovation thinking .The teaching process based on the chapter "root"in the "botany"curriculum was used as an example , through the "question string"teaching method , the mind map learning method and the concept of re-definition method and so on;more attention to the cultivation of students′innovative thinking a-bility in teaching process was emphazied to make students acquire knowledge and innovative thinking and learning methods scientifical -ly.%大学是培养创新型人才的重要场所,而培养学生的创新思维能力是培养创新型人才的关键。以《植物学》课程中的“根”的教学过程为例,探讨了“问题串”教学法、思维导图学习法以及概念重定义法在教学过程中的应用,实践表明,这样的教学方法有利于学生创新思维能力的培养,使学生在获得知识的同时学会科学的学习方法和创新思维方法。

  9. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  10. Backyard Botany: Using GPS Technology in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…

  11. On the agronomy and botany of salak (Salacca zalacca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashari, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Salak, Salacca zalacca, Palmae, dioecious, haustorium, simple leaf, compound leaf, sucker, phyllotaxis, seedling, inflorescence, fruit, hand pollination, farm yard manure, fertilizer, shading, walking palm.Salak is a dioecious, suckering palm, grown for its fruit, mainly in Indonesia. Trad

  12. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  13. Collection and collation: theory and practice of Linnaean botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-09-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) as an 'essentialist', 'Aristotelian', or even 'scholastic' one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that: (1) Linnaeus's species concept took account of reproductive relations among organisms and was therefore not metaphysical, but biological; (2) Linnaeus did not favour classification by logical division, but criticized it for necessarily failing to represent what he called 'natural' genera; (3) Linnaeus's definitions of 'natural' genera and species were not essentialist, but descriptive and polytypic; (4) Linnaeus's method in establishing 'natural' definitions was not deductive, but consisted in an inductive, bottom-up procedure of comparing concrete specimens. The conclusion will discuss the fragmentary and provisional nature of Linnaeus's 'natural method'. I will argue in particular that Linnaeus opted for inductive strategies not on abstract epistemological grounds, but in order to confer stability and continuity to the explorative practices of contemporary natural history.

  14. Contributions to Papuasian Botany III. Three new species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schodde, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Frutex circa I m altus affinis P. sinuato Bl., differt pumilione, ramulis dense ferrugineis arachnoideo-tomentosis, foliis ± anguste obovato-spathulatis (1½—) 2—4(—4½) cm longis tenuiter coriaceis integris, et fructibus semper solitariis ellipsoideo-rostellatis bi- et tenui-valvibus. Flores ignoti.

  15. Dendropedagogy: Teaching Botany, Ecology and Statistical Principles through Tree-Ring Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Darrin L.; McCarthy, Brian C.

    2002-01-01

    Develops a simple tree-ring laboratory to demonstrate the basics of dendrochronology. Provides two upper-level laboratory exercises primarily intended to demonstrate the specific dendrochronology subdisciplines of dendroclimatology and dendroecology. Suggests using the exercises separately or in unison as part of a multidisciplinary capstone…

  16. Ethno botany and antimicrobial perspective of Spices and Honey against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothai Nil Seshathri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In spite of obsessive use of spices in every Ethiopian meal, little has been investigated on the utilization of Ethiopian spices as a cure for oral opportunistic infections. Therefore the aim was to identify spices used in Ethiopian food through ethno botanical survey and study their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Method: Ethno botanical survey of the selected Kebeles of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted using a semi structured questionnaire from October 2006 to November 2007. Antifungal nature of the spices and combination of spices and honey were evaluated by agar well diffusion assay from September 2008 to July 2010. Result: Ethno botanical survey indicated fourteen species of spices and honey play a major role in Ethiopian food and beverages. Single plant extract of Trachyspermum copticum showed highest activity against C. albicans. The same plant showed antagonistic effect when combined with brown and white honey. Cinamomum zeylanicum showed highest synergistic effect with both brown and white honey when compared to Allium ursenum, Cuminum cyminum, Nigella sativa, Rosemarinus officinalis and Occimum hodiense. Conclusion: Thus spices used in Ethiopian food could be a preventive as well as a cure for oral candidiasis caused by C.albicans. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 73-80

  17. The influence of new world species on the botany of the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.

    El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundidas como el tomate, el tabaco, etc., formaron parte del conocimiento botánico europeo, haciendo especial referencia a la de obra de Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. Su herbario, sus colecciones iconográficas y manuscritos que contienen listas de semillas, maderas y otros materiales, se conservan en su Museo y algunas de las especies crecen en el Jardín Botánico de Bolonia.

  18. Botany, genetics and ethnobotany: a crossed investigation on the elusive tapir's diet in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Hibert

    Full Text Available While the populations of large herbivores are being depleted in many tropical rainforests, the importance of their trophic role in the ecological functioning and biodiversity of these ecosystems is still not well evaluated. This is due to the outstanding plant diversity that they feed upon and the inherent difficulties involved in observing their elusive behaviour. Classically, the diet of elusive tropical herbivores is studied through the observation of browsing signs and macroscopic analysis of faeces or stomach contents. In this study, we illustrate that the original coupling of classic methods with genetic and ethnobotanical approaches yields information both about the diet diversity, the foraging modalities and the potential impact on vegetation of the largest terrestrial mammal of Amazonia, the lowland tapir. The study was conducted in the Guianan shield, where the ecology of tapirs has been less investigated. We identified 92 new species, 51 new genera and 13 new families of plants eaten by tapirs. We discuss the relative contribution of our different approaches, notably the contribution of genetic barcoding, used for the first time to investigate the diet of a large tropical mammal, and how local traditional ecological knowledge is accredited and valuable for research on the ecology of elusive animals.

  19. Botany and the Taming of Female Passion: Rousseau and Contemporary Educational Concepts of Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…

  20. Botany, genetics and ethnobotany: a crossed investigation on the elusive tapir's diet in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, Fabrice; Sabatier, Daniel; Andrivot, Judith; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Gonzalez, Sophie; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Grenand, Pierre; Chave, Jérome; Caron, Henri; Richard-Hansen, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    While the populations of large herbivores are being depleted in many tropical rainforests, the importance of their trophic role in the ecological functioning and biodiversity of these ecosystems is still not well evaluated. This is due to the outstanding plant diversity that they feed upon and the inherent difficulties involved in observing their elusive behaviour. Classically, the diet of elusive tropical herbivores is studied through the observation of browsing signs and macroscopic analysis of faeces or stomach contents. In this study, we illustrate that the original coupling of classic methods with genetic and ethnobotanical approaches yields information both about the diet diversity, the foraging modalities and the potential impact on vegetation of the largest terrestrial mammal of Amazonia, the lowland tapir. The study was conducted in the Guianan shield, where the ecology of tapirs has been less investigated. We identified 92 new species, 51 new genera and 13 new families of plants eaten by tapirs. We discuss the relative contribution of our different approaches, notably the contribution of genetic barcoding, used for the first time to investigate the diet of a large tropical mammal, and how local traditional ecological knowledge is accredited and valuable for research on the ecology of elusive animals.

  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  2. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  3. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  4. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity) and…

  5. Considerations on Legal and Philosophical Problems in Experimental Botany: The case of plant in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kleszcz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers.

  6. A grass molecular identification system for forensic botany: a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2009-11-01

    Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence.

  7. The use of forensic botany and geology in war crimes investigations in NE Bosnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A G

    2006-11-22

    From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.

  8. Effect of 7 botany species of plants on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Valdés Herrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several plant in the control of weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae was evaluated. The plant were caisimón of anisette, apasote, bitter broom, sage, sassafras, garlic leek and nim were used. In the experiment they were carried out 2 variants, one to see the effect on a female of the insect and another to observe the behavior in group of Z. subfasciatus. The effects of the same ones were evaluated in the ovoposición and in the time of permanency of the insect on each plant residual. the death to Z. subfasciatus. The residuals of the molinaje of bitter broom, I age leek, caisimón of anisette and sage those that bigger repelencia effect had were, as much in the permanency as in the number of eggs ovopositados for the female of Z. subfasciatus. Correlation didn’t exist among the time of permanency of the insect in the different treatments and the number of on eggs. The biggest quantity in eggs was ovopositados it has more than enough sassafras.

  9. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  10. Nature in Botany and Zoology in the Spanish Literature: La Celestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The botanical and zoological references that appear in La Celestina are analysed and cuantified to provide an insight of the knowledge about plants and animals included in a literary work of the Rennaisance, in this case one of the most important of the Spanish literature. The plants and animals products were used by the healer for the care, health and beauty of the body. Many other plants, animals and some mineral products were used for love remedies. Moreover, references to plant and animal names and their products are also commented as linguistic sources, i.e. metaphoric references to plants, set phrases, and other literary figures of speech. All the 86 plant species and 70 animals and the complete textual passages are included in two apendixes.

    En este trabajo se analizan y cuantifican las referencias botánicas y zoológicas que aparecen en La Celestina como ejemplo de los conocimientos sobre plantas y animales que incorpora una obra de la literatura renacentista española. Dado el oficio de la protagonista, el interés del uso de muchas plantas y animales se centra en el cuidado, cura y aseo del cuerpo, que entonces se hacía sobre todo a base de productos vegetales y animales. Éstos también aparecen empleados en la magia de amor. Se comentan asimismo la utilización de nombres de plantas y animales, así como de productos derivados de éstos, como recursos lingüisticos o literarios; es decir, cuando se emplean como metáforas, en dichos, frases hechas y otras figuras literarias. Se incluyen en 2 anexos las 86 especies vegetales y las 70 animales, así como las citas encontradas.

  11. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  12. Inspiration in the harness of daily labor. Darwin, botany, and the triumph of evolution, 1859-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Charles Darwin hoped that a large body of working naturalists would embrace evolution after the Origin of Species appeared in late 1859. He was disappointed. His evolutionary ideas at first made painfully little progress in the scientific community. But by 1863 the tide had turned dramatically, and within five years evolution became scientific orthodoxy in Britain. The Origin's reception followed this peculiar trajectory because Darwin had not initially tied its theory to productive original scientific investigation, which left him vulnerable to charges of reckless speculation. The debate changed with his successful application of evolution to original problems, most notably orchid fertilization, the subject of a well-received book in 1862. Most of Darwin's colleagues found the argument of the Origin convincing when they realized that it functioned productively in the day-to-day work of science-and not before. The conceptual force of the Origin, however outwardly persuasive, acquired full scientific legitimacy only when placed "in the harness of daily labour".

  13. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, I: Pteridophyta. The Ferns and Fern Allies. Bulletin No. 438, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    The information contained within this guide about flora of the ferns and fern allies of the Catskill Mountains of New York State covers medical and food uses of the plants, as well as the more typical floristic data of keys, drawings, and plant descriptions. (CS)

  14. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  15. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection.

  16. Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kathleen J; Owens, Jeffrey D; Ashley, Mary V

    2007-01-05

    As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations. To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car. Samples from the local population of Q. geminata were also collected and genotyped in order to demonstrate that genetic variation at four microsatellite loci was sufficient to assign leaves to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2.06x10(-6). DNA was successfully obtained from the dried leaf material although PCR amplification was more difficult than amplification of DNA from fresh leaves. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

  17. Getting the jump on Mother nature: the advancing technology of applied botany will speed reclamation of mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    By propagating native or indigenous plants in greenhouses on a speeded-up schedule, much guesswork is being taken out of revegetating mined land. Native Plants Inc., which tricks nature by reproducing the biological sequence of plants in a fraction of the natural time, offers reclaimers of disturbed land the plants they want in any quantity on very short notice. Prior to planting, seeds are treated to break their dormancy code. The plants are grown in tubepaks that promote root growth, grow both night and day, and have CO/sub 2/ injected into the air. The company reports a 97% success rate in transplanting its seedlings. Cloning and the unlocking of the germination secrets of plants have great potential for speeding the restoration of mined land. A micropropagation (or tissue culture), whereby parts of a whole plant are removed, sterilized, and grown on a specific nutrient medium are being considered. This technology affords a high degree of selectivity and rapid plant propagation and has far-reaching implications for mine operators faced with the challenges of reclaiming mined land. (DP)

  18. Me'en ritual, medicinal and other plants : a contribution to South-West Ethiopian ethno-botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present article offers a descriptive survey of the most important plants used by the Southeast Surmic-speaking Me'en in southwestern Käfa, Ethiopia, based on information gathered over a period of 14-months field research (1989-1991). Data covering the Me'en name of each plant, the scientific nam

  19. Quantitative RT-PCR and its application in botany research%定量RT-PCR及其在植物学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹丹; 顾金刚; 姜瑞波; 董金皋

    2007-01-01

    定量RT-PCR(Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR)是在反转录和定量PCR的基础上发展起来的一种特异性检测基因表达的技术.主要包括相对定量RT-PCR(Relative quantitative RT-PCR)、竞争性定量RT-PCR(Competitive quantitative RT-PCR)、比较定量RT-PCR(Comparative quantitative RT-PCR)和实时定量RT-PCR(Realtime quantitativeRT-PCR)四种.目前定量RT-PCR在植物学研究中的应用越来越广泛,如植物营养学研究、植物发育学研究、植物抗逆机理研究、转基因植物的检测、病原菌的检测、植物与微生物互作机理研究、植物抗病性检测等方面.本文综述了定量RT-PCR的原理及在植物学中的应用.

  20. Un repaso rápido de botánica de forrajes (cuento didáctico) - A review fast of forage botany (didactic tale)

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes Sánchez, Juan Manuel.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLos cuentos didácticos son una pieza básica en la consecución de losobjetivos educativos, son, así mismo, complemento a las diferentesactividades educativas. Tiene como finalidad introducirá al estudiante en un área muy bien definida del conocimiento, en un corto tiempo.SummaryThe didactic stories are a basic piece in the attainment of the educative objectives, are, also, complement to the different educative activities.

  1. DNA分子标记技术在法医植物学中的应用%Application of DNA Labeling Technology in Forensic Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娴; 李婧琳; 张翔宇

    2008-01-01

    法医植物学是一门研究与法律事件相关的植物证据的科学.植物物证的DNA分子标记技术是近年来法医植物学研究的主要方向.本文系统地综述了目前应用于法医植物学中的各种DNA分子标记技术.对这些方法的实际应用案例以及可能应用方向进行列举,最后总结出这些分子生物学技术相较于传统植物形态分类方法的优点.

  2. 多油辣木植物学性状和农艺性状观测%Botany Character and Agriculture Character of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌芬; 杨焱; 龙继明; 蒋桂芝; 黄菁; 伍英

    2006-01-01

    通过对云南西双版纳州在生产性栽培条件下多油辣木为期4年的试验观测,对多油辣木树型、叶、花、果等植物学性状及生长量、分枝、抽梢、开花及坐果等农艺性状作了详细描述.

  3. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  4. Lessons from Women in the Agricultural Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jennette; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses women who have made an impact in the agricultural sciences. Profiles Elizabeth Pickney, indigo; Jane Colden, botany; Harriet Strong, irrigation and flood control; Anna Comstock, nature studies; Alice Evans, bacteriology; Edith Patch, entomology; and Beatrix Potter, botany. (JOW)

  5. Engaging Students by Emphasising Botanical Concepts over Techniques: Innovative Practical Exercises Using Virtual Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonser, Stephen P.; de Permentier, Patrick; Green, Jacinta; Velan, Gary M.; Adam, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Student interest in botany and enrolment in plant sciences courses tends to be low compared to that in other biological disciplines. One potential way of increasing student interest in botany is to focus on course material designed to raise student enthusiasm and satisfaction. Here, we introduce and evaluate virtual microscopy in botany teaching.…

  6. 植物学实验考核体系的建立与实验教学改革探索%A probing into the establishment of experiment assessing system and reforming experimental teaching in Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志敏

    2001-01-01

    本文对植物学实验课的考核办法做了介绍,讨论了新的考核制度对实验教学提出的新要求。对实验教学进行了改革:(1)摸索出了“技术实验、验证实验、探索实验”三层次课程结构的划分;(2)教学内容由“封闭式”变为“开放式”;(3)突出对学生实践能力培养,完善实验的“验证性”为“探索性”;(4)变实验教学对象的“被动性”为“主动性”;(5)实验教学“软”件的激活和“硬”件的改善。%The paper probes into the new method for botanical experimental examination, and discusses the new assessing system of how to reform the traditional experimental classes. Five aspects for reforming the class are suggested as follows: 1. Dividing the class into three stages: technical experiment, validating experiment and exploring experiment. 2. Making “close” teaching manner into “open” one. 3. Focus on training students' practice ability, and completing “validating type” of experiment into “exploring type”. 4. Changing the teaching objects from “passivity” into “go-aheadism”. 5. Activating the “soft” of experimental teaching and improving “hard” one.

  7. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain; Crochet, Pierre-André; Dickinson, Edward C; Nemésio, André; Aescht, Erna; Bauer, Aaron M; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Bour, Roger; De Carvalho, Marcelo R; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Frétey, Thierry; Jäger, Peter; Koyamba, Victoire; Lavilla, Esteban O; Löbl, Ivan; Louchart, Antoine; Malécot, Valéry; Schatz, Heinrich; Ohler, Annemarie

    2013-11-11

    In zoological nomenclature, to be potentially valid, nomenclatural novelties (i.e., new nomina and nomenclatural acts) need first to be made available, that is, published in works qualifying as publications as defined by the International Code of zoological Nomenclature ("the Code"). In September 2012, the Code was amended in order to allow the recognition of works electronically published online after 2011 as publications available for the purpose of zoological nomenclature, provided they meet several conditions, notably a preregistration of the work in ZooBank. Despite these new Rules, several of the long-discussed problems concerning the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts have not been resolved. The publication of this amendment provides an opportunity to discuss some of these in detail. It is important to note that: (1) all works published only online before 2012 are nomenclaturally unavailable; (2) printed copies of the PDFs of works which do not have their own ISSN or ISBN, and which are not obtainable free of charge or by purchase, do not qualify as publications but must be seen as facsimiles of unavailable works and are unable to provide nomenclatural availability to any nomenclatural novelties they may contain; (3) prepublications online of later released online publications are unavailable, i.e., they do not advance the date of publication; (4) the publication dates of works for which online prepublications had been released are not those of these prepublications and it is critical that the real release date of such works appear on the actual final electronic publication, but this is not currently the case in electronic periodicals that distribute such online prepublications and which still indicate on their websites and PDFs the date of release of prepublication as that of publication of the work; (5) supplementary online materials and subsequent formal corrections of either paper or electronic publications distributed only online are nomenclaturally unavailable; (6) nomenclatural information provided on online websites that do not have a fixed content and format, with ISSN or ISBN, is unavailable. We give precise examples of many of these nomenclatural problems. Several of them, when they arise, are due to the fact that the availability of nomenclatural novelties now depends on information that will have to be sought not from the work itself but from extrinsic evidence. As shown by several examples discussed here, an electronic document can be modified while keeping the same DOI and publication date, which is not compatible with the requirements of zoological nomenclature. Therefore, another system of registration of electronic documents as permanent and inalterable will have to be devised. ZooBank also clearly needs to be improved in several respects. Mention in a work of its registration number (LSID) in ZooBank would seem to be possible only if this registration has occurred previously, but some works that have purportedly been registered in ZooBank are in fact missing on this web application. In conclusion, we offer recommendations to authors, referees, editors, publishers, libraries and the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, in the hope that such problems can be limited along with the potential chaos in zoological nomenclature that could result, if careful attention is not paid to the problems we highlight here, from a somewhat misplaced, and perhaps now widespread, understanding that electronic publication of nomenclatural novelties is now allowed and straightforward. We suggest that, as long as the problematic points linked to the new amendment and to electronic publication as a whole are not resolved, nomenclatural novelties continue to be published in paper-printed journals that have so far shown editorial competence regarding taxonomy and nomenclature, which is not the case of several recent electronic-only published journals.

  8. Linguistic differences and similarities in the abstracts of botany and literature = Diferenças e similaridades linguísticas entre os resumos da botânica e da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz, Juliana Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de linguagens específicas, que estão ligadas a certas áreas de pesquisa, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum e essencial para a compreensão da língua como um todo. Portanto, este artigo tem por objetivo estudar, analisar e comparar a linguagem existente em abstracts a partir de duas diferentes áreas de estudo: a Botânica e a Literatura. A pesquisa relatada neste artigo tem a intenção de identificar as semelhanças e as diferenças linguísticas entre essas duas áreas e classificá-las de acordo com a gramática. A análise dos resultados mostrou que, na linguagem utilizada nos abstracts de Literatura, há um frequente uso de adjetivos, enquanto que, na linguagem dos abstracts da Botânica, há um uso frequente de substantivos

  9. Recent Advances of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Its Applications in Forensic Botany%AFLP分子标记技术的新进展及其在法医植物学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成涛; 李莉

    2008-01-01

    扩增片段长度多态性(amplified fragment length polymorphism,AFLP)是一种用来检测基因组多态性的新一代分子标记,具有分辨率高、稳定性好、重复性好等特点.近年来,研究人员对该技术进行了不断的优化和完善,并由之衍生出多种相关技术.AFLP技术在动物、植物及微生物等许多研究领域已有广泛应用,在法医植物学中得到初步发展并成为研究热点.本文主要介绍了AFLP技术的新进展以及在法医植物学中的应用情况.

  10. An English-Spanish Glossary of Terminology Used in Forestry, Range, Wildlife, Fishery, Soils, and Botany = Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de Terminologia Usada en Forestales, Pastizales, Fauna, Silvestre, Pesqueria, Suelos, y Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alvin Leroy

    This document presents English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms commonly used in the field of natural resource management. The glossary is composed of two sections. Section 1 contains the English to Spanish translations, while Section 2 provides the Spanish to English translations. Each section is…

  11. 76 FR 5199 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recreation Area Management Plan, a Comprehensive Transportation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... management questions and concerns that should be addressed in the plan. The BLM will work collaboratively..., paleontology, botany, special status species, wildlife and fisheries, hydrology, sociology and...

  12. The Rijksherbarium and its contribution to the knowledge of the tropical Asiatic flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The role played by the Rijksherbarium in the progress of Asian botany is of course closely interwoven with the history of exploration and phytography, and its evaluation needs, therefore, a background setting in the development of scientific botany in the East. The Rijksherbarium was founded after a

  13. Research and publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1987-01-01

    The botany of mangroves by P.B. Tomlinson has been published in the Cambridge Tropical Biology Series, Cambridge University Press. Checklist of the generic names used for Spermatophytes in Malesian botany. During their last years Dr. R.C. BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK f. and Dr. C.G.G.J VAN STEENIS have r

  14. Our Human-Plant Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    It is relatively easy to incorporate plants into a curriculum and extend their use beyond the botany unit into other scientific arenas. There are numerous web-based resources for teachers, including the Human Flower Project (HFP) website, which offers numerous vignettes on all aspects of flowering plants. In addition to botany and invasive plant…

  15. Officer Standardized Educational Testing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    LITERATURE 803 = CREATIVE WRITING 804 = ENGLISH, GENERAL 805 = LINGUISTICS 806 = LITERATURE, ENGLISH/AMERICAN 807 = SPEECH, DEBATE AND FORENSICS 810...ASTRONOMY 832 = ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND METEOROLOGY 833 = BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS 834 = BIOLOGY 835 = BOTANY 836 = CHEMISTRY 837 = EARTH SCIENCE...ARCHITECTURE 124 = INTERIOR DESIGN 130 = BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, GENERAL 131 = BIOLOGY 132 = BIOCHEMISTRY 133 = BOTANY 134 = ECOLOGY 135 = MICROBIOLOGY 136

  16. 大学时光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesThurber; 刘吾

    2004-01-01

    I passed all the other courses that I took at my university, but I could never pass botany. This was because all botany students have to spend several hours a week in a laboratory looking through a microscope at plant cells, and I could never see through a inicroscope. I never once saw a cett

  17. A Brief Biography of Prof. Yun-chang Wang (1906-)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jian-yun; WEI Shu-xia; 宋银秋

    2006-01-01

    @@ Yun-chang Wang, a Chinese mycologist and pathologist, was born in Neihuang county of Henan province. After his graduation from Agricultural College of Peiping University, he became an assistant researcher in Botany Institute of Peiping Institute.

  18. Publications of the space biology program for 1975-1977: A special bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, J. C. (Compiler); Halstead, T. W. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Documents cited represent research encompassing several disciplines of space biology: botany and plant pathology, physiology and biophysics, agricultural and environmental sciences, anatomy and embryology, cellular and comparative biology, horticulture and aerospace biology.

  19. Een experimenteel onderzoek over de werking van de aconitine op het hart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Jan Pieter

    1946-01-01

    Een literatuuroverzicht werd gegeven betreffende de geschiedenis, botanie, toxicologie, chemie en pharmacologie van aconitine. Vervolgens werden de verschijnselen, die gedurende de vergiftiging met aconitine aan het hart optraden, bestudeerd. Hiervoor werden de volgende experimenten verricht: 1. Mec

  20. Women and Computers: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

  1. Sino-UK Botanists Join Hands for Plant Conservation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A joint research symposium on plant conservation with associated formal and informal discussions on science for plant conservation was held on Oct.15 and 16 at the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany in the capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  2. Flora investigation kicks off on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coordinated by the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany,a project to investigate the floral germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was initiated recently in Kunming,capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  3. Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Noronha, L.; Lourenco, N; Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.; Lieopart, A; Feoli, E.; Sawkar, K.; Chachadi, A

    sociology, economics, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geography and botany. The objective is to highlight (1) the interface between social and environmental issues in a coastal tourism context, (2) the issues that need to be considered in planning...

  4. Structure of the Anthrax Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    analysis. Scientometrics. 1996; 36(3): 435-444. MacRoberts, MH, MacRoberts, BR Citation content analysis of a botany journal. Journal of the...which indicated that only 30% of influences evident in text are reflected in a paper’s references, the text of an issue of the botany journal Sida...number tandem repeat [VNTR] analysis) (Keim et al., 2000) to identify the strain of B. anthracis used in the attack. Additional forensic information

  5. Contributions to Industrial Development of Science and Technology Institutions in Malaysia and Opportunities for Bilateral Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Lumpur vicinity) which operate on a commercial basis. The Chemistry Department and the Geological Survey provide forensic V chemistry services for the...research in Malaysia that would be of lower priority to Malaysian institutions might be of considerable interest to U.S. scientists (i.e., botany ...rank Lecturer or above Biological Sciences Biochemistry 9 Botany 9 Genetics 12 Microbiology 9 Zoology 14 53 Physical Sciences Electronics 6 Physics 14

  6. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 5, Number 2 April - June 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    contains the following Divisions: - Botany , - Zoology, - Geophysics, - Polymer Science, and - Chemistry. In addition, the Faculty of Science contains...MidJuly The 5th International Congress of Yamanashi, Assistant Prof. A Komamine, Dept. (tentative) Plant Tissue Japan of Botany , Faculty of Science...Skougstad. U.S. Geological Survey - Dr. R. L. Williams, Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory. Invited review lecturers were: - Dr. P. W

  7. Archaeological Investigation in the Gainesville Lake Area of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Volume IV. Biocultural Studies in the Gainesville Lake Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Journal of Archaeology 2(1) 3-4". 1976h Paleoethnobotany of the Koster site: an interim report. Ms. on file, Archaeologica I Botany Laboratory...thesis, Department of Botany , University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Binford, Lewis R. 1972 An archaeological perspective. Seminar Press, New York...Journal of Forensic Medicine 2:51-54. 1957 Sex differences in the foetal pelvis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 15:581-600. Blakely, R. L., ed

  8. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  9. Occurrence of cyanobacteria - diatom symbiosis in the Bay of Bengal: Implications in biogeochemistry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.V.; Chitari, R.R.; Narale, D.D.; Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    stream_size 7886 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Sci_99_736.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Sci_99_736.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE..., New York, 1950, vol. 19, p. 643. 24. Garg, A., Taiwania, 2009, 54, 122–133. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I thank DST, New Delhi for providing funds to carry out this work and the Directors, National Botani- cal Research Institute, Lucknow and Botani- cal...

  10. Summary Information on Employment, Characteristics, Supply, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-05-01

    Physiology GS 414 Entomology Plant Sciences GS 415 Nematology GS 430 Botany GS 431 Mycology GS 433 Plant taxomony GS 434 Plant pathology GS 435...Bacteriology 7X01—Bacterial metabolism 7X02—Bacterial physiology 7X03—Microbial processes Botany 7001—Bryology 7002—Dendrology 7003— Mycology ...8502— Poultry 8503—Small animal Fish and Wildlife 8601—Controls 8602—Food habits 8603—Habitat influences 8604—Population dynamics 8605

  11. From Alliance to Acquaintance: The Australian-American Security Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    of this is simple, but not simplistic. Though Australians are ( as stated) unshakeably of the opinion that their armed forces could "not defend Botany ...the site first chosen for a penal colony on the advice of Sir Joseph Banks; Botany Bay. Downcast by the "waterless and drought-stricken environment...U.S. Evatt had a fine forensic mind, as well might a man who had been a high court justice before entering politics, and he was (or became) much more of

  12. Errant corporations, diffuse responsibilities, and the environment: ethical issues in the Orica case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Damian

    2009-04-01

    The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of the HCB legacy at the Orica plant at Botany. Whether explicitly or implicitly, they are concerned with questions of ethics; with the just distribution of burdens and benefits; with just processes for disposing of dangerous industrial waste; and with a just custodianship of the Botany environment. These ethical issues illustrate the difficulty of securing corporate accountability, and the elusiveness of responsibility within organisations. This paper reflects on some of the issues for ethics raised by the Orica case and their significance for corporate ethics.

  13. A Computer-Based Simulation for Teaching Heat Transfer across a Woody Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixner, Michael R.; Noyd, Robert K.; Krueger, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    To assist student understanding of heat transfer through woody stems, we developed an instructional package that included an Excel-based, one-dimensional simulation model and a companion instructional worksheet. Guiding undergraduate botany students to applying principles of thermodynamics to plants in nature is fraught with two main obstacles:…

  14. Outstanding Science Tradebooks for Children for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes trade book reviews from 11 categories: Animals; Archaeology, Anthropology, and Paleontology; Biography (Charles. Darwin, Jackal Woman, Rachel Carson, and Marie Curie); Botany; Chemistry and Mineralogy, Environment and Conservation; Geology and Meteorology; The Human Body and Sexuality; Nature and Life; Ocean and Shore Life; and Physics,…

  15. Knowledge Management to Exploit Agrarian Resources as Part of Late-Eighteenth-Century Cultures of Innovation: Friedrich Casimir Medicus and Franz Von Paula Schrank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between "scientists" and "artisans" in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as…

  16. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  17. New R & D center to address energy problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The joint launching ceremony for the Research and Development Center for Energy Plants, the CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS), and the R&D Laboratory for Sweet Sorghum co-established by IBCAS and the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) in Singapore was held on 10 December at IOB in Beijing.

  18. Dates of Botanical Publications 1788-1792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1963-01-01

    Questions of priority often necessitate a search for precise dates of publication. Much research of this kind has already been done, for instance by Britten and Woodward in their “Bibliographical notes” published in the Journal of Botany, by O. Kuntze in his Revisio generum plantarum, by W. T. Stear

  19. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1986-01-01

    Dr. W.-L. CHEW has formerly been a curator in SING, staff member of NSW, attached to the IUCN until 1982 and to the United Nations in Thailand for conservation purposes until 1983. He has now returned to botany revitalizing his project on the Malesian Piperaceae on which he had worked before, publis

  20. WetVegEurope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, Flavia; Řezníčková, Marcela; Šumberová, Kateřina; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    WetVegEurope is a research project (http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/vegsci/wetveg) whose goal is to provide a synthesized formalized classification of the aquatic and marsh vegetation across Europe at the level of phytosociological associations. In order to achieve the project objective, a WetVegEu

  1. 15 June 2002, 300th anniversary of Rumphius’ death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 June 2002, it will be the 300th anniversary of the death of the founder of Malesian botany, zoology, and geology, Georg Everhard Rumpf, better known as Rumphius (probably late 1627-1702). It seemed suitable to present a brief commemoration here. This being a botanical bulletin, I will mainly d

  2. The Natural Classroom: A Directory of Field Courses, Programs, and Expeditions in the Natural Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Jack R.

    The purpose of this book is to increase awareness of the numerous seminars, short courses, field courses, workshops, and programs for teachers, students, naturalists, and independent scholars. These programs emphasize the natural sciences including general biology, botany, zoology, ecology, marine biology, ichthyology, microbiology, natural…

  3. What Is a Leaf? An Online Tutorial and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A leaf is a fundamental unit in botany and understanding what constitutes a leaf is fundamental to many plant science activities. My observations and subsequent testing indicated that many students could not confidently and consistently recognise a leaf from a leaflet, or recognise basic leaf arrangements and the various types of compound or…

  4. Let Peter Rabbit Play in the Garden: Using Beatrix Potter's Work to Integrate Ecological Literacy into Montessori Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Kelly Johnson introduces a series of lessons that incorporate literacy, observation, botany, history, place studies, writing, and art, with a long-term eco-literacy goal of connectedness and a conservation ethic. Johnson's initial idea to use Beatrix Potter as a model in the Lower Elementary classroom came after extensively researching…

  5. A Guide to Cultural and Environmental Interpretation in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    complete in itself. Trailside texts should be short yet long 88 enough to be clear. Oversimplification can bore the visitor, but tech- nical or unfamiliar...ensure accurate interpretation. Training might be in one of the natural or physical sciences e.g., zoology, botany , aquatic biology, limnology

  6. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Delia D. Adefuin, Museum Research Assistant, Manila, is pursuing her M.S. in Botany degree. She is currently the Secretary of the Fern Society of the Philippines. She is working on the Fern Flora of Metro Manila and is preparing the manuscript of a pictorial encyclopedia which will include desc

  7. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidenschwarz, F.

    1997-01-01

    Flora and vegetation study of Suluan Island, Eastern Samar, Philippines — A group of botanists from the University of San Carlos Botany Research Group (USCBRG) and CEBU (Ms. E. Elumbaring, Dr. B. Heeger, Dr. F. Seidenschwarz, and Ms. S. Semblante) is studying the flora and vegetation of Suluan Islan

  8. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  9. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    . Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 547–555. 10. Kolwalkar JP, Sawant SS, Dharkalkar VK (2007) Fate of Enteromorpha (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implication for ballast water management. Aquatic Botany 86: 86–88. 11. Raffaelli DJ...

  10. EU project on agronomic portfolio kicks off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The launching meeting for "benefiting from an improved agricultural portfolio in Asia," a research project supported by the European Commission under the Framework Program 6,was held at the CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS) on 6 and 7 November, 2006 in Beijing.

  11. 47th ANZAAS Congress (abstracts) Vol. I, Sections 1-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 250 papers. The subject areas covered by the papers include the following: (1) physics, (2) chemistry, (3) geology, (4) architecture and town planning, (5) pharmaceutical sciences, (6) optometry, (7) zoology, (8) botany, (9) agriculture and forestry, (10) physiology, and (11) food science and nutrition. An author index is included. (MOW)

  12. 79 new cyclopeptides discovered from 28 plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A key innovative research result has been achieved in systematic chemistry of plant cyclopeptides (PCPs), a group of important plant metabolites, by a research team with the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB)in the capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province. According to a recent announcement released by the Institute, its chemists have brought to light 79 new PCPs.

  13. F. A. W. Miquel, Netherlands botanist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1966-01-01

    The University herbarium of Utrecht dates traditionally from the year 1816 when a collection of about 3000 plants was bought from the professor of botany M. van Geuns (1735-1817). It is possible that other collections of dried plants were already owned by the University or at any rate by the botanic

  14. Innovative Techniques for Large-Scale Collection, Processing, and Storage of Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Delmarva Coastal Bays, USA. Aquatic Botany 84:26-36. Pickerell, C. H., S. Schott, and S. Wyllie- Echeverria . 2005. Buoy deployed seeding... Echeverria . 2006. Buoy-deployed seeding: A new low-cost technique for restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation from seed. SAV Technical Notes Collection

  15. Miscellaneous information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1983-01-01

    Tropical Botany in Aberdeen University. This was started by Professor J.W.H. Trail, who held the chair from 1877 to 1919, and travelled in the Amazon Valley (1873-75) mainly collecting cryptogams and studying palms. He was succeeded by Prof. W.G. Craib (1920-33) who was never in the tropics but devo

  16. The Institute of Biological Sciences Herbarium (PBDH), University of the Philippines Los Baños

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buot, I.E.; Hernaez, B.F.; Tandang, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    With the founding of the Museum of Natural History (MNH) at the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) the former Department of Botany Herbarium (CAHUP) has been transferred to this. This required the establishment of another herbarium to cater to the increasing need by courses in systematic

  17. How-to-Do-It: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Forestry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a four- to six-week minicourse featuring topics from language arts, law, history, sociology, mathematics, art, and woodworking in addition to botany, zoology, genetics, ecology, and evolution. Student study is divided into five phases: tree-ring analysis; forest history; seedling competition; genetic improvement and cloning; and a…

  18. Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano- and Micro-Fabrication Methods: Year Two Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    patterns with a home or office grade printer gives more strength to the argument of using LOP devices for inexpensive sampling, mixing, transport ...2008, 323, 73 82. [34] Barthlott, W.; Neinhuis, C. Planta 1997, 202, 1 8. [35] NEINHUIS, C.; BARTHLOTT, W. Annals of Botany 1997, 79, 667 677. [36

  19. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  20. Multiple Objectives Achieved with a Germination Experiment in a Science Education Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Ken; Warners, David

    2007-01-01

    In our college course, "Life Science for Elementary School Teachers," our investigation assesses the germination success of an invasive plant, purple loosestrife, compared to native wildflowers. Topics addressed include the scientific method, experimental design, seed dormancy, plant competition, ethno-botany, and success of non-native plants. The…

  1. Recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences V

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This E-book is the fifth volume of a series that compiles contributions from different areas of the multidisciplinary field of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The E-book consists of 11 chapters that cover the areas of organic chemistry, health and environmental management, plant physiology, food science, toxicology, botany, parasitology, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, and pharmacology.

  2. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences VI

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This E-book is the sixth volume of a series that compiles contributions from different areas of the multidisciplinary field of Pharmaceutical Sciences, particularly phisical chemistry, food science, toxicology, botany, biochemistry and molecular biology, preventive medicine and public health, pharmacology, physiology, microbiology, and parasitology.

  3. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1960-01-01

    The frontispiece selected for this number is a photograph made during a visit by Leyden botanists to the nestor of Malaysian botany, Dr C.A. Backer, at Heemstede, who celebrated his 85th birthday, September 18, 1959. Though now almost confined to his room and his eyesight unfortunately no longer suf

  4. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  5. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…

  6. Index to Ecology (Multimedia). Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This expanded catalog lists over 8,000 films, filmstrips, videotapes, transparencies, audiotapes, and records dealing with environmental and ecological topics. Subjects include: amphibians, botany, birth control, city planning, evolution, food chains, farming, oceanography, and sea life. Titles are listed alphabetically. Though entries are not…

  7. Teaching Flower Structure & Floral Formulae--A Mix of the Real & Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    The study of flower structure is essential in plant identification and in understanding sexual reproduction in plants, pollination syndromes, plant breeding, and fruit structure. Thus, study of flower structure and construction of floral formulae are standard parts of first-year university botany and biology courses. These activities involve…

  8. Reference: 331 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 331 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16449377i Gobert Anthony... experimental botany Amtmann Anna|Gobert Anthony|Maathuis Frans J M|Park Graeme|Sanders Dale

  9. 50 Years of JBE: The Evolution of Biology as a School Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    When the "Journal of Biological Education" was first published in 1967, biology was still very much the Cinderella of the three school sciences in many countries. Most selective secondary school biology courses readily betrayed their origins as an unconvincing coalition of botany and zoology. In the non-selective secondary modern…

  10. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  11. New Workflows for Born-Digital Assets: Managing Charles E. Bracker's Orchid Photographs Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Amanda A.; Runyon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    Charles E. Bracker was a professor of botany and plant pathology at Purdue University from 1964 to 1999. His late wife, Anri, was an orchid enthusiast who began collecting and housing orchids in the 1980s. In 2009, Bracker's 30,000 digital orchid photographs were donated to Ball State University Libraries, where both of this article's authors…

  12. Cyclopaedia of collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    Served as a botanist with the Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea, from May, 1969, to March, 1975. Collections in NGF and LAE series from the West and East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, Western and Eastern Highlands, Western and Central Distr., Manus Island, New Britain and Bougainville. Left LAE in

  13. Science Fair Scene: Turning Ideas into Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the steps necessary to conduct a science fair project and examines two specific examples of how a basic idea for a science fair topic can be followed to its completion. Provides examples of day-to-day operational science in a basic botany project and a lunar geography project. (JJK)

  14. Book notices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1956-01-01

    Barrett, C.: Wild life of Australia and New Guinea. 229 pp., ill., 1955. Describes in a fascinating and not too technical manner the life stories of animals of Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea. Bor, N.L.: Manual of Indian forest botany. 441 pp. A systematically planned treatise with keys to the

  15. Defense Force Management: Occupation Distribution and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    diitteseilss lyve medicine, veterinary medicine. optometry, phlysilolgy. diet therapy . medical equipmerint main- s2. Clericaj/Personne-Includes combined...Includes ecology, zoý- 61. Health Services Administration Officers-4n. ology, botany, horticulture , conservatioand at cludles all medical and health

  16. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  17. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  18. Book notices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafinesque, C.S.

    1963-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meetings of the Botanical Society of America, in Am. J. Bot. 49 (1962), as far as these relate to Malaysian botany. Author’s addresses are found in the Journal. Canright, J.E. & M.P. Paden: Contributions of pollen morphology to the phylogeny of the Annonaceae, Eu

  19. Prof. Long Chunlin Receives Harshberger Medal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Prof. Dr. Long Chunlin, an ethnobotanist at the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB), has been chosen by the Society of Ethnobotany of India as a laureate of the Harshberger Medal for his outstanding contributions to ethnobotany, an interdisciplinary field which studies how plants are used in various cultures.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Beddown of the 610th Security Forces Squadron Regional Training Center at Fort Wolters, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Wolters 8-1 Section 8 - List of Preparers and Contributors David Eskew, Senior Environmental Scientist, OTIE B.S., Agronomy , University of...Tennessee, 1971 M.S., Agronomy , University of Wisconsin, 1973 Ph.D., Agronomy /Botany, Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, 1975 Years of Experience

  1. DIE PFLANZENSAMMLUNG VON JOACHIM WATTENDORFF (1928-2008) IM HERBARIUM MÜNSTER (MSTR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Maria; Tenbergen, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The complete collection of Swiss professor of botany Joachim Wattendorff, born in the small Westphalian town of Borghorst, consists of more than 5,000 samples, considerably enriching the Herbarium (MSTR) in the LWLMuseum für Naturkunde (Museum of Natural History) in Münster, Germany. Over the past...

  2. Archaeological Survey of Cooper Lake, Number 7. 1989. Cultural Resource Studies for Cooper Lake, Hopkins and Delta Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    retained for current and future forensic studies. tools individually labeled. Many of the cards only These samples are on file with the Department of...scale. methods used during the 1970s excavations, an Many samples contair•ed uncarbonizcd pla•t examination of the archaex) botani ,-al remains in the

  3. Inflamed with Study: Eighteenth-Century Higher Education and the Formation of the American Constitutional Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    his life, he studied chemistry, botany and military science under leading authorities. Following his tour, he returned to England, completed his formal...Hamilton--though with more consistency than the former and less brilliance than the latter--in an era when forensic ability was highly prized." 4 1

  4. Processing of Ceramics by Biopolymers. Ultrastructure-Property Relationships in Biocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-09

    34Inter- can then mimic the processes artifi- Seattle in April on "Design and Pro- Jeff Bingaman and Republican Pete as diverse as botany , aerospace, and...of used forensic techniques to recreate his behaviour, as well as anomalous easy Materials Science and Metallurgy. University face (L’Information

  5. The Kellogg Village Site Investigations, Clay County, Mississippi,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Anthropology, 26:67-78. Krogman, W. M. 1962 The human skeleton in forensic medicine. C. C. Thomas, Springfield. McKern, T. W. 1970 Estimation of...337 REFERENCES CITED Banks, William H., Jr. 1953 Ethnobotany of the Cherokee Indians. M.A. thesis, Department of Botany , University of Tennessee

  6. Occupational Conversion Index: Enlisted/Officer/Civilian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Extension 0408 Ecology 0410 Zoology 0413 Physiology 0414 Entomology 0430 Botany 0434 b Plant Pathology 0435 Plant Physiology 0436 b Plant Protection... Forensic Pathology 1686 q Hematopathology 1688 q Immunopathology 1691 q Cytopathology AIR FORCE 9526 Pathologist 9526A Pathologist, Hematology 9526B...Pathologist, Cytology 9526C Pathologist. Gynecology 9526D Pathologist, Forensic 9526E Pathologist, Neuropathology 6A21 Pediatrics ARMY COMMISSIONED

  7. The Effect of Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (DiEGME) on Microbial Contamination of Jet Fuel: A Minimum Concentration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    identification are also listed elsewhere (11). Cladosporium resinae (Roswell) was identified by light microscopy, performed by Forensic Analytical of Rancho...Palm, and E. B. McCray. 2003. Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/. USDA Garrity, G

  8. Officer Computer Utilization Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    004 COMPUTER SCIENCE 079 ASTRONOMY 005 ECONOMICS 080 BIOLOGY 006 FINANCE 081 BOTANY 007 MANAGEMENT 082 CHEMISTRY 008 MANAGEMENT. ACOUISITION AND...154 LAW. ENVIRONMENTAL 162 VETERINARY 074 OTHER HISTORY FIELD 155 LAW. FORENSIC SCIENCE 163 OTHER 075 OTHER AREA STUDIES 156 LAW. INTERNATIONAL -7

  9. Emerging Concepts for Integrating Human and Environmental Water Needs in River Basin Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    processes cannot be monitored in “real time” and must instead be inferred from “post-event” forensic evaluations of the river. These attributes make the...international research experience in marine biology, aquatic botany , estuarine and river management, and environmental science, employed by the Dutch Royal

  10. Demonstration Results for the Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soil at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    fertilization, plant physiology, plant botany , heavy metals chemistry in soil and plants, and application of soil amendments. ATK, the operating...replaced without it being detected. Two styles have been useful for samples or sample containers. Adhesive seals advertised as meeting forensic science

  11. Contracting of Samples for Chemical Analyses. What You Should Know about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    when non-chemistry majors are in charge of the lab-persons with a degree in Geology, Botany , or English. Don’t laugh, it happens. That knowledge of...Graduate studies, Forensic Science Michigan State University, 1975-1976 East Lansing, Michigan B.S., Chemistry Eastern Michigan University, 1975 Ypsilanti

  12. Development of Ecological Indicator Guilds for Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-25

    McArthur. 1982. A comparison of water stress between males and females of 4 species of desert shrubs. Forensic Science 28:304-308. Friauf, J.J...Canadian Journal of Botany 63:367-376. McCune, B., and M.J. Mefford. 1999. PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, Version 4.25

  13. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 7, Edition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    history, linguistics, and botany . Guns, Germs, and Steel won the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, and the Rhone-Poulenc Prize...SWATMEDIC Links: http://www.specwarnet.net/taclink/ and http://www.swatmedic.org MORGUE/ FORENSICS Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human

  14. The Seminal Literature of Anthrax Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Keim et al. 2000) to identify the strain of B. anthracis used in the attack. Additional forensic information was provided by whole genome...entometrics 36(3), 435–444. MacRoberts, M.H., and MacRoberts, B.R. 1997. Citation content analysis of a botany journal. Journal of the American Society

  15. Acta Botanica SinicaInstruction for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Acta Botanica Sinica is the official publication of Botanical Society of China. Founded in 1952, it has become a monthlyjournal. It publishes original papers, rapid communications and reviews on all aspects of plant science in English withChinese abstract. The scope of this journal extends from modern plant science to classical botany.

  16. SERS internship Spring 1995 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.

    1995-11-01

    Presented topics varied over many fields in science and engineering. Botany on grasses in California, real time face recognition technology, thermogravimetric studies on corrosion and finite element modeling of the human pelvis are examples of discussed subjects. Further fields of study are carcinogenics, waste management, radar imaging, automobile accessories, document searching on the internet, and shooting stars. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  17. Addition to chapter VI b (p. 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1972-01-01

    Botanic Garden at the University of Malaya. A plan was submitted by Professor W.R. Stanton, head of the Botany Division, University of Malaya, K.L., to establish a new botanic garden of some 100 acres as a teaching facility and for the benefit of biological education institutes and the general publi

  18. [Simón de Tovar (1528-1596): family networks, American nature and trade in curiosities in 16th century Seville].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pérez, Miguel; Rey Bueno, Mar

    2006-01-01

    The central character of this work is Simón de Tovar, a citizen of late 16th century Seville, who was an outstanding collector of American plants. Beyond the traditional historiography of early modern Spanish botany, Tovar's activities have been set in the context of an expanding trade in marvels and curiosities.

  19. Nogmaals de Franse aardkastanje [Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, P.A.; Londo, G.

    1994-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van de vondst in 1988 van Conopodium majus te Bentheim (D)¹ kunnen wij melden dat deze neofiet ter plaatse al zeker 12 jaar langer voorkomt. Op 3 juni 1976 maakte de afdeling Botanie van het vroegere Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer een excursie naar onder andere het Bentheimerwald.

  20. Ephedra equisetina Bunge 及び 近縁植物の種分類と多様性に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    博士論文要旨Abstract 以下に掲載予定:The Journal of Japanese Botany 90(3) pp.235-248 2015. 植物研究雑誌編集委員会. 共著者:Hirokazu Ando, Masashi Matsumoto, Maksut Coşkun, Turgut Yilmaz, Nathalie Allain, Yohei Sasaki, Masayuki Mikage

  1. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1966-01-01

    Dr. P. S. Ashton has taken up an appointment as a lecturer in botany at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, after the completion of his work in Sarawak in September 1966. A programme of cooperation has come into existence between the universities of Aberdeen and Kuala Lumpur, Malaya. Dr. Ashton’s

  2. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1990-01-01

    FRIM regularly makes botanical expeditions, which other scientists may join. Please contact Dr. E. SOEPADMO, Department of Botany, University of Malaysia, 59100 – Kuala Lumpur. K.M. WONG et al. (1988) have given notes on the early exploration and botanical collecting in the Endau-Rompin area of Peni

  3. In Memoriam Cornelis (Kees) Kalkman (1928—1998)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Pieter

    1998-01-01

    With the sudden and untimely death of Kees Kalkman on 19 January 1998, systematic botany in general and the Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus in particular lost a great servant. The word servant is appropriate, because in a totally unselfish and very conscientious way Kalkman carried out all the dutie

  4. Crash course Can a seventeen-mile-long collider unlock the universe?

    CERN Multimedia

    Kolbert, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    If you think of the sciences as a tower, with one field resting on another until you reach, say, botany or physiology, then particle physics represents the bottommost floor....A full of mysterious particles - "sparticles" - that have yet to be detected; that is is not a universe at all, but a multiverse. (7,5 pages)

  5. Pocket Checklists of Indonesian timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prawira, Soewanda A.; Tantra, I.G.M.; Whitmore, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia as yet does not have a comprehensive account of the forest trees which reach timber size (35 cm dbh = 14 inch or 105 cm gbh = 42 inch). A project has been started in August 1983 by the Botany Section of the Forest Research Institute in Bogor, Indonesia, to prepare pocket checklists of the

  6. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Dr. McClure’s studies on the bamboos date from a period of service in China, at first as an Agricultural Explorer, since 1931 as a Professor of Botany at Lingnan University in Canton. On field trips in the Chinese interior and in Indo-China he collected numerous living bamboos, which were transplant

  7. Research and publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    Botany 2000-Asia — From the Newsletter 3/2 (June 1994) the following: — Workshop on Piperaceae to be held in 1995. For more information write to Mr. M. van Alphen, UNESCO/ROSTEA, 8 Poorvi Marg, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi-11057, India. — The second Symposium on the Zingiberaceae will be held between 9 a

  8. 77 FR 14414 - Notice of Intent To Revise Resource Management Plans and an Associated Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... involved in the planning process: Timber, wildlife and fisheries, economics, botany, climate change/carbon... Environmental Impact Statement for Six Western Oregon Districts of the Bureau of Land Management AGENCY: Bureau..., the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, intends to revise...

  9. 77 FR 61021 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment and Associated Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... planning process. The BLM will work collaboratively with all interested groups, agencies, and individuals... the plan. The BLM will work collaboratively with interested parties to identify the management..., wildlife and fisheries, botany, lands and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology and economics. You may...

  10. 78 FR 39311 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment and an Associated Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...; and, how would the proposed VRM classification affect recreation. The planning work will be completed... management questions and concerns that should be addressed in the plan. The BLM will work collaboratively..., botany, lands and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology, and economics. Authority: 40 CFR 1501.7 and 43...

  11. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  12. Opportunities in Biological Sciences; [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Charles A.

    This book provides job descriptions and discusses career opportunities in various fields of the biological sciences. These fields include: (1) biotechnology, genetics, biomedical engineering, microbiology, mycology, systematic biology, marine and aquatic biology, botany, plant physiology, plant pathology, ecology, and wildlife biology; (2) the…

  13. TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS EPISTROPHE FROM JILIN PROVINCE ( DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE)%吉林省垂边蚜蝇属二新种记述(双翅目,食蚜蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝锡联; 霍科科; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    在整理吉林省采集的食蚜蝇标本时,发现并记述垂边蚜蝇属2新种,即吉林垂边蚜蝇Epistrophe jilinensis sp.nov.和暗跗垂边蚜蝇E.melatarsis sp.nov.,同时提供其形态特征图.新种模式标本保存在陕西理工学院动植物标本馆及东北师范大学生命科学学院标本馆.%This paper reports two new species of Epistrophe Walker collected from Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province, China. They are Epistrophe jilinensis sp. Nov. And E. Melatarsis sp. Nov., their descriptions and feature figures are given. The type specimens examined were deposited in the Museum of Animal and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology and the Museum of Animal and Botany, Northeast Normal University.

  14. VASCULAR PLANTS OF SOUTHEASTERN OKLAHOMA FROM THE SANS BOIS TO THE KIAMICHI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hobart Means, Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author grew up in the prairie region of Kay County where he learned to appreciate proper management of the soil and the native grass flora. After graduation from college, he moved to Eastern Oklahoma State College where he took a position as Instructor in Botany and Agronomy. In the course of conducting botany field trips and working with local residents on their plant problems, the author became increasingly interested in the flora of that area and of the State of Oklahoma. This led to an extensive study of the northern portion of the Oauchita Highlands with collections currently numbering approximately 4,200. The specimens have been processed according to standard herbarium procedures. The first set has been placed in the Herbarium of Oklahoma State University with the second set going to Eastern Oklahoma State College at Wilburton.

  15. Charles Bonnet, his life, and his syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Charles Bonnet (1720-1792) was an eminent naturalist and philosopher whose contributions to botany and philosophy were highly regarded and honored by his contemporaries in the scientific community of his era in France and England. In1760 he first described and analyzed formed visual hallucinations experienced by his grandfather. The syndrome was named after Bonnet in 1937 by George de Mosier, another native of Geneva, Switzerland.

  16. Third cumulative index for Koedoe: volumes 35/2-44/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Rautenbach

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Index to Koedoe: volumes 35/2 - 44/1 Authors85 Subjects98 Botany 98 Ecology and behaviour 100 Wildlife conservation & techniques 100 Zoology102 Invertebrata 102 Pisces 103 Amphibia 103 Reptilia 103 Aves104 Mammalia 104 Archaeology and History 105 Bibliography 106 Climate 106 Geologyand Pedology 106 Environmental impact on rivers & water quality 106 Check list 107 Issues in conservation 107 Maps 108 Social Science 108 Parks

  17. PCoD Lite - Using an Interim PCoD Protocol to Assess the Effects of Disturbance Associated with US Navy Exercises on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    LONG - TERM GOALS The approach is being developed in this project has the potential for operational use by the US Navy as part of its...Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis (ACERA) School of Botany The University of Melbourne Australia phone: +61 3 8344 4405 email: markab...activity …cannot be reasonably expected to, and is not reasonably likely to, adversely affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of

  18. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Feasibility of Relating Phenology and Carbohydrate Partitioning to Improve Aquatic Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the submersed species, coontail (Ceratophyliuw demerswm), elodea (EZodea ccznadensi), and egeria (Egeria densa), were higher in winter, with a deple...Best, E. P. H. 1977. Seasonal changes in mineral and organic compounds of Ceratophylluwn demerswn and Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany 3:337-348. Best...E. P. H., and J. H. A. Dassen. 1987. A seasonal study of growth char- acteristics and the levels of carbohydrates and proteins in Elodea nuttallii

  19. Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Sardes

    2009-01-01

    Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium dibimbing oleh Ir. Marheni MP., dan Ir. Erwin Maa’aruf, MS. Selaku ketua dan anggota. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas instektisida botanis Mengkudu terhadap hama kubis P.xylostella di Laboratorium. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium PHP BPTPH Medan Johor, Sumatera Utara yang dimulai pada bulan April 2007 sampai Juli 2007. Penelitian meng...

  20. Acta Botanica Sinica Instruction for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Acta Botanica Sinica is the official publication of Botanical Society of China. Founded in 1952, it has become a monthly journal. It publishes original papers, short communications and reviews on all aspects of plant sciences. The scope of this journal extends from modern plant science to classical botany. Papers both in Chinese and in English are welcomed, but it is recommended that English be used wherever possible. Submission of manuscripts   

  1. A Precious Fern Species Discovered in Jiulong, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Supported by the US National Science Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, a rare and endangered fern, Isoetes hypsophila, was discovered by a Sino-US research team headed by Prof. SUN Hang from the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB) and Dr. David E. Boufford from Harvard University in a recent trip to Jiulong, Sichuan, during its botanical survey in the Hengduan Mountains in south China. Scientists say the plant is found for the first time in the region.

  2. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The specie...

  3. Investigaciones científicas en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco y aguas adyacentes, Pacífico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Revista de Biología Tropical, “Scientific Research at Isla del Coco National Park and Adjacent Waters, Pacific Costa Rica” (Volume 64, Supplement 1, 2016) contains 20 papers, with topics ranging from atmospheric sciences to an analysis of conservation public policies, including also papers on physical oceanography, chemistry, botany and marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco National Park, its adjacent waters and regions between the continent and the island. The 20 pap...

  4. Proceedings 16th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review Held at St. Paul, Minnesota on 17-19 November 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    34 Aquatic Botany, Vol 3, pp 239-255. Chapin, F. S. 1980. "The Mineral Nutrition of Wild Plants," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics , Vol 11, pp 233-260...biology and host specificity. This population was later identified as P. diminutalis (Snellen) (Figure 1) by Dr. D. Ferguson, Systematics Entomology...of many mats were heavily damaged. REFERENCES Agassiz, D. 1981. "Further Introduced China Mark Moths ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) New to Britain

  5. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Plan and Summary of 1982 Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Vegetation influences soil development and fertility through nutrient cycling, and is the primary source of energy inputs to the headwaters of streams. Indeed...Small mammals undoubtedly have an effect on soils and vegetation. They mix soil through burrowing activities and fertilize it with excreta. Both birds...Van der Drieehew, R; Prediction of Mineral Nutrient Status of Trees by Foliar Analysis; Botany Review, 40: 347-394; 1974 Webster, A.B., and Brooke

  6. ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES OF URINARY TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Ismail Ghaleb; Magdy Mohamed afifi; Mohamed Mohamed El Gohary

    2013-01-01

    Khalid Ghaleb a,* , Magdy Afifib, Mohamad El-Gohary c aDepartment of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Khalid University, Bisha 551, Saudia Arabia bDepartment of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt • The corresponding author e-mail: Current Tel: 00966595388496 Saudia,  ...

  7. Development of Studies on RNA Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Yaqiong ZHANG; Lina SHE; Wenting XU; Yangying JIA; Shiqing XIE; WenliSUN; Quan LIANG

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), caused by endogenous or exogenous double- stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous with target genes, refers to gene silencing widely existing in animals and plants. It was first found in plants, and now it has developed into a kind of biotechnology as well as an important approach in post- genome era. This paper is to summarize the achievements of studies on RNAi tech- nology in basic biology, medicine, pharmacy, botany and other fields.

  8. The ecology of tropical plant viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Thresh, J. Michael

    1998-01-01

    In recent decades ecology has become one of the dominant themes of the biological sciences. However, this has not always been so as the subject emerged from the specialist study of plant and animal communities in natural habitats that were often remote and sometimes exotic. It has since become a unifying all-embracing discipline that is of great importance, not only in botany, zoology and microbiology, but also in international affairs in relation to current issues concerning the environment,...

  9. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmono Dharmono; Ahmad Sofyan; Herita Warni

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or tea...

  10. Vegetable Diversity: from the Mapuche People to Formal Education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-García, Francisco; Universidad de Granada; Contreras-Fernández, Domingo Evandro; Universidad Católica del Maule

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contributions of a doctoral thesis on the botany knowledge of students of Mapuche descent. Social problems of the Mapuche people are described, especially those related to education and environment. By examining the botanic taxonomy in Mapuche language, the importance of vegetable diversity to the Mapuche people and their traditions and vision of the cosmos was revealed. Mapuche students at middle schools were shown to have much more knowledge of vegetable biology th...

  11. Necrology: Hugh Carson Cutler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh Carson Cutler, forner curator of Economic Botany at the Missouri Botanical Gardens, was one of the first generation paleoethnobotanists in this country. A pioneer in the field, and instrumental in getting American archaeologists to begin to employ flotation techniques for recovery of botanical remains. Cutler, the son of Manuel and Mary Cutler. was born September 8. 1912 in Milwaukee. Wisconsin. and died September 22, 1998 in Topeka, Kansas.

  12. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    not distort facts, divulge state secrets, and infringe upon others’ legitimate rights, we must also provide for their relative independence in no...The Study of Species Biology of Chrysanthe- mum The System of Com- puter Data of Plant Gene Chemotaxonomy of Genus Arzemisia of China The...Institute of Biology , Academia Sinica Fudan University Peking University Jiansu Institute of Bot- any South China Institute of Botany

  13. Jardines de papel: la teoría y la tratadística del Jardín en España durante el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The theoretic panorama of Spanish gardening in nineteenth century is studied. After covering a Spanish garden theory abstract since the Renaissance, the studies of the garden are analyzed in the publicated and no publicated books of gardening theory, agriculture and botany in Spain throughout all this century. The agricultural and botanical practical treatise predominated over specific gardening treatise which were indebted to foreigner treatise. These publications were...

  14. [Caspar Bauhin (1560-1624)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, M; Wendler, D

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the life and scientific work of Caspar Bauhin, whose 425th anniversary of his birth is in 1985. He is well-known in anatomy and botany and some species of plants are called after him. In anatomy his name is linked with the ileocaecal valve, though he apparently did not discover it. Especially Bauhin was engaged in improvement of anatomical and botanical nomenclature.

  15. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PARARCTOPHILA HERV(E)-BAZIN FROM CHINA ( DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE)%羽毛蚜蝇属一新种记述(双翅目,食蚜蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍科科; 石福明

    2007-01-01

    Pararctophila brunnescens sp. nov. is described from Danba County, Sichuan Province. The type specimen is deposited in the Museum of Animal and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology.%记述采自四川丹巴地区羽毛蚜蝇属1新种:褐色羽毛蚜蝇Pararctophila brunnescens sp.nov..模式标本保存于陕西理工学院动植物标本馆.

  16. Analysis of Building 839: Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    farmhouse due to their work hours. The farm also provided abundant dairy products , meat, and vegetables for the school dining tables. The best description... dairying , poultry raising, and husbandry,” as well as “seed and soil study,” botany, marketing and farm practice, livestock production , farm machinery...challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for

  17. Polar Biomedical Research: An Assessment. Appendix. Polar Medicine - A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Biology, University of California, Los Angeles William S. Denninghoff, Department of Botany , University of Michigan Norman A. Chance, Department of...Necropsy findings in fatal hypothermia cases. Forensic Sci. 8:155-164. 687. Hunter, W. C. 1968. Accidental hypothermia, Part I. Northwest Med. 67:569-573...1969. Autopsy diagnosis of accidental hypothermia. J. Forensic Med. 16:126-129. 701. Mant, A. K. 1969. The post-mortem diagnosis of hypothermia. Br

  18. Air Force-Wide Needs for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Academic Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    FORENSIC  SCIENCE  AFIT  ,  PATHOLOGY x...and Protective Services, Other x 4301 Corrections and Criminal Justice, Other x 430106 Forensic Science and Technology x Non- STEM STEMTITLEIP 62...8217landscape’architecture’(0807),’geology’(1350),’fire’prevention’engr’(0804),’hydrology’(1315),’public’utilities’specialist’(1130),’ botany

  19. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Studies) p 116 MARKYAVICHYUS, V. Yu., Institute of Botany , LiSSR Academy of Sciences, Nilnius [Abstract] Three species of mold of the genus Septoria...Jul-Sep 83 (manuscript received 19 Nov 82) pp 15-17 ZVYAGIN, V. N., Scientific Research Institute of Forensic Medicine (director- A. P. Gromov...received 2 Nov 82) pp 29-31 BOYKOVA, N. V., ZARAF’YANTS, G. N., KRAVTSOVA, G. B. and PETRACHKOVA, T. V., Chair of Forensic Medicine, Toxic Chemicals

  20. Plant genetics for forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

    2012-01-01

    An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene.

  1. Thirty-five years of Tropical biology: a quantitative history

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julian; Díaz, Lizeth

    2016-01-01

    Citation indices are unappropriated measures of scientific output and impact. For that reason, nonparametric statistics were preferred to analyze 35 years of publication on Tropical biology in the Revista de Biología Tropical. The most frequent subjects are animal taxonomy, human biology -including medicine- ecology and animal behavior. Botany papers are less frequent and mainly deal with morphology and taxonomy. Applied studies are not predominant. In that period, only one case of unethical ...

  2. Recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences IV

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Torrero López-Ibarra, Diego; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Estelrich i Latràs, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Like in the three previous editions, this E-book compiles a series of contributions in the multidisciplinary research arena of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The E-book has been organized in 12 chapters, whose main topics belong to the fields of pharmacology, physical chemistry, plant physiology, microbiology, physiology, preventive medicine and public health, food science, botany, clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapy, organic chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology, and pa...

  3. Orthodoxy and reform: differing medical practices in a Glasgow Jewish Victorian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K

    1995-01-01

    Medical botanists formed a major and growing element in the delivery of medical care in Victorian Britain, supplementing the provision made by qualified physicians. Medical reform, introduced into Britain from the United States in the middle of the nineteenth century, combined botanical treatment, including a strong emphasis on the use of lobelia, with physiotherapy. The Levenston family in Glasgow was represented among both qualified orthodox medical practitioners and unqualified practitioners of medical botany. Samuel Levenston graduated M.D. at the University of Glasgow in 1859 and had a long career in medical practice in Glasgow after years of work as an unqualified practitioner. His father and brothers were active in medical botany in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dublin, often posing as doctors but without appropriate qualifications. This paper examines the history of the Levenstons and contrasts the practices of the different members of the family, showing the relationships between a university-trained physician and medical chemists. The surviving Glasgow pharmacopeia of Solomon (Alexander) Levenston illustrates the style of his medical treatments, setting the practice of his medical botany into context.

  4. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas.

  5. Vaderlandse weelde op de kaart gezet. Belgische botanici, wetenschappelijke ijver en nationale motieven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stynen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Stynen, Native wealth charted. Belgian botanists, scientific zeal and patriotic motivesThis article analyses the importance of patriotic motives in nineteenth-century Belgian botany, without reducing the study of indigenous plants to a vehicle of aggressive, blatantly biased chauvinism. Different forms of more subtle nationalism enabled Belgian field botanists to define their activities as a mature and internationally respected field among the natural sciences. Four different phases can be discerned. During the period of Austrian and French domination, botany was first and foremost a means to economically enrich the state, by reducing its dependence on imports. After Belgian independence (1830, striving for utility was increasingly overshadowed by a longing for completeness: field trips were fuelled by a desire to collect and chart all Belgian species. From 1860 onwards, individual species mattered less than the geobotanical regions: the national territory was discovered to offer a rich variety of landscapes. The popularity of laboratories at the end of the century threatened to dismiss field botany as merely amateurish, but an ecological approach to the national vegetation, combined with explicit pleas for the protection of Belgian’s natural wealth, provided the impetus for a new round of research.

  6. Temperature sensitivity (Q10), and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in permafrost soils with different carbon quality and under experimental warming. R. Bracho1, E.A.G Schuur1, E. Pegoraro1, K.G. Crummer1, S. Natali2, J. Zhou, Y Luo3, J. L. Wu3, M. Tiedje4, K. Konstantinidis5 1Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA. 3Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 4Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; 5Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics and School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, R. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Pegoraro, E.; Crummer, K. G.; Natali, S.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Luo, Y.; Tiedje, J. M.; Konstantinidis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils contain approximately1700 Pg of carbon (C), twice the amount of C in the atmosphere. Temperatures in higher latitudes are increasing, inducing permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of previously frozen C. This process is one of the most likely positive feedbacks to climate change. Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10) and dynamics of SOM decomposition under warming is essential to predict the future state of the earth - climate system. Alaskan tundra soils were exposed to two winter warming (WW) seasons in the field, which warmed the soils by 4°C to 40 cm depth. Soils were obtained from three depths (0 - 15, 15 - 25 and 45 - 55 cm) and differed in initial amounts of labile and recalcitrant C. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic conditions, at 15 and 25°C over 365 days. Q10 was estimated at 14, 100 & 280 days of incubation (DOI); C fluxes were measured periodically and dynamics of SOM decomposition (C pool sizes and decay rates) were estimated by fitting a two pool C model to cumulative respired C (Ccum, mgC/ginitialC). After two WW seasons, initial C content tended to decrease through the soil profile and C:N ratio was significantly decreased in the top 15 cm. After one year of incubation, Ccum was twice as high at 25°C as at 15°C and significantly decreased with depth. No significant WW field treatment was detected, although Ccum tended to be lower in warmed soils. Labile C accounted for up to 5% of initial soil C content in the top 15 cm and decreased with depth. Soils exposed to WW had smaller labile C pools, and higher labile C decay rates in the top 25 cm. Q10 significantly decreased with time and depth as labile pool decreased, especially for WW. This decrease with time indicates a lower temperature sensitivity of the most recalcitrant C pool. The deepest WW soil layer, where warming was more pronounced, had significantly lower Q10 compared to control soils at the same depth. After two seasons, the warming treatment affected decomposition by reducing labile C pools and increasing its decay rates. Warming also reduced temperature sensitivity, showing acclimation of the most recalcitrant C pool in the tundra ecosystem.

  7. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  8. A competence approach to adult continuing education for identify and classifying living organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Rifa Téllez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A competence approach to the systematic identification and classification of vegetal organisms is described in connection with the training of Biology professors for integrating citizens’ attitude to plants, with strictly professional methods. Several theoretical methods were used to construct a general framework together with the application of surveys to experts. The findings include three units of competence together with its components, essential knowledge and performance indicators; patterns of achievement were set in three levels: 1 empirical distinction of the phytodiversity; 2 characterization in the context of wise range use and 3 systematization of systematic botany contents involved in leading the educational process characterized by protagonist strategic actions in management.

  9. In Memory of Professor Dr. M. S. Mani, Member of the Editorial Committee of Entomotaxonomia%悼念本刊编委M. S. Mani 教授

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    《昆虫分类学报》编辑部

    2003-01-01

    @@ Prof. Mani was born at Tanjore in 1910 and a after brilliant educational career, settled into a varied professional career, mainly as a teacher and guide for hundreds of students of research in Entomology, spanning a wide variety of institutes such as Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, Imperial Agricultural Institute of Pusa in Delhi (as the Indian Agicultural Research Institute was then known), Professor of Zoology in St. John's College, Agra and Professor Emeritus, Botany Department of Presidency College, Madras. He founded the prestigious School of Entomology In St. John's College, Agra, which celebrated its Golden Jubilee two years ago.

  10. CAS to Address Water Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ At a meeting on April 5, the CAS authorities gave the green light to a proposal to carry out studies on the development and control of eutrophication on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The five-year project,to cost 20 million yuan (about USS 2.4 million), will involve scientists from various CAS institutes, including the Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Botany, Institute of Chemistry, Institute of Geodesy & Geophysics, and Institute of Microbiology.

  11. Amazonian coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, T

    1981-01-01

    A general overview of various aspects of Amazonian coca (Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu) is presented. This plant is considered a distinct variety of coca which has been developed as a cultivated plant in the upper Amazon basin. It differs from typical Andean coca in morphological, physiological and chemical features as well as in the method of preparation and use by Amazonian tribes. The main topics here discussed are the history, distribution, botany, chemistry, origin, methods of preparation and use, and the effects of Amazonian coca.

  12. A catalog of Bryophyta types deposited at the National Museum of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E.A.S. Câmara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While visiting the Herbarium of the Botany Department of the National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (code, R, we located the types of 219 bryophyte names, most of which were published by Karl Müller (cited as Müller Hallensis, whose holotypes were lost during the bombing of the Berlin Herbarium in 1943. A total of 181 names (82% are possible candidates for lectotypification and most likely not to be found elsewhere. We also found the complete collection of Müller's "Bryologia Serrae Itatiaiae", made by Ernst Ule.

  13. 'Buchu' -Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, A; Viljoen, A M

    2008-10-28

    South Africa has offered the world two indigenous aromatic plants from which commercially important natural products have been developed: Pelargonium graveolens (and its hybrids) the source of geranium oil and Agathosma betulina, from which 'Buchu' oil is produced. Despite the historical use of 'Buchu' and the commercial interest developed around this coveted indigenous resource the (limited) research has not been coherently assembled. This overview aims to unite aspects on the botany, traditional and modern day uses, chemistry and pharmacological data on 'Buchu' which is undeniably one of South Africa's most renowned botanical assets.

  14. A Grafted Genetic Algorithm for the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-jun; WANG Shu-zhen; XU Guo-hua

    2004-01-01

    The standard genetic algorithm has limitations of a low convergence rate and premature convergence in solving the job-shop scheduling problem.To overcome these limitations,this paper presents a new improved hybrid genetic algorithm on the basis of the idea of graft in botany.Through the introduction of a grafted population and crossover probability matrix,this algorithm accelerates the convergence rate greatly and also increases the ability to fight premature convergence.Finally,the approach is tested on a set of standard instances taken from the literature and compared with other approaches.The computation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Saving Our Planet's Flora, the Contribution of the French National Natural History Museum to the Implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma(i)té DELMAS; Jean-Patrick LE DUC

    2011-01-01

    The National Natural History Museum plays a key role in the implementation of the GSPC through its botanical gardens, the Conservatoire Botanique National du Bassin Parisien, the Herbarium, and also by providing expertise on all areas of the Strategy (botany, conservation, ethonobotany, article 8j, substainable use), etc. For 2 of developed activities all over the world, including compilation of various flora and description of new species, as well as establishment of plant conservation schemes and habitat protection policies. It also conserves endangered species in the botanical garden.

  16. Potato Expert Wang Yu’e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    WHENEVER I sit in the McDonald’s in Beijing, sipping a cola and savoring the golden French fries, I shall always think of a woman I got acquainted with in Qinghai Province. Her name is Wang Yu’e, but the locals call her "potato expert." Wang Yu’e is the vice director of the Botany Protection Institute of the Qinghai Provincial Academy of Agricultural and Forest Sciences; at the end of 1993 she was ratified by the State Council as a

  17. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Paul, Jes; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-07-01

    Bacopa monnieri is an outstanding nervine tonic used for raising the mental performance. It helps in concentration, comprehension, recall and alertness, Brahmi is particularly beneficial as it aids in categorizing information in brain and its subsequent expression. Bacopa is also called as a natural antioxidant which may give details its neuroprotective role seen in the memory centers of the brain. Epilepsy is neuronal disorder characterized by learning, cognitive and memory impairments. The present review summarizes information concerning botany, chemistry and beneficial effect of Bacopa monnieri on epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.

  18. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  20. 中国细腹蚜蝇属二新种(双翅目,食蚜蝇科)%TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SPHAEROPHORIA FROM CHINA(DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍科科; 石福明

    2007-01-01

    记述采自四川川西地区的细腹蚜蝇属2新种:暗颊细腹蚜蝇,新种Sphaerophoria melagena sp.nov.和川西细腹蚜蝇,新种Sphaerophoria chuanxiensis sp.nov..模式标本保存于陕西理工学院动植物标本馆.%Sphaerophoria melagena sp. nov. and Sphaerophoria chuanxiensis sp. nov. are described from the west of Sichuan Province,China. Type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Animal and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology.

  1. Effects of Different Quantities of Tea-leaf Wormcast Substrate on the Growth of Tomato Seedling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei; Hu, Feng; Wang, Dong-sheng; LIU Man-qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; HUANG Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-Jun; JIAO Jia-guo

    2015-01-01

    The tomato seedling experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of substrate on the tomato seedling growth from five proportions of tea-leaf wormcast to peat, perlite and vermiculite, namely treatment I(1:5:2:2), treatment Ⅱ(2:4:2:2), treatment Ⅲ(3:3:2:2), treatment Ⅳ(4:2:2:2), treatment Ⅴ(6:0:2:2), respectively. The botany properties and characters of tomato seedling were observed to discuss the application effect of tea-leaf wormcast substrate. The results showed that in all treatmen...

  2. Historia Ogrodu Botanicznego Uniwersytetu Stefana Batorego w Wilnie (1919-1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Zemanek, Alicja; Köhler, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The university in Vilna (Lithuanian: Vilnius), now Vilniaus universitetas, founded in 1579 by Stefan Batory (Stephen Báthory), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, was a centre of Polish botany in 1780-1832 and 1919-1939. The Botanic Garden established by Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) in 1781 (or, actually, from 1782) survived the loss of independence by Poland (1795), and a later closure of the University (1832), and it continued to function until 1842, when it was shut down by R...

  3. Alien vision exploring the electromagnetic spectrum with imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Austin A

    2011-01-01

    Austin Richards takes readers on a visual tour of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the range of human sight, using imaging technology as the means to ""see"" invisible light. Dozens of colorful images and clear, concise descriptions make this an intriguing, accessible technical book. Richards explains the light spectrum, including visible light, and describes the advanced imaging technologies that enable humans to synthesize our own version of ""alien"" vision at different wavelengths, with applications ranging from fire fighting and law enforcement to botany and medicine. The second editio

  4. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Rubus rosaefolius Sm. - Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus rosaefolius Sm., Rosaceae, is a shrub with compound leaves, recurvate prickles, white flowers and aggregate fruit, popularly known as sylvan strawberry. The present research concerns its botany (macroscopic and microscopic studies, phytochemistry and antimicrobial properties. The presence of antraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins on stem, root and leaves, were confirmed by specific phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalchoolic fractions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The hydroalchoolic fraction revealed antimicrobial activity against all species tested and the aqueous fraction inhibited the growth of S. aureus and C. albicans.

  5. On knots in overtwisted contact structures

    CERN Document Server

    Etnyre, John B

    2010-01-01

    We prove that each overtwisted contact structure has knot types that are represented by infinitely many distinct transverse knots all with the same self-linking number. In some cases, we can even classify all such knots. We also show similar results for Legendrian knots and prove a "folk" result concerning loose transverse and Legendrian knots (that is knots with overtwisted complements) which says that such knots are determined by their classical invariants (up to contactomorphism). Finally we discuss how these results partially fill in our understanding of the "geography" and "botany"' problems for Legendrian knots in overtwisted contact structures, as well as many open questions regarding these problems.

  6. Protective Clothing. Part 1. Arctic and Tropical Environments (A Bibliography with Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Climatology, Disease vectors. Poisons, Reptiles, Insects, Bites • stings, Plants( Botany ), Trees, Mountains, Periodic variations AD-633 631 CFSTI...Migrant Workers (38) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/240/2GSB Forensic Medicine (39) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/245/1GSB Social Change (147) Feb 75 NTIS/PS-75/266/7GSB...75/236/OGSB Altitude Hypoxia (166) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/237/8GSB Forensic Medicine (39) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/245/1GSB Hemophilia (22) Jan 75 NTIS/PS

  7. The embalming of John of Lancaster, first Duke of Bedford (1435 AD): A forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Jeannel, G F; Favier, D; Popescu, S M; Augias, A; Huynh-Charlier, I; Laquay, L; Boudouma, O; Dorion-Peyronnet, C

    2016-04-01

    During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, embalming the cadaver of the elite was common practice, being a highly technical treatment mixing vegetal and mineral substances. To assess the exact kind of embalming reserved for the dead body (with the practical necessities of desiccation and good odour), we performed a full biomedical analysis of the mummified remains of John Plantagenet of Lancaster, first Duke of Bedford, regent of France for his nephew, the English King Henri VI (died 1435 AD). Here, we show, among other aspects, that the body was embalmed using substances whose origins were in apothecary and botany: mercury, myrtle, mint, frankincense, lime and, possibly, cinnamon and copper.

  8. [The teaching of clinical medicine and surgery at the end of the Colonial Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ortega, Verónica

    2010-01-01

    There were three schools of medicine in Mexico at the beginning of the Independence time where the doctors and surgeons could learn. In the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Mexico, the most ancient and traditional, the humoral model balance based on medieval knowledge and scholastic method was the rule. At the end of the XVIII century, the Nueva España enrollment in the Illustration movement, this led to an opening period and development of the scientific world. Botany was incorporated to curriculum in medicine school and the students could through the courses of the Surgery College approached to new medical theories and other teaching model without restrictions.

  9. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mary D; Beland, Frederick A

    2006-04-01

    Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera, has a long history of use as a topical and oral therapeutic. The plant is the source of two products, gel and latex, which are obtained from its fleshy leaves. Aloe vera products contain multiple constituents with potential biological and toxicological activities, yet the active components elude definition. Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema, and phototoxicity have been reported from topical applications. This review examines the botany, physical and chemical properties, and biological activities of the Aloe vera plant.

  10. Sino-British Researchers Join Forces to Set Up an Alpine Botanic Garden in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The nameplate for the Lijiang Alpine Botanic Garden was unveiled on January 25 in southwest China's Yunnan Province.As a Sino-British cooperation project for a biodiversity research and protection and plant conservation platform in southwest China, the garden was jointly set up by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE)and the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB). The event also marked the start of a one-year UK-China Partners in Science campaign in southwest China. British ConsulGeneral in Chongqing Tim Summers,RBGE Regius Keeper Stephen Blackmore and KIB vice directors Li Dezhu and Yang Yongping were in Lijiang to witnessthe ceremony.

  11. Re-establishing Evolutionary Relationships of Alpinia Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ With 230 species throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, Alpinia is the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genus in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Species of Alpinia often predominate in the understory of forests, and some of them are important ornamentals and medicinals. By using DNA-sequence-based methods, Prof. Li Qingjun from the CASXishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and his collaborators from the US National Museum of Natural History and UK Royal Botanic Garden have set up the monophyly of the genus. Their work is highlighted on the cover of the first issue of American Journal of Botany in 2005.

  12. Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šveistytė, Laima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants includes ex situ and in situ methods. The genetic recourses of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored, studied and constantly maintained in the field collections of the Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and Aleksandras Stulginskis University of Agriculture. Presently seeds of 214 accessions representing 38 species of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored in a long-term storage in the Plant Gene Bank. The data about national genetic resources are collected and stored in the Central Database of the Plant Gene Bank.

  13. Highland macrolichen flora of Northwestern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Wang, Li-Song; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2005-06-01

    Fifty-six species in 36 genera of macrolichens are reported from the Zhongdian area, northwest Yunnan, China during the lichenological expedition for highland macrolichen survey in June, 2004. More than 60% of these species have not been reported in South Korea. All of the 182 collected specimens are deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and some of them are duplicated in the lichen herbarium, Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (KUN-L) in China. This is the first report on the macrolichen flora in the visited areas.

  14. The Rare Perennial Balduina atropurpurea (Asteraceae) at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    in Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 3:403-407. Ewel, K.C. 1990. Swamps, pp 281-323 in R.L. Meyers and J.J. Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of...HQ FORSCOM, AFPI-ENE; and Linton L . Swindell, Fort Stewart Fish and Wildlife Branch, AFZP- DEV-W. Public Law 101-510 established SERDP as a multi...USACERL TR-98/75 21 A flowering genet. ^K^ l ^fl Kr*’ Si * ■ Two open inflorences: The top infloresecence with outer stigmas and one row of anthers

  15. Psoralea corylifolia L. (Buguchi) - folklore to modern evidence: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Bhawna; Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar; Dhar, Kanaya Lal

    2013-10-01

    Psoralea corylifolia is an important medicinal plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. The plant extracts have been reported to possess antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and immunomodulatory activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including psoralen, isopsoralen, bakuchiol, psoralidin, bakuchalcone, bavachinin, flavones, volatile oils, lipids etc. are found in different parts of the plant. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its botany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology along with special emphasis given on pharmacological activities of plant P. corylifolia.

  16. [Gerog Fresenius and the species Aspergillus fumigatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A

    1998-01-01

    The species Aspergillus fumigatus was first extensively described by G. Fresenius. J. B. Georg W. Fresenius was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1808 and also died there in 1866. He studied medicine and finished his doctorate thesis (MD) in 1829. Afterwards he started his career as a physician and surgeon in Frankfurt/Main in the same year. In 1831 Fresenius became a university lecturer for botany at the "Senckenbergisches medicinisches Institut"; this institute specialized in botany. In this year Fresenius also became the director of the botanical gardens of Frankfurt/Main. Apart from his collaboration in the institute for agriculture he actively participated in the microscopical association of Frankfurt as well as the "Senckenbergische medicinische Gesellschaft". Almost over the whole period, Fresenius also worked as a physician taking care of miserable people. The outstanding publications of Fresenius are "Die Flora von Frankfurt" (Flora of Frankfurt) and "Beiträge zur Mykologie" (Contributions to Mycology). The monograph "Beiträge zur Mykologie" was published by Fresenius as a dedication for the centennial celebrations of the Senckenberg foundation ("Senckenbergische Stiftung"). It contains 132 pages and 13 excellent lithographic figures (Camera lucida). The third part of this monograph also contains the description of the species A. fumigatus. Fresenius was an engaged physician as well as an outstanding researcher and expert in natural sciences who described numerous new fungal species some of which are still accepted nowadays in accordance with the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature".

  17. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakov, L

    The teaching of Biology at the Medical Faculty in Sofia started in 1918 with Botany and Zoology. Already in the next year, it was radically changed by Metodii Popov: 1. Instead of Botany he introduced General Biology, and instead of Zoology - Parasitology (including a general review of the evolution of non-vertebrate animals) and Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates; 2. He adapted the teaching of Biology to the needs of the medical education. Those changes were possible thanks to the considerable medical background of M. Popov - it started in 1911 with suitable specialization and research activities, and continued with the establishment of Department of Biology and the Medical Faculty, and the involvement of medics, besides biologists, in its academic staff. During the past years there have been a lot of changes in the curriculum both in its schedule and contents. Some of them were as a result of the development of the biological science and the integration with the other disciples, but some were forced by the administration. Today the students have 90 hours of lectures and a practical course of 90 hours as well. They have at their disposal textbooks on "Biology", "Parasitology" and "Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates", as well as, a "Textbook for the practical Course on Biology". Their knowledge is evaluated during the practical course, at two colloquia, and at a practical and theoretical (oral) exam at the end of the first year of education.

  18. Botânica econômica, uma ciência importante para a região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghillean T Prance

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A botânica econômica é uma ciência atualmente muito importante na região amazônica e deve ser adaptada às necessidades regionais. Neste trabalho, são fornecidos dados sobre o banco genético da floresta amazônica, espécies e dados econômicos da floresta de extração, sistemas agroflorestais, aproveitamento de monoculturas, naturais e cultivo das várzeas. É necessário um forte programa de botânica econômica para criar sistemas de uso racionais da floresta amazônica.The important contribution to be made by the science of Economic Botany in today's Amazonia environment is emphasized. Economy Botany must be tailored to the current situation where and uneccesary destruction is taking place. Studies are needed of the gene pool os useful plants and their wild relatives that occur in the forest; of products suitable for extraction from the forest; of agroforest, systems; os natural monospecific stands of such species as Orbignya phalerata and Mauritia flexuosa; and of plants suitable for cultivation on the várzea. The need for a strong programme in Amazonian Economic Bot any is stressed.

  19. The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Coyle, H; Ladd, C; Palmbach, T; Lee, H C

    2001-06-01

    Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.

  20. Mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants: Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L; Talavera, Salvador

    2011-04-01

    In a recent study (American Journal of Botany 97: 730-737), we described the first case of a tripartite association in natural conditions among a holoparasitic plant (Cytinus), its host Cistaceae species, and mycorrhizal fungi at an anatomical level. In a letter to the editor, Brundrett (American Journal of Botany 98: 595-596) commented on our manuscript and questioned our conclusions, arguing that they are not adequately supported by the data. We reject this point of view and believe that the controversy has arisen because of the parasitic way of life of Cytinus. We maintain and demonstrate that there is enough evidence in the data that we presented to confirm the existence of mycorrhizal associations in the Cytinus-Cistaceae complex, supporting the functionality of the tripartite association. Most holoparasitic plants have been considered as nonmycorrhizal. However, it is not advisable to be categorical in drawing conclusions about the mycorrhizal status of a group of plants that has not been fully studied.

  1. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study: System cost estimates document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) program was initiated to provide life science investigators relatively inexpensive, frequent access to space for extended periods of time with eventual satellite recovery on earth. The RRS will provide an on-orbit laboratory for research on biological and material processes, be launched from a number of expendable launch vehicles, and operate in Low-Altitude Earth Orbit (LEO) as a free-flying unmanned laboratory. SAIC's design will provide independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing in the continental U.S., orbit for a maximum of 60 days, and will sustain three flights per year for 10 years. The Reusable Reentry Vehicle (RRV) will be 3-axis stabilized with artificial gravity up to 1.5g's, be rugged and easily maintainable, and have a modular design to accommodate a satellite bus and separate modular payloads (e.g., rodent module, general biological module, ESA microgravity botany facility, general botany module). The purpose of this System Cost Estimate Document is to provide a Life Cycle Cost Estimate (LCCE) for a NASA RRS Program using SAIC's RRS design. The estimate includes development, procurement, and 10 years of operations and support (O&S) costs for NASA's RRS program. The estimate does not include costs for other agencies which may track or interface with the RRS program (e.g., Air Force tracking agencies or individual RRS experimenters involved with special payload modules (PM's)). The life cycle cost estimate extends over the 10 year operation and support period FY99-2008.

  2. PENGETAHUAN MASYARAKAT PEKUREHUA DI SEKITAR TAMAN NASIONAL LORE LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH TENTANG TUMBUHAN OBAT DAN PEMANFAATANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Susiarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lore Lindu National Park is one of National Parks in Indonesia. This National Park belongs to Donggala and Poso district, Central Sulawesi Province, administratively total area is 229.000 Ha. The major ethnics who live in this Park are Kaili, Behoa and Pekurehua. In order to explore the medicinal plants used by them, the ethno botany study is carried out by direct interview to Pekurehua tribes in Wuasa, Poso district, Central Sulawesi, eastern part of Lore Lindu National Park. It has been known that about 104 species from 93 genera and 46 families are used as medicinal plants by Pekurehua tribes. Some of the medicinal plants have herb habits and those species can be used to cure approximately 46 types of illness. One of those species, Hiha (Alstonia scholar is is categorized as an endangered species and it is used by them as well. Pekurehua people is not only used the higher plants as medicines but also lower plant, such as lichen (Parmeliaceae.   Key words : Medicinal Plants, Ethno Botany, Pekurehua Tribes, Lore Lindu National Park.

  3. Anticancer activity of biostabilized selenium nanorods synthesized by Streptomyces bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maged Sayed Ahmad,1 Manal Mohamed Yasser,1 Essam Nageh Sholkamy,1,2 Ali Mohamed Ali,3,4 Magda Mohamed Mehanni3 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Beni-Suef, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 2Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt; 4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Selenium is an important component of human diet and a number of studies have declared its chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. However, very limited studies have been conducted about the properties of selenium nanostructured materials in comparison to other well-studied selenospecies. Here, we have shown that the anticancer property of biostabilized selenium nanorods (SeNrs synthesized by applying a novel strain Ess_amA-1 of Streptomyces bikiniensis. The strain was grown aerobically with selenium dioxide and produced stable SeNrs with average particle size of 17 nm. The optical, structural, morphological, elemental, and functional characterizations of the SeNrs were carried out using techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, respectively. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay revealed that the biosynthesized SeNrs induces cell death of Hep-G2 and MCF-7 human cancer cells. The lethal dose (LD50% of SeNrs on Hep-G2 and MCF-7 cells was recorded at 75.96 µg/mL and 61.86 µg/mL, respectively. It can be concluded that S. bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1 could be used as renewable bioresources of biosynthesis of anticancer SeNrs. A hypothetical mechanism for anticancer activity of SeNrs is also proposed. Keywords: biosynthesis, selenium nanorods, Streptomyces, anticancer activity

  4. An Undercover Angiosperm from the Jurassic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shaolin; WANG Xin

    2010-01-01

    Searching for early angiosperms is a riveting activity in botany because it helps to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among seed plants and among angiosperms themselves.One of the challenges for this job is what the target fossils look like.Most possibly early angiosperms may elude our scrutiny with gymnospermous appearances.This possibility becomes a reality in a Jurassic plant,Solaranthus gen.nov,which bears a peltaspermalean appearance and enclosed ovules.According to knowledge available hitherto,the latter feature makes it an angiosperm.However,such a feature is more likely to be eclipsed by its gymnospermous appearance.The early age and unexpected character assemblage of Solaranthus urge for a fresh look on the assumed-simple relationship between angiosperms and gymnosperms.Its resemblance to the order Peltaspermales favors the Mostly Male Theory.

  5. John Locke's seed lists: a case study in botanical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen A; Anstey, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives a detailed analysis of four seed lists in the journals of John Locke. These lists provide a window into a fascinating open network of botanical exchange in the early 1680s which included two of the leading botanists of the day, Pierre Magnol of Montpellier and Jacob Bobart the Younger of Oxford. The provenance and significance of the lists are assessed in relation to the relevant extant herbaria and plant catalogues from the period. The lists and associated correspondence provide the main evidence for Locke's own important, though modest contribution to early modern botany, a contribution which he would have regarded as a small part of the broader project of constructing a natural history of plants. They also provide a detailed case study of the sort of open and informal network of knowledge exchange in the early modern period that is widely recognised by historians of science, but all too rarely illustrated.

  6. Bayesian Inference of a Finite Mixture of Inverse Weibull Distributions with an Application to Doubly Censoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Feroze

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The families of mixture distributions have a wider range of applications in different fields such as fisheries, agriculture, botany, economics, medicine, psychology, electrophoresis, finance, communication theory, geology and zoology. They provide the necessary flexibility to model failure distributions of components with multiple failure modes. Mostly, the Bayesian procedure for the estimation of parameters of mixture model is described under the scheme of Type-I censoring. In particular, the Bayesian analysis for the mixture models under doubly censored samples has not been considered in the literature yet. The main objective of this paper is to develop the Bayes estimation of the inverse Weibull mixture distributions under doubly censoring. The posterior estimation has been conducted under the assumption of gamma and inverse levy using precautionary loss function and weighted squared error loss function. The comparisons among the different estimators have been made based on analysis of simulated and real life data sets.

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF SYMPETRUM (ODONATA, LIBELLULIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国赤蜻属一新种记述(蜻蜓目,蜻科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏杰

    2012-01-01

    Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae ) from Shaanxi Province, China is described. The type specimens are deposited at the museum of Zoology and Botany, the Shaanxi Bioresource Key Laboratory, Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China. The new species is similar to S. vulgatum, but differs from the latter in the characters listed in the Table 1. Etymology. The new species is named from the type locality, Shaanxi Province. Female. Unknown.%记述中国赤蜻属1新种,陕西赤蜻Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp.nov..新种近似流浪赤蜻S.vulgatum,但其交合器的后钩片的构造、头部、胸部和腹部的色斑与后者明显不同.模式标本保存于陕西省资源生物重点实验室动植物标本馆.

  8. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...... E.S., Trevaskis, B. (2009). The molecular biology of seasonal flowering-responses in Arabidopsis and the cereals. Annals of Botany 103: 1165–1172 Distelfeld, A.,Li, C., Dubcovsky J. (2009). Regulation of flowering in temperate cereals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12:178–184 Jung, C., Müller, A.......E. (2009). Flowering time control and applications in plant breeding. Trends in Plant Science 14 /10: 563-573 Andersen, J.L., Jensen, L.B., Asp, T., Lübberstedt, T. (2006). Vernalization response in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) involves orthologues of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) VRN1...

  9. Use of Microthemes to Increase Writing Content for Introductory Science Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a learning activity, as well as a communication skill. Many instructors recognize the value of writing as a learning tool but struggle to develop effective writing assignments. Instructors are generally pressed for time during lecture due to the necessity to deliver content and, therefore, cannot dedicate time necessary to teach science writing skills effectively. Traditional term papers assigned to a class with varying writing skills may not accomplish the desired goal of teaching both technical writing skills and critical thinking skills. Students that are already struggling with content may be at a disadvantage in terms of conveying complex ideas. An answer to this problem is the microtheme paper which we employ in an Introductory Botany laboratory setting.

  10. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  11. MEDICINAL USES AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF PAEONIA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia officinalis (European peony, Common peony has been cultivated in Europe for years. The root has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years mainly in the treatment for epilepsy and to promote menstruation. Root is also antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative and tonic and has been successfully employed in the treatment of convulsions and spasmodic nervous affections such as epilepsy. It has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough whilst suppositories are sometimes made of the root to relieve anal and intestinal spasms, hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Experimentally it has been proved to have antihypertensive, abortifacient action and anti-ulcer activity. The roots of this plant are of great medicinal significance in unani system and homeopathy. The roots contain asparagin, benzoic acid, flavonoids, paeoniflorin, paeonin, paeonol, protoanemonin, tannic acid, triterpenoids, and volatile oil. This review covers botany, traditional uses and the phytoconstituents of the roots of Paeonia officinalis.

  12. What motivated Dr David Livingstone (1813-73) in his work in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John A S

    2009-05-01

    Born of humble beginnings in a Scottish mill-town, David Livingstone would become one of the great explorers of the 19th century, traversing 30,000 miles of unknown Africa. His pioneering spirit and inquisitive mind brought knowledge and discoveries in the fields of tropical medicine, linguistics, botany, zoology, anthropology and geology. While it can be argued that Livingstone exhibited contradictions and shortcomings as a man, he nonetheless grasped the imagination of Victorian Britain and helped to change European attitudes towards Africa forever. His numerous endeavours were undertaken under the banner of divinely inspired missionary work -- 'If God has accepted my service, then my life is charmed till my work is done' (Livingstone D. Livingstone's Private Journals, 1851-53. London: Chatto & Windus, 1960:108). Yet whether it was indeed religion that truly motivated Livingstone, or rather that he used it as a vehicle for his other passions, is less certain.

  13. A kind of Mozart of medicine: Joseph Plenck (1735-1807).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubar, Karl

    2003-12-01

    This is a tribute to one of the fathers of modern European dermatology and venereology, Dr Joseph Plenck, the Viennese protodermatologist of two hundred years ago, 1735-1807, who was professor and secretary of the Imperial Medical Josephine Academy, where today is the Institute for the history of medicine. Plenck introduced the systematization of dermatovenereological diseases based on their paradigmatic differences, which is deemed as "the only (system) with pretensions to accuracy". A man of diversified interests and a fruitful author, he wrote many treatises covering various fields from dermatology, venereology, and dentistry to surgery, obstetrics, anatomy, pediatrics, pharmacology, and botany. This remarkable physician definitely left a deep trace in the history of dermatology and venereology, and marked the transition from text-based to visually dependent culture in the field of dermatovenereology.

  14. Gimnospermas en el renacimiento. Pierre Belon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderas, José María

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The first plubished treatise on conifers, written by Pierre Belon. Bellonius, appeared in 1553. In it the natural tradition of Teophrastus, Dioscorides and Pliny is combined with direct observation and journeys of botanical exploration following the example of the author's master Valerius Cordus. Despite its obvious interest, this work has remained virtually unknown in the history of Botany.

    El primer tratado publicado sobre coníferas apareció en 1553, escrito por Pierre Belon, Bellonius. Conjuga en él la tradición naturalista de Teofrasto, Dioscórides y Plinio, con la observación directa y los viajes de herborización, siguiendo el ejemplo de su maestro Valerius Cordus. No obstante su obvio interés, ha permanecido casi desconocido para la historia de la botánica.

  15. An herbal El Dorado: the quest for botanical wealth in the Spanish Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Few historians of science would associate the Spanish Empire with scientific innovation. However, recent research is increasingly demonstrating the Crown's strong commitment to scientific research, particularly in the areas of botany, natural history and medicine. Although this commitment began in the 16th century, it reached full development in the 18th, when Enlightenment ideals led to growing interest in exploiting natural resources in the New World. Interest in new resources, which offered alternatives to silver and traditional cash crops, focused largely on medicinal herbs indigenous to the Americas. Herbs that provided 'miracle cures' for age-old diseases would bring both material and moral wealth to the Crown, and were thus pursued vigorously throughout Spanish America. The result was a search for an 'herbal' El Dorado, reminiscent of 16th-century expeditions in search of a mythical land of gold--only in this case, medicine, not metal, was the goal.

  16. Origin, Domestication, and Dispersing of Pear (Pyrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pear (Pyrus communis L. is a typical fruit of temperate regions, having its origin and domestication at two different points, China and Asia Minor until the Middle East. It is the fifth most widely produced fruit in the world, being produced mainly in China, Europe, and the United States. Pear belongs to rosaceous family, being a close “cousin” of the apple, but with some particularities that make this fruit special with a delicate flavor. Thus, it deserves a special attention and a meticulous review of all the history involved, and the recent research devoted to it, because of the economic and cultural importance of this fruit in a range of countries and cultures. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to approach the history of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of pears, as well as reporting their botany, their current scenario in the world, and their breeding and conservation.

  17. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario;

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo......) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae...... and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered...

  18. Newly recorded invasive plants in Guangxi%广西新记录入侵植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦春强; 赵志国; 丁莉; 潘玉梅

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of invasive plant, Mimosa diplotricha C. ,Veronica arvensis L. and Bidens fron-dosa L. were reported as new records of Guangxi. Description and illustrations were provided. The voucher specimens were kept in Plant Herbarium, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences (IBK).%报道了广西3种新记录入侵植物,它们分别是巴西含羞草(Mimosa diplotricha C.)、直立婆婆纳(Veronica arvensis L.)和大狼把草(Bidens frondosa L.),并提供了这3种植物的特征描述和形态图.凭证标本存放于广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所标本馆(IBK).

  19. 中科院揭示丛枝菌根缓解植物铬毒害的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚

    2016-01-01

    据中国科学院通报,该院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室陈保冬研究组近期在丛枝菌根缓解植物铬毒害机理研究方面取得新进展,相关研究结果在Environmental Science&Technology,Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,Environmental and Experimental Botany,Journal of Hazardous Materials等国际环境科学期刊上发表。丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhiza,AM)真菌能与绝大多数的陆地高等植物形成共生体系,

  20. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). The books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazos, Panayotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    During the 19th century a number of elementary and high schools were established for the need of the Greek community of Istanbul. Among the courses included in the curricula were those concerning the scientific study of Nature like Botany, Chemistry and Physics. In the present study we attempt to give a thorough description of the educational material used in these schools for the study of natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. Especially we shall discuss the books used as course books as well as their probable sources. Furthermore we shall try to make a comparison with the relevant situation in the Greek state and the Ottoman Empire, where modern physics had been already introduced through textbooks based on Ganot's treatise on Physics. The results of our research will give for the first time a picture of the way Greek students in the 19th century Istanbul received their basic knowledge about Physics.

  1. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  2. Sympathetic science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and the passions of Victorian naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the complex tangle of emotional and scientific attachments that linked Darwin and botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. Analyzing their roles as husbands, fathers, and novel readers demonstrates that possessing and expressing sympathy was as important for Victorian naturalists as it was for Victorian husbands. Sympathy was a scientific skill that Victorian naturalists regarded as necessary to fully understand the living world; although sympathy became increasingly gendered as feminine over the course of the century, its importance to male naturalists requires us to rethink the ways gender roles were negotiated in Victorian Britain. Botany was, for men like Darwin and Hooker, an acceptably masculine pursuit that nevertheless allowed--and even required--them to be sensitive and sympathetic.

  3. La vita vera: note su Rosa Luxemburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Barbarulli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Luxemburg was a political theorist of the working class movement and the leader of German Social Democracy. Altough she was deeply involved in the political events of her period, in the context of that inhuman and exploiting society, Rosa never resigned the pursuit of happiness. From her prison, where she was confined many times because of her involvement in the propaganda against the war, she continued to speak about the importance to be and remain humans. So, while she goes with studying botany, she likes to look at the clouds and the lovely titmice from the window of her cell. She knows she may venture her life, if necessary, but she feels the possible death thought as nothing more than a «pensiero atroce» (a nasty thought.

  4. La vita vera: note su Rosa Luxemburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Barbarulli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Luxemburg was a political theorist of the working class movement and the leader of German Social Democracy. Altough she was deeply involved in the political events of her period, in the context of that inhuman and exploiting society, Rosa never resigned the pursuit of happiness. From her prison, where she was confined many times because of her involvement in the propaganda against the war, she continued to speak about the importance to be and remain humans. So, while she goes with studying botany, she likes to look at the clouds and the lovely titmice from the window of her cell. She knows she may venture her life, if necessary, but she feels the possible death thought as nothing more than a «pensiero atroce» (a nasty thought.

  5. TILLING and Associated Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Wang; Cristobal Uauy; Brad Till; Chun-Ming Liu

    2010-01-01

    @@ As part of a collaboration between the John Innes Centre(JIC),Norwich,UK and the Centre for Signal Transduction and Metabolomics(C-STM)at the Institute of Botany(IOB),the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,a workshop on 'TILLING and Associated Technologies' was held at the IOB on 15-16 April 2010.Through sponsorship from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(BBSRC),Resarch Councils UK,China Office,and the Transgenic Research Project of China,experts were drawn from the USA,Europe and China to present their latest information on technology development for targeted single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)detection to over 60 registered participants.

  6. Diagnostic electron microscopy and the influence of Dr. Juan Rosai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was introduced by Ruska and Knoll as a laboratory technique in 1933. Thereafter, several decades passed before the methods required for its optimal implementation were fully developed. Early uses of TEM were in Botany, rather than in Medicine; however, isolated publications did catalog the ultrastructural characteristics of several individual human tumor types. Finally, in 1968, Rosai and Rodriguez authored an important article, introducing the concept that TEM could be used for the differential diagnosis of histologically similar neoplasms. This publication heralded the steadily increasing application of TEM in anatomic pathology over the following decade, including continuing contributions by Dr. Juan Rosai. This brief review summarizes his influence on clinical electron microscopy, and lists some of the lesions for which that procedure is still a useful means of analysis.

  7. Validation of the name Lactarius imbricatus%Lactarius imbricatus名称的合格化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茂新; 文华安

    2008-01-01

    @@ In our recent paper(Zhou & Wen 2007),a new species,Lactarius imbricatus M.X.Zhou & H.A.Wen was published with Latin and English descriptions,illustrations,and type designation.The name was not,however,validly published because the specimen designated as holotype was stated to be kept in two herbaria.This is contrary to the requirement of Art.37.7 of ICBN that "the single herbarium ﹍ in which the type is preserved must be specified"(McNeill et al.2006).The holotype was stated to be kept in the "Cryptogamie Herbarium,Kunming Institute of Botany,Academia Sinica(HKAS)" in Latin description,and in the "Herbarium Myeologicum Aeademiae Sinicae,Beijing(HMAS)" in the English description.Again,in abstract of the paper,both herbaria were listed as where the holotype was deposited.

  8. Identification and characterization of Euphorbia nivulia latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

    2014-03-01

    The protein profile of latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. is established. Three new proteins viz., Nivulian-I, II and III have been purified to homogeneity from the latex. The relative molecular masses of Nivulian-I, II and III are 31,486.985, 43,670.846 and 52,803.470 Da respectively. Nivulian-I is a simple type of protein while Nivulian-II and III are glycoproteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptides of these proteins match with Tubulin alpha-1 chain of Eleusine indica, Maturase K of Banksia quercifolia and hypothetical protein of Zea mays respectively. Tryptic digestion profile of Nivulian-I, II and III, infer the exclusive nature of latex origin proteins and may be new and are additive molecules in the dictionaries of phytoproteins or botany. This is the first of its kind, regarding characterization and validation of Nivulian-I, II and III with respect to peptide sequencing.

  9. Interdisciplinary cantilever physics: Elasticity of carrot, celery, and plasticware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.

    2014-05-01

    This article presents several simple cantilever-based experiments using common household items (celery, carrot, and a plastic spoon) that are appropriate for introductory undergraduate laboratories or independent student projects. By applying Hooke's law and Euler beam theory, students are able to determine Young's modulus, fracture stress, yield stress, strain energy, and sound speed of these apparently disparate materials. In addition, a cellular foam elastic model is introduced—applicable to biologic materials as well as an essential component in the development of advanced engineering composites—that provides a mechanism to determine Young's modulus of the cell wall material found in celery and carrot. These experiments are designed to promote exploration of the similarities and differences between common inorganic and organic materials, fill a void in the typical undergraduate curriculum, and provide a foundation for more advanced material science pursuits within biology, botany, and food science as well as physics and engineering.

  10. Mamíferos da França Equinocial (Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias de Ávila-Pires

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available During the XVI Century, France succeeded in establishing a few colonies in the Americas. Equinoctial France was a short-lived venture, but one that left an indelible mark upon the island of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Two remarkable reports on the shape of the colony, its geographical features, climate, ethnography, botany, and zoology are among the first contributions to the natural history of Northeastern Brazil. Description of the habits of common animals, together with zoogeographical records are useful for the modem zoologist. This paper brings together the recorded information on the mammals of Maranhão, as described and depicted by two French friars and one Portuguese, who lived in the island during the first half of the XVIth Century.

  11. Mushrooms-Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique: Exploring a "Third Food Kingdom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms' increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers' efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms' nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology.

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  13. A study in Renaissance psychotropic plant ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, D; Pollio, A

    1994-01-01

    Various historical sources from the Renaissance--including transcripts of trials for witchcraft, writings on demonology and textbooks of pharmaceutical botany--describe vegetal ointments prepared by women accused of witchcraft and endowed with marked psychoactive properties. Here, we examine the botanical composition and the possible pharmacological actions of these ointments. The results of our study suggest that recipes for narcotic and mind-altering salves were known to Renaissance folk healers, and were in part distinct from homologous preparations of educated medicine. In addition, our study reveals an unexpected connection of these vegetal psychotropes with archaic chtonic beliefs, confirming the tight association between rituals and cults entered on the Underworld and the image of the Medieval witch.

  14. RESEARCH ON FAT CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF FATTY ACID OF WILD SOYBEAN ( G. soja) IN CHINA%中国野生大豆(G. soja)脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光宇; 王洋; 马晓萍

    2000-01-01

    Tht results of research on fat content, geographical distribution of fat content,relativity of fat content and major characters of botany, composition of fatty acid of wildsoybean (G. soja) in China were reported in this paper. These researches provide foundationfor further research and usage on wild soybean.%近二十年来,我国学者对野生大豆进行了多学科、不同层次的研究,取得卓越的成就,很多方面处于世界领先的地位。本文综述了中国野生大豆脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成方面的研究结果,为深入开展野生大豆研究与利用提供参考信息。

  15. A review of the chemistry of the genus Crataegus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer E; Brown, Paula N; Talent, Nadia; Dickinson, Timothy A; Shipley, Paul R

    2012-07-01

    Since the 1800s, natural health products that contain hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) have been used in North America for the treatment of heart problems such as hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. Traditionally, Native American tribes used hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) to treat gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems, and consumed the fruit as food. Hawthorn also has a long history of use in Europe and China for food, and in traditional medicine. Investigations of Crataegus spp. typically focus on the identification and quantification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have been shown to have pharmacological activity. The main flavonoids found in Crataegus spp. are hyperoside, vitexin, and additional glycosylated derivatives of these compounds. Reviewed herein are the botany, ethnobotany, and traditional use of hawthorn while focusing on the phytochemicals that have been reported in Crataegus species, and the variation in the described chemistry between individual species.

  16. Ethnobotanical and phytopharmacological review of Scindapsus officinalis (“Gajapippali”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scindapsus officinalis (S. officinalis holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It has been ethanobotanically used to treat diarrhea (“atisara”, worm infestation (“krmiroga”, and as antipyretic. Literature survey on S. officinalis was carried out via electronic search in PubMed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, Agricola and Web of Science and a library search. Results revealed that a very specific botanical description of the plant is still not available. The plant is mistaken within the hybrids and other plants of genus Scindapsus and family Araceae. Since ethnobotanically the plant is of much importance, chemistry of the plant yet needs to be fully explored. Thus the need of the hour is to comprehend the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. officinalis which could help in the correct identification of the sample and avoid adulteration due to mistaken identity.

  17. Rotons and Slitons in a Magnetic Cactus: Dynamical Phyllotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel

    2009-10-01

    Phyllotaxis, the study of mathematical patterns in the arrangement of leaves on stems, spines on cacti, petals on flowers, et cetera, fascinated mankind since the dawn of times. Similar patterns emerge in the the statics of simple physical systems. Here we reproduce experimentally the striking number-theoretical patterns found in the phyllotaxis of living beings in the statics of a simple mechanical apparatus. Then we show that its dynamics reveal unusual excitations beyond botany: multiple classical rotons and a large family of interconverting topological solitons. Applications at different scales and in different areas of physics are proposed and discussed. [4pt] [1] C. Nisoli et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186103 (2009).[0pt] [2] C. Nisoli Phys. Rev. E 80, 026110 (2009).

  18. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  19. Seeds in the appendix: a "fruitful" exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Michela; Trambaiolo Antonelli, Chiara; Grillo, Federica; Bragoni, Alberto; Cornara, Laura; Migliora, Paola; Pigozzi, Simona; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-03-10

    Our contribution aims at clarifying and underlining a possible finding which can pose an interesting twist in routine appendix diagnostics: seeds in the appendiceal lumen, their histological aspects and their differential diagnosis with parasites. We work in a training centre with a large referral practice for gastrointestinal pathology and often the most banal cases are those which pose problems to junior or non-expert pathologists. This short study aims at providing simple iconographic tables, which are not at the moment available either in publications or on the web, with the most frequent seeds encountered in our routine practice or sent for second opinion. The real importance of identifying seed type in histological sections, however is in forsensic pathology and forensic botany where the identification of seeds as stomach content may provide important clues for solving major crimes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. German CELSS research with emphasis on the C.E.B.A.S.-project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Bluem; Karlheinz, Kreuzberg

    In general the German CELSS research program covers both animal and plant systems. In the field of botany a higher plant growth unit is disposed. The construction of a continuous culture device for unicellular algae in long-term multi-generation experiments will start in 1990. In zoology an experimental system for multi-generation experiments, the AQUARACK is already under construction and a running laboratory prototype is sorrounded by a wide-spread ground research program. The combination of the algae system with AQUARACK will result in a combined animal-plant system, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System", C.E.B.A.S. which may be the origin for further interdisciplinary research leading to an aquatic plant-animal-CELSS This research field is closely associated with cybernetical science because the development of the combined systems need simulation processes and highly sophisticated electronical control. A further point in the CELSS program is the study of biological waste management.

  1. [In the gap between science and art: a series of illustrations of triatomine bugs from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de; Conduru, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The article analyzes a series of scientific drawings created and printed as part of a scientific work that has never been published out by the Oswaldo Cruz Institute. Deemed "incorrect" by scientists, these drawings lay abandoned for over seventy years. We have investigated their history in an effort to discover what might have led science to condemn the series. We also undertook a brief historical analysis of verisimilitude in scientific drawing. This case affords an interesting opportunity to explore some aspects of representation in artistic production, like issues involving vision, perception, the interpretation of images and visual communication through them, the functionality and objectivity of scientific illustration, as well as certain distinctions between the characteristics of illustration in zoology and in cartography and botany, and its ambiguous relationship with art.

  2. Cassia spectabilis (DC) Irwin et Barn: a promising traditional herb in health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Torey, Angeline; Darah, Ibrahim; Choong, Yee Siew; Saravanan, Dharmaraj; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Deivanai, Subramanian; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-08-29

    The genus Cassia, comprising about 600 species widely distributed worldwide is well known for its diverse biological and pharmacological properties. Cassia spectabilis (sin Senna spectabilis) (DC) Irwin et Barn (Fabaceae) is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. C. spectabilis has been commonly used in traditional medicine for many years. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally-important chemical constituents in C. spectabilis. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that C. spectabilis possesses significant biological activity, such as antibacterial, antibiofilm, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Beside this, toxicity studies of this plant have revealed no toxic effect on mice. In view of the immense medicinal importance of C. spectabilis, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on C. spectabilis’s botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and mechanism of actions, toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses.

  3. Energy from plants: problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshoo, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This article contains the presidential address to the Section of Botany (VI). After an introduction and a brief account of the process and efficiency of photosynthesis, the address describes terrestrial and aquatic biomass, biological hydrogen production and bioconversion (the conversion of biomass and organic wastes into energy and also into fertilizers, food and chemicals). The section on terrestial biomass is with particular reference to India and examines fuel plantations, the possibility of covered energy farms (such as the growth of alfalfa in greenhouses), the production of agricultural alcohol, the use of vegetable oils as fuel, the production and use of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) wax, and hydrocarbon producing plants (rubber, Euphorbia spp., various Leguminosae etc.).

  4. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds and chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function.

  5. "What we need is a crop ecologist": ecology and agricultural science in Progressive-era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    Though they are often seen as foils for each other, ecology and agricultural science co-evolved. With shared roots in late nineteenth-century botany, ecologists and agronomists fostered important connections during the Progressive era that have been largely overlooked despite a number of finely nuanced studies of ecology's origins. But if 'applied ecology' once effectively meant agriculture, over the course of the first decades of the twentieth century the relationship between ecology and scientific agriculture grew strained. Agriculturists narrowed their focus to increasing yields, and ecologists sought to establish their discipline as a distant theoretical science and so distanced themselves from its agricultural applications. By the end of World War I, the process of disciplinary specialization was well underway. In time, the two disciplines diverged so completely that the once vital connections between them were obscured and forgotten.

  6. Edinburgh doctors and their physic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2008-12-01

    Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

  7. A Review: Gayo Arabica Cupping Quality from Coffee Cherry to Green Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Hasni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (Ulasan Ilmiah : Mutu Cita Rasa  Kopi Arabika Gayo dari Buah hingga Kopi Beras  ABSTRACT. Arabica coffee as primary commodity attracts intensive study over the years in the whole coffee sectors. This review aims to compile relevant information related to coffee botany and its production, fermentation as post-harvest process as well as the impacts of its sensory quality and composition. Many researchers prior to acknowledge that the coffee holistic production, where started from breeding to brewing ultimately affects coffee quality as beverage. Future trends attempt to determine the impact of climate change on coffee quality, processing techniques of coffee waste as well as isolation active components which impact sensory quality.

  8. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912): founder of modern plant cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Dieter; Baluška, František; Menzel, Diedrik

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Strasburger, director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden at the University of Bonn from 1881 to 1912, was one of the most admirable scientists in the field of plant biology, not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but in addition as an excellent teacher who strongly believed in "education through science." He contributed to plant cell biology by discovering the discrete stages of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in algae and higher plants, describing cytoplasmic streaming in different systems, and reporting on the growth of the pollen tube into the embryo sac and guidance of the tube by synergides. Strasburger raised many problems which are hot spots in recent plant cell biology, e.g., structure and function of the plasmodesmata in relation to phloem loading (Strasburger cells) and signaling, mechanisms of cell plate formation, vesicle trafficking as a basis for most important developmental processes, and signaling related to fertilization.

  9. La disciplina botánica en las expediciones ilustradas por la América Meridional austral en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y sus aportes a las políticas borbónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentinetta, Martín Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone algunas reflexiones que muestran cómo se incorporó la disciplina botánica en las expediciones ilustradas hispánicas y los viajes de exploración de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. La presencia de esta disciplina estuvo relacionada con la implementación de políticas de reforma dentro del Imperio español que tenían por objetivo un mejor aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales hispanoamericanos. La botánica ofrecía instrumentos para descubrir y describir plantas, catalogarlas, averiguar sus usos e indicar la mejor manera de explotarlos; al mismo tiempo contribuía a aumentar los conocimientos sobre el mundo natural. En ese sentido, este trabajo muestra las maneras en que los botánicos españoles reflexionaron sobre los alcances y aportes de su disciplina y cómo esas propuestas se guiaron las actividades botánicas realizadas en el transcurso de las expediciones ilustradas por las regiones australes de la América meridional. This paper proposes some ideas to explain the role the botanical discipline played in Hispanic Enlightenment expeditions and exploration travels during the second half of the Eighteenth century. The participation of this discipline was related to the development of reform policies inside the Spanish Empire. A major objective of these policies was to improve the exploitation of Hispanic natural resources. Botany offered some tools to discover and describe plants, to categorise them and to investigate their uses. At the same time, botany increased the general knowledge of the natural world. Therefore, this paper tries to show Spanish botanists’ reflections on their discipline and how these ideas guided botanical activities during the Enlightenment expeditions to southern South America.

  10. ANIVERSALIA: 110 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH OF BOTANIST DR. EMILIAN TOPA (1900 – 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPREA ADRIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available He was born on February 9th 1900, only son of a poor family in the Cuciurul Mic village from the old County named Chernivtsi (today in Ukraine. He did the primary classes in his native village, and the middle and high school in Chernivtsi. He graduated in 1925, the Department of Natural Sciences, University of Chernivtsi. After his graduation Emilian Topa enters into secondary education level, where he worked for the next years (between 1925 and 1943 - at the “Mihai Eminescu” girls High School, the Pedagogic Seminar of University and the School of health officers. Also in this period becomes botany assistant at the University of Chernivtsi, the Chair Professor Gusuleac, where he worked no more than 17 years. During this period he had the responsibility and leadership for the botanical garden from the same city. It then becomes Assistant Botany at Bucharest University (1940-1941, lecturer at Chernivtsi University (1942-1943, lecturer (delegation for applied botany at the Polytechnic Institute “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi (1945-1946, conservator at the Museum of the Botanical Garden in Cluj (1946-1947. Between 1948 and 1953 is geobotany lecturer at University of Cluj and, simultaneously, an associate professor of pharmaceutical botany at the Medico-Pharmaceutical Institute in the same city (1948-1951. From 1952 to 1959, we meet him as director of the Botanical Garden of the University of Cluj, and from 1963 until his retirement in 1970, is director of the Botanical Gardens of Iasi.Emilian Topa held a prolific and sustainable scientific research, educational or cultural, national or social, during no less than 60 years. Thus, he has published over 200 books, articles, studies and scientific reviews in different areas: plant taxonomy, plant ecology and chorology, phytosociology, phylogeny, phytopathology, phytotherapy, ethnobotanical, nature protection, ornamental flora, Romanian or European botanical histories etc.His doctoral thesis, titled

  11. 纪念我的导师李扬汉先生诞辰100周年%Co mmemoar ting 100th Annivesr ary fo Prof.Li Yanghan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树华

    2014-01-01

    本文作者于1978-1989年的11年中,先是李扬汉先生的本科学生,然后是他的硕士研究生,再是他的助手。作者回忆了李先生在教学、科研和生活中的很多事情,为我们今天纪念李先生提供了第一手信息。文章中的好多片段是很多曾经跟随过李先生的人们一样经历过的,有些是作者自己的经历。读这篇文章,让我们感觉又回到了那个跟李先生一起的年代。李先生的一生是灿烂辉煌的一生。他为我国植物科学特别是农业植物学的发展和教育事业作出了极大贡献。他是我国杂草科学的奠基人。他在国内外植物学和杂草科学界享有极其崇高的威望。他著作等身,桃李遍天下。他学识渊博,工作勤奋,对事业满腔热忱,对学生既严格要求又关怀备至。他具有超强的组织能力和活动能力,他文笔口才都是一流的。他的奋发进取,勇于在各种各样的条件下不屈不挠地把科学和教育事业创新、发展、壮大的精神,永远值得我们学习。%This article provides insights about Professor Yanghan Li-his work,career and life.I studied and worked with Professor Li for 11 years and was his first graduate student .I recall wonderful memories about those years when his students and colleagues worked together with him .Professor Yanghan Li lived a very successful life .We continue to com-memorate him today because we have been all motivated ,nurtured,guided and inspired by his teaching and his spirit of perseverance in pursuing science .He is our role model and a great contributor to Botany and Weed Science in China and the world.He was a pioneer of the Weed Science in China .He wrote a large number of Botany and Weed Science text-books and scientific literature .He supervised many graduate students and these students are now all over the world ,con-tinuing his legacy in advancing botany and weed sciences .His colleagues ,students and

  12. ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES OF URINARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ismail Ghaleb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Ghaleb a,* , Magdy Afifib, Mohamad El-Gohary c aDepartment of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Khalid University, Bisha 551, Saudia Arabia bDepartment of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt • The corresponding author e-mail: kh_ghaleb4@hotmail.com Current Tel: 00966595388496 Saudia,  00201119338055 Egypt The place of the study worked : Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt, e-mail: afifi_magdy@ymail.com  Tel: 00201006554961 Abstract Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelson (ZN smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA test.  Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both  ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence  rate of 2.6%.  The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while  sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis.   Keywords: List of abbreviations:Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB-Base pair (bp-DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA  -Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

  13. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  14. Botanical Gardens and Collecting of Plants in the Light of the Metamorphosis of Botanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Unetič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late 18th and early 19th century, the collecting of exotic plants became a fashion that took hold of European courts, and was followed by many noblemen, intellectuals, gardeners and others. It was not only popular to grow new plants in gardens, collecting them in herbaria or illustrating and enumerating them in catalogues, but was also important to develop botanical knowledge to enable the owners of the plants to use and present them. In Carniola we can observe this interest in botany in the cases of Baron Joseph Erberg, Barons Žiga and Karl Zois, Jesuit Gabriel Gruber as well as many others. Baron Erberg's activity is recorded in archives which include lively correspondence concerning plant collecting, the exchange and purchase of plants and other botanical matters. So we can see that among plant lovers in Carniola foreign plants such as pelargonium, agave and hydrangea were popular and that they had a special role in gardens devoted especially to exotic plants. The collecting of exotic plants is not just a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but can be traced back to early civilisations such the Assyrians and ancient Chinese and was also notable in a the 16th and 17th centuries with their cabinets of curiosities. But studying the botanical collection of exotic and new (or newly defined plants gardens of the late 18th and early 19th centuries shows us that although we can recognize some of the old “habits” in the process of collecting (collecting of rare, fascinating plants or collecting plants to demonstrate imperial power the social changes in the 18th century left their trace also in this aspect of human activity. Thus we can understand plant collecting of this time as a decline and metamorphosis of the former natural cabinets of curiosities. In botanical gardens of the late 18th and early 19th century we see the development of science of botany, the rise of the amateur botanist, a different perception of nature

  15. Botánica en los Horti Farnesiani del Palatino Romano, a inicios del Siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Quevedo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Renacimiento fue un período de total sintonía entre arte y ciencia, evidente en los casos de la Anatomía y la Botánica, con apoyo tácito en las ilustraciones artísticas; éstas no sólo enriquecieron las publicaciones, sino que contribuyeron de modo importante a los propios avances científicos y su difusión. Este poder de las imágenes se mantuvo e incluso fue potenciado en el siglo XVII. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, bajo los auspicios de los cardenales Ranuccio y Alejandro Farnesio, se diseñan y realizan los Horti Farnesiani en el área del Palatino romano. Estos Horti, a la manera de los planteamientos de villeggiature de la Edad Moderna, quedaron conformados como arquitecturas y jardines en función del esparcimiento y el retiro, no olvidando la representatividad pero atendiendo también a la Botánica. Aquí fueron cultivadas especies exóticas, procedentes de las Indias Occidentales y traídas a Roma por los jesuitas. La obra del botánico Tobías Aldino, ya bajo el cardenal Odoardo Farnesio, describe algunas de estas especies y se convertirá en un importante referente para estudios botánicos posteriores. The Renaissance was a period of complete harmony between art and science. The images helped to improve the dissemination of scientific knowledge in subjects as Anatomy and Botany. The Horti Farnesiani were designed under the auspices of the cardinals Ranuccio and Alessandro Farnese. Pavillons and gardens devoted to leisure and retirement, with criterions of representation but also taking care of the Botany,. There, will be growing exotic plants, brought to Rome by the Jesuits from the West Indies. The Tobías Aldino work, commissioned by cardinal Odoardo Farnese, describes some of these species and will become a reference for subsequent botanical studies.

  16. Liu Fang Yuan at The Huntington——An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (USA)Laurie Sowd

    2009-01-01

    Liu Fang Yuan is a classical Chinese Garden, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance, a most remarkable project in Huntington. This project was conceived by James Folsom. It is an international business venture, complex construction project, unique China-US collaboration, and center of cultural memory. Inspired by the centuries-old Chinese tradition of private gardens, Liu Fang Yuan combines the scenic beauty of nature with the expressiveness of literature to give deeper meaning to the landscape. True to the authentic nature of a Chinese garden, the design respects the site. It extends to adapting some of the traditional elements of Chinese garden design to meet local needs for seismic safety and wheelchair accessibility. Liu Fang Yuan is the only truly seasonal garden at the Huntington, emphasizing and symbolizing the progression of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The visitor experiences more than the visual realm. The garden's name, Liu Fang Yuan, has bolh literal and symbolic meanings refer to the scent of flowers and trees, also echoes the name of famed Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang. Liu Fang Yuan is truly a microcosm of The Huntington, bringing together botany, art and literature in a garden that will serve as a place of cultural memory and center for education about one of the great humanities traditions of the world.

  17. Review - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints. The plant is used as anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-depressive, anti-ulcer and anti-diabetic. The present review focuses Glycyrrhiza glabra distribution, ethno botany, ethno pharmacology, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, cultivation and trade. Plant requires a lot of attention as it has been reduced in population due to over-use in Baluchistan. The plant conservationists should consider this herb as priority species and should start its cultivation on the commercial scale to fulfill the requirements of the local markets and pharmaceutical industries as well as reduce the pressure on the wild plants.

  18. The evolution of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    Botany is usually considered to be the gentlest of sciences with botanists being regarded as people who study relatively safe specimens, compared with, for example, anthropologists or microbiologists. However, botanists have their moments, particularly when collecting new species. The great botanists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries risked their lives in collecting and bringing back species, which we now take for granted, and Robert Brown was one of these adventurers, a young Scot who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks to New Holland. It was not, however, for his adventurous lifestyle that Brown is remembered but for his startling observation of the movements of pollen grains on a microscope slide. He noted that the pollen grains were in perpetual agitated motion, without purpose or direction but full of energy. This motion, called Brownian motion, arises from the movement of molecules, and Brownian motion is the term that has been applied to much of healthcare, including many screening programmes, which have in the past been marked more by the amount of energy and activity than by a clear sense of direction or positive achievement.

  19. Catherine Magnier (1968 - 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Catherine, you arrived at CERN in May 2000 as a mechanical draughtswoman in the TS department’s mechanical studies office.    In keeping with your nature, your arrival was very discrete, but you soon became well known and appreciated by all thanks to the skill, professionalism and perfectionism that you brought to the projects on which you worked. Following on from your involvement and success in studies for the LHC’s collimators and electrical feed boxes, the Hiradmat test area and the complete renovation of the PS complex access control system, you joined the High-Luminosity LHC project in February 2014. We must also mention your interests outside of work, including motorbikes, botany and fish-keeping, which you pursued with the same passion and thirst for knowledge that you brought to your work. The messages and tributes received since your death have only served to reinforce our memory of you as a beautiful and charming person – a memory that will stay w...

  20. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels:A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muniappan Ayyanar; Pandurangan Subash-Babu

    2012-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes.

  1. Gregory Bateson’s Ecology of Mind and the Understanding of Human Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Magdalena Wasik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the biological notion of ecology that pertains to mutual relationships between organisms and their environments, this paper discusses theoretical foundations of research on the nature of human mind in relation to knowledge, cognition and communication conducted in a broader context of social sciences. It exposes the view, explicitly formulated by Gregory Bateson, that the mind is the way in which ideas are created, or just the systemic device for transmitting information in the world of all living species. In consequence, some crucial points of Bateson’s reasoning are accentuated, such as the recognition of the biological unity of organism and environment, the conviction of the necessity to study the ecology in terms of the economics of energy and material and/or the economy of information, the belief that consciousness distorts information coming to the organism from the inside and outside, which is the cause of its functional disadaptation, and the like. The conception of the ecology of an overall mind, as the sets of ideas, notions or thoughts in the whole world, is presented against the background of theoretical and empirical achievements of botany and zoology, anthropology, ethology and psychiatry, sociology and communication studies in connection with the development of cybernetics, systems theory and information theory.

  2. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  3. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SharmaYashaswini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

  4. INDUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MACROMYCETES BY LOW-INTENSITY LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the induction of antimicrobial activity of macromycetes by low-intensity light of different wavelengths and coherence. The objects of investigation were the strains of Flammulina velutipes 3923, Pleurotus ostreatus 531, Ganoderma lucidum 1908 and G. applanatum 1552 from Mushrooms Collection of the Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the test-cultures from Cultural Collections of the Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, All-Union Research Institute of Antibiotics and the All-Russian Collection of Industrial microorganisms. Helium-neon laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and an argon ion laser with wavelengths of 488.0 nm and 514.5 nm were used as a source of coherent visible light lasers. For obtaining incoherent light LEDs with emission at a wavelength of 490.0, 520.0 and 634.0 nm were used. It was found that short-term exposure of sowing mycelium by low intensity light with the energy density of 230 MJ/cm2 in the red and blue wavelength ranges reduced the cultivation period before the appearance of antimicrobial activity and induced the increasing of the culture fluid inhibitory activity against different test-cultures from 20 to 238%. Selected modes of antimicrobial activity photostimulation could be used in biotechnology of submerged cultivation of macromycetes for intensification of technological stages and increasing the yield of the final product.

  5. Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.-a review on its ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahendra S Khyade; Nityanand P Vaikos

    2014-01-01

    Different parts of Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae) (W. tinctoria), have been extensively used in Indian systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani for the treatment of jaundice, malaria, psoriasis and many other ailments. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on the traditional uses, botany, pharmacognosy, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and toxicology of W. tinctoria. The information was gathered via electronic search (using Google Scholar, NOPR, Pubmed, Elsevier, Medline Plus and Web of Science) and library search for the books on traditional medicine as well as the articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The plant is rich in compounds containing alkaloids, saponins, indoxy yielding O-glycoside(s), phenolics, flavonoids, isatin tryptanthrin, anthranillate, rutin, β-isatin, tryptophan, indigotin, indirubin, wrightial and sterols. The vast number of literature found in database revealed that the extracts of different parts of W. tinctoria showed significant pharmacological actions. Clinical studies indicated a broad range of applications in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases. We suggest that there is a need for further investigations to isolate active principles that confer pharmacological action. Therefore, identification of such active compound is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatments of various ailments.

  6. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'.

  7. 上帝的葡萄园%Vineyard of the lord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲韵

    2000-01-01

    Introduc of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Bab on Mount Carmel in Haifa,Israel.The designer is Mr.Fariborz Sahba,who designed the lotus-shaped Baha'i Worship House in India.The design of the Terraces adopted a sophisticated state-of-the-art irrigation system and pertained to the ecological and environmental approach.The project has gain attention from the experts all over the world in architecture,horticulture,and botany.%介绍以色列海法市卡梅尔山上的巴孛陵寝梯田平台花园。其设计者为设计印度莲花形巴哈伊灵曦堂的建筑师法理博·萨巴。该花园的设计应用了现代灌溉技术并对环境生态予以了充分的重视,已引起全世界建筑、园林园艺、植物学等各方面专家的注意。

  8. Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans: From Botanical Studies to Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Bunawan, Siti Noraini; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Noor, Normah Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. is one of the most popular herbs in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China where it was known as a slimming agent until two outbreaks of pulmonary dysfunction were reported in Taiwan and Japan in 1995 and 2005, respectively. Several studies described that the excessive consumption of Sauropus androgynus could cause drowsiness, constipation, and bronchiolitis obliterans and may lead to respiratory failure. Interestingly, this herb has been used in Malaysia and Indonesia in cooking and is commonly called the “multigreen” or “multivitamin” plant due to its high nutritive value and inexpensive source of dietary protein. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for wound healing, inducing lactation, relief of urinary disorders, as an antidiabetic cure and also fever reduction. Besides these medicinal uses, the plant can also be used as colouring agent in food. This review will explore and compile the fragmented knowledge available on the botany, ethnobotany, chemical constitutes, pharmacological properties, and toxicological aspects of this plant. This comprehensive review will give readers the fundamental, comprehensive, and current knowledge regarding Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. PMID:26413127

  9. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  10. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  11. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  12. Formation of the research competence of future breeder-geneticists during the practical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Павлівна Антіпова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article were analyzed content, structure and special features of the practical training of the future breeder-geneticists. There was specified that for bachelor breeder-geneticists of the 6.090101 “Agronomy” training direction are provided the following practices: botany, tractors and cars, soil science, agricultural machines, fruit growing, vegetable growing, agriculture, agrochemistry, plant growing, entomology, phytopathology, technology of retreatment and preservation of plant growing production, selection and seed growing of agricultural crops; work practice on agronomy.In the article was grounded the structural-logic scheme of organization of practices of the future breeder-geneticists for forming their professional research competences. There were analyzed functions and methods of scientific-cognitive activity, forms, means and methods of the practical education. According to the types of practices there were elucidated and grounded the structure of practical training of the future breeder-geneticists – natural-technical and special-professional – educational and work practices.The natural-technical, special-professional and production-technological practices form in bachelor agronomists breeder-geneticists professional scientific-research competences: theoretical-analytical ones – geosphere, bio-geo-physical-chemical, meteorological-climatological, informative, fundamental and applied ecological, fundamental-scientific agrosphere; professional competences of professionally oriented and special practical training – agricultural, branch, techno-service, technological, selective, special-genetic-engineering ones; managerial ones

  13. Connectivity processes and riparian vegetation of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevaux, José C.; Corradini, Fabrício A.; Aquino, Samia

    2013-10-01

    In fluvial systems, the relationship between a dominant variable (e.g. flood pulse) and its dependent ones (e.g. riparian vegetation) is called connectivity. This paper analyzes the connectivity elements and processes controlling riparian vegetation for a reach of the upper Paraná River (Brazil) and estimates the future changes in channel-vegetation relationship as a consequence of the managing of a large dam. The studied reach is situated 30 km downstream from the Porto Primavera Dam (construction finished in 1999). Through aerial photography (1:25,000, 1996), RGB-CBERS satellite imagery and a previous field botany survey it was possible to elaborate a map with the five major morpho-vegetation units: 1) Tree-dominated natural levee, 2) Shrubby upper floodplain, 3) Shrub-herbaceous mid floodplain, 4) Grass-herbaceous lower floodplain and 5) Shrub-herbaceous flood runoff channel units. By use of a detailed topographic survey and statistical tools each morpho-vegetation type was analyzed according to its connectivity parameters (frequency, recurrence, permanence, seasonality, potamophase, limnophase and FCQ index) in the pre- and post-dam closure periods of the historical series. Data showed that most of the morpho-vegetation units were predicted to present changes in connectivity parameters values after dam closing and the new regime could affect, in different intensity, the river ecology and particularly the riparian vegetation. The methods used in this study can be useful for dam impact studies in other South American tropical rivers.

  14. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Mark T; Tiley, Anna M M; Kramer, Elena M; Meerow, Alan W; Langdale, Jane A; Scotland, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of debate throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early developmental stages and position of corona initiation in Narcissus bulbocodium. We demonstrate that the corona initiates as six separate anlagen from hypanthial tissue between the stamens and perianth. Scanning electron microscope images and serial sections demonstrate that corona initiation occurs late in development, after the other floral whorls are fully developed. To define more precisely the identity of the floral structures, daffodil orthologues of the ABC floral organ identity genes were isolated and expression patterns were examined in perianth, stamens, carpel, hypanthial tube and corona tissue. Coupled with in situ hybridisation experiments, these analyses showed that the expression pattern of the C-class gene NbAGAMOUS in the corona is more similar to that of the stamens than that of the tepals. In combination, our results demonstrate that the corona of the daffodil N. bulbocodium exhibits stamen-like identity, develops independently from the orthodox floral whorls and is best interpreted as a late elaboration of the region between the petals and stamens associated with epigyny and the hypanthium.

  15. La teoría botánica de Jean Ruel (Ruellius, 1474-1537

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderas, José María

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the task undertaken in our last study on the use of botanical terms in the works of Albertus Magnus, the present one is devoted 10 re-examine in the same way the botanical theories of Jean Ruel, or Ruellius (1474-1537. Ruellius has been neglected and misjudged - with a bit of superficiality, maybe as a result of an insufficient knowledge of his work- by later historical and scientific criticism, but he stands as the first author of an original (even with a hint of an empiric approach, as we shall see treatise of Renaissance's Botany.

    Siguiendo la tarea emprendida en nuestro último estudio sobre el uso de los términos botánicos en la obra de San Alberto, este trabajo está dedicado a reexaminar de la misma manera las teorías botánicas de Jean Ruel, o Ruellius (1474-1537. Ruellius ha sido olvidado y pobremente juzgado -acaso con alguna ligereza, fruto de un conocimiento insuficiente de su obra- por la crítica posterior, pero sigue siendo el autor del primer tratado original (incluso con asomos de empirismo en su exposición de Botánica del Renacimiento.

  16. A Systematic Review of the Botanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Plant Source of the Ethnomedicine “Dragon’s Blood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yi Fan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available “Dragon’s blood” is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of “dragon’s blood”. It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis.

  17. Establishing research strategies, methodologies and technologies to link genomics and proteomics to seagrass productivity, community metabolism and ecosystem carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMazzuca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanistic basis of marine ecosystem functioning is only possible through integrative and interdisciplinary research. This enables the prediction of change and possibly the mitigation of the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. One major aim of the COST Action ES0609 Seagrasses productivity. From genes to ecosystem management, is the calibration and synthesis of various methods and the development of innovative techniques and protocols for studying seagrass ecosystems.During ten days, twenty researchers representing a range of disciplines (molecular biology, physiology, botany, ecology, oceanography, underwater acoustics gathered at the marine station of STARESO (Corsica to study together the nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow. The Station de Recherches Sous-marine et Océanographiques (STARESO is located in an oligotrophic area classified as "pristine site" where environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic pressure are exceptionally low. The healthy P. oceanica meadow, that grows in front of the lab, colonizes the sea bottom from the surface to 37 m depth. During the study, genomic and proteomic approaches were integrated with ecophysiological and physical approaches with the aim of understanding changes in seagrass productivity and metabolism at different depths and along daily cycles. In this paper we report details on the approaches utilized and we forecast the potential of the data that will come from this synergistic approach not only for P. oceanica but for seagrasses in general.

  18. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  19. Relationship of Forest Vegetation to Soils on Geological Formations of the Oklahoma Gulf Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond John Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Portions of this paper were recently presented at the Cross Timbers Symposium at the Botany 2005 Symposium in Austin, Texas. I have come to realize the importance of this data as a baseline for the composition of forests in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Since the data were collected about 40 years ago, many changes have occurred including our expanding population, increase in rural housing, construction of pipelines, and clearing for pasture and cultivation. Many of the sites studied have been modified or completely disappeared. Another important change is the tremendous expansion of Juniperus virginiana (red cedar due to absence of fire. In the sampling of these 13 forests 40 years ago, this species was found in only one stand, and as a sapling. Other invasive plants include Ligustrum sinense (privet, an evergreen shrub that can expand into clones by underground roots, and the invasive vine Lonicera sempervirens (Japanese honeysuckle which is controlled in many areas by cattle grazing. Both of these species will continue to expand and affect our native flora.

  20. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  1. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  2. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections.

  3. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akaberi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  4. Advances in thermographic signal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Steven M.; Frendberg Beemer, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Since its introduction in 2001, the Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) method has emerged as one of the most widely used methods for enhancement and analysis of thermographic sequences, with applications extending beyond industrial NDT into biomedical research, art restoration and botany. The basic TSR process, in which a noise reduced replica of each pixel time history is created, yields improvement over unprocessed image data that is sufficient for many applications. However, examination of the resulting logarithmic time derivatives of each TSR pixel replica provides significant insight into the physical mechanisms underlying the active thermography process. The deterministic and invariant properties of the derivatives have enabled the successful implementation of automated defect recognition and measurement systems. Unlike most approaches to analysis of thermography data, TSR does not depend on flawbackground contrast, so that it can also be applied to characterization and measurement of thermal properties of flaw-free samples. We present a summary of recent advances in TSR, a review of the underlying theory and examples of its implementation.

  5. Ever since Klekowski: testing a set of radical hypotheses revives the genetics of ferns and lycophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufler, Christopher H

    2014-12-01

    There have been three periods of significant discovery in the exploration of fern and lycophyte genetics. First, during the 1930s, Andersson-Kottö conducted crossing studies on ferns. The publication of Manton's magnum opus on fern chromosomes in 1950 stimulated the second. The third emerged from Klekowski's 1973 American Journal of Botany publication that posed hypotheses linking breeding system dynamics and polyploid genetic architecture. Although Klekowski's assertions (predominant inbreeding and active polyploid genomes) were not supported, his hypotheses served as the impetus for improving our knowledge of the evolutionary mechanisms of ferns and lycophytes. It is now understood that (1) homosporous vascular plants are genetically diploid at high chromosome numbers and (2) both heterosporous and homosporous plants store and release genetic variation through a similar range of breeding systems. However, the seeming paradox of diploid genetic expression in homosporous vascular plants with high chromosome numbers remains unresolved. Ongoing and future research should include (1) more studies of gametophyte biology to elucidate the range and frequency of different breeding systems; (2) genomic analyses and new research on the mechanisms controlling bivalent formation to help discover how and why homosporous plant chromosomes appear so structurally stable; (3) considering whether the frequency of allopolyploidy in lineages can help explain why some are highly polyploid; and (4) chromosome painting studies to identify the dynamics of chromosome behavior in homosporous vascular plants. These open questions and continuing investigations demonstrate the longstanding impact of Klekowski's stimulating contribution.

  6. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The species has become a popular ornamental tree, and its bark has been used for dyeing fabrics. It forms part of the food chain for mammals and insects and serves as nesting sites for birds. Endowed with bioactive compounds of benzophenones, xanthones, biflavonoids, and triterpenoids, G. subelliptica possesses anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, trypanocidal, antibacterial, DNA topoisomerase inhibitory, DNA strand scission, choline acetyltransferase enhancing, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitory, and antiandrogenic activities. Fukugetin and fukugiside are two novel biflavonoids named after the species. The chemical constituents of Fukugi fruits when compared with those of mangosteen yielded interesting contrasts.

  7. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  8. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field.

  9. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  10. Establishing research strategies, methodologies and technologies to link genomics and proteomics to seagrass productivity, community metabolism, and ecosystem carbon fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Silvia; Björk, M; Beer, S; Felisberto, P; Gobert, S; Procaccini, G; Runcie, J; Silva, J; Borges, A V; Brunet, C; Buapet, P; Champenois, W; Costa, M M; D'Esposito, D; Gullström, M; Lejeune, P; Lepoint, G; Olivé, I; Rasmusson, L M; Richir, J; Ruocco, M; Serra, I A; Spadafora, A; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    A complete understanding of the mechanistic basis of marine ecosystem functioning is only possible through integrative and interdisciplinary research. This enables the prediction of change and possibly the mitigation of the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. One major aim of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0609 "Seagrasses productivity. From genes to ecosystem management," is the calibration and synthesis of various methods and the development of innovative techniques and protocols for studying seagrass ecosystems. During 10 days, 20 researchers representing a range of disciplines (molecular biology, physiology, botany, ecology, oceanography, and underwater acoustics) gathered at The Station de Recherches Sous-marines et Océanographiques (STARESO, Corsica) to study together the nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow. STARESO is located in an oligotrophic area classified as "pristine site" where environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic pressure are exceptionally low. The healthy P. oceanica meadow, which grows in front of the research station, colonizes the sea bottom from the surface to 37 m depth. During the study, genomic and proteomic approaches were integrated with ecophysiological and physical approaches with the aim of understanding changes in seagrass productivity and metabolism at different depths and along daily cycles. In this paper we report details on the approaches utilized and we forecast the potential of the data that will come from this synergistic approach not only for P. oceanica but for seagrasses in general.

  11. Literary positivism? Scientific theories and methods in the work of Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869 and Wilhelm Scherer (1841-1886

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    Wolfgang Kaltenbrunner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Literary positivism? Scientific theories and methods in the work of sainte-beuve (1804-1869 and wilhelm scherer (1841-1886 This paper compares the research and critical work of Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve and Wilhelm Scherer, two of the most important representatives of ‘literary positivism’ in France and the Germanophone countries in the nineteenth century. It argues that although Sainte- Beuve and Scherer shared a research interest in deterministic biography, their work is too rich and too varied to lump it together under the commonly assigned label of ‘positivism’. Sainte- Beuve’s descriptive comparative literary criticism was meant to establish a database of human character types and thereby lay the groundwork for a future science of morals. Scherer, on the other hand, was mainly interested elaborating inductive hypotheses on the causal determination of individual life and literary history by various social and physiological factors. The paper elicits the different scientific sources of knowledge that Sainte-Beuve and Scherer drew upon. While Sainte-Beuve’s classification of character types is strongly in - formed by his reception of the comparative natural sciences, especially late eighteenth/early nineteenth century botany and zoology, Scherer’s research is in many respects conceived as a humanistic equivalent to the empirical inductive research model of German physical reductionism. Finally, the paper elucidates the specific political contexts to which Sainte-Beuve and Scherer reacted in their research.

  12. A Newly Recorded Species of Pogostemon Desf. (Lamiaceae) from China%中国刺蕊草属(唇形科)植物一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚纲; 邓云飞; 葛学军

    2013-01-01

    报道了中国唇形科(Lamiaceae)刺蕊草属一新记录种--香薷状刺蕊草(Pogostemon elsholtzioides Benth.),该种在中国产于西藏墨脱县,凭证标本保存在PE。该种在喜马拉雅地区分布广泛,与特产于云南西北部地区的狭叶刺蕊草(P. dielsianus Dunn)的主要区别为:花萼钟形,长3~3.5 mm,花萼齿长为花萼筒的1/3~1/2,花冠长约4.5 mm。%Pogostemon elsholtzioides Benth. is newly recorded from China. It was discovered in Mêdog Xian, Xizang, China. Its vouchers are kept in the herbarium of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (PE). The species is widely distributed in Himalayan regions. It is similar to P. dielsianus Dunn in habit, but differs from it in having calyx campanulate, 3-3.5 mm long, the ratio of the length of calyx teeth and calyx tube is 1/3-1/2, corolla ca. 4.5 mm long.

  13. Description on Species of Guttiferae, Begoniaceae, Lythraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Lamiaceae Wild Flower Resources in Western Henan%豫西地区马藤黄科·秋海棠科·千屈菜科·蓝雪科及唇形科野生花卉资源种类记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    2011—2013年历时3年对豫西地区野生花卉资源进行了全面调查,基本探清了该地野生花卉的分布种类。就藤黄科、秋海棠科、千屈菜科、蓝雪科、唇形科8种野生花卉的分类地位、植物学特征、生态学习性、利用途径进行了简要记述,以期为野生花卉的驯化利用提供借鉴作用。%Abstravt The wild flower resources in western Henan were investigated in 2011-2013,and the distribution of the wild flowers species were found out. In this paper, the taxonomy, botany, ecology and untilization ways of 8 wild flower species in Guttiferae, Begoniaceae, Lythraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Lamiaceae were briefly described, with a view to play a reference role for domestication and utilization of the wild flowers.

  14. SOME BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr. Fr. (Ascomycota MUSHROOM AS PRODUCER OF MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES

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    O. B. Mykchaylova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the study on growth and morphological peculiarities of valuable medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris from the culture collection of mushrooms of Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are given. Using the method of scanning electron microscopy, the micro-morphological structures specific to this species were studied. This allows identifying this species in pure culture. Culture-morphological studies were performed on four agar nutrient media. Glucosepeptone-yeast agar medium, malt agar extract and incubation temperature of 16 °C were the most favorable for the vegetative growth of all the tested strains. Temperature of 36 °C is critical. Maximal growth of C. militaris was observed at pH 6.0?6.5. The optimal sources of carbon for vegetative mycelium growth were glucose, lactose and sucrose, whereas peptone and yeast extract were the best sources of nitrogen. Light irradiation of different nature stimulated the radial growth in agar media and accumulation of their biomass in liquid ones.

  15. Good for a national cemetery: questions of land use and an 1888 Botanical Expedition across Northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, lumbermen logged the virgin pine forests of northern Michigan. The assumption was that the "plow would follow the axe," and agriculture would dominate the region as it did in the southern half of the state. When farming did not quickly take root, William James Beal and Liberty Hyde Bailey led an expedition of scientists and journalists on a trip across northern Michigan in June 1888 to collect botanical samples, to find a site for a state forest reserve, and to recommend appropriate farming enterprises. This essay contends that without a key reforestation advocate in charles Garfield the explorers focused too much on the questions related to botany and agriculture.While agriculture would ultimately thrive in some parts of the cutover, much of the region was unsuitable for intensive farming. The failure of the scientists to convey these limits adequately in newspaper articles and subsequent reports allowed for their work to be used by agricultural boosters throughout the region. The result was a cycle of erosion, fire, and farm abandonment that proved to be a political problem in Michigan for the first three decades of the twentieth century.

  16. Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Wintola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alepidea amatymbica is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa with a long history of traditional use for the management of conditions like colds, coughs, sore throat, influenza, asthma, and abdominal cramps. Despite the much acclaimed traditional uses of the plant, there is a dearth of scientific information on the review of this plant. Hence, this review is aimed at providing information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of A. amatymbica. This review uses all the synonyms of the plant obtained from the plant list. Google scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus were made use of in addition to the University of Fort Hare’s online databases. All the phytochemical studies on Alepidea amatymbica obtained from the literature reported the presence of kaurene-type diterpenoids and their derivatives. Pharmacological areas identified on A. amatymbica fresh and dried extract include antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, astringent, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthes, antihypertensive, anti-HIV, and diuretic activities. Literature search on A. amatymbica revealed the use of cell line, brine shrimps, and rats for the determination of the toxicity in the plant. Clinical trials and product development to fully exploit the medicinal value are also required to validate its folklore use in traditional medicine.

  17. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE OF SLOVAK GRASSLAND VEGETATION

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    M. JANISOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, the Central Phytosociological Database has been built since 1996 and it is located in the Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. Since 2005, we focused on the collection of phytosociological relevés from semi-natural grassland communities belonging to phytosociological classes Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Festuco-Brometea and Nardetea strictae. All accessible published relevés were compiled and stored in the Turboveg program. Since 1990 an extensive field survey was caried out with the aim to record the actual stage of semi-natural grasslands in Slovakia after the period of profound land-use changes (collectivisation, abandonment, succession. As a result of this survey, 4988 of recent unpublished relevés were stored in our database. Alltogether, the database of grassland vegetation contains 11 121 relevés, collected by 143 authors between 1924 and 2006. These relevés include 387 765 vascular plants individual records nad 6 439 records of bryophyte and lichen species. The basic statistical information on this database is presented in the paper and the quality of the data is discussed. The possible application of such phytosociological dataset is outlined.

  18. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE OF SLOVAK GRASSLAND VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I SKODOVA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, the Central Phytosociological Database has been built since 1996 and it is located in the Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. Since 2005, we focused on the collection of phytosociological relevés from semi-natural grassland communities belonging to phytosociological classes Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Festuco-Brometea and Nardetea strictae. All accessible published relevés were compiled and stored in the Turboveg program. Since 1990 an extensive field survey was caried out with the aim to record the actual stage of semi-natural grasslands in Slovakia after the period of profound land-use changes (collectivisation, abandonment, succession. As a result of this survey, 4988 of recent unpublished relevés were stored in our database. Alltogether, the database of grassland vegetation contains 11 121 relevés, collected by 143 authors between 1924 and 2006. These relevés include 387 765 vascular plants individual records nad 6 439 records of bryophyte and lichen species. The basic statistical information on this database is presented in the paper and the quality of the data is discussed. The possible application of such phytosociological dataset is outlined.

  19. A mini-review on the most important effective medicinal plants to treat hypertension in ethnobotanical evidence of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in human communities. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease which causes a mortality twice higher than general population. Given the fact that medicinal plants have long been used to treat hypertension and are currently being administered for this disease, we sought to report the mostly effective and important medicinal plants on hypertension therapy in ethno-botanical evidence of Iran. In this study, hypertension, Iran, ethno-botany, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine were used as key words to search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE to select relevant articles. The findings of this study indicated that in Iran 40 plants in various provinces are used to treat hypertension. Because medicinal plants in this study contain effective compounds and have long been used to treat and reduce hypertension, they could provide suitable research arrangements for controlling hypertension, while effective natural drugs could be developed to control hypertension if their properties are confirmed in pharmacological studies.

  20. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

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    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  1. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity), plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science. PMID:28326228

  2. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

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    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  3. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  4. On the purported discovery of the bronchial circulation by Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, W; Wagner, E

    1992-09-01

    Among modern physiologists and anatomists, there has been a nearly universal acceptance that Leonardo da Vinci was the first to identify the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. However, because of certain ambiguities in both his anatomic drawing that was supposed to have shown this circulation and the accompanying descriptive text, we questioned whether he really could have been the first to discover this small but important vasculature. To address this question, we set out to repeat Leonardo's dissections in the ox. We reasoned that perhaps the normally tiny bronchial vessels would be considerably more noticeable in this very large species. Our dissections, however, failed to provide any evidence that Leonardo's drawing was that of the bronchial circulation. Furthermore we observed a set of distinct small pulmonary veins to the left upper and right middle lobes that Leonardo, given his lack of understanding of the function of the lung and its circulation, could have easily mistaken for a separate circulation. We thus conclude that Leonardo da Vinci did not describe the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. We believe that the first person to clearly and unequivocally describe the anatomy of this circulation was the Dutch Professor of Anatomy and Botany, Frederich Ruysch.

  5. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  7. 提高作物光合作用途径的研究现状%Progress to Improve Photosynthesis Methods of Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 马勇; 郝建军; 张丽华

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is an important biosynthetieal reaction and the base of yield. Photorespiration of C3 crops is high, but photosynthesis is low. How to improve photosynthesis is always an important task of botany research. Now research harvest was obtained. Effects of NaHSO3, CO2, potassium on photosynthesis of crops were discussed, and transformation of C3 crops" hereditary features was also discussed according to C4 pathway mechanism.%光合作用是重要的生物合成过程,也是栽培作物产量形成的基础.C3作物光呼吸高,光合速率低.如何提高光合效率,一直是植物学界研究的重大课题,对喷施亚硫酸氢钠、碳肥、钾营养、遗传改造等途径采提高C3作物光合作用的研究现状进行了综述.以期为提高C3作物光合作用研究提供参考.

  8. 古植物学名词及其与相关学科的关联性%Paleobotanical Terms and Their Relations with Related Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承森

    2012-01-01

    Paleobotany is a discipline focusing on the fossil plant (or plant remains) living in the geological times and preserved in the sediments. Paleobotanical researches combine the contents of geology and botany, and its terms possess the meanings and features of both geo-science and bio-science.%古植物学研究生活在地质历史时期的植物,这些植物以化石标本或者植物遗存的形式保存在沉积地层中。古植物学属于连接地质学和植物学的交叉学科,其名词既具有地学色彩,又具有生物学内涵。本文分析了古植物学名词的构成、来源,以及与相关学科名词的内在关联。

  9. [A bibliographical study on the Gapjinjache Naeuiwonjabon of Sikmulboncho].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong Yong

    2009-06-01

    "Sikmulboncho" that is quoted several times to "Donguibogam(Medical Thesaurus of Korea)" published several times in 3 countries(Korea, China & Japan) as important data of botany study. Gapjinjache "Sikmulboncho", one of the bronze metal type, that exist our country was publicated in early Seonjo(1552-1608) era. Actually there are 3 items(Korea university collection, Asami library collection, Oksan seowon collection) of Gapjinjache Naeuiwonjabon one of the wooden type seen become publication after 1607 year. Bronze metal type composes the major part for Gapjinjabon, but wood type was also mixed much. Wooden type composes the major part for Naeuiwonjabon, while bronze type was little mixed. Bronze metal type disappears by wear class gradually to during 40 years and instead of this, used wood type was used. Foundation and base of this publication have formed in itself Eulhaejache Naeeuiwonjabon that start "Donguibogam" in process that do this way. Therefore, Naeeuiwon do not publish various medical books like a Naeeuiwonjabon suddenly in early 17th century. I can speak that is caused in experience and potential power that already publish this Gapjinjabon medical book ago by medical history.

  10. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  11. A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtained when Rhizobium sp. was used in combination with cow dung and eggshell powder (with or without waste tea leaves. Combined application of root nodule bacterium and organic wastes like waste tea leaves, eggshell, and cow dung may be suggested to the farmers/growers or related persons who are having great enthusiasm to establish a lentil production business. Application of these organic materials along with the root nodule bacteria may be helpful to foster soil ecosystem which has been a hot topic in the present scenario.

  12. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic-nose (e-nose instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  13. BIOLOGIA COMPARADA DE POPULAÇÕES DA LAGARTA -DO- CARTUCHO EM FOLHAS DE MILHO E MANDIOCA

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    KENESON KLAY GONÇALVES MACHADO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm is a pest that feeds on various botanies species. The objective of this experi- ment was to study the biology of this pest in corn and cassava leaves. Caterpillars were collected in area under cultivation with cassava and maintained on artificial diet for two generations. Under controlled conditions in a climatic chamber (B.O.D in the laboratory (25 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and photophase 14 hours were evaluated daily 50 caterpillars in corn treatments and 50 in cassava, where duration and viability of the larval phase and pupal, weight of pupas were observed after 24 hours, deformation percentage of pupas and adults, longevity, fecundity and total life cycle. The viability of larvae fed on leaves of maize and cassava was 74% and 60%, respectively. The larval period of the insects was shorter in maize 16.89 days (seven instars and cassava 20.08 days (six instars. The pupal phase lasted 11.42 days in cassava treatment and 10.87 in the maize. The pupal weight of females and males was higher in corn 204.91 mg and 198.97 mg, respectively. The biological cycle varied depending on the ingested food. Adult longevity lasted 9.88 days for insects fed on cassava leaves. Therefore, cassava affected the development of S. frugiperda.

  14. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A.; Nelson, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  15. Water ascent in trees and lianas: the cohesion-tension theory revisited in the wake of Otto Renner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrup, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2017-03-01

    The cohesion-tension theory of water ascent (C-T) has been challenged over the past decades by a large body of experimental evidence obtained by means of several minimum or non-invasive techniques. The evidence strongly suggests that land plants acquire water through interplay of several mechanisms covered by the multi-force theory of (U. Zimmermann et al. New Phytologist 162: 575-615, 2004). The diversity of mechanisms includes, for instance, water acquisition by inverse transpiration and thermodynamically uphill transmembrane water secretion by cation-chloride cotransporters (L.H. Wegner, Progress in Botany 76:109-141, 2014). This whole plant perspective was opened by Otto Renner at the beginning of the last century who supported experimentally the strictly xylem-bound C-T mechanism, yet anticipated that the water ascent involves both the xylem conduit and parenchyma tissues. The survey also illustrates the known paradigm that new techniques generate new insights, as well as a paradigm experienced by Max Planck that a new scientific idea is not welcomed by the community instantly.

  16. Waterhyacinth: Biology, ecology and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a bibliography of over 2700 references and a critical review of the current knowledge on all aspects of the plant. Important data on all these aspects have been compiled and presented in numerous tables and figures making the book the most important reference work to date on waterhyacinth. Areas requiring the extra attention of researchers are also indicated. In recent years aquatic weeds such as waterhyacinth have received great attention, not only for the magnitude of problems caused by them in the management of water resources, but also for the promise they hold as a new resource for such diverse uses as animal feed, compost, paper, energy (biogas) and above all the control of water pollution (wastewater treatment). Waterhyacinth outclasses all other aquatic weeds in its rate of growth, multiplication and dry matter production, and its potential ability in respect to energy and pollution control. More research has been undertaken on the control and utilization of waterhyacinth than perhaps any other aquatic weed. The book is an indispensable reference work for anyone interested in waterhyacinth: for its control or utilization; its botany or ecology; its history and distribution.

  17. [On Mexican medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2009-12-01

    During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.

  18. The resisted rise of randomisation in experimental design: British agricultural science, c.1910-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    The most conspicuous form of agricultural experiment is the field trial, and within the history of such trials, the arrival of the randomised control trial (RCT) is considered revolutionary. Originating with R.A. Fisher within British agricultural science in the 1920s and 1930s, the RCT has since become one of the most prodigiously used experimental techniques throughout the natural and social sciences. Philosophers of science have already scrutinised the epistemological uniqueness of RCTs, undermining their status as the 'gold standard' in experimental design. The present paper introduces a historical case study from the origins of the RCT, uncovering the initially cool reception given to this method by agricultural scientists at the University of Cambridge and the (Cambridge based) National Institute of Agricultural Botany. Rather than giving further attention to the RCT, the paper focuses instead on a competitor method-the half-drill strip-which both predated the RCT and remained in wide use for at least a decade beyond the latter's arrival. In telling this history, John Pickstone's Ways of Knowing is adopted, as the most flexible and productive way to write the history of science, particularly when sciences and scientists have to work across a number of different kinds of place. It is shown that those who resisted the RCT did so in order to preserve epistemic and social goals that randomisation would have otherwise run a tractor through.

  19. Bandelier: The Life and Adventures of Adolph Bandelier, by Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Woodbury

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolph F. Bandelier (1840-1914 is best known for his work in the Southwestern United States, particularly among the pueblos and prehistoric sites of the Rio Grande area, although he did extensive field and archival research in Mexico and South America as well. Self-taught, like most of his contemporaries, his research included archaeology, ethnology, history, and geography, plus a serious interest in botany, zoology, and meteorology. Bandelier was born in Bern, Switzerland, but when he was eight his family moved to the largely Swiss settlement of Highland, Illinois, 30 miles east of St. Louis, where he attended school, was tutored privately, and taught by his well educated mother. He mastered German and English, as well as his native French, and later added Spanish and Latin. For many years he worked in his father's general store, finally, at the age of forty, making the difficult decision to devote himself to scholarship rather than business. In 1869 at the St. Louis Mercantile Library he had begun the study of prehistoric Mexican cultures. He met Lewis Henry Morgan on a trip to the east and for many years was greatly influenced by his view of cultural evolution, but he.remained far more fact oriented than concerned with theory. Bandelier's first major work, "On the Art of War and Mode of Warfare of the Ancient Mexicans," was published in 1877 by the Peabody Museum of Harvard.

  20. Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.-a review on its ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra S. Khyade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different parts of Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae (W. tinctoria, have been extensively used in Indian systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani for the treatment of jaundice, malaria, psoriasis and many other ailments. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on the traditional uses, botany, pharmacognosy, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and toxicology of W. tinctoria. The information was gathered via electronic search (using Google Scholar, NOPR, Pubmed, Elsevier, Medline Plus and Web of Science and library search for the books on traditional medicine as well as the articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The plant is rich in compounds containing alkaloids, saponins, indoxy yielding O-glycoside(s, phenolics, flavonoids, isatin tryptanthrin, anthranillate, rutin, β-isatin, tryptophan, indigotin, indirubin, wrightial and sterols. The vast number of literature found in database revealed that the extracts of different parts of W. tinctoria showed significant pharmacological actions. Clinical studies indicated a broad range of applications in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases. We suggest that there is a need for further investigations to isolate active principles that confer pharmacological action. Therefore, identification of such active compound is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatments of various ailments.

  1. Study on Introduction and Propagation of Physocarpus opulifolius%金叶风箱果引种及繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 马立华; 谭振平; 张华艳; 潘杰; 郁永英

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of botany and biology biorhythm and propagate technologies of ' Lutein' were tested and studied . The result showed that Physocarpus opulifolius grows rapidly in Harbin, and has a unique character with distinct yellow leaves, and has a uniform and stable appearance. It has wide range of adaptability with vigorous habit. Physocarpus opulifolius was suitable to be widely popularized in Northeast China.%1999年早春,从北京植物园引进金叶风箱果,并对其植物学特性、生物学特性、生长节律及繁殖技术等方面进行了系统的研究。结果表明:金叶风箱果生长迅速,叶色金黄,花序雪白,初果鲜红,性状独特且稳定。适宜哈尔滨地区的自然条件,彩色叶观赏性状表现突出,是观赏价值极高的优良彩色叶花灌木树种,可在东北高寒地区推广应用。

  2. Micología norteafricana. De la Prehistoria al mundo antigua

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    Daniel Becerra Romero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La mayor parte de los estudios sobre botánica se han centrado en el examen de las plantas, analizando aspectos comerciales, prácticos o simbólicos. Sin embargo, también los hongos han jugado un papel importante a lo largo de la Historia, aunque, por lo general se les ha prestado poca atención. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo examinar varios de los hongos que fueron conocidos en el pasado en esta zona y el papel que pudieron jugar entre sus habitantes.Traditionally botany studies have been centred around the examination of the plants, analyzing the commercial, practical or symbolic aspects. However, fungus has also played an important role throughout history although generally they have not received much attention. The objective of this article is to examine several fungi that were known in the past in this area and the roll that they could have played with the old inhabitants of the area.

  3. [Digitalic therapy. Historical outline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    2000-01-01

    The action of medical drugs obtained from many vegetables aroused a great interest of naturalists and physicians in all time. Moreover, it was always required that those persons destined to medical practice have a good knowledge of botany. Among the medicinal plants utilized by ancient peoples of the Anahuac, yoloxochitl or heart flower (Talauma mexicana) is mentioned, which seems to have a digitalis-like action. Research in our century demonstrated a positive inotropic and bradycardic effect of the leavels of Magnolia grandiflora or Talauma mexicana extract. Since the end of the XVIII century, digitalis was employed. It was considered initially as a diuretic and later as a cardiotonic agent. The action of digitalic glycosides upon the cardiac tissues was studied experimentally in Mexico. At the present-time there are positive inotropic agents derived from pyridine, as is the case of Milrinone, which have a beneficial action on the failing human myocardium. However, following the opinion of distinguished pharmacologists, "in the case of heart failure associated to atrial fibrillation, digitalis cannot be substituted".

  4. Sauropus androgynus (L. Merr. Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans: From Botanical Studies to Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidun Bunawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. is one of the most popular herbs in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China where it was known as a slimming agent until two outbreaks of pulmonary dysfunction were reported in Taiwan and Japan in 1995 and 2005, respectively. Several studies described that the excessive consumption of Sauropus androgynus could cause drowsiness, constipation, and bronchiolitis obliterans and may lead to respiratory failure. Interestingly, this herb has been used in Malaysia and Indonesia in cooking and is commonly called the “multigreen” or “multivitamin” plant due to its high nutritive value and inexpensive source of dietary protein. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for wound healing, inducing lactation, relief of urinary disorders, as an antidiabetic cure and also fever reduction. Besides these medicinal uses, the plant can also be used as colouring agent in food. This review will explore and compile the fragmented knowledge available on the botany, ethnobotany, chemical constitutes, pharmacological properties, and toxicological aspects of this plant. This comprehensive review will give readers the fundamental, comprehensive, and current knowledge regarding Sauropus androgynus L. Merr.

  5. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  6. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  7. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  8. Marcello Malpighi and the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-03-15

    Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) was an Italian scientist who made outstanding contributions in many areas, including the anatomical basis of respiration in amphibia, mammals, and insects and also in the very different fields of embryology and botany. He was one of the first biologists to make use of the newly invented microscope and is best known as the discoverer of the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli. However, he also discovered the spiracles and tracheae that enable respiration in insects. His studies of the embryology of the chicken were far ahead of his time; he then turned to the anatomy of plants, where he made important contributions. Indeed, in some articles Malpighi is referred to as the father of embryology and in other publications as one of the fathers of plant anatomy. His work on the lung was chiefly carried out on the frog; he referred to this animal as the "microscope of nature" because it allowed him to see structures that were not visible in larger animals such as mammals. He also argued that nature undertakes its great works in larger animals after a series of attempts in lower animals. For breadth of interest, innovation, and productivity, it is not easy to think of his equal in the field of life sciences.

  9. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  10. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  11. The Chemical Investigation of Papaver Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannis Fadzillah Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papaver species (common name: poppy; plant family: Papaveraceae has been involved in a wide array of research, particularly in the interest of botany, food biotechnology and clinical chemistry. Its bright and colourful flowers receive international recognition in floriculture industry, while the seeds’ function was recently reviewed as a source of linoleic acid and other functional food. However, abuse cases were also reported, due to the presence of natural opiates, such as heroine, morphine and codeine, thus contributing to the opium dependence. Here, the results from a preliminary test concerning two samples are presented. The experiment consisted of Papaver seeds from a local bakery and the herbalist. Following a series of organic extraction, three reagents including Mayer, Draggendorf and Bouchardat solutions were utilized in order to screen the phytochemical constituents. The detection method respectively gave positive results of white, orange and brown reddish precipitates, indicating the occurrence  of alkaloids. The most significant precipitations were revealed from the chloroform extract of the herbal example. Earlier separation procedure utilizing hexane was withdrawn; due to the deficiency of the extractive. Chromatographic technique could be applied in order to separate the major compounds. Hopefully, this scientific investigation could provide educational information covering the topics of recreational drugs and essential pharmaceutical materials.

  12. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF VOLUCELLA GEOFFROY, 1762 FROM CHINA (DIPTERA,SYRPHISAE)%中国蜂蚜蝇属一新种记述(食蚜蝇科,蜂蚜蝇族)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍科科; 余治家; 王新辅

    2009-01-01

    记述采自中国宁夏回族自治区六盘山自然保护区蜂蚜蝇属1新种:六盘山蜂蚜蝇Volucdla livpanshanensis sp. nov..新种近似Volucella thompsoni Choi et al.,2006.新种雄性复眼接缝长,约等于额长,腹部第3背板前缘具狭横斑,第4背板后缘向前凹入,使生殖后节背面可见;雌性复眼被毛极稀疏,腹部第3背板前缘具黄白色狭横带.模式标本保存于陕西理工学院动植物标本馆.黑蜂蚜蝇V.nigricans和黄盾蜂蚜蝇V.pellucens tabanoides为宁夏首次记录.文中给出新种描述、特征图和种团分类检索表.%In the paper, a new species of Volucella Geoffroy, 1762 is described from Liupanshan Natural Reserve, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region: Volucella livpanshanensis sp. nov. The type specimens are held in the Museum of Animal and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology. During the investigation Volucella nigricans and Volucella pellucens tabanoides are recorded for the first from Ningxia Hni Autonomous Region.

  14. 中国长白山地区鼻颜蚜蝇属一新种记述(双翅目,食蚜蝇科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS RHINGIA FROM CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN, CHINA ( DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海滨; 霍科科; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new species of Syrphidae collected from Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province, China, Rhingja nigriscutella sp. Nov. Type specimens are deposited in the Department of Biology, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University and the Museum of Animal and Botany, Shaanxi University of Technology.%记述采自吉林省长白山地区的鼻颜蚜蝇属1新种,黑盾鼻颜蚜蝇Rhingia nigriscutella sp.nov.,新种近似亮黑鼻颜蚜蝇R.laevigata Loew.但新种第3背板基部具l对近梯形黄色斑,而亮黑鼻颜蚜蝇第3背板整体棕红色,后缘黑色,正中具暗纵条.同时提供其特征图.模式标本保存在东北师范大学生命科学学院标本馆及陕西理工学院动植物标本馆.

  15. Ibrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Dawn N.

    This thesis is a study of my current body of work, both formally and conceptually. It begins with an Introduction, explaining the origin of the term hybrid and the distinct advantages as well as disadvantages hybridization has on a species. It also discusses the effects incurred by the environment on plants and humans. Chapter II, A Curious Collection of Biomorphic Forms, provides an overview of the concepts and interplay between the surface treatments of the forms and their sculpted interior elements and how certain forms reveal, while other forms hide themselves from the viewer. It also confers the motivations behind the work in relation to botany, entomology, anatomy and human traits. Chapter III, Process and Material, describes the production techniques used in the work, including choice of clay, building techniques, glazes and firing temperatures. It also explains the surface treatments as they pertain to the overall form and feeling of certain pieces. Chapter IV, Influences, explores some of the artistic, historic and scientific influences in the use of natural forms and highlights some of the sources of inspiration for my work.

  16. From Charles Darwin's botanical country-house studies to modern plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Briggs, W R

    2009-11-01

    As a student of theology at Cambridge University, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) attended the lectures of the botanist John S. Henslow (1796-1861). This instruction provided the basis for his life-long interest in plants as well as the species question. This was a major reason why in his book On the Origin of Species, which was published 150 years ago, Darwin explained his metaphorical phrase 'struggle for life' with respect to animals and plants. In this article, we review Darwin's botanical work with reference to the following topics: the struggle for existence in the vegetable kingdom with respect to the phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance response; the biology of flowers and Darwin's plant-insect co-evolution hypothesis; climbing plants and the discovery of action potentials; the power of movement in plants and Darwin's conflict with the German plant physiologist Julius Sachs; and light perception by growing grass coleoptiles with reference to the phototropins. Finally, we describe the establishment of the scientific discipline of Plant Biology that took place in the USA 80 years ago, and define this area of research with respect to Darwin's work on botany and the physiology of higher plants.

  17. Minute observations and theoretical framework of Darwin's studies on climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jean-Marc; Deroin, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    The role of movement in plants was unrecognised for a long time, due to the relative slowness of such movements by comparison with those of active animals such as insects and vertebrates, and to the difficulty with which they are distinguished from mere growth processes. Given this, the pioneer work of Darwin (On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants1865) is a milestone in botany. It is always cited as the beginning of any rigorous analysis of plant movement. Such a successful approach results at once from Darwin's broad knowledge of natural history, his use of numerous direct observations and simple experiments, but also from his own talent, which compensated for technical gaps in several instances. His use of metaphorical descriptions was a response to the lack of a firm theoretical background. It facilitated a preliminary classification of plant movement and a comparison of observations. Perhaps his most fruitful metaphors were those drawn from economic concepts, such as division of labour. Darwin's legacy in plant physiology is impressive, as even the most recent biophysical interpretations of climbing plants (e.g. tendril perversion) take place inside the framework he constructed.

  18. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials.

  19. A review on the pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Datura stramonium L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhakta Prasad Gaire; Lalita Subedi

    2013-01-01

    Datura stramonium L.,a wild-growing plant of the Solanaceae family,is widely distributed and easily accessible.It contains a variety of toxic tropane alkaloids such as atropine,hyoscamine,and scopolamine.In Eastern medicine,especially in Ayurvedic medicine,D.stramonium has been used for curing various human ailments,including ulcers,wounds,inflammation,rheumatism and gout,sciatica,bruises and swellings,fever,asthma and bronchitis,and toothache.A few previous studies have reported on the pharmacological effects of D.stramonium; however,complete information regarding the pharmacology,toxicity,ethnobotany and phytochemistry remains unclear.Ethnomedicinally,the frequent recreational abuse of D.stramonium has resulted in toxic syndromes.D.stramonium,in the form of paste or solution to relieve the local pain,may not have a deleterious effect; however,oral and systemic administration may lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms.For this reason,it is very important for individuals,mainly young people,to be aware of the toxic nature and potential risks associated with the use of this plant.This comprehensive review of D.stramonium includes information on botany,phytochemistry,pharmacology,toxicology and ethnomedicinal uses.

  20. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  1. Ethiopian flora project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hedberg

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.

  2. Innovations from the "ivory tower": Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinhuis, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity), plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  3. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  4. Moringa oleiferra%辣木

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑学勤; 刘福利; 刘兴地; 郑楷; 李明芳; 杜春花; 王乐乐; 胡兰

    2014-01-01

    Moringa ole ife rra originated from India and Africa, the introduction of China's Yunnan, Hainan and Guangxi and other places in the 1970s as it is rich in calcium and plant protein, important minerals, amino acids, vitamins, etc., has aroused people's concern. This article from the origin of Moringa, botany, yield, cultivation techniques, and a variety of nutrients to their role to the human body is discussed, nutritional value, and the prevention of related diseases and the possible effect, etc.%辣木源自印度和非洲,20世纪70年代引入中国云南、海南和广西等地。由于它富含钙质、植物蛋白、重要矿物质、维生素和重要氨基酸等,而受到人们广泛关注。本文研究辣木的起源、植物学、产量、栽培技术、新种质和各种营养物质等,论述其对人体的作用、营养价值、相关疾病的防治及可能的功效等。

  5. Effects of Different Quantities of Tea-leaf Wormcast Substrate on the Growth of Tomato Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tomato seedling experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of substrate on the tomato seedling growth from five proportions of tea-leaf wormcast to peat, perlite and vermiculite, namely treatment I(1:5:2:2, treatment Ⅱ(2:4:2:2, treatment Ⅲ(3:3:2:2, treatment Ⅳ(4:2:2:2, treatment Ⅴ(6:0:2:2, respectively. The botany properties and characters of tomato seedling were observed to discuss the application effect of tea-leaf wormcast substrate. The results showed that in all treatments of the compound substrate of tea-leaf wormcast, except of treatment I, the tomato seedling indexes were superior to the control treatments(conventional seedling substrate in market, and the treatments Ⅳ had the best effect, followed by treatment Ⅴ. With the increasing proportion of tea-leaf wormcast, the plant height, stem diameter, SPAD value, and root morphology index of tomato seedlings firstly increased, and then decreased obviously. The substrate with the appropriate proportion of tea-leaf wormcast could obviously improve the quality of tomato seedlings, and the treatment Ⅳ was the best, which could be recommended for the actual production of tomato seedling.

  6. Project to promote the development of global environmental industry technology. Feasibility study of research exchanges; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In fiscal 1995, three teams were organized to study the following subjects: plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress; simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction; the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange. The team studying plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress visited the Department of Botany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Grunion University, Israel, the Department of Biochemistry and the Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arizona University, the U.S. to survey the present and future trend of the study and feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction visited Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electric Power Research Institute, and Battle Research Institute in the U.S. to survey feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange visited institutes in ASEAN countries to survey needs for the Virtual Center. 312 refs., 74 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  8. Cassia spectabilis (DC Irwin et Barn: A Promising Traditional Herb in Health Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Deivanai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cassia, comprising about 600 species widely distributed worldwide is well known for its diverse biological and pharmacological properties. Cassia spectabilis (sin Senna spectabilis (DC Irwin et Barn (Fabaceae is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. C. spectabilis has been commonly used in traditional medicine for many years. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally-important chemical constituents in C. spectabilis. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that C. spectabilis possesses significant biological activity, such as antibacterial, antibiofilm, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Beside this, toxicity studies of this plant have revealed no toxic effect on mice. In view of the immense medicinal importance of C. spectabilis, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on C. spectabilis’s botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and mechanism of actions, toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses.

  9. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Portilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F., is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8 isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA (Victor, NY, USA, and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC, were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107 of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105 were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8 are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2.

  10. Between brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Catherine Beverly Anne Rodin

    This thesis explores the fundamental experiential connections between visual art and science. The author links the academic text to multiple visual essays in an exploration of the holistic teaching and learning methodologies in visual art pedagogy. An examination of the educational philosophies of Dewey and Steiner supports the focus on experience as education. The philosophies of Eisner, Goudy, Dewey, London, Arnheim and Wallschlaeger provide a foundation for the overall structure of the separate concepts of visual art. The inclusion of visual essays and the hermeneutical mode in which they are sequenced follows the theories and examples of Sontag, Barthes, Berger, Silvers and Wilde. Creativity studies conducted by Csikszentmihalyi and the theories of invention in science investigated by Kuhn and Judson connect the creative process in visual art to science. Sheen, Feynman, D'Arcy Thompson and Capra offer a perspective on the learning, teaching and evaluation methodologies and philosophy in the area of science, particularly physics, botany and geometry. The examination of these theories as background, combined with narrative experiences and the exploratory visual component, draw out conclusions and implications about the untapped potential of visual art in education.

  11. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  12. Short Exogenous Peptides Regulate Expression of CLE, KNOX1, and GRF Family Genes in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoreyeva, L I; Dilovarova, T A; Ashapkin, V V; Martirosyan, Yu Ts; Khavinson, V Kh; Kharchenko, P N; Vanyushin, B F

    2017-04-01

    Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10(-7)-10(-9) M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature. The investigated peptides modulate in tobacco cells the expression of genes including genes responsible for tissue formation and cell differentiation. These peptides differently modulate expression of CLE family genes coding for known endogenous regulatory peptides, the KNOX1 genes (transcription factor genes) and GRF (growth regulatory factor) genes coding for respective DNA-binding proteins such as topoisomerases, nucleases, and others. Thus, at the level of transcription, plants have a system of short peptide regulation of formation of long-known peptide regulators of growth and development. The peptides studied here may be related to a new generation of plant growth regulators. They can be used in the experimental botany, plant molecular biology, biotechnology, and practical agronomy.

  13. 穆阳水蜜桃栽培管理技术%Cultivation and Management Techniques of Muyang Peach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼萍

    2012-01-01

      穆阳水蜜桃是闻名福建省内外的地方良种,在福安市已有80多年的栽培历史。文章从穆阳水蜜桃植物学特性,建园定植,整形修剪,施肥,病虫害防治等5方面介绍了穆阳水蜜桃栽培管理技术。%  Muyang Peach is a local cultivar of well-known outside the province and has 80 years of cultivation history in Fuan City. Muyang Peach is well popular in consumers for excellent quality and its cultivation area gradually expanded, so the demands of gener-al fruit farmers for cultivation management techniques of Muyang Peach are more urgent. This paper introduced the Muyang Peach botany, building gardens and planting, shaping and pruning, fertilization, and controls of pest and disease about cultivation manage-ment technology of Muyang Peach to provide as reference.

  14. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis of multigene barcoding chloroplast markers for species identification of botanical trace evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Corradini, Beatrice; Alù, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of nonhuman biological evidence both animal and botanical to find out the correct species of a sample comes as a great help to crime investigators. Particularly, forensic botany may be useful in many criminal and civil cases, e.g., for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.Despite many molecular techniques for species identification so far applied, botanical evidences are still overlooked by forensic scientists due to the lack of reproducible and efficient protocols standardized across a wide range of different organisms and among different laboratories.Recently, the term "DNA barcoding" has been coined to describe the use of a short gene sequence from a standardized region of the genome as a molecular tool for species identification. DNA barcodes have been successfully applied to a number of animal groups and introduced in forensic science with the application of the mitochondrial gene COI. Building on this success, ongoing investigations have searched for the best barcode to apply to all land plants. Here we describe the basic protocol based on amplification and sequence analysis of barcoding markers for land plants considering the latest developments of Plant DNA barcoding Project. The aim of this chapter is to provide forensic scientists an accurate and reliable tool for assigning unidentified botanical specimens to the correct species as powerful mainstay in investigations, increasing the contributions from nonhuman DNA to forensics.

  16. Methyl 3-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate: an ecstasy precursor seized in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael; Heagney, Aaron; Cordaro, Frank; Odgers, David; Tarrant, Gregory; Stewart, Samantha

    2007-07-01

    Five 44 gallon drums labeled as glycidyl methacrylate were seized by the Australian Customs Service and the Australian Federal Police at Port Botany, Sydney, Australia, in December 2004. Each drum contained a white, semisolid substance that was initially suspected to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis demonstrated that the material was neither glycidyl methacrylate nor MDMA. Because intelligence sources employed by federal agents indicated that this material was in some way connected to MDMA production, suspicion fell on the various MDMA precursor chemicals. Using a number of techniques including proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR), GC/MS, infrared spectroscopy, and total synthesis, the unknown substance was eventually identified as methyl 3-[3',4'(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate. The substance was also subjected to a published hydrolysis and decarboxylation procedure and gave a high yield of the MDMA precursor chemical, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone, thereby establishing this material as a "precursor to a precursor."

  17. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Köfalvi, Attila

    2016-10-04

    Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences. In the first part, we provide an in-depth review of the botany and taxonomy of Cannabis. We then overview the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids within the glandular trichomes with emphasis on the role of peculiar plastids in the production of the secreted material. We also compile the analytical methods used to determine the phytocannabinoid composition of glandular trichomes. In the second part, we revisit the psychobiology and molecular medicine of marijuana. We summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect to the modes of consumption, short-term effects, chronic health consequences and cannabis use disorder. Next, we overview the molecular targets of a dozen major and minor bioactive cannabinoids in the body. This helps us introduce the endocannabinoid system in an unprecedented detail: its up-to-date molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology and medical significance, and beyond. In conclusion, we offer an unbiased survey about cannabis to help better weigh its medical value versus the associated risks.

  18. Species identification of white false hellebore (Veratrum album subsp. oxysepalum) using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Kubota, Satoshi; Aragane, Masako; Ohta, Hikoto; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2017-03-20

    Food poisoning is frequently caused by the accidental ingestion of toxic plants that possess strong morphological similarities to edible plants. False helleborine (Veratrum album) is one of the most common plants involved in such accidents. In cases of poisoning by toxic plants, rapid and accurate identification, usually based on the morphological or chemical analysis of plant parts, is required for appropriate medical treatment or forensic investigation. However, morphological examinations require experience in systematic botany because the samples are fragmentary, and chemical analysis of natural compounds can be difficult. In this study, we developed a TaqMan real-time PCR method using trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF that could be carried out in 30-60min. The lower detection limit was less than 10pg of DNA and the primer sets were specific to V. album and Veratrum stamineum. Mixed samples, cooked samples, and simulated gastric contents were successfully identified, and a multiplex assay of two regions was also possible. These results indicate that the TaqMan real-time PCR analysis is a very effective method to detect small samples of V. album and V. stamineum accurately and rapidly in poisoning cases.

  19. The use of Leptodyctium riparium (Hedw.) Warnst in the estimation of minimum postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Massimo; Conforti, Federica; Aleffi, Michele; Caccianiga, Marco; Bacci, Mauro; Rossi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is still one of the most challenging issues in forensic investigations, especially in cases in which advanced transformative phenomena have taken place. The dating of skeletal remains is even more difficult and sometimes only a rough determination of the PMI is possible. Recent studies suggest that plant analysis can provide a reliable estimation for skeletal remains dating, when traditional techniques are not applicable. Forensic Botany is a relatively recent discipline that includes many subdisciplines such as Palynology, Anatomy, Dendrochronology, Limnology, Systematic, Ecology, and Molecular Biology. In a recent study, Cardoso et al. (Int J Legal Med 2010;124:451) used botanical evidence for the first time to establish the PMI of human skeletal remains found in a forested area of northern Portugal from the growth rate of mosses and shrub roots. The present paper deals with a case in which the study of the growth rate of the bryophyte Leptodyctium riparium (Hedw.) Warnst, was used in estimating the PMI of some human skeletal remains that were found in a wooded area near Perugia, in Central Italy.

  20. The utility of ground-penetrating radar and its time-dependence in the discovery of clandestine burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsarola, Dominic; Poppa, Pasquale; Amadasi, Alberto; Mazzarelli, Debora; Gibelli, Daniele; Zanotti, Emma; Porta, Davide; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the field of forensic investigation burial is a relatively common method of hiding a corpse. The location of clandestine graves is, however, a particularly difficult task in which multiple forensic disciplines such as anthropology, botany or archaeology can provide valuable assistance. The use of GPR (ground-penetrating radar) has recently been introduced as a method in the detection of these graves, but what is the true potential of this tool in an operative search scenario? In this study a total of 11 pig carcasses were buried in two wooded areas, each presenting a similar soil composition. The animals were subsequently exhumed at regular intervals, ranging from 2 to 111 weeks, using systematic GPR analysis of the burial sites and archaeological recovery of the subjects that were then autopsied. GPR proved to be useful in recognizing anomalies at the chosen depths of burial and appeared to be dependent on the state of decay of the samples, producing only slight anomalous readings in the presence of skeletal remains: at 92 weeks from burial the difference in signal was weak and at 111 weeks GPR survey offered no helpful information as to burial location. The experiment, in this particular context, determined the technique as being successful in the presence of recent burials, highlighting the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the operative search for buried human remains.

  1. A brief history of forensic odontology and disaster victim identification practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    2009-12-01

    Today we consider forensic odontology to be a specialised and reliable method of identification of the deceased, particularly in multiple fatality incidents. While this reputation has been gained from the application of forensic odontology in both single identification and disaster situations over a number of years, the professional nature of the discipline and its practices have evolved only recently. This paper summarises some of early uses of forensic odontology internationally and in Australia and discusses the development of both forensic odontology and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) practices in each of the states and territories of Australia. The earliest accounts of the use of forensic odontology in Australia date to the 1920's and 30's, and were characterised by inexperienced practitioners and little procedural formality. An organised and semi-formal service commenced in most states during the 1960's although its use by police forces was spasmodic. Today the service provided by qualified and experienced forensic odontologists is highly professional and regularly utilised by police and coronial services. The development of DVI Practices in Australia began following the crash of a Vickers Viscount aircraft into Botany Bay in 1961 and, as with practices internationally, have evolved into an equally professional and reliable specialist discipline of policing in which forensic odontology plays a significant part.

  2. La polémica en la investigación botánica del siglo XVI. Mattioli contra Lusitano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderas, José María

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates in Renaissance played a critical role in developing Botany, Philosophy, Medicine, and Theology. Particularly angry disputes arose from different interpretations of ancient texts, say, Dioscoride's Materia Medica. In one of the most infamous two-sections booklet Mattioli replics «insane discourses et calumnies» by Lusitanus. I deal with the first one, the Apologia. which concerns to false identifications of plants and some errors in Mattioli translation, according to Lusitanus. What was behind the quarrel?

    Las controversias que reaparecen con el movimiento humanista adquieren , desde las postrimerías del siglo XV, especial encono. Por lo que atañe a la botánica. revisten suma importancia las relativas a la interpretación de Dioscórides y Plinio. Nos ocupamos aquí de la disputa mantenida por Mattioli y Lusitano a propósito de la correcta identificación de determinadas plantas. En particular de la Apología del sienes contra supuestas calumnias de Lusitano. La diatriba entera supone una revisión crítica de los fundamentos metodológicos de la botánica del siglo XVI.

  3. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Anna; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases. Some metabolites derived from saffron stigmas exert numerous therapeutic effects due to hypolipidemic, antitussive, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities and many others. Water and ethanol extracts of Crocus sativus L. are cardioprotective and counteract neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Botany, worldwide spreading of cultivars, biochemical pathways, active constituents and chemical detection methods are reviewed. Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed. To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.

  4. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Wei Chiang Chan; Siu Kuin Wong

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yel ow or white with a yel ow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest global y. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-al ergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.

  5. Cumulative effect of gibberellic acid and phosphorus on crop productivity, biochemical activities and trigonelline production in Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad Dar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is an antidiabetic plant. Its bioactive compound, trigonelline, is known to counter diabetes through insulin secretion, modulation of β cell regeneration and quick activity of glucose metabolism related enzymes. A pot experiment was conducted in the natural conditions of net house of the Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP, India, to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of GA3 (0, 10−7 M, 10−6 M and 10−5 M, alone and in combination with phosphorus (40 kg P ha−1, on growth, biochemical and yield attributes of fenugreek. Compared to control, the combination of GA3 and phosphorus (P40 + 10−6 M GA3 significantly increased the activities of nitrate reductase (30.8% and carbonic anhydrase (30.7% enzymes; it also enhanced the seed yield (140.6% and the content of total chlorophyll (28.5% and carotenoids (26%. There was also significant increase (19.51% in the content of seed trigonelline.

  6. Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As a field of study, biogeography may be considered a bricolage - it has been constructed from many different facets from an array of research disciplines including biology, botany, zoology, geography, and geology. Biogeography focuses on the study of the constantly changing ranges of plants and animals, over multitude of space and time scales. It also includes the study of the structure and dynamics of biotic communities and ecosystems as they relate to both natural and anthropogenic processes. As it exists today, biogeography is an interdisciplinary research area founded in both the biological and Earth sciences. From a purely biological perspective, biogeography may be perceived as one of two types of studies: 1. biotic distributions and broad scales, and interpretations of the evolutionary and dispersal history of a single taxon or a few taxa; or 2. biotic distributions at local-to-regional scales, and interpretations of these distributions in relation to contemporary environments and rates of immigration or extinction. The first type of study is what is most usually associated with the term "biogeography" as disciplinary research field. It is conventionally termed "classical biogeography" because it reflects the continuity of research foci on which biogeography was founded in the nineteenth-century. The second type of biogeographical study has more modern day roots and is termed "geographical ecology" to reflect the theoretical predilections of ecologists and population biologists. Geographical ecology for all intents has become merged with ecology and exists as a sub discipline within this larger field of study.

  7. Astronomy and Geology Vocabulary, I.e. "NASA Words" in Native American Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy [2014].

  8. 普及生物多样性信息学技术--澳大利亚植物标本数字图书馆%Popularity of Biodiversity Informatics Technology-Australia's Virtual Herbarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志敏

    2013-01-01

    Australia's Virtual Herbarium is a free digital library which provides local related botany herbarium digital information resources, including digitized specimen, photographs, publications, etc., covering a wide range with complete functions of browsing and searching. This article comprehensively analyses its resource organization, technical features, interface design, service characteristics and other aspects.%澳大利亚数字植物标本馆(Australia's Virtual Herbarium)是一个免费向公众提供澳大利亚植物标本及相关植物学信息资源的数字图书馆。其资源类型包括数字化标本、图片、出版物等,涵盖范围广泛,浏览、检索功能齐全。文章重点从资源组织、技术特征、界面设计、服务特点等方面进行了综合性的评析。

  9. Occurrence and clinical profile of the sensitization to Chenopodium in the province of Córdoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F; Galán, C; Miguel, R; Infante, F; Arenas, A; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1990-01-01

    The sensitization to pollen from the Amarantaceae and Chenopodiaceae families is responsible for some pollinoses according to various authors. Following an aeropalynological carried out by the Botany Division of our University, we investigated the sensitization to Chenopodium in our pollinic patients in order to establish their clinical patterns. We evaluated 14 variables in Chenopodium-sensitive (CHE +) and nonsensitive (CHE -) patients; the results were analysed by using a computerized statistical programme. Of the 1,000 records reviewed, 38% corresponded to pollinic patients, of whom 8.42% were sensitive to pollen from this family. We found no significant differences between the two groups in the parameters representative of atopic features (e.g. eosinophilia, IgE). However, marked differences were indeed found in the age of appearance of symptoms, frequency of clinical pictures, origin of the patients, duration of the symptoms and evolution upon immunotherapeutic treatment not involving this antigen. These findings endow the sensitization to Chenopodium with special features which should be taken into account in choosing a specific treatment.

  10. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ompal; Khanam, Zakia; Misra, Neelam; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the "star among medicinal species." Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development.

  11. Computer vision cracks the leaf code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies.

  12. 基于典型特征和图片识别的自主可持续性植物分类学习模式%The independent and sustainable study pattern of plant taxonomy based on representative characteristics and picture cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发军; 陈文年; 付伟丽

    2015-01-01

    植物分类学习是生物相关专业的基础实践环节,对学生科学素养和实践能力的培养至关重要。在分析植物实习现状和主要问题的基础上,认为可利用资源缺乏和学习方式局限是关键制约因素。提出了建立有针对性的电子资源学习平台,选择植物典型特征并通过图片辨识鉴定活体植物种类,从而使学生能够自主地、可持续地进行植物分类学习,提高学习效率和教学质量。%Studying of plant classification is basic and practical part of some specialty on biology , it is very important for improving sci-entific quality and practice capacity .Lack of available resource and limit of study mode were considered to be main restrictive factors , based on the analysis of botany practice status and problems .The students can independently and continually study plant taxonomy by filtrating representative characteristics and identify pictures with the help of a special electronic tool .This study pattern will be good for study efficiency and teaching quality .

  13. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Shaheen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%, hair growth (11%, bad breath (12%, facial spots (9%, allergy, (9%, fairness (8%, wrinkles (8%, eye and lip care (9%. Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%, Leaves (25.2%, seeds (13.4% and roots (8.9%. Women of older (>30 years age group showed greater (67% response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area.

  14. 药用植物与中国古代民生民俗%Medicinal Plants and People's Livelihood together with Folklore of Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游元元; 李羿; 钟世红; 李晨

    2011-01-01

    中国人的日常生活及传统文化与药用植物密切相关.对当前应试教育框架下缺乏文史知识营养的学生,在药用植物学课堂教学中着意掺入与日常生活相关的民生民俗、诗词歌赋及文史掌故等内容,不但能活跃课堂气氛、增强师生互动、增加记忆兴奋点,还能在潜移默化中提升学生人文素养,丰富精神世界.%Chinese daily life and traditional culture are closely relevant to medicinal plants. The people's livelihood, folklore, archaic poetry, idiom and literary quotation related to basic necessities of lives are affiliated with teaching process of Pharmaceutical Botany, which would make the class lively and interesting, enhance the teacher-student interaction and increase memory. The teaching method also promotes the students' humanity accomplishment in subtle influence that is lack of literature and history knowledge in exam-oriented education system.

  15. [The early years of anatomy and obstetrics at the Göttingen University, 1734-1760].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Irén

    2014-03-16

    In the Age of Enlightenment medical education was based on new fundamentals. According to experts at that time, a medical faculty had to have five branches: anatomy, botany, chemistry, practical and theoretical medicine. Perhaps Göttingen was the most successful university foundation at that time, because a generous financial support was provided, outstanding professors were invited and an education without censorship was warranted. The spirit of Enlightenment affected both the structure and the standards of education of the facultas medicinae. The word-wide reputation of this faculty was earned by Albrecht von Haller. Haller conceived both the still highly regarded botanical garden and the anatomical theatre, which was the first of its kind in the German speaking area. Furthermore, he founded one of the first clinical obstetrics departments in the world. Students gained theoretical knowledge, were trained practically and had the opportunity to make scientific observations and medical experiments. This paper describes the founding era of the medical faculty of University of Göttingen from a historical-cultural view of point, based on contemporary documents from Germany and Hungary.

  16. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  17. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): Field mortality and fungal persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai V; Porcel, Mario; Rämert, Birgitta

    2016-12-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards.

  18. Perceptions of strengths and deficiencies: Disconnects between graduate students and prospective employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, M.D.; Deangelis, P.; Havens, K.; Holsinger, K.; Kennedy, K.; Kramer, A.T.; Muir, R.; Olwell, P.; Schierenbeck, K.; Stritch, L.; Zorn-Arnold, B.

    2011-01-01

    The US Botanical Capacity Assessment Project (BCAP) was initiated as a first step to gauge the nation's collective ability to meet the environmental challenges of the 21st century. The project, in which the authors of this article are involved, specifically aimed to identify multisector contributions to and gaps in botanical capacity in order to develop growth opportunities to address research and management problems. One of the primary gaps revealed by the BCAP surveys was that the skills graduate students identified as their greatest strengths closely matched the areas future employers (government and private sectors) identified as needing greatest improvement. Although our survey focused on only one discipline (botany), we suspect that the results are applicable throughout the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. We suggest that it is critical for university faculty and administrators to team with professionals from government, nonprofit, and for-profit organizations to identify critical and desired knowledge and skill sets and implement the necessary curriculum changes to provide graduates with the tools they need. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Cichorium intybus: A concise report on its ethnomedicinal, botanical, and phytopharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichorium intybus L. (chicory is a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Chicory is gaining interests because of its culinary features, nutritional values and medicinal characteristics. C. intybus has been implemented in folk medicine from North Africa to South Asia for several 100 years. In Indian medicine, it has been used to treat fever, diarrhea, spleen enlargement, jaundice, liver enlargement, gout, and rheumatism. In China, it is valued for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. In Germany, chicory has been used as a folk medicine for everyday ailments. Thus, C. intybus is a plant of great economic potential due to high concentrations of fructooligosacharide, known as inulin, in its roots, used as a replacement ingredient for sugar and fat. The other various phytoconstituents reported in chicory are sucrose, cellulose, proteins, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins, tannins, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, fatty acids, pectin, cholins, benzo-isochromenes, alkaloids, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals. The therapeutic investigations reveal that C. intybus is useful for maintaining normal health and has nematicidal, antihepatotoxic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, antiallergic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, calcium homeostater, bulking agent, immunostimulatory, prebiotic, protective against pancreatitis, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects. This review encompasses botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytoconstituents, pharmacological uses, and toxicity studies of C. intybus L.

  20. Understanding the Importance of Urban Amenities: A Case Study from Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with many Pacific Rim cities in Australia and North America, Auckland, New Zealand has enacted an urban growth management strategy premised on two concepts: “liveability” and a “quality compact city”. The effective implementation of this strategy will, in part, require higher density housing typologies to be developed within the existing suburban fabric. The urban amenities in a neighbourhood play an important role in providing a sense of liveability for residents. This paper examines these issues by evaluating and reporting on key outcomes from 57 face-to-face qualitative interviews with residents who currently live in medium density housing in four Auckland suburbs; Takapuna, Kingsland, Botany Downs, and Te Atatu Peninsula. Findings consider the trade-offs residents make when choosing to live in medium density housing typologies, how they value the urban amenities in their neighbourhood and the role they think these amenities play in their location satisfaction. Conclusions are drawn around how the resident-derived information may inform the market on the supply side of housing, and comment is made about how these preferences may, or may not, respond to the objectives of the underlying urban management strategies involved.

  1. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  2. Effects of different doses of low power continuous wave he-ne laser radiation on some seed thermodynamic and germination parameters, and potential enzymes involved in seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Ali, Qasim; Ashraf, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Jamil, Yasir; Raza Ahmad, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He-Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (ΔH, (ΔS)(e), (ΔS)(c), (ΔS)(e) /Δt and (ΔS)(c) /Δt) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He-Ne laser. The He-Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity.

  3. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  4. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  5. 第一对真叶损伤对豇豆后期生长发育的影响%Effect of Damage of the First Pair of True Leaves on Growth and Development at Late Stage in Cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢娟; 罗超; 梁成亮; 银荔; 夏国瓒; 肖杰

    2014-01-01

    After full extension of the first pair of true leaves,0,1/2,1,2 ×1/2,1 +1/2,2 pieces of them was cut to inves-tigate the effect of damage of the first pair of true leaves on growth and development at late stage of cowpea. The results showed that the growth stages,botany characters,pod properties and total yield of cowpea plant were affected,and the influ-ence to cowpea gradually became larger with the increase of damage degree. The test showed that the first pair of true leav-es play a very important role in growth and development of cowpea.%在豇豆第一对真叶充分平展后,分别剪去植株的1/2片、1片、2×1/2片、1+1/2片、2片真叶,结果显示,豇豆植株的生育期、植物学性状、豆荚性状以及总产量都将受到影响,并且随着损伤程度的加大,影响逐渐变大。试验表明,第一对真叶在豇豆生长发育过程中有很重要的作用。

  6. Climatic Influences on Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Features of Great Basin Conifers at a New Mountain Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ziaco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A network of mountain observing stations has been installed in the Great Basin of North America. NevCAN (Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network, which spans a latitudinal range of 2.5° and two elevation ranges of about 2000 m each, enabled us to investigate tree growth in relation to climate. Methods: We analyzed wood anatomy and tree-ring characteristics of four conifer species in response to different levels of water availability by comparing a low- and a high-elevation population. Chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths, as well as cellular parameters, were developed from the year 2000 to 2012. Results: At the southern (drier and warmer sites, Pinus monophylla had smaller cell lumen, tracheid diameter, and cell wall thickness. Pinus monophylla and P. flexilis showed bigger cellular elements at the higher elevations, whereas the opposite pattern was found in Picea engelmannii and Pinus longaeva. When all species and sites were pooled together, stem diameter was positively related with earlywood anatomical parameters. Discussion: We have provided a glimpse of the applications that NevCAN, as a new scientific tool, could allow in the general field of botany. In particular, we were able to investigate how differences in water stress related to elevation lead to changes in xylem anatomy.

  7. Application of nuclear energy to agriculture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moh, C.C.

    1976-06-30

    The following research projects in radiation botany were conducted: mutation breeding of beans and cassava; biological response of coffee plants; and radiosensitivity of tropical plants. In the field of entomology experiments were conducted on radiosterilization of the Mediterranean fruit fly, the coffee leaf miner, the torsalo and the meliaceous shootborer. The following research projects in plant physiology were conducted: physiology of cassava plants; effects of temperature on germination of cacao seeds; physiology of cacao seeds; sulfur metabolism using /sup 35/S; diseases and parasites of banana fruits; the mechanism controlling dwarfism in a radioinduced single gene bean mutant; and the use of wetting agents in foliar nutrition. The following research projects in soil chemistry were conducted: acidity and cation movement in tropical soils; phosphate in soils of the humid tropics; movement, adsorption and desorption of sulfates; free iron and aluminium oxides in tropical soils; mineralization of organic nitrogen in soils on volcanic materials; soil chemical properties of recent volcanic ash; and spatial distribution of the absorbing roots in coffee. Discussions are presented of installation of radiation facilities and collection of rainfall for fallout analysis. (HLW)

  8. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  9. Morphological Research on Indigenous Sambucus Species Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea TAMAS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen grains have a definite shape, size, colour, structure for each species, genus and family and these characters are useful for systematical botany. The pollen has nutritive properties due to its content: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones and minerals. In the Romanian flora vegetate three species of Sambucus, but only S. nigra L. (elder or black elder supplies a vegetal medical product, Sambuci flos or elder flowers, whereas the others species S. ebulus L. (dwarf elder and S. racemosa L. (mountain elder or red elder are considered adulterations. The pollen of Sambucus species were already studied using optical microscopy (Tarnavschi et al., but the images are in one single layout, therefore the structure details cannot be easily notice. In this context the pollen grains of the three species already mentioned above were studied by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results demonstrated that this pollen have a small-middle size, oblat-sphaeroidal-prolat shape, threecolpat and the exine adornments are of reticulate type, haemitectate with sticks in the meshs of polygonale net. The flavonoids content is lower than in others species (0.146-0.564 %. The SEM analyse of Sambucus pollen allow a reliable identification of the genus but less for the species.

  10. [Xavier Bichat's Medical Thought in the Historical Context of French Vitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suyoung

    2012-04-30

    The French vitalism is different from vitalism in general. It is a position of some physiologists who worked from the end of the 18th century to the early days of the 19th century, defending the peculiarity of life phenomena in contrast to the Cartesian theory of the animal-machine. Its main representatives are Paul-Joseph Barthez and Theophile de Bordeu, who belonged to the vitalist school of Montpellier. They argue, in contrast to mechanism, that life involves a special principle and cannot be explained in terms of physical and chemical properties alone. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802), inheriting this position, endeavored to establish physiology as a science which cannot be reduced to the physical sciences. He was also the first to introduce the notion of tissues as distinct entities. The aim of his concept of physiology is to explain the whole of life phenomena through the ultimate properties of tissues, that is, through sensibility and contractility. After Bichat, Francois Magendie inherited his experimental concepts, but critiqued his vitalism. Claude Bernard, known as the founder of experimental physiology, was influenced considerably by Bichat's idea of physiology. Through the notion of tissues, he unites zoology, botany and medicine in the domain of general physiology. Additionally, his concept of "milieu interieur" results from his study of Bichat's physiology, particularly from the concept of the "natural type".

  11. Analysis of serum specific IgE in aeroallergen and food allergen in patients with allergic skin diseases%过敏性皮肤病患者血清食入性和吸入性过敏原特异性IgE结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓蕾; 孙青苗; 贾军; 蔡林

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of aeroallergen and food allergen IgE in the pathogenesis of allergen diseases and the relationship between environments, diet, exposed factors and prevalence rate in allergic skin diseases. Methods: Fooke allergen specific IgE(sIgE) antibody qualitative detection kit was used to detect 142 allergen cases, including artemisia, mixture of epithelia, mixed molds, mixed botany, mixed pollens, willow, poplar, egg, milk, shrimp, mutton, beef, fish, crab, staple foods, etc. Results: Mixed molds and mixed botany were the most common allergens in the allergy dermatitis group (positive rate 60%), eczema group (43%), urticaria group (46%), and allergic purpuria group (71% ). The milk revealed that it was the most common allergen in the allerge dermatitis group and eczema group (42% and 56% , respectively). While seafood was the most common allergen in the urticaria group (34% ). There was no significant relationship between the exposure and prevalence rate. Conclusion: The detection of allergen IgE provides valuable basis for analysis of the cause in allergic disease.%目的:了解吸入性和食入性过敏原在过敏性皮肤病发病中的作用,以及环境、饮食暴露因素与患病之间的相关性.方法:采用福克过敏原特异性IgE抗体定量检测试剂盒(免疫捕获法)检测142例过敏性皮肤病患者的血清吸入性过敏原特异性IgE(包括尘螨、艾蒿、上皮组合、霉菌组合、墙草组合、花粉组合、柳树、杨树8种)和食入性过敏原特异性IgE(包括鸡蛋、牛奶、虾、羊肉、牛肉、鲤鱼、螃蟹、小麦面粉8种),并将结果以SPSS统计软件进行分析和检验.结果:吸入物以霉菌组合的阳性率高,其中过敏性皮炎组60%,湿疹组43%,荨麻疹组46%,过敏性紫癜组71%.食入物以牛奶的阳性率高,过敏性皮炎组和湿疹组的阳性率分别为42%和56%,荨麻疹组以海鲜过敏阳性率较高,为34%.暴露因素和疾病无

  12. Assessment of the applicability of a "toolbox" designed for microbially assisted phytoremediation: the case study at Ingurtosu mining site (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Alisi, Chiara; Pinto, Valentina; Montereali, Maria Rita; Marconi, Paola; Tasso, Flavia; Turnau, Katarzyna; De Giudici, Giovanni; Goralska, Katarzyna; Bevilacqua, Marta; Marini, Federico; Cremisini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the fieldwork at the Italian test site of the abandoned mine of sphalerite and galena in Ingurtosu (Sardinia), with the aim to assess the applicability of a "toolbox" to establish the optimized techniques for remediation of soils contaminated by mining activities. A preliminary characterization-including (hydro)geochemistry, heavy metal concentration and their mobility in soil, bioprospecting for microbiology and botany-provided a data set for the development of a toolbox to deliver a microbially assisted phytoremediation process. Euphorbia pithyusa was selected as an endemic pioneer plant to be associated with a bacterial consortium, established with ten selected native strains, including metal-tolerant bacteria and producers of plant growth factors. The toolbox was firstly assessed in a greenhouse pot experiment. A positive effect of bacterial inoculum on E. pithyusa germination and total plant survival was observed. E. pithyusa showed to be a well-performing metallophyte species, and only inoculated soil retained a microbial activity with a high functional diversity, expanding metabolic affinity also towards root exudates. These results supported the decision to proceed with a field trial, investigating different treatments used singly or in combination: bioaugmentation with bacterial consortia, mycorrhizal fungi and a commercial mineral amendment. Microbial activity in soil, plant physiological parameters and heavy metal content in plants and in soil were monitored. Five months after the beginning, an early assessment of the toolbox under field conditions was carried out. Despite the cold season (October-March), results suggested the following: (1) the field setup as well as the experimental design proved to be effective; (2) plant survival was satisfactory; (3) soil quality was increased and bioaugmentation improved microbial activity, expanding the metabolic competences towards plant interaction (root exudates); and (4) multivariate

  13. Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Gemeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009, a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008, monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013 and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040, at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like

  14. [J.E. GILIBERT'S DIDACTIC VIEWS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grębecka, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    When J.E. Gilibert was nominated to head the Chair of Natural History in Vilnius, his task was to introduce education with European standards. He was aware of the potential of his students and the level of their secondary school education. At that time (1781), no textbooks were available in Poland presenting knowledge of botany; the first was written in 1785. Teachers were using assorted, sometimes hardly practical materials, such as excerpts from Roman authors. Gilibert was familiar with this situation from his experience in Grodno, where he had taught for 6 years. At best, learners, i.e. prospective students, were using guidebooks for farmers by Ch. Kluk. This state of affairs was essentially in accordance with original plans of the National Educational Committee, which intended a very practical course of Natural History. The Chair in Vilnius was founded to implement university level education; and Gilibert dedicated a lot of time to didactic recommendations which would help students to develop the competence of botanists capable of studying European literature and communicating with international scientists. This presentation focuses on two important documents. The first one, Prospectus praelectionum cursus Historiae Naturalis. Ad usum Alumnorum Alma uniwersitatis Vilnensis, containing the curriculum of Natural History in Vilnius, will be analyzed from the point of view of its philosophical, epistemic and practical significance. The other one, Exercitium botanicum in schola principe universitatis Vilnensis habendum die mensie Julii anno 1782 seu enumaratio metodica plantarum, will be of interest from the point of view of various methodical comments regarding other works by Gilibert.

  15. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Distributional records of Antarctic fungi based on strains preserved in the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE Mycological Section associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selbmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information regarding fungal strains collected during several Antarctic expeditions: the Italian National Antarctic Research program (PNRA expeditions “X” (1994/1995, “XII” (1996/1997, “XVII” (2001/2002, “XIX” (2003/2004, “XXVI” (2010/2011, the Czech “IPY Expedition” (2007–2009 and a number of strains donated by E. Imre Friedmann (Florida State University in 2001, isolated from samples collected during the U.S.A. Antarctic Expeditions of 1980-1982. Samples, consisting of colonized rocks, mosses, lichens, sediments and soils, were collected in Southern and Northern Victoria Land of the continental Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 259 different strains were isolated, belonging to 32 genera and 38 species, out of which 12 represented new taxa. These strains are preserved in the Antarctic section of the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE, which represents one of the collections associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, Italy, located at the Laboratory of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB, Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy. The CCFEE hosts a total of 486 Antarctic fungal strains from worldwide extreme environments. Distributional records are reported here for 259 of these strains. The holotypes of the 12 new species included in this dataset are maintained at CCFEE and in other international collections: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, Netherlands; DBVPG, Industrial Yeasts Collection (University of Perugia, Italy; DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Brunswick, Germany; IMI, International Mycological Institute (London, U.K..

  17. Trans-disciplinary research in synthesis of grass pollen aerobiology and its importance for respiratory health in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Beggs, Paul J; Medek, Danielle E; Newnham, Rewi M; Erbas, Bircan; Thibaudon, Michel; Katelaris, Connstance H; Haberle, Simon G; Newbigin, Edward J; Huete, Alfredo R

    2015-11-15

    Grass pollen is a major trigger for allergic rhinitis and asthma, yet little is known about the timing and levels of human exposure to airborne grass pollen across Australasian urban environments. The relationships between environmental aeroallergen exposure and allergic respiratory disease bridge the fields of ecology, aerobiology, geospatial science and public health. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group comprised of experts in botany, palynology, biogeography, climate change science, plant genetics, biostatistics, ecology, pollen allergy, public and environmental health, and medicine, was established to systematically source, collate and analyse atmospheric pollen concentration data from 11 Australian and six New Zealand sites. Following two week-long workshops, post-workshop evaluations were conducted to reflect upon the utility of this analysis and synthesis approach to address complex multidisciplinary questions. This Working Group described i) a biogeographically dependent variation in airborne pollen diversity, ii) a latitudinal gradient in the timing, duration and number of peaks of the grass pollen season, and iii) the emergence of new methodologies based on trans-disciplinary synthesis of aerobiology and remote sensing data. Challenges included resolving methodological variations between pollen monitoring sites and temporal variations in pollen datasets. Other challenges included "marrying" ecosystem and health sciences and reconciling divergent expert opinion. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group facilitated knowledge transfer between diverse scientific disciplines, mentored students and early career scientists, and provided an uninterrupted collaborative opportunity to focus on a unifying problem globally. The Working Group provided a platform to optimise the value of large existing ecological datasets that have importance for human respiratory health and ecosystems research. Compilation of current knowledge of Australasian pollen aerobiology

  18. Cross-species functionality of pararetroviral elements driving ribosome shunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M Pooggin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (sORFs and a stable stem-loop structure. The shunt requires translation of a 5'-proximal sORF terminating near the stem. In CaMV, mutations knocking out this sORF nearly abolish shunting and virus viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that two distant regions of the CaMV leader that form a minimal shunt configuration comprising the sORF, a bottom part of the stem, and a shunt landing sequence can be replaced by heterologous sequences that form a structurally similar configuration in RTBV without any dramatic effect on shunt-mediated translation and CaMV infectivity. The CaMV-RTBV chimeric leader sequence was largely stable over five viral passages in turnip plants: a few alterations that did eventually occur in the virus progenies are indicative of fine tuning of the chimeric sequence during adaptation to a new host. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate cross-species functionality of pararetroviral cis-elements driving ribosome shunting and evolutionary conservation of the shunt mechanism. We are grateful to Matthias Müller and Sandra Pauli for technical assistance. This work was initiated at Friedrich Miescher Institute (Basel, Switzerland. We thank Prof. Thomas Boller for hosting the group at the Institute of Botany.

  19. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  20. Translation into Chinese of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Li-Bing Zhang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  1. Translation into Turkish of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Ali A. Dönmez, Yusuf Menemen and Zübeyde Uğurlu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  2. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  3. Translation into Spanish of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Carmen Ulloa Ulloa, Lourdes Rico Arce, and Renée H. Fortunato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  4. Translation into Russian of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?” Translated by Irina V. Belyaeva and Maria S. Vorontsova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  5. Translation into Arabic of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Ahmed M. Abdel-Azeem and Gihan S. Soliman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  6. Translation into Portuguese of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Jefferson Prado, Regina Y. Hirai, and Cíntia Kameyama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  7. Evaluation, Innovation and Utilization of Piper Wild Varieties'Luzi' (Piper betle L.)%胡椒属野生近缘种'芦子'鉴定评价及创新利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈绍斌; 娄予强; 张林辉; 段春芳; 姜太玲; 易怀锋; 熊贤坤; 张超; 刘光华

    2016-01-01

    以大叶种胡椒(Type Lampong)为对照,对胡椒属野生近缘种质资源'芦子'(Piper betle L.)的植物学性状、 农艺性状及抗逆性状(抗寒、 抗病)等主要性状进行鉴定评价.结果表明:野生近缘种质'芦子'长势强,冠幅大,果穗长,座果率高,抗寒、 抗病能力较强,农艺性状及抗性明显优异大叶种胡椒;通过对'芦子'种质资源的无性繁殖品种改良技术进行探究,说明'芦子'野生近缘种质资源是胡椒品种改良较好的中间材料,将为胡椒种质资源创新利用及胡椒产业发展奠定良好的基因基础.%Compared with P. nigrum " Lampong Type" (CK), botany characteristics, agronomic characteristics and resistance characteristics (such as cold resistance and disease resistance)of "Luzi"(Piper betle L.) was evaluated in this paper. The result showed that the agronomic and resistance characteristics of 'Luzi', with strong growth, big crown width, long ear, high fruit setting ratio, high cold and disease resistance, was better than that of P. nigrum "Lampong Type" . According the research of improvement technologies of cultivars through asexual propagating can be used as an good intermediate material for variety improvement of pepper, which provide genetic basis for further innovation of pepper germplasm resources and improvement of pepper industry.

  8. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaf epidermis of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae Microscopia eletrônica de varredura da epiderme foliar de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria Maria Saiter Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on leaf micromorphology of 13 species of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a neotropical genus with numerous endemic species. Greatest species richness is found in Central and Southern Brazil, with 41 of the 46 species described. Species were collected in the field at the localities: Itatiaia National Park and Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro State; Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo state; Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo State and Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais State. Dried plant material came from the herbarium at the São Paulo Botany Institute. The presence of prickles, silica bodies and macro hairs may be especially useful in delimiting species.São apresentados dados relativos à micromorfologia foliar de 13 espécies de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae:Bambusoideae, um gênero neotropical, com numerosas espécies endêmicas, que tem sua maior diversidade nas regiões central e sul do Brasil, onde ocorrem 41 das 46 espécies descritas. O material coletado foi obtido nas seguintes localidades: Parque Nacional do Itatiaia e Parque Nacional da Tijuca (RJ; Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (SP; Propriedade dos Irmãos Martinelli, Vargem Alta, Santa Teresa (ES e Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (MG. As espécies herborizadas são provenientes do herbário do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo (SP. Atenção especial é dada à presença de cerdas, corpúsculos silicosos e macropêlos, características que podem ser úteis na delimitação das espécies.

  10. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of bioactivities of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver nanoparticles from an early tracheophyte, Pteris tripartita Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran XR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xavierravi Baskaran,1 Antony Varuvel Geo Vigila,2 Thangaraj Parimelazhagan,3 Doulathabad Muralidhara-Rao,4 Shouzhou Zhang1 1Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Zoology, St Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, 3Department of Botany, Bioprospecting Laboratory, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 4Department of Biotechnology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: The objective of the study was to characterize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs and their bioactivities in early tracheophytes (Pteridophyta. Aqueous leaf extract of a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw., was used for one-step green synthesis of Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphologically, the Ag-NPs showed hexagonal, spherical, and rod-shaped structures. Size distributions of Ag-NPs, calculated using Scherrer’s formula, showed an average size of 32 nm. Ag-NPs were studied for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Ag-NPs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw volume tests performed in female Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, Ag-NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against 12 different microorganisms in three different assays (disk diffusion, time course growth, and minimum inhibitory concentration. This study reports that colloidal Ag-NPs can be synthesized by simple, nonhazardous methods, and that biosynthesized Ag-NPs have significant therapeutic properties.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Pteris tripartita, FTIR, HRTEM, antioxidant, antimicrobial

  12. 浅谈东北地区景观照明设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张典; 易维

    2014-01-01

    Residential landscape lighting aims to improve the distinguish of objects, improve the night of the safety, ensure travel residents evening the normal development of activities, build atmosphere. Lighting not only increases the security people, stil can establish and maintain an appropriate aesthetics, enhance the beauty and comfort. Science, reasonable decorate the landscape lighting guaranteeing people's life and property safety, so the landscape lighting should have a certain intensity of il umination. We know that at night where a have enough il uminance, residents can around in time to see what is happening and can quickly take protective measures, and help contain crime wave, also at empts to commit crime and escape criminals produced a deter ent. At the same time, stil can guide people in the darknes of the night along the path back to safety quiet warm house. In addition the landscape lighting as landscape design part of it must have its natural aesthetic value, landscape design is an aesthetic, botany, architecture with combination of comprehensive design etc. At night, the design theme with lamplight outstanding, and requirement reflects its integrity, administrative levels feels, now create a kind of warmth, leisure, quiet and moving ef ect.%居住区园林景观照明的目的是增强对物体的辨别性,提高夜间出行的安全度,保证居民晚间活动的正常开展,营造环境氛围。照明不仅增加人们的安全感,还可以确立和维持一种适宜的美学,增强美感和舒适感。

  13. Identification of poisonous plants by DNA barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Ilaria; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Galimberti, Andrea; Galasso, Gabriele; Banfi, Enrico; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2010-11-01

    The plant exposures are one of the most frequent poisonings reported to poison control centres. The diagnosis of intoxicated patients is usually based on the morphological analysis of ingested plant portions; this procedure requires experience in systematic botany, because the plant identification is based on few evident traits. The objective of this research is to test DNA barcoding approach as a new universal tool to identify toxic plants univocally and rapidly. Five DNA barcode regions were evaluated: three cpDNA sequences (trnH-psbA, rpoB and matK) and two nuclear regions (At103 and sqd1). The performance of these markers was evaluated in three plant groups: (1) a large collection of angiosperms containing different toxic substances, (2) congeneric species showing different degrees of toxicity and (3) congeneric edible and poisonous plants. Based on assessments of PCR, sequence quality and resolution power in species discrimination, we recommend the combination of plastidial and nuclear markers to identify toxic plants. Concerning plastidial markers, matK and trnH-psbA showed consistent genetic variability. However, in agreement with CBOL Plant Working Group, we selected matK as the best marker, because trnH-psbA showed some problems in sequences sizes and alignments. As a final and relevant observation, we also propose the combination of matK with a nuclear marker such as At103 to distinguish toxic hybrids form parental species. In conclusion, our data support the claim that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for poisonous plant identifications.

  14. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics.

  15. Consensus Coding as a Tool in Visual Appearance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Simmons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in visual appearance research is how to quantitatively characterise the visual appearance of a region of an image which is categorised by human observers in the same way. An example of this is scarring in medical images (Ayoub et al, 2010, The Cleft-Palate Craniofacial Journal, in press. We have argued that “scarriness” is itself a visual appearance descriptor which summarises the distinctive combination of colour, texture and shape information which allows us to distinguish scarred from non-scarred tissue (Simmons et al, ECVP 2009. Other potential descriptors for other image classes would be “metallic”, “natural”, or “liquid”. Having developed an automatic algorithm to locate scars in medical images, we then tested “ground truth” by asking untrained observers to draw around the region of scarring. The shape and size of the scar on the image was defined by building a contour plot of the agreement between observers' outlines and thresholding at the point above which 50% of the observers agreed: a consensus coding scheme. Based on the variability in the amount of overlap between the scar as defined by the algorithm, and the consensus scar of the observers, we have concluded that the algorithm does not completely capture the putative appearance descriptor “scarriness”. A simultaneous analysis of qualitative descriptions of the scarring by the observers revealed that other image features than those encoded by the algorithm (colour and texture might be important, such as scar boundary shape. This approach to visual appearance research in medical imaging has potential applications in other application areas, such as botany, geology and archaeology.

  16. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  17. Das Américas para o Mundo: origem, domesticação e dispersão do abacaxizeiro From the Americas to the World: origin, domestication and dispersion of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraisa Crestani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L. Merril, fruto símbolo de regiões tropicais e subtropicais, originário das Américas, foi difundido para todo o mundo, principalmente pelos navegantes europeus, em razão de seu aroma e sabor característicos e exuberante aparência. Batizado como o "Rei das Frutas Coloniais", o abacaxi encontra-se entre as 11 frutas mais produzidas no mundo, sendo cultivada e consumida pelos cinco continentes, e o Brasil destaca-se como maior produtor. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica é abordar a história da cultura do abacaxi, contemplando sua botânica, sua origem e dispersão pelo mundo, seu cenário atual, também aspectos relacionados à conservação de germoplasma e ao melhoramento genético.The pineapple(Ananas comosus (L. Merril, fruit-symbol of tropical and subtropical regions, originated in the Americas, was widespread throughout the world mainly by european navigators because of its aroma and flavor, and lush appearance. Named as "King of Colonial Fruits", pineapple is one of the eleven most produced fruit in the world, growing consumed in every continent, with Brazil as the largest producer. Then, the objective of this literature review is to approach the pineapple history, contemplating its botany, origin and dispersion in the world and its current scenario and issues related to germplasm conservation and breeding.

  18. 流式细胞术在植物学研究中的应用——检测植物核DNA含量和倍性水平%Applications of Flow Cytometry in Plant Research——Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content and Ploidy Level in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓娜; 田新民; 周香艳; 刘建全

    2011-01-01

    As an efficient tool to measure the nuclear DNA content and ploidy level, flow cytometry has been playing very important role in many fields of botany research.Through plenty of flow cytometry experiments, a set of universal experimental procedure for detecting the nuclear DNA content and ploidy level was summarized in the laboratory of molecular ecology, Lanzhou University.At the same time, we had elaborated key points at every experimental stage and solutions to the problems caused by too much fragments which could result in the failure of an experiment, which might provide guidance for the future experiments, and promote applications of flow cytometry in plant research.%流式细胞仪作为高效的检测工具,在植物学研究的多个领域都发挥了重要作用.兰州大学干旱与草地生态教育部重点实验室分子生态所通过大量的植物流式细胞术实验,针对检测植物核DNA含量和倍性水平,总结出一套详细通用的实验方法.同时着重阐述了各个实验环节的关键点,分析因碎片过多而导致实验失败的原因,并提供了切实可行的解决方法.对今后检测各种植物具有重大指导意义,同时也促进了流式细胞术在植物学研究中的应用.

  19. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmono Dharmono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them. The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  20. HDACiDB: a database for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kasi Murugan,1 Shanmugasamy Sangeetha,2 Shanmugasamy Ranjitha,2 Antony Vimala,2 Saleh Al-Sohaibani,1 Gopal Rameshkumar21Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Bioinformatics Laboratory, Anna University K. Balachander Research Centre, MIT Campus of Anna University Chennai, Chennai, IndiaAbstract: An histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor database (HDACiDB was constructed to enable rapid access to data relevant to the development of epigenetic modulators (HDAC inhibitors [HDACi], helping bring precision cancer medicine a step closer. Thousands of HDACi targeting HDACs are in various stages of development and are being tested in clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other cancer agents. Despite the abundance of HDACi, information resources are limited. Tools for in silico experiments on specific HDACi prediction, for designing and analyzing the generated data, as well as custom-made specific tools and interactive databases, are needed. We have developed an HDACiDB that is a composite collection of HDACi and currently comprises 1,445 chemical compounds, including 419 natural and 1,026 synthetic ones having the potential to inhibit histone deacetylation. Most importantly, it will allow application of Lipinski’s rule of five drug-likeness and other physicochemical property-based screening of the inhibitors. It also provides easy access to information on their source of origin, molecular properties, drug likeness, as well as bioavailability with relevant references cited. Being the first comprehensive database on HDACi that contains all known natural and synthetic HDACi, the HDACiDB may help to improve our knowledge concerning the mechanisms of actions of available HDACi and enable us to selectively target individual HDAC isoforms and establish a new paradigm for intelligent epigenetic cancer drug design. The database is freely available on the http