WorldWideScience

Sample records for botanical insecticide neem

  1. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product.

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica): towards the ideal insecticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo; Toniolo, Chiara; Higuchi, Akon; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Pavela, Roman; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. In this review, we summarised the knowledge on neem oil and neem cake by-products in arthropod pest control, with special reference to mosquito vectors of public health importance. To the best of our knowledge, neem-borne products currently showed effective and eco-friendly features, including little non-target effects, multiple mechanisms of action, low cost, easy production in countries with limited industrial facilities. In particular, the potentiality of neem cake as ideal and affordable source of mosquitocidal compounds in anopheline and aedine control programmes is outlined. Overall, we propose the employ of neem-based products as an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer arthropod control tools.

  3. Insecticidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Vincent, C; Bostanian, N J

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorium (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Side effects on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) also were determined. With green peach aphid, UDA-245 at 0.5% concentration was significantly more effective than the control (water) treatment in a laboratory bioassay and significantly more effective than neem oil and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap in a greenhouse assay. With the western flower thrips, UDA-245 at 0.5% was significantly more effective than neem oil, insecticidal soap and the control treatment in a laboratory bioassay, whereas in a greenhouse assay, UDA-245 at 1.0% was the only treatment that maintained control of the western flower thrips 2 wk after the last treatment period. UDA-245 at 0.5% (laboratory bioassay) was significantly more effective in managing greenhouse whitefly than neem oil, endosulfan, and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap. Insecticidal soap proved to be toxic to the parasitoid E. formosa (71.9% mortality), whereas UDA-245 at 0.5% was not significantly more toxic than the control (11.2 and 4.6% mortality, respectively). Our results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management (IPM) program using a botanical such as UDA-245 could effectively control infestations of major pests present while having a negligible effect on biological control agents.

  4. Effects of neem-based insecticides on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOILM.GREENBERG; ALLANT.SHOWLER; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    Three commercial neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]-based insecticides, Agroneem, Ecozin, and Neemix, and a non-commercial neem leaf powder,were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect on larvae, and toxicity to eggs and larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),on cotton leaves in the laboratory. Oviposition deterrence in no-choice, and two- and fivechoice assays, was observed for the neem-based insecticide treatments when compared with a non-treated control. Neem-based insecticides also deterred feeding by beet armyworm larvae. Direct contact with neem-based insecticides decreased the survival of beet armyworm eggs. Survival of beet armyworm larvae fed for 7 days on leaves treated with neembased insecticides was reduced to 27, 33, 60, and 61% for neem leaf powder, Ecozin,Agroneem, and Neemix, respectively. Possibilities for adoption of neem-based insecticides in commercial cotton for beet armyworm control are discussed.

  5. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Assalif Demissew

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  6. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides.

  7. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

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    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  9. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Field studies were conducted for two consecutive years (2013 and 2014) to ... effective botanical insecticides against onion thrips from different plant ... Neem leaves were dried in the lab for three days and grounded using electrical blender to make ... Effect of Botanicals and Chemical Insecticides on Population Dynamics of ...

  10. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, M A; Alves, L F A; Schapovaloff, M E

    2016-01-01

    Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  11. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

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    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  12. Exploration of Novel Botanical Insecticide Leads: Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives.

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    Zhao, Ximei; Xi, Xin; Hu, Zhan; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-24

    The discovery of novel leads and new mechanisms of action is of vital significance to the development of pesticides. To explore lead compounds for botanical insecticides, 77 β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were mainly confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135°, IR, MS, and HRMS. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker, and the results indicated that, of these derivatives, eight exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than the positive control, celangulin-V. Particularly, compounds 5.7, 6.6, and 6.7 showed LD50 values of 37.9, 85.1, and 21.1 μg/g, respectively, which were much lower than that of celangulin-V (327.6 μg/g). These results illustrated that β-dihydroagarofuran ketal derivatives can be promising lead compounds for developing novel mechanism-based and highly effective botanical insecticides. Moreover, some newly discovered structure-activity relationships are discussed, which may provide some important guidance for insecticide development.

  13. Application of nanotechnology for the encapsulation of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: prospects and promises.

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    de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Bakshi, Mansi; Abhilash, P C; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    This review article discusses the use of nanotechnology in combination with botanical insecticides in order to develop systems for pest control in agriculture. The main types of botanical insecticides are described, together with different carrier systems and their potential uses. The botanical insecticides include those based on active principles isolated from plant extracts, as well as essential oils derived from certain plants. The advantages offered by the systems are highlighted, together with the main technological challenges that must be resolved prior to future implementation of the systems for agricultural pest control. The use of botanical insecticides associated with nanotechnology offers considerable potential for increasing agricultural productivity, while at the same time reducing impacts on the environment and human health.

  14. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

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    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  15. Effect of commercial neem extract NeemAzal-T/S on controlling leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae in comparison with common synthetic insecticides

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    V. Baniameri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Serpentine leaf miner is one of the serious pests of vegetable crops in greenhouse and open fields, especially on cucumber and tomato. Reduction of synthetic insecticides’ use in order to minimize pesticide residues on these crops is an important basis of food safety. Application of bio-insecticides, especially neem products’ oil, is a very important alternative. Investigation on the efficacy of the commercial neem extract formulation with different concentrations was experimented on cucumber under greenhouse conditions. In the first year, experiments were performed in a completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and three replications. Five treatments included various concentrations of NeemAzal-T/S including 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 ml/m2 and the sixth one was control without any chemicals. The results showed that on the third and seventh day of the treatment with concentrations of 0.75, 1 and 1.5 ml/m2, more than 80% mortality was observed, which shows a significant difference with 0.25 and 0.5 ml/m2 treatments. In the second year, the efficiency of two concentrations (1 and 1.5 ml/m2 of NeemAzal-T/S was evaluated in comparison with chlorpyrifos, abamectin and permethrin. Results revealed that efficiency of the two neem concentrations had no significant difference compared with chlorpirophos and abamectin. Therefore, it could be concluded that NeemAzal-T/S could be successfully recommended to replace the chemical insecticides.

  16. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

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    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  17. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.

  18. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thur-ingiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of in-secticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9%and 79.4%larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The cor-responding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1%and 30.3%after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3 days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100%after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m2. Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1%and 2.0%mortalities respectively. Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activ-ities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  19. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry,neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay,Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay,Southwestern Ethiopia.Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of insecticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11.Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9% and 79.4% larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The corresponding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1% and 30.3% after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100% after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m~2.Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1% and 2.0% mortalities respectively.Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  20. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  1. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

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    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  2. The Effectiveness of Lemongrass, Garlic, and Tree Marigold as Botanical Insecticides in Controlling of Cocoa Mirid,Helopeltis antonii

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of cocoa mirid, Helopeltis antoniiso far uses chemicalinsecticides as the main alternative. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the environment friendly control techniques. Lemongrass, garlic, and tree marigold have been known as an efectiveness botanical insecticides for horticulture. A research with aim to study the effectiveness of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus, garlic (Allium sativum and tree marigold (Tithonia diversifoliafor controlling H. antoniihave been carried out in cocoa plantation at Kaliwining experimental garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in split plot design in three replication, with the main plot infestation time of H. antoniiand sub-plot kind of botanical insecticides. Concentration of botanical insecticides used in this study was 5% and applied on 12 cm cocoa pod in length by using knapsack sprayer. Infestation of H. antonii nymphes were conducted before and after insecticide applications. Observation was conducted on the mortality and the lesion of H. antonii. The results of orthogonal contrast test on feeding activity based on the number of lesion and percentage of mortality of H. antoniishowed that there were significantly different between insecticide treatment and control, between chemical insecticide and botanical insecticides, but there was no significant different on kind of botanical insecticides. The lowest number of lesion due to H. antonii was shown by chemical insecticide with an average 34.0, followed by garlic and lemongrass botanical insecticide with number of lesion were 51.2 and 64.7 respectively, whereas the number of lesion in the control reached 84.2. The highest percentage mortality of H. antoniiwas shown by chemical insecticide with active ingredient teta-cypermethrin at 84.3%, followed by garlic, lemon grass and tree marigold botanical insecticide were 65.8%; 65.0%; and 63.8% respectively and significantly different with control by 8

  3. Old ingredients for a new recipe? Neem cake, a low-cost botanical by-product in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent an important threat to millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Control programmes mainly rely on chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. In recent years, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, with a special focus on the evaluation of plant-borne mosquitocidal compounds. Major examples are neem-based products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) that have been proven as really effective against a huge range of pests of medical and veterinary importance, including mosquitoes. Recent research highlighted that neem cake, a cheap by-product from neem oil extraction, is an important source of mosquitocidal metabolites. In this review, we examined (i) the latest achievements about neem cake metabolomics with special reference to nor-terpenoid and related content; (ii) the neem cake ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquito vectors; (iii) its non-target effects against vertebrates; and (iv) its oviposition deterrence effects on mosquito females. Overall, neem cake can be proposed as an eco-friendly and low-cost source of chemicals to build newer and safer control tools against mosquito vectors.

  4. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Lígia Helena de; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Breda, Mariana Oliveira; Marques,Edmilson Jacinto; Lima,Iracilda Maria de Moura

    2012-01-01

    Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri) of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%); Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%) and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L.), Ch...

  5. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: A review

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    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane. Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae, Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae, Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae, Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  6. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

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    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  7. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  8. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels: 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls...

  9. Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da ação inseticida The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

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    Moacir Rossi Forim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect.

  10. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  11. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  12. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  13. Repellent, antifeedant and insecticidal effects of neem oil on Microtheca punctigera

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    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of concentrations (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica - Meliaceae oil emulsion on the behavioral and biological parameters of M. punctigera were investigated in the laboratory. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. host plant was used. Multiple and no-choice feeding preference assays were conducted which shown multiple effects. The males were repelled by the neem oil in multiple-choice assay. The adult (multiple-choice and larvae (multiple and no-choice feeding were deterred. The larvae mortality was higher in the neem oil treated than the control leaves. Further investigations are suggested to test neem oil in the management of the pest in the field.Besouros Microtheca punctigera (Achard são pragas sérias de plantas hospedeiras da família Brassicaceae. Efeitos das concentrações (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; e 1,00% do óleo emulsionável de nim (Azadirachta indica Meliaceae sobre parâmetros de comportamento e biologia de M. punctigera foram investigados em laboratório. Nabiça (Raphanus raphanistrum L. foi a planta hospedeira utilizada. Ensaios de preferência alimentar com múltipla e sem chance de escolha foram conduzidos. Múltiplos efeitos do óleo de nim foram observados. Machos foram repelidos pelo óleo de nim em teste de múltipla escolha. Adultos (múltipla escolha e larvas (múltipla e sem chance de escolha sofreram deterrência. A mortalidade de larvas foi mais elevada nos tratamentos com óleo de nim que no tratamento controle. Futuras investigações são sugeridas para testar o óleo de nim no manejo de pragas no campo.

  14. 5种植物源杀虫剂防治烟蚜效果研究%Field Trials of 5 Kinds of Botanical Insecticides against Myzus persicae(Sulzer)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗会斌; 李忠俊; 杨洪

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,five botanical insecticides(3% matrine AS,0.2% Celastrus angulatus EC,0.3% neem EC,0.5% veratridine SLX,and 4% rotenone EC) were conducted against Myzus persicae(Sulzer) on tobacco through field trails.The results showed that 3% matrine AS and 0.2% Celastrus angulatus EC had significant effects on M.persicae with the control efficacy over 90% at 20 days after the treatment.The two botanical insecticides were recommended against M.persicae on tobacco in nonpollution or organic fields.%选用5种不同的植物源杀虫剂3%苦参碱水剂,0.2%苦皮藤素乳油,0.3%印楝素乳油,0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂,4%鱼藤酮乳油对烟蚜进行田间防治试验。结果表明,3%苦参碱水剂和0.2%苦皮藤素乳油对烟蚜防效皆达到90%以上,药效期可持续20 d。因此,3%苦参碱水剂和0.2%苦皮藤素乳油这两种植物源杀虫剂可作为无公害烟叶和有机烟叶生产中防治烟蚜的推荐药剂。

  15. Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae

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    Fatemeh Jafarbeigi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortalities caused by acute concentrations of insecticides, some biological traits of target pests may be also affected by sublethal doses. The cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae is an important pest of a wide variety of agricultural crops across the world. The control of B. tabaci largely relies on wide application of chemical insecticides. In this study, we analyzed the life table parameters to evaluate the sublethal effect of three plant-derived insecticides (Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae, Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae, and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae and two chemical insecticides (pymetrozin and neemarin on B. tabaci. The whiteflies were allowed to oviposit on plants infected with each of the five insecticides using leaf-dip method. The data were analyzed using the age-stage two-sex life table. We found significant differences in the gross reproductive rate (GRR, the net reproductive rat (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r and the finite rate of increase (λ of treated whiteflies compared to control. Our results showed that some biological traits of B. tabaci are affected by sub-lethal doses of the plant-derived extracts and that these effects are comparable to those of chemical insecticides. Given the detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on human, environment and non-target organisms, plant-derived insecticides may provide valuable environmentally friendly tools for pest management programs.

  16. Efficacy evaluation of a commercial neem cake for control of Haematobia irritans on Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Calura, Fernando Henrique; Ferrenzini, Jenifer; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg(-1)) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg(-1)) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.

  17. 微胶囊技术在植物源杀虫剂中的应用研究进展%Research Advances on Microencapsulation Techniques in Botanical Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪晶; 李雪莲; 欧阳玲花; 祝水兰; 刘光宪; 冯健雄

    2014-01-01

    对微胶囊技术在植物源杀虫剂中的应用进行总结,采用微胶囊技术制备植物源杀虫剂可提高其稳定性,通过控制释放时间及释放速度来提高其活性。微胶囊技术也是植物源杀虫剂在实际应用中最能模仿自然植物灭虫过程的技术。%The researches have been summarized the application of microencapsulation techniques in botanical insecticides in this paper. These microencapsulation techniques can improve the stability of botanical insecticides and increase the activity by controlling the release time and release rate of botanical insecticides. Microencapsulation techniques applied in botanical insecticides were closer to the natural defense method used by plants against herbivores.

  18. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

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    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  19. Botanical insecticides for controlling agricultural pests: piperamides and the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Scott, J G; Isman, M B; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2003-12-01

    The efficacy of extracts from two Piperaceae species, Piper nigrum L. and P. tuberculatum Jacq. were evaluated using larvae and adults of the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Young larvae and neonates were the most susceptible; a 24-h LD(50) of 0.064% extract of P. tuberculatum was determined for 4-day-old larvae, while 0.05% extract of P. nigrum reduced larval survival up to 70% within one week after treatment of potato Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) plants. When an insecticide resistant strain of L. decemlineata larvae was tested with the P. tuberculatum extract, there was less than a 2-fold tolerance ratio compared to the 22-fold tolerance ratio to cypermethrin, a pyrethroid. Older larvae, pre-pupal stage and adults, were less sensitive to the P. nigrum extracts; the 24-h LD(50) was 0.5% (95% C.I. = 0.36, 0.65). However, the same concentration was equally effective under field conditions. In the greenhouse, P. nigrum at 0.5% was as effective at reducing adult L. decemlineata feeding as combinations with 2 separate botanical mixtures, garlic and lemon grass oil. Under field conditions, the residual activity of the P. nigrum extracts was less than 3 h. When adult L. decemlineata were placed on treated plants exposed to full sunlight for 0, 1.5, and 3 h, leaf damage progressively increased as the main active compound, piperine, was found to degrade by 80% after 3 h. An in vitro polysubstrate monoxygenase (PSMO) enzyme assay, using the substrate methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD), determined that the principal P. nigrum active compound, piperine, is responsible for inhibition of that specific enzyme. The results suggest that Piper extracts could be used effectively as contact botanical insect control agents to protect potato plants from developing L. decemlineata larvae at concentrations less than 0.1%. There is also potential for Piper extracts to control insecticide resistant populations in conjunction with other integrated pest

  20. Research Advances in Stored- Grain Insect Control by Botanical Insecticides%植物性杀虫剂防治储粮害虫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚英娟; 杨长举; 薛东; 华红霞

    2009-01-01

    储粮害虫的危害能够引起粮食减产和品质下降,目前使用化学农药的负面影响的出现,使得亟待发现新的环境友好型农药进行储粮害虫的防治.植物成为寻找新的环境友好型绿色农药的重要来源,很多学者在植物性杀虫剂的应用研究方面做了大量的工作.针对植物性杀虫剂在储粮害虫防治研究中所取得的成果,系统介绍了植物性杀虫剂的作用方式、作用机理、活性成分等方面的研究进展,以期为从事植物性杀虫剂研究的工作提供参考.%The stored - grain insect pests can cause serious quantitative and qualitative loss of stored- grain. The negative effects of the synthetic insecticides have highlighted the need to develop new types of environment friendly insecti-cides, of which plant has become a new potential resource. Researchers have done a great deal of work on botanical insecti-cides. Based on the achievements on the stored - grain insect control with botanical insecticides, the modes of action,function mechanism and active ingredient of botanical insecticides were systematically summarized in this paper with the in-tention to provide information for further research works.

  1. POSSIBILITIES TO USE NATURAL EXTRACTS FROM MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAP LIKE BOTANICAL REPELLENT OR INSECTICIDE COMPOUNDS AGAINST PEST INSECTS IN ECOLOGICAL CROPS (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  2. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  4. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David; Thompson, Dean; Grimalt, Susana; Chartrand, Derek; Good, Kevin; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-09-01

    The non-target effects of an azadirachtin-based systemic insecticide used for control of wood-boring insect pests in trees were assessed on litter-dwelling earthworms, leaf-shredding aquatic insects, and microbial communities in terrestrial and aquatic microcosms. The insecticide was injected into the trunks of ash trees at a rate of 0.2 gazadirachtin cm(-1) tree diameter in early summer. At the time of senescence, foliar concentrations in most (65%) leaves where at or below detection (emerald ash borer, resultant foliar concentrations in senescent leaf material are likely to pose little risk of harm to decomposer invertebrates.

  5. Effects of biological insecticides NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS EC and their interaction with organic products in treatments of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Pisum sativum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and effects of two biological insecticides, NeemAzal T/S® and Pyrethrum FS EC, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (a biological growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (an organic foliar fertilizer, in controlling Acyrthosyphon pisum population density were studied. Nurelle D (a synthetic insecticide, applied alone and in combination with Flordimex 420 (a synthetic growth regulator, was used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. Twenty-four variants were studied. The interaction of Pyrethrum with Biofa was the most efficient variant of the biological products, causing a reduction in aphid density that reached 48.2% after double treatment, while Pyrethrum+Polyversum (42.5% was the second most successful treatment. The combination of Pyrethrum with Biofa achieved the highest efficacy and synergism and their efficacy approached that of the synthetic insecticide.

  6. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  7. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  8. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival.

  9. Side Effects of Neem Oil on the Midgut Endocrine Cells of the Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, E L; Santos, D C

    2014-04-01

    We described the ultrastructure of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) midgut endocrine cells in larva, pupa, and adult, and evaluated the side effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), on these cells. During the larval period, C. claveri were fed (ad libitum) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two subtypes of endocrine cells, namely granular and vesicular, occurred in the midgut epithelium during the three stages of the life cycle. Both cell types did not reach the midgut lumen and were positioned basally in the epithelium. The endocrine cells did not show extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane, and there were numerous secretory granules in the basal region of the cytoplasm. In the granular endocrine cells, the granules were completely filled with a dense matrix. In the vesicular endocrine cells, the main secretory products consisted of haloed vesicles. Ultrastructural examination indicated that only the granular endocrine cells exhibited signs of morphologic changes of cell injury present in all life cycle stages after the larvae were chronically exposed to neem oil by ingestion. The major cellular damage consisted of dilatation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling. Our data suggest that cytotoxic effects on midgut endocrine cells can contribute to a generalized disruption of the physiological processes in this organ due to a general alteration of endocrine function.

  10. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  11. Evaluation of the Repellent and Insecticidal Activities of the Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    high repellent and insecticidal activities demonstrated by the root powder ... generally low as a result of serious insect pest attacks ..... to have clear insecticidal properties (DeGeyter, 2012) ... nematicidal ingredients from neem leaves, siam.

  12. THE NATURE'S GIFT TO MANKIND: NEEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  13. Aqueous extracts and oil of neem combined with neonicotinoid insecticides against Bemisia tabaci biotype B in melon Extratos aquosos e óleo de nim associados com inseticidas neonicotinóides sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em meloeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santana de Araújo Trindade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at evaluating nymph population density of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B in melon plants after treatment with neem-dry-leaf aqueous extracts and neem-oil ( A. Juss. applied alternately with neonicotinoid insecticides under field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were control (only water; neem-dry-leaf extract at 5% (neem-dry-leaf powder 50g L-1 of water; neem oil (5.0mL L-1 water; chemicals insecticides imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 of water; neem-dry-leaf extract at 5% weekly alternated with imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 of water; neem oil (5.0mL L-1 of water weekly alternated with imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g20 L-1 of water. The efficiency of treatments was compared through of the number of nymphs recorded in leaves of melon with 35, and 50 days after planting. The less number of nymphs was registered when the neem oil was applied alternatively with the chemical treatment with efficiency of 28.58 and 7.85% in the first and second evaluations, respectively. However, the nymphs incidence was higher when the neem oil and the chemical treatment were applied separately.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a densidade populacional de ninfas de mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em plantas de melão após o tratamento com extratos aquosos de folhas secas de nim e de óleo de nim (Azadiracta indica A. Juss., aplicados alternadamente com inseticidas neonitotinóides, sob condições de campo. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: controle (apenas água; extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim a 5% (pó de folhas secas de nim, 50 g L-1 de água; óleo de nim (5mL L-1 de água; inseticidas químicos imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 de água e acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 de

  14. Efficacy of Several Botanical Insecticides against Two Pests in Tea Plantation%几种植物源农药对2种茶树害虫的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周顺玉; 尹健; 马俊义

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究几种植物源农药防治2种茶树害虫的药效.[方法]采用随机区组试验设计.在茶尺蠖低龄幼虫和茶小绿叶蝉高峰期喷施不同浓度的植物源农药,药后1、3、7、10 d调查虫口减退率和防治效果.[结果]7.5%鱼藤酮乳油800倍液防治茶尺蠖速效性最好;0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂800倍液防治茶小绿叶蝉效果最好.0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂、0.2%苦皮藤乳油、0.3%苦参碱水剂和7.5%鱼藤酮乳油均可选择用于防治茶尺蠖;0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂、0.2%苦皮藤乳油、0.3%印楝素乳油、0.3%苦参碱水剂和7.5%鱼藤酮乳油均可选择用于防治茶小绿叶蝉,其中0.3%印楝素乳油600倍液防治茶小绿叶蝉的持效性最好,药后7d防效达100%.[结论]研究结果为植物源农药在有机茶园害虫防治中的应用奠定了基础.%[Objective] The paper was to study the efficacy of several botanical insecticides against two pests in tea plantation. [ Method] U-sing randomized block design, different concentrations of botanical insecticides were sprayed during the young larvae periods of Ectropis oblique hmpvlina Wehrli and peak periods of Empoasca pirisuga, the reduction rate of insect and control effects were investigated after spraying for 1, 3, 7 and 10 d. [ Result] 7. 5% rotenone EC 800 times had the best control effect against E. Oblique hmpulina, and 0.5% veratridine soluble liquid 800 times had the best control effect against E. Pirisuga. 0. 5% veratridine soluble liquid, 0. 2% Celastrus angulatus Maxim. EC, 0. 3% matrine water agent and 7.5% rotenone EC could be selected for the control of E. Oblique hmpulina; 0.5% veratridine soluble liquid, 0. 2% C. Angulatus Maxim. EC, 0. 3% azadirachtin EC, 0. 3% matrine water agent and 7.5% rotenone EC could be selected for the control of E. Pirisuga, of which 0. 3% azadirachtin EC 600 times was the best on sustainable control effect against E. Pirisuga with control

  15. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  16. REVIEW ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA: THOUSAND PROBLEMS ONE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pankaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem has become important in the global context today because it offers answers to the major concerns facing mankind. Azadirachta indica is a fast growing evergreen popular tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activity and its preventive-promotive medicinal uses and applications over all this review also tell you that how the “neem is the one solution of thousand problems”, like Antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities.

  17. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  18. Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1998-06-01

    Bioactive compounds contained in the seed kernel and other parts of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) have been found to show insecticidal activities and other effects in many species of insects. These activities include antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression, male sterility, oviposition repellency, changes in biological fitness such as loss of flying ability, immunodepression, enzyme inhibition, splitting of biological rhythms, and so forth. We investigated the ovicidal effects of various formulations of azadrirachtin (AZ) against the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The formulations tested were wettable powder Azad WP10, emulsifiable concentrate Azad EC4.5, and technically pure AZ. The ovicidal activity of the test neem products was influenced by concentration of AZ, age of the egg rafts, and age of the neem preparations. Other factors such as formulation and mosquito species were also involved in the degree of ovicidal activity. When the egg rafts were deposited directly in fresh neem suspension and left there for 4 h before transfer to untreated water, 1 ppm of AZ produced almost 100% mortality in eggs. When egg rafts aged for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were exposed to 10 ppm neem suspensions for 36 h, the ovicidal activity was only attained in the egg rafts deposited directly (0 h old) in the neem suspension, not in those with ages of 4-24 h. On aging, depending on the formulations and mosquito species, the neem suspensions at 1 ppm completely lost ovicidal activity within 7-20 days. The egg rafts of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the test neem products than those of Cx. tarsalis. The formulated neem products were more persistent and effective than the technical AZ. The wettable powder (WP) formulation was slightly more persistent and effective than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The ovicidal activity of the neem products against mosquitoes from the current research clearly demonstrated

  19. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-06

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  20. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  1. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

  2. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  3. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

  4. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (Azadirachta indica; (Neem) and synthetic insecticide (Carbofuradan) against rice ... Rice plant is an ideal host for a large number of insect pests in ..... crop would be protected via the primary gustatory repellent action of the extracts which ... Anon (2000) Findings alternative to persistent organic pollutants (POPS) for termite.

  5. Neem: the miracle tree for meeting India's growing energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R.

    1983-04-01

    Neem trees are now destined for a crucial multifaceted role in providing natural insecticides and nematicides have no toxic residues, oil for the soap industry and cake for increasing the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen. As a nitrogen regulator it can significantly contribute towards the country's energy needs for agriculture. Its performance in several field trials is discussed.

  6. Comparison of the toxicities and antifeedant effects of four botanical insecticides against the larvae of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij%4种植物源杀虫剂对亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫的毒性与拒食作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁吉同; 唐桦; 阿地力·沙塔尔; 王玉珠

    2013-01-01

    In order to choose the best botanical insecticide for controlling Asian gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar asiatica,we compared toxicities and antifeedant effects of four botanical insecticides on the 3rd instar larvae,including 5% Rotenone,1% resmethrin-matrine,5% eucalyptole and 0.6% Oxymatrine-lactone.The results indicated that the four kinds of botanical insecticides all had the functions of stomach poison and contact toxicity,and the acute toxicity performance showed that the function of contact toxicity was more obvious than stomach poison.When botanical insecticides were diluted at the highest concentration,the stomach poison of 0.6 % Oxymatrine-lactone had the most mortality,followed by 5 % eucalyptole.Due to the LC50 of stomach poison groups were all less than that of contact toxicity groups,the stomach poison had a more toxic.Moreover,the toxicities of 0.6 % Oxymatrine-lactone and 5 % eucalyptole were much higher than the other two botanical insecticides,and the toxicities of 0.6 % Oxymatrine-lactone was the strongest.Comparing the weight of feedingstuff before and after feeding,we found that the antifeedant effects of Asian gypsy moth 3rd instar larvae performed well under the four kinds of botanical insecticides treatments,and the antifeedant rate under 5 % eucalyptole diluted 5 000 times reached to 99.31%.It was deduced that 5 % eucalyptole and 0.6 % Oxymatrine-lactone could be popularized and applied as botanical insecticides to control Asian gypsy moth.%为筛选出有效防治亚洲型舞毒蛾的最佳植物源杀虫剂,采用5%鱼藤酮、1%虫菊·苦参碱、5%桉油精、0.6%氧苦·内酯4种植物源杀虫剂,比较它们对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫胃毒和触杀处理后的毒性与拒食作用.结果表明:这4种植物源杀虫剂对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫均具有胃毒和触杀两种作用,其急性毒性总体表现为触杀处理大于胃毒处理,而在各自相对最高的浓度条件下,以0.6%氧苦·

  7. 2074-IJBCS-Article-Ahadji-Dabla Koffi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The larvicidal activity of a botanical insecticide, Biostop Moustiques® (BM), ... study showed that the botanical insecticide tested has almost the same .... plant extracts exhibit larvicidal properties but .... comparative de deux produits de neem.

  8. Proyecto de evaluación para la creación de un insecticida ecológico a base de la planta neem para el cultivo de arroz en el cantón Daule.

    OpenAIRE

    Banchón Yánez, Jorge W.; Magallanes Navarrete, Luis F.; Salas Luzuriaga, Edgar L.

    2010-01-01

    This project is an assessment for the creation of an insecticide-based Eco Neem plant for growing rice in Daule canton of Guayas province, this insecticide called Arro-Ally is made from the plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), a product that will help: maintain ecological balance (soil, air, water), reduce dependence on chemicals, avoid collateral damage in occupational health and direct costs in growing this grass remain, encouraging the farmer who considers that his business is prof...

  9. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  10. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  11. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  12. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  13. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002832.htm Insecticide poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insecticide is a chemical that kills bugs. Insecticide poisoning ...

  14. Application of diethanolamide surfactant derived from palm oil to improve the performance of biopesticide from neem oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisya, F. N.; Prijono, D.; Nurkania, A.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the performance of organic pesticide derived from neem plant using diethanolamide surfactant (DEA) derived from palm oil in controlling armyworms. The pesticide was made of neem oil. Neem oil is a neem plant product containing several active components, i.e. azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin, and meliantriol which act as a pesticide. DEA surfactant acts as a wetting, dispersing and spreading agent in neem oil pesticide. The neem oil was obtained by pressing neem seeds using a screw press machine and a hydraulic press machine. DEA surfactant was synthesized from methyl esters of palm oil olein. Pesticide formulation was conducted by stirring the ingredients by using a homogenizer at 5,000 rpm for 30 minutes. Surfactant was added to the formulation by up to 5%. Glycerol, as an emulsifier, was added in to pesticide formulations of neem oil. The efficacy of the pesticides in controlling armyworms fed soybean leaves in laboratory was measured at six concentrations, i.e. 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25 ml/L. Results showed that the neem oil used in this study had a density of 0.91 g/cm3, viscosity of 58.94 cPoise, refractive index of 1.4695, surface tension of 40.69 dyne/cm, azadirachtin content of 343.82-1.604 ppm. Meanwhile, the azadirachtin content of neem seed cake was 242.20 ppm. It was also found that palmitic (31.4%) and oleic (22.5%) acids were the main fatty acids contained in neem oil. As the additive material used in neem oil in this study, diethanolamide surfactant had a pH of 10.6, density of 0.9930 g/cm3, viscosity of 708.20 cP, and surface tension of 25.37 dyne/cm. Results of CMC, contact angle, and droplet size analyzes showed that diethanolamide surfactant could be added into insecticide formulation by 5%. Results of LC tests showed that on Spodoptera litura the LC50 and LC95 values were 13 and 22 ml/L, respectively. Neem oil was found to inhibit the development of Spodoptera litura and its larval molting process.

  15. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations.

  16. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  17. Neem (Azadirachta indica): An indian traditional panacea with modern molecular basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash Chandra; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-10-15

    For centuries, agents derived from natural sources (mother nature), especially plants have been the primary source of medicine. Neem, also referred to as Azadirachta indica is one such plant that has been so named because it provides freedom from all diseases, and used for thousands of years in Indian and African continents. Different parts of the plant including flowers, leaves, seeds and bark have been used to treat both acute and chronic human diseases; and used as insecticide; antimicrobial, larvicidal, antimalarial, antibacterial, antiviral, and spermicidal. What is there in neem and how it manifests its wide variety of effects is the focus of this review. How neem and its constituents modulate various cellular pathways is discussed. The animal and human studies carried out with neem and its constituents is also discussed. Over 1000 research articles published on neem has uncovered over 300 structurally diverse constituents, one third of which are limonoids including nimbolide, azadarachtin, and gedunin. These agents manifest their effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Atividade inseticida in vitro do óleo de sementes de nim sobre Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline V. Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis é o principal vetor da Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo de sementes de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre ovos, larvas e adultos do vetor. Os insetos foram capturados no campo e mantidos no laboratório a ± 27 °C e 80% de umidade relativa. Cinco tratamentos com diferentes concentrações foram realizados, usando-se dois controles negativos, um com água destilada e outro com Tween 80 (3% e um controle positivo com cipermetrina. Os ovos foram borrifados com o óleo em diferentes concentrações e avaliou-se o número de larvas eclodidas por 10 dias consecutivos. A mortalidade das larvas foi observada até a pupação, e a mortalidade dos adultos foi observada após 24, 48, e 72 horas. A análise estatística foi feita pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. No teste com ovos, a maior concentração obteve 65,16 ± 3,24% de eficácia. O teste com larvas apresentou 67,75 ± 2,21% de eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1. Com adultos, a eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1 foi de 96,64 ± 4,11%, após 24 horas. A análise fitoquímica revelou a presença de triterpenos. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial uso desse óleo no controle deste vetor.Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at ± 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80 and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test

  19. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  20. Oral (Systemic) Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja

    2017-06-01

    Patients with psoriasis often use botanical therapies as part of their treatment. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents as they treat patients. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE database for randomized clinical trials assessing the use of botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: "psoriasis" and "plant" or "herbal" or "botanical." Citations within articles were also reviewed to identify relevant sources. The results were then further refined by route of administration, and the oral (systemic) botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 12 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of oral, systemic botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. While overall evidence is limited in quantity and quality, HESA-A, curcumin, neem extract, and, to a lesser degree, Traditional Chinese Medicine seem to be the most efficacious agents. The literature addresses a large amount of studies in regards to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary for evidence-based recommendation of oral botanical agents to psoriasis patients.

  1. Ethnobotanical uses of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Meliaceae) leaves in Bali (Indonesia) and the Indian subcontinent in relation with historical background and phytochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary P; Caneva, Giulia; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-08-02

    Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive

  2. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  3. Old tropical botanical collections:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...... collections in connection with taxonomic research is sketched, from sending specimens on loan between institutions via publishing herbaria on microfiches to providing scanned images on the Internet. Examples from different institutions and organizations of how to make digitized images of specimens and other...

  4. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton=Efeitos de inseticidas botânicos na taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%; Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Piper aduncum L (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375 and 0.05%. Cotton leaf discs, CNPA 8H cultivar with 5 cm in diameter were immersed for 30 seconds in products broth and dried for 30 minutes. Eight replicates per concentration were used and each disc was infested with five apterous adult females of A. gossypii uniform in size and confined for 10 days. Compostonat®, Rotenat® and Neempro provided negative ri decreasing A. gossypii population. Natuneem® and Neemseto® and the essential oil of F. vulgare showed positive ri increasing the population. The coefficients of determination (R2 of regression lines ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. The essential oils of C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides and P. aduncum were not statistically significant precluding the establishment of regression lines.Inseticidas botânicos têm sido estudados, visando o controle alternativo de pragas. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos desses inseticidas sobre a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (ri de Aphis gossypii. Os inseticidas botânicos foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® e Neempro (0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 e 1,75%; Nautneem® e Neemseto® (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%; e os óleos essenciais de Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e Piper aduncum L. (0; 0,0125; 0,025; 0,0375 e 0,05%. Discos de folhas de algodoeiro, cultivar CNPA 8H, com 5 cm de di

  5. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  6. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1960-01-01

    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  7. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  8. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1960-01-01

    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  9. Comparative efficacy of neem and dimethyl phthalate (DMP)against malaria vector,Anopheles stephensi (dip-tera:culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HVatandoos; FRafi; AKhazani; JRafinejad; MKhoobdel; AKebriai-Zadeh; MRAbai; AAHanafi Bojd; AAAkhavan; SMAbtahi

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world which is transmitted by the Anopheles mos-quitoes.There are several methods for malaria control.One of them is application of repellents on skin in ma-larious area as an intergrated vectro management measures.This study evaluated two repellents of DMP as a synthtic and locally product of neem oil as a botanical repellent against Anopheles stephensi.The modified method of K &D was used for the tests.Probing/biting rates on the shaved belly of white rabbits were coun-ted.ED50 and ED95 values were calculated by probit statistic software.Calculation of effective dose (ED50, ED90)on human volunteer and white rabbit was performed using regression line.Protection and failure time of DMP and neem oil was also determined.ED50 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0.0076 and 0. 159 mg/cm2 respectively on white rabit.The figures of ED90 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0. 046 and 1.388 mg/cm2 .DMP and neem oil showed repellency effects against An.stephensi on human volun-teers with ED50 value of 0.0037 and 0.127 mg/cm2 respectively.ED90 value of DMP was determined as 0. 032 mg/cm2 .neem oil exhibited a ED90 value of 1.066 mg/cm2 on human volunteer.The protection time of 6-7 hours for DMP and 31 minute for neem oil was determined.The failure times for DMP and Neem was 9 hours and 65 minutes rspectively on human bait.Our results exhibited that plant-based repellent is generally less effective than synthetic repellents.However,use of locally made botanical materials would be of great ad-vantages for personal protection against mosquito biting.

  10. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O’Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9,...

  11. Center for Botanical Interaction Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Dietary Supplements, Herbs, Antioxidants Program:Centers for Dietary Supplements Research: Botanicals Description:This center will look at safety and...

  12. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh A. Kuravadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC. Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  13. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, H B; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, B N; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  14. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Kyphuong; Dunkel, Florence V; Coulibaly, Keriba; Beckage, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system.

  15. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  16. Botanical nematicides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2012-10-10

    Despite the uselfuness of nematicidal compounds in agricultural practices, some serious concerns are raised today about their excessive use leading to enhancement of biodegradation mechanisms in soil expressed as lack of efficacy under field conditions and resistance development. Moreover, the phase-out of methyl bromide has led to the need for a valid alternative to organophosporous and carbamate compounds, such us fosthiazate, fenamiphos, oxamyl, and aldicarb. In the past years, intregated pest management strategies have been practised worldwide to maximize crop production while maintaining and contributing to agriculture sustainability. Biopesticides and specifically bionematicides constitute a desirable component of pest management technology and practices. Particularly, in the frame of our ongoing research on natural nematicides of botanical origin, we have reviewed the international bibliography for candidate nematicidal compounds. We report herein the nematicidal activity of plant metabolites on the basis of their chemical characteristics and structure.

  17. Acaricidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Bostanian, N J; Vincent, C

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 [25% EC (vol:vol)], based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control the adult stage and egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). After a laboratory bioassay with adult twospotted spider mites, a 0.5% concentration of UDA-245 was more effective than 0.7% (AI) of neem oil (Neem Rose Defense). After a similar bioassay with the European red mite, a 0.5% concentration UDA-245 was as effective as 0.006% (AI) of abamectin (Avid). UDA-245 at 0.5% significantly reduced egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, 5 and 9 d after treatment and of the European red mite 6 d after treatment. Egg hatch was significantly lower using 0.006% (AI) of abamectin, 0.7% of neem oil, and 1.0% insecticidal soap than UDA-245. Residual tests indicated that UDA-245 may be persistent in the environment only for a few hours. Only 23% mortality was noted when mites were introduced on bean leaves 1 h after treatment with a 2% concentration of UDA-245. At the recommended dose of 0.5%, UDA-245 was not considered phytotoxic for most plants tested, i.e., lettuce, roses, and tomatoes. Results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management program using UDA-245 could effectively and selectively control mite infestations by treating "hot spots" with negligible effect on biological control agents when treating before introduction or when natural enemies are absent.

  18. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. ... Key words: Azadirachta indica (neem), Aedes aegypti (mosquito), LC50, emergency, histopathology. ..... larvae of Culex fatigans Wild Strain at 390 ppm. In the.

  19. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    potential of neem seed oil cream as mosquito repellent particularly at higher ... In the present study, neem Seed oil extracted from Azadirachta indica plant .... repellency was in two phases, first to determine the repellency properties of.

  20. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    OpenAIRE

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A.; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, HB; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D.; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, BN; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To...

  1. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells.

  2. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  3. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival.

  4. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Aliboni, Andrea; D'Andrea, Armando; Mariani, Susanna

    2010-06-01

    In order to investigate its insecticide potential, the neem cake methanol extract was first analyzed and then separated by different solvents. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the neem cake methanol extract still contained relevant quantities of nortriterpenes. Fractions of increasing polarity were obtained from the separation process: hexane fraction (Hp), EtOAc fraction (Ep), n-BuOH fraction (Bp), and aqueous fraction (Wp). The activity of the fractions on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eggs and larvae was tested, and the Ep fraction exhibits the most relevant larvicide effect. The nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprint analysis of this phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc fraction was performed. The larvicidal effectiveness of the phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc, compared to that of pure and commercial azadirachtin solutions of different concentrations, was checked. The results showed that the activity of the phytocomplex, as a whole, was significantly higher than those of isolated compound solutions. As a consequence, the neem cake is a promising low-cost, easily available on the market, and natural resource to develop a new bioinsecticide, mainly in developing countries.

  5. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  6. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchemin Jean-Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in

  7. Efficacy and Dose Response of Soil-Applied Neem Formulations in Substrates With Different Amounts of Organic Matter, in the Control of Whiteflies, Aleyrodes proletella and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Josephine; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Pallmann, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. Moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. In this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based drenching solution NeemAzal-T and NeemAzal granules-were evaluated against two whitefly species, Aleyrodes proletella L. and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West) on Brussels sprout and tomatoes, respectively. The plants were grown in two substrates: one was a commercial substrate (CS) composed of 15% humus, 35% clay, and 50% peat, and the other was a commercial substrate and sand mixture in 1:1 ratio. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, persistence, and dose response of the two soil-applied NeemAzal formulations in substrates with different amount of organic matter. The results show that the efficacy of neem formulations was dose dependent, with the highest doses of NeemAzal granules (300 mg/kg=21 mg azadirachtin [AZA]/kg of substrate) and NeemAzal T (2 ml/kg=20 mg AZA/kg of substrate) achieving up to 100% mortality of immature stages of whiteflies. NeemAzal caused significantly higher mortality in immature stages of both whitefly species with CS + sand mixture than with pure CS. Persistence of the NeemAzal formulations was not influenced by the substrate type but rather by time span between treatment application and infestation, with significant decrease in efficacy when whiteflies were exposed 10 d after treatments.

  8. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae in Poultry Breeding Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Flávia S Rovida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5% were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering

  9. Myriad botanical garden blossoming in southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ High scientific significances and economic returns have been reaped by the Myriad Botanical Garden (MBG), a joint initiative between CAS and Yunnan Province for ex situ plant preservation at the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG).

  10. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment.

  11. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  12. Neeme Jõgi usub Pan-Balti piimanduskontserni rajamisse / Neeme Jõgi ; interv. Viljar Rääsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Neeme

    2008-01-01

    Läti piimatööstuse Rigas Piensaimnieksi juhatuse esimees Neeme Jõgi vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte olukorda, ülebaltikumilise piimafirma tulekut, ärikultuuri erinevusi Lätis, sisulise austuse saavutamist, tema põhimõtteid äritegevuses, vajadust skaneerimisoskustega juhi järele ning Parexiga juhtunu mõju lätlastele. Lisa: Neeme Jõgi

  13. Botanicals as eco friendly biorational alternatives of synthetic pesticides against Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Prakash, Bhanu; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the potential of botanicals in the management of Callosobruchus spp., the primary insect pest causing deterioration to a variety of stored legume grains. Different botanical formulations have been reported time to time showing pronounced insecticidal activity, repellence to pest, oviposition deterrency, adult emergence inhibition, ovicidal, larvicidal, pupaecidal activity and feeding deterrency based on their contact toxicity and fumigation effects. Some of the botanicals have also been practically proved efficacious to protect the stored food commodities from the bruchids during storage conditions. Such botanical formulations have shown their promise in integrated management of the pest as semiochemicals by showing behaviour altering efficacy against the bruchids, thereby, reducing the induced pest resistance problem which is frequently reported with synthetic pesticides. Hence, they may be recommended in food security programmes as eco-friendly and biorational alternatives of synthetic pesticides providing integrated management of the losses of stored food commodities due to infestation of bruchids.

  14. The Palawan botanical expedition 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podzorski, Andrew C.

    1985-01-01

    Palawan, the most forested and least botanically known island in the Philippines was explored by an international expedition from March 1 to May 31, 1984. The sponsors were the Swedish Match Hilleshog Philippines Inc. and the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Philippines. Palawan separates the So

  15. Integration of biological control and botanical pesticides : evaluation in a tritrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, D.S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Kfir, R.

    2001-01-01

    The plant kingdom is by far the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesising many products that are used in defence against herbivores. Extracts made from some plants, particularly extracts from plants within the Meliaceae (mahogany) family, have been shown to have insecticidal properties. We investigated the potential of these extracts and the possibility of integrating botanical pesticides with biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Sub-lethal doses ...

  16. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  17. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant s

  18. Stress, storage and survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display

  19. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  20. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  1. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  2. Neeme Külm in abstract autarchic ambience / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Neeme Külma ruumiinstallatsioonidest. Neeme Külma isikunäitus "Pinnavirvendus" ("Shimmer on the Surface") Hobusepea galeriis 11.-24.04.2012. Näituse eest pälvis kunstnik Eesti Kultuurkapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapitali 2012. aasta aastapreemia. Neeme Külma ja Krista Möldri näitus "Kohalolu" ("Being Present") Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 30.11.-28.12.2012

  3. Neeme Külm in abstract autarchic ambience / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Neeme Külma ruumiinstallatsioonidest. Neeme Külma isikunäitus "Pinnavirvendus" ("Shimmer on the Surface") Hobusepea galeriis 11.-24.04.2012. Näituse eest pälvis kunstnik Eesti Kultuurkapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapitali 2012. aasta aastapreemia. Neeme Külma ja Krista Möldri näitus "Kohalolu" ("Being Present") Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 30.11.-28.12.2012

  4. Neem components as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Neelu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2014-08-01

    Azadirachta indica, also known as neem, is commonly found in many semi-tropical and tropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The components extracted from neem plant have been used in traditional medicine for the cure of multiple diseases including cancer for centuries. The extracts of seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of neem have consistently shown chemopreventive and antitumor effects in different types of cancer. Azadirachtin and nimbolide are among the few bioactive components in neem that have been studied extensively, but research on a great number of additional bioactive components is warranted. The key anticancer effects of neem components on malignant cells include inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, suppression of cancer angiogenesis, restoration of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance, and enhancement of the host immune responses against tumor cells. While the underlying mechanisms of these effects are mostly unclear, the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway is, at least partially, involved in the anticancer functions of neem components. Importantly, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of neem components are tumor selective as the effects on normal cells are significantly weaker. In addition, neem extracts sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy and radiotherapy, and enhance the efficacy of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current updates on the anticancer effects of neem components and their possible impact on managing cancer incidence and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kapten Brus : "Tank on argument." / Neeme Brus ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brus, Neeme, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Bagdadis avalike suhete ohvitserina teeniv kapten Neeme Brus Iraagi elanike suhtumisest rahutagamismissioonil olevatesse sõduritesse, koalitsioonivägede omavahelisest suhtlemisest, terrorismiohust. Lisa: Valitsus toetas missiooni pikendamist

  6. Kapten Brus : "Tank on argument." / Neeme Brus ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brus, Neeme, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Bagdadis avalike suhete ohvitserina teeniv kapten Neeme Brus Iraagi elanike suhtumisest rahutagamismissioonil olevatesse sõduritesse, koalitsioonivägede omavahelisest suhtlemisest, terrorismiohust. Lisa: Valitsus toetas missiooni pikendamist

  7. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis.

  8. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  9. Botanicals as "new" drugs: US development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Freddie Ann

    2015-11-01

    Botanicals are ingredients that can be marketed as foods, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices in the United States. When a botanical is intended to diagnose, treat, prevent, mitigate, or cure a disease, it is considered to be a "drug". This article reviews the US regulatory requirements for botanicals as "new" drugs. An overview of the regulatory principles used to determine product category and the basic elements of an Investigational New Drug application and New Drug Application with the US Food and Drug Administration are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  10. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  11. Neem (Azadirachta indica) in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    OpenAIRE

    C. Devakumar; Usha Dev

    2011-01-01

    (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010)   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK), cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatil...

  12. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, RS; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity s...

  13. Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huan; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2013-10-15

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity.

  14. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.

  15. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

  16. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  17. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  18. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)—a storage pest of groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Harish, G.; Nataraja, M. V.; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P. P; Jadon, K. S.; Savaliya, S. D.; Padavi, R. D.; Koradia, V. G.; Gedia, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs ...

  19. Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary. PMID:23835719

  20. Neem (Azadirachta indica: Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  1. "Kalevipoja" illustreerija kunstnik Gunnar Neeme 85 / Aimi Hollo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hollo, Aimi

    2003-01-01

    Austraalias elava eesti kunstniku elust ja loomingust. Avatakse ka näitused "Ühe vana pallaslase rikas kunstielu : Gunnar Nneeme 85" EARis ja "Gunnar Neeme Kalevipoja-ainelised tööd" Võrumaa Keskraamatukogus

  2. Application of neem tree in agriculture, industry, medicine, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of neem tree in agriculture, industry, medicine, and environment: a review. ... and it purifies the blood and prevents damage caused by free radicals to the body, ... Key words: Energizing, pharmacy, healing, purgative, pesticide.

  3. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves (Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIZE

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... energy supply), and reduce the ecological destruction ... Energy potential of the dead neem leaves biomass ..... Valorization of agricultural and other organic wastes ... Modernization strategies of wood chain energy value.

  4. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  5. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  6. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a tumor initiator, tumor promoter and complete carcinogen, and their excessive exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Sunscreens are useful, but their protection is not adequate to prevent the risk of UV-induced skin cancer. It may be because of inadequate use, incomplete spectral protection and toxicity. Therefore new chemopreventive methods are necessary to protect the skin from photodamaging effects of solar UV radiation. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of skin carcinogenesis. In recent years, considerable interest has been focused on identifying naturally occurring botanicals, specifically dietary, for the prevention of photocarcinogenesis. A wide variety of botanicals, mostly dietary flavonoids or phenolic substances, have been reported to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities because of their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. This review summarizes chemopreventive effects of some selected botanicals, such as apigenin, curcumin, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, and green tea polyphenols, against photocarcinogenesis in in vitro and in vivo systems. Attention has also been focused on highlighting the mechanism of chemopreventive action of these dietary botanicals. We suggest that in addition to the use of these botanicals as dietary supplements for the protection of photocarcinogenesis, these botanicals may favorably supplement sunscreens protection and may provide additional antiphotocarcinogenic protection including the protection against other skin disorders caused by solar UV radiation.

  7. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  8. Physical properties of botanical surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lillian Espíndola; Schiedeck, Gustavo

    2017-08-24

    Some vegetal species have saponins in their composition with great potential to be used as natural surfactants in organic crops. This work aims to evaluate some surfactants physical properties of Quillaja brasiliensis and Agave angustifolia, based on different methods of preparation and concentration. The vegetal samples were prepared by drying and grinding, frozen and after chopped or used fresh and chopped. The neutral bar soap was used as a positive control. The drying and grinding of samples were the preparation method that resulted in higher foam column height in both species but Q. brasiliensis was superior to A. angustifolia in all comparisons and foam index was 2756 and 1017 respectively. Critical micelle concentration of Q. brasiliensis was 0.39% with the superficial tension of 54.40mNm(-1) while neutral bar soap was 0.15% with 34.96mNm(-1). Aspects such as genetic characteristics of the species, environmental conditions, and analytical methods make it difficult to compare the results with other studies, but Q. brasiliensis powder has potential to be explored as a natural surfactant in organic farming. Not only the surfactants physical properties of botanical saponins should be taken into account but also its effect on insects and diseases control when decided using them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at Pneem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-09-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  11. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Jayakumar, Jerobin; Makwana, Pooja; Kumar, Suresh; Mukherjee, Amitava; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Jayakumar Jerobin, Pooja Makwana, RS Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibac...

  12. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  13. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Stanley; Preetha, G.; Chandrasekaran, S; Gunasekaran, K.; S. Kuttalam

    2014-01-01

    The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO) (acetic acid & citric acid), were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control a...

  14. Novel and environmental friendly approach; Impact of Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum nano formulation (NGNF) on Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Gandhi, Pachiyappan Rajiv; Elango, Gandhi; Karthi, Sengodan; Chung, Ill-Min; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2017-08-30

    The future of this study was to prepare a natural pesticide which will not harm the environment and yet control pests. Neem gum nano formulation (NGNF), a novel biopesticide prepared from the Neem gum extract (Azadirachta indica) (NGE) was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) at 100ppm. The NGNF showed significant (100%) antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The LC50 values of 10.20, 12.49 and LC90 values of 32.68, 36.68ppm on H. armigera and S. litura, respectively at 100ppm. The NGNF treatments showed differences in the activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxylesterases, glucosidases and glutathione S-transferases in the larval gut. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 6.25ppm of chemical insecticides (cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 100ppm of NGNF and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. The NGNF were characterized and confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDX analysis. Ten compounds were identified from the Neem gum extract (NGE) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds were fatty acids like Hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, and ricinoleic acid. NGNF could be used as an agent to prepare novel bio-pesticides formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  17. Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts on Nomophila indistinctalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quesada-Romero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vegetal extracts represent an alternative to control against agricultural pests that have become resistant to pesticides. Using natural products is considered to be more friendly to the environment and safe. Aims: To determine the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts of two differents populations in Chile (Valparaiso and Curico against Nomophila indistinctalis larvae. Methods: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC susceptibility test was used to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the extracts at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L; against first instar larvae of Nomophila indistinctalis. The antifeedant activity was evaluated to determine the percentage of consumption in third instar larvae on treatment. Results: When comparing the control and the treatment groups in the antifeedant activity assay, significant differences (p<0.05 were observed after 90 minutes of exposure. With respect to the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed significant effects at the applied concentrations compared to the negative control. Moreover, the dichloromethane extracts of Curico and Valparaiso at concentrations greater than 500 mg/L showed a similar insecticidal activity as compared to the commercial formulation Neem. Conclusions: This work presents for the first time the results of the anti-feeding and insecticide activity of ethanol, methanol, and dichloromethane extracts from Polygonum persicaria on Nomophila indistinctalis. The results show that the extracts of this species can be used as an alternative for biological control. In addition, the results obtained allow a bioguided fractionation for the identification of secondary metabolites present in these extracts.

  18. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  19. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  20. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae as an insect model. The diameter of M. azedarach fruit was in the lower limit in relation to other studies. The flour obtained from green fruit had an average dry weight inferior to that of mature fruit. The average dry leaf weights were similar in both juvenile and mature states. The green fruits had 50% initial humidity, similar to juvenile (60% and mature (57% leaves, but greater than the mature fruits (44%. The chemical analysis of the fruit maturity stages determined a slight increase in crude fiber content as maturity increased. There was a decrease in the lipid content of leaves close to 60% at maturity. Furthermore, an analysis of polyphenols was made using HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector, and 14 compounds were identified as causes of the insecticidal effect of the M. azedarach fruit, of which three would correspond to flavonoids: one catechin and two kaempherols. Finally, the aqueous fruit and leaf extracts of M. azedarach were effective insecticides on D. melanogaster, reaching 90% mortality (125 000 mg kg-1 with juvenile leaves and 73.3% (10 700 mg kg-1 with green fruit.Se estudiaron las características físicas, químicas y las propiedades insecticidas del fruto y hojas de melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae, árbol introducido con fines ornamentales en Chile. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de dos estados de madurez del fruto, verde y maduro, y de las hojas, juveniles y maduras. Las propiedades insecticidas se evaluaron

  1. Assesing the Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Some Botanicals for Control of Field Insects of Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus In Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season to assess the efficacy of leaf extract of some botanicals for production of watermelon (Citrillus lanatus in Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. The treatments consisted of leaf extracts from 3 botanicals: Bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens, Moringa (Moringa oleifera and Pawpaw (Carica papaya and one synthetic insecticide Labdacyalothrin (karate. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated 3 times to form fifteen plots. The results showed that, there was significant effect among the different botanicals used on all the parameters assessed except on the vinelength of watermelon, at various stages of growth in both years. Application of leaf extract of pawpaw gave better performance in all the parameters assessed when compared to the other botanicals in both years. Application of karate produced the best results in both years; while poor result were obtained from the control plots. Application of pawpaw leaf extract conferred high protection on the fruit when compared to other botanicals, which is statistically similar with result of karate in both 2009 and 2010 cropping season. Pawpaw leaf extracts appears to be a better botanical option in watermelon production.

  2. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  3. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  4. et du neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2015 ... 2Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et de Physique Appliquées ; Université de Ouagadougou ; 03 ... Mots clés : tomate ; ravageurs, extraits végétaux, activité insecticide .... production de tomate: après chaque récolte, les fruits.

  5. Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicine is the study of traditional medicines having relevant written sources (Ayurveda, traditional Chinese Medicine as well as those whose knowledge and practices have been orally transmitted over the centuries. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica has been known as the wonder tree for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. It has become important in the global context today because it offers solutions to the multiple concerns faced by mankind. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property and the broad range of biologic activities and pharmacologic actions of Neem tree are very well established. Although literature search reveals that Neem tree has multiple potential uses in dentistry, its application is limited in routine dental practice. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on the potential and immense uses of Neem tree products for oral care, which forms a critical issue in both developing countries where professional dental care is limited and in developed nations where populations are aging.

  6. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  7. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  8. Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Sureshkumar, R S; Anjali, C H; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-11-06

    Azadirachtin a biological compound found in neem have medicinal and pesticidal properties. The present work reports on the encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. Starch and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as coating agents for smooth surface of beads. The SEM images showed beads exhibited nearly spherical shape. Swelling of the polymeric beads reduced with coating which in turn decreased the rate of release of Aza-A. Starch coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion was found to be effective when compared to PEG coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion. The release rate of neem Aza-A from the beads into an aqueous environment was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometer (214 nm). The encapsulated neem oil nanoemulsion have the potential for controlled release of Aza-A. Neem oil nanoemulsion encapsulated beads coated with PEG was found to be toxic in lymphocyte cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... botanical products definition. As used in this subpart, the following term shall mean: Forest botanical... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(Diptera:Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamurugan Chandramohan Kadarkarai Murugan Pari Madhiyazhagan Kalimuthu Kovendan Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar Chellasamy Panneerselvam Devakumar Dinesh Jayapal Subramaniam Rajapandian Rajaganesh Marcello Nicoletti Angelo Canale Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(An.culicifacies).Methods...

  11. A first chronology for the NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Rasmussen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05 from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the Electrical Conductivity Measurement (ECM and Dielectrical Profiling (DEP records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide additional horizons used for the time scale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard–Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age–gas age difference (Δage has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification–heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onsets of interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, and based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed, providing the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  12. Modern systematics, a further botanical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1948-01-01

    As noted in Dr L.G.M. Baas Becking’s Postscript to Mr van Bemmel’s article in Chronica Naturae Vol. 104, part 4, the new systematics has not been entirely neglected by botanists. I would like to put a further botanical vieuwpoint on this subject. Firstly, I suggest that there is no sharp distinction

  13. Phytosociology for Undergraduates with Minimal Botanical Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulder, Raymond; Scott, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how second/third year undergraduates with little prior botanical knowledge, attending a one-week field course in Western Scotland, were enabled to complete within one day an intensive phytosociological exercise. They showed that two stands of heathland vegetation were objectively different through identification of plants,…

  14. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified b

  15. Efficacy of Certain Insecticides on the Population of Chilli Bug, Elasmomia granulipes Ww. (Hemiptera - Coreidae in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lukhoi Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmomia granulipes Ww. has been found to be a serious pest on chillis - Capsicum annum L and C. frutesuns L in Manipur. Efficacy of seven insecticides against it, the application of Dimethoate (0.04 and Endosulfan (0.07 on the crop plant during 2011 and 2012 revealed more effective in minimizing the population of the insect pest. Further, it has been observed that the insecticides do not affect the bio-control agents. As a result of the treatment with these insecticides, the highest yield of crop had been recorded from the treated plot with Dimethoate (0.04 and Endosulfan (0.07 whereas Neem oil fresh and phosalone (0.04% affected insect population at minimum resulting less yield of crops.

  16. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly

  17. Botanical and biological pesticides elicit a similar Induced Systemic Response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretali, Luca; Bernardo, Letizia; Butterfield, Timothy S; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  19. Insecticide Compendium. MP-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Everett W.; And Others

    This document presents information on most of the known insecticides and their general usage, toxicity, formulation, compound type, manufacturers, and the chemical, trade and common names applied to each compound. (CS)

  20. Insecticide Compendium. MP-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Everett W.; And Others

    This document presents information on most of the known insecticides and their general usage, toxicity, formulation, compound type, manufacturers, and the chemical, trade and common names applied to each compound. (CS)

  1. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  2. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of some novel fraxinellone-based esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Yuanyuan; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Yi; Zhi, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Ying; Xu, Hui

    2012-07-18

    In continuation of a program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, two series of novel fraxinellone-based esters were synthesized by modification at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone and evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. An efficient method for the stereoselective synthesis of 4α-hydroxyfraxinellone from fraxinellonone was developed, and the steric configuration of 6h was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Among 37 compounds, some derivatives displayed potent insecticidal activity; especially compounds 6h, 6q, 6t, and 7q showed more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide derived from Melia azedarach . This suggested that introduction of the fluorine atom on the phenyl ring could lead to a more potent compound than one possessing chlorine or bromine. Meanwhile, introduction of the heterocyclic fragments at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone was essential for their insecticidal activity. This will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of fraxinellone as an insecticidal agent.

  3. More about Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available An insecticide is a chemical used to kill insects. Insect control can also include other materials such as repellents, oils, antifeedants and attractants. Ideally, an insecticide would effectively control any target insect exposed to it and would be harmless to man and his domestic animals. It would also be readily available in necessary quantitie s , s table chemically, noninflammable, easily prepared and applied, noncorrosive, non-staining, and would have no undesirable odour.

  4. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Harrison; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic...

  5. Use of neem cake as an organic substrate component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursery and greenhouse growers continue to seek materials to decrease costs of plant production while maintaining environmental stewardship. Incorporation of neem cake as a substrate component could potentially impact nitrogen release as a result of altering substrate bacterial activity. The study...

  6. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  7. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,

  8. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    stability is not a problem for neem oil in a vanishing cream base formulation. Keywords: ... widely distributed in many countries of the world, it is believed that Indians .... application for the data at first month of determination and 12th month.

  9. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  10. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulce

  11. Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71, Neeme Järvi / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71 [World Premiere REcording of the Complete Score]. Hochzeitmarsch aus der Musik zum Drama Die Sprache der Vögel [Wedding March "The Language of the Birds"]. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Ccenter CD 502 (WD:68'28") DDD

  12. Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71, Neeme Järvi / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71 [World Premiere REcording of the Complete Score]. Hochzeitmarsch aus der Musik zum Drama Die Sprache der Vögel [Wedding March "The Language of the Birds"]. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Ccenter CD 502 (WD:68'28") DDD

  13. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Extraction of the residual bitter component (neem seed cake alcoholic extract) ... for 6 h as described by modified method of Mitra (1963) to remove ... Daily feed intake was measured, as decrease in the quantity of weighed ...

  14. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    The Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach, initially developed for the assessment of microorganisms referred to EFSA and added to the food chain is equally applicable to the assessment of botanicals or botanical preparations. Using the principles to establish the suitability of a botanical...... preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... in the development of a comprehensive, systematic and transparent methodology. The Scientific Committee recommends its use as an extension of the 2009 EFSA guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended to be used in food supplements....

  15. Analysis of neem oils by LC-MS and degradation kinetics of azadirachtin-A in a controlled environment. Characterization of degradation products by HPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrek, Sami; Paisse, Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2004-02-01

    Since it was first isolated, the oil extracted from seeds of neem (Azadirachtin indica A juss) has been extensively studied in terms of its efficacy as an insecticide. Several industrial formulations are produced as emulsifiable solutions containing a stated titer of the active ingredient azadirachtin-A (AZ-A). The work reported here is the characterization of a formulation of this insecticide marketed under the name of Neem-azal T/S and kinetic studies of the major active ingredient of this formulation. We initially performed liquid-liquid extraction to isolate the neem oil from other ingredients in the commercial mixture. This was followed by a purification using flash chromatography and semi-preparative chromatography, leading to (13)C NMR identification of structures such as azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, and azadirachtin-H. The neem extract was also characterized by HPLC-MS using two ionization sources, APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) and ESI (electrospray ionization) in positive and negative ion modes of detection. This led to the identification of other compounds present in the extract-azadirachtin-D, azadirachtin-I, deacetylnimbin, deacetylsalannin, nimbin, and salannin. The comparative study of data gathered by use of the two ionization sources is discussed and shows that the ESI source enables the largest number of structures to be identified. In a second part, kinetic changes in the main product (AZ-A) were studied under precise conditions of pH (2, 4, 6, and 8), temperature (40 to 70 degrees C), and light (UV, dark room and in daylight). This enabled us to determine the degradation kinetics of the product (AZ-A) over time. The activation energy of the molecule (75+/-9 kJ mol(-1)) was determined by examining thermal stability in the range 40 to 70 degrees C. The degradation products of this compound were identified by use of HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS-MS. The results enabled proposal of a chemical degradation reaction route for AZ-A under

  16. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Phat Huynh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases.

  17. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  18. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  19. Neem Limonoids as Anticancer Agents: Modulation of Cancer Hallmarks and Oncogenic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile medicinal plants, widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Neem is a rich source of limonoids that are endowed with potent medicinal properties predominantly antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Azadirachtin, gedunin, and nimbolide are more extensively investigated relative to other neem limonoids. Accumulating evidence indicates that the anticancer effects of neem limonoids are mediated through the inhibition of hallmark capabilities of cancer such as cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, inflammation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The neem limonoids have been demonstrated to target oncogenic signaling kinases and transcription factors chiefly, NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Neem limonoids that target multiple pathways that are aberrant in cancer are ideal candidates for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  1. Mortality Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by neem and citronella oils

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Camila Renata Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Mikami, Adriana Yatie; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Pissinati, Aline; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Piva, Leonardo Boiani; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Santos, Odair José Andrade Pais; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Ventura, Maurício Ursi; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2013-01-01

    The effects of neem oil and citronela essential oil, alone or associated on Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) were studied. Three bioassays were achieved. For the first study, treatments were neem oil (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9%.) and control (water). In the second bioassay, treatments were citronella oil (5, 10 15 and 20%) emulsified with coconut soap and control [coconut soap and water (10g / L)]. For the third bioassay, treatments were neem oil and citronella essential oil (1 and 3%), associated or n...

  2. Experimental Analysis of Performance and Emission Parameters of Neem Oil Ethyl Ester and HHO Gas Addition with Neem Oil Ethyl Ester in a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    .... Present work is focussed on analysing experimentally the performance and emission characteristics of Neem oil biodiesel and addition of HHO gas along with Neem oil biodiesel in a single cylinder...

  3. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  4. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, R S; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity studies on human cells are still lacking. The neem NE showed a decrease in cellular viability in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of exposure. The neem NE at lower concentration (0.7-1 mg/mL) is found to be nontoxic while it is toxic at higher concentrations (1.2-2 mg/mL). The oxidative stress induced by the neem NE is evidenced by the depletion of catalase, SOD, and GSH levels in human lymphocytes. Neem NE showed a significant increase in DNA damage when compared to control in human lymphocytes (P<0.05). The NE is an effective antibacterial agent against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus, and it was found to be nontoxic at lower concentrations to human lymphocytes.

  5. Use of plant residues on growth of mycorrhizal seedlings of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte Júnior, Inácio P; Maia, Leonor C; Silva, Fábio S B; Cavalcante, Uided M T

    2012-02-01

    Owing to its multiple uses in veterinary medicine, biofertilizers, pest control, etc., the commercial cultivation of neem (Azadirachta indica) has been increasing in various countries. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant by-products (composted leaves and residues of neem and sugarcane) for the propagation of seedlings can be an efficient alternative to stimulate plant growth, reducing the propagation time and conferring increased tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant substrates and inoculation with AMF on the production of neem seedlings. Beneficial effects of the application of neem by-products to neem seedlings were observed on most of the variables analysed. However, the treatment with sugarcane cake did not improve the growth of neem seedlings. In general, the inoculation treatments using Glomus etunicatum in the composted neem substrates improved seedling growth. Neem by-products benefit the growth of seedlings of this plant under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with G. etunicatum enhances plants growth mainly in substrates with residues of neem leaves, providing an alternative for the production of seedlings of this crop under nursery conditions, which can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers that impact the environment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The use of Neem biomass for the biosorption of zinc from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Mamoona [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Bioprocess Technology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: MNadeem.Zafar@analykem.lu.se; Younis, Sadaf; Nadeem, Raziya [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    An adsorbent was developed from mature leaves and stem bark of the Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree for removing zinc from water. Adsorption was carried out in a batch process with several different concentrations of zinc by varying pH. The uptake of metal was very fast initially, but gradually slowed down indicating penetration into the interior of the adsorbent particles. The data showed that optimum pH for efficient biosorption of zinc by Neem leaves and stem bark was 4 and 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity showed that the Neem biomass had a mass capacity for zinc (147.08 mg Zn/g for Neem leaves and 137.67 mg Zn/g Neem bark). The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic assessment of the metal ion-Neem tree biomass system indicated the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process and {delta}G{sup o} values were evaluated as ranging from -26.84 to -32.75 (Neem leaves) kJ/mol and -26.04 to -29.50 (Neem bark) kJ/mol for zinc biosorption. Due to its outstanding zinc uptake capacity, the Neem tree was proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating zinc from aqueous solutions.

  7. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  8. The Study of Bogor Botanical Garden Ecotourism Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Yusri; Arief Daryanto; Hadi K. Purwadaria

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study were : 1) to improve development of Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, 2) to recommend strategies of development for Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, and 3) to formulate programs that increase value added for Bogor Botanical Garden value chain, especially for involved SME’s. Data collected from survey, in depth interview, and literature was analyzed using descriptive analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis. The results of SWOT analys...

  9. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  10. The Study of Bogor Botanical Garden Ecotourism Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Yusri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study were : 1 to improve development of Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, 2 to recommend strategies of development for Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, and 3 to formulate programs that increase value added for Bogor Botanical Garden value chain, especially for involved SME’s. Data collected from survey, in depth interview, and literature was analyzed using descriptive analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis. The results of SWOT analysis indicated that the strength of The Bogor Botanical Garden value chain was the well known Bogor Botanical Garden, the weakness was lack of investment to improve the Bogor Botanical Garden, the opportunity was the support of government, and the threat was the growing of ecotourism competitor. Recommended strategies were : 1 relying on the strenghts of Bogor Botanical Garden as a focal point of the plus ecoedutourism programs, 2 improving quality of human resources at each value chain, 3 increasing investment for the development of value chain, and 4 marketing Bogor Botanical Garden as past of various integrated packages with other tourism objective in Indonesia.Keywords: Bogor Botanical Garden, Ecotourism Value Chain, SWOT Analysis

  11. Repellent efficacy of DEET, MyggA, neem (Azedirachta indica) oil and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) oil against Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiy, Ephrem; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-05-03

    In Ethiopia, Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in the country and its control mainly involves application of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Although the role of repellents for reducing man-vector contact is documented in the literature, the response of An. arabiensis to repellents was not previously evaluated under field conditions in Ethiopia. The trial was conducted in Sodere village assessing the repellent activities of four repellents, of which, two of them were commercially available DEET (N, N-diethyl-1,3-methylbenzamide) and MyggA (p-methane diol) and the other two were laboratory- produced, 20% neem oil and 20% chinaberry oil. A 6 by 6 Latin square design was employed by involving six volunteers who received rotated treatments of repellents and the Ethiopian Niger seed, noog abyssinia (Guizotia abyssinia), and locally called as noog oil (diluents to the two plant oils). Each volunteer also served as control. Volunteers were positioned at a distance of 20-40 m from each other and each was treated with one of the repellents, Niger seed/noog/ oil or untreated. Landing mosquitoes were collected from dusk to down using tests tubes. The tests were done in three replicates. Both DEET and MyggA provided more than 96% protection. The mean protection time for DEET was 8 hrs while the time for MyggA was 6 hrs. Protection obtained from neem oil and chinaberry oil was almost similar (more than 70%), however, the complete protection time for neem was 3 hrs, while that of chinaberry oil was one hour. The commercial products and laboratory-produced repellents can be utilized by individuals to avoid contact with An. arabiensis in Ethiopia.

  12. Bioatividade de nanoformulações de nim sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Bioactivity of neem nanoformulations on tomato pinworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas inseticidas é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo de insetos-praga. Visando ao controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, nanoformulações de nim foram avaliadas. Após a estimativa de uma CL50 para uma formulação de óleo comercial de nim, bioensaios de seleção foram realizados com 22 nanoformulações. Para isso, lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas sobre folíolos tratados com soluções das nanoformulações durante 10 dias. Com as duas nanoformulações mais promissoras, NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó (NC 40=nanocápsulas de Poli- β-hidroxibutirato, foi avaliado o efeito sobre o desenvolvimento e a longevidade do inseto. A CL50 para o óleo de nim foi estimada em 0,20% ou 1,31mgL-1 de azadiractina. As nanoformulações NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto.The use of insecticide plants is an important tool in the management of insect pests. Aiming to control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, neem nanoformulations were evaluated. After estimating the LC50 for a commercial neem oil formulation, selection bioassays were performed with 22 nanoformulations. In order to do that, newly emerged caterpillars were fed on leaflets treated with nanoformulation solutions for 10 days. The effect on the development and longevity of the insect was evaluated with the two most promising nanoformulations, aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 (NC 40 = Poly-β-hydroxibutirate nanocapsules. The LC50 for neem oil was estimated in 0.20% or 1.31mgL-1 of azadiractin. The nanoformulations aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 affected the insect development.

  13. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Slob, Wout; Galli, Corrado; Silano, Vittorio

    2008-08-15

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety experts and regulators of risks associated with the use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in food including food supplements. It is becoming clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that, in modern society, adverse health effects can occur as a result of (mis)use. With the growing awareness of these issues efforts to ensure safety of botanicals and botanical ingredients are also increasing. Several guidance documents on safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations to be used as ingredients in food and food supplements have been published, although, at present, relevant legislative frameworks and guidances for risk assessment are not established yet. Furthermore, when defining possible guidance documents for risk assessment of botanicals, several issues emerge that need to be developed beyond the present state-of-the-art. The present paper describes some of the issues to be considered and developed to a further extent to improve risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations, illustrated by examples based on some allylalkoxybenzenes. It is concluded that, for an improved and more accurate future risk assessment of botanicals, it is necessary to further develop and validate: (i) the use of the margin of exposure (MOE) concept for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic; (ii) new ways to quantify and incorporate matrix effects into risk assessment strategies; (iii) the use of analytical chemistry approaches, enabling complete chemical characterisation of complex mixtures. Defining new approaches in risk assessment would be in line with the inspiring attitude of the late Professor Robert Kroes, who, for example by supporting the

  14. 40 CFR 180.1161 - Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1161 Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil...

  15. Deformation of Eemian and Glacial ice at NEEM, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Kaitlin; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Montagnat, Maurine; Weikusat, Ilka; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2015-04-01

    New findings from deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images show that basal ice flow is very unstable, and a basal layer of disturbed ice is often observed. At NEEM, Greenland this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, suggesting that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy (Burke, 1957) and ice (Hammer et al., 1978; Langway et al., 1988; Dahl-Jensen et al., 1997), suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution, and therefore deformation, which we hypothesize to be analogous to the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  16. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  17. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  18. The Botanic Garden of Tver State University

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Botanic Garden of Tver State University is situated at the meeting place of the Volga and Tvertza rivers. It is one of the main green spaces of Tver. The history of the Garden goes back to 1879. It was planted by the merchant Ilya Bobrov at the former territory of Otroch monastery. After the October Revolution the Garden be- came national property and was used as a leisure center. The main planting occurred between 1938 and 1941 but a great number of plants disappeared during ...

  19. Aqueous extract of neem leaves in treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A double blind clinical drug trial was conducted to see the efficacy of an indigenous drug made up of aqueous extract of Neem leaves in 50 cases of uncomplicated psoriasis taking conventional coal tar regime. Patients taking drug in addition to coal tar had shown a quicker and better response in comparison to placebo group. No any untoward effect was noticed during the period of trial. Probable mode of action is discussed.

  20. Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2013-03-25

    The anticholinesterase (antiChE) organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades. About 90 of these compounds are still in use - the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally (where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs) but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity. Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP450 oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others. Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. The current market for OPs and MCs of 19% of worldwide insecticide sales is only half of that of 10 years ago for several reasons: there have been no major new compounds for 30 years; resistance has eroded their effectiveness; human toxicity problems are still encountered; the patents have expired reducing the incentive to update registration packages; alternative chemotypes or control methods have been developed. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down

  1. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus, Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The objective of this work is to give known to the different biorational insecticides and their biological effects (inhibitor, insect repellent, larvicide, adulticide, that can be used to combat to different development stages of these insects. As well as show the progress of a study on the effectiveness of neem extracts, garlic, cinnamon, albahaca and cypermethrin at low doses (0.25,0.5 and 1ml/L, for control of larvae and adults of black flies in the unicipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa. By the mode of action, the biorational that can doing use for the control of theseinsects were: Spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner var. israeliensis for larvae control, Spinosad and Beauveria bassiana (Vuill. for adults; as well as extracts of neem, garlic, cinnamon and albahaca for both stages. The preliminary results of the study showed that the effectiveness application in tourist sites, through aerial spraying of cypermethrin at low doses and the plants extracts, allow low the index of larvae and infestation of mosquitoes and blackflies, decreasing the discomfort caused by these insects in the place of study.

  2. Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Sanders, Alan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sanders, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 520 - 2GH Grieg: Land Sighting, Op.32, Olav Trygvason, Op.50, Per Gynt Suites N1,Op.46, N2,Op.55. Randi Stene, Anne Gjevang, Hakan Hagegard, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 523 - 2 GH

  3. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The result concluded that Neem oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with more lecithin content in their colloid exhibit sustained effect which satisfactorily produced the antibacterial action on Acne microbes. Therefore Neem oil loaded SLN was used successfully for prolonged treatment of Acne.

  4. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  5. Mechanism of neem limonoids-induced cell death in cancer: Role of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Neelu; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Rahul; Srivastava, Pragya; Sun, Leimin; Rapali, Peter; Marlowe, Timothy; Schneider, Andrea; Inigo, Joseph R; O'Malley, Jordan; Londonkar, Ramesh; Gogada, Raghu; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Yadava, Nagendra; Chandra, Dhyan

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that neem limonoids (neem) induce multiple cancer cell death pathways. Here we dissect the underlying mechanisms of neem-induced apoptotic cell death in cancer. We observed that neem-induced caspase activation does not require Bax/Bak channel-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, permeability transition pore, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Neem enhanced mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biomass. While oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex-I activity was decreased, the activities of other OXPHOS complexes including Complex-II and -IV were unaltered. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were associated with an increase in mitochondrial biomass and apoptosis upon neem exposure. Complex-I deficiency due to the loss of Ndufa1-encoded MWFE protein inhibited neem-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, but cell death induction was enhanced. Complex II-deficiency due to the loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) robustly decreased caspase activation, apoptosis, and cell death. Additionally, the ablation of Complexes-I, -III, -IV, and -V together did not inhibit caspase activation. Together, we demonstrate that neem limonoids target OXPHOS system to induce cancer cell death, which does not require upregulation or activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Sanders, Alan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sanders, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 520 - 2GH Grieg: Land Sighting, Op.32, Olav Trygvason, Op.50, Per Gynt Suites N1,Op.46, N2,Op.55. Randi Stene, Anne Gjevang, Hakan Hagegard, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 523 - 2 GH

  7. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  8. Building a World-class Botanical Garden in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) should be developed into a first-class botanical garden in Asia as the first step, and then, after development over a period of time, rank among the leading ones in the world, urges CAS President Lu Yongxiang on his recent inspection trip to SCBG,which is under large-scale reconstruction.

  9. Bioefficacy of botanical insecticides against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioefficacy of plant extracts viz., whole plants of Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), leaves of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae), Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae), and aerial parts of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the early third instar larvae at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Sphaeranthus indicus (201.11ppm) and hexane extract of Abutilon indicum (261.31ppm) was found to be effective. Conclusions: Further in-depth investigations on the crude extract/phytotoxic compounds of Sphaeranthus indicus are needed to elucidate the larvicidal activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity in Aedesaegypti should be identified, and small scale field trials are needed for usage of this plant as a mosquitocidal agent.

  10. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  11. Content of trace elements and chromium speciation in Neem powder and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Total concentrations of selected trace elements in Neem powder and in Neem tea were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that despite high total concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Al and Ni in Neem powder, their amounts dissolved in Neem tea were low. Total concentrations of the other toxic elements Pb, As and Cd were also very low and do not represent a health hazard. In contrast, total concentrations of the essential elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Se Mo and Cr in Neem powder were high and also considerable in Neem tea. Consuming one cup of Neem tea (2g per 200 mL of water) covers the recommended daily intakes for Cr and Se and represents an important source of Mo and Cu. Speciation analysis of Cr by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS with the use of enriched Cr isotopic tracers to follow species interconversions during the analytical procedure demonstrated that toxic Cr(VI) was not present either in Neem powder or in Neem tea. Its concentrations were below the limits of detection of the HPLC-ICP-MS procedure applied. The speciation analysis data confirmed that even Cr(VI) was added, it was rapidly reduced by the presence of antioxidants in Neem leaves. By the use of enriched Cr isotopic spike solutions it was also demonstrated that for obtaining reliable analytical data it is essential to apply the extraction procedures which prevent Cr species interconversions, or to correct for species transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  13. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  14. William Keit and the Durban Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. McCracken

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available William Keit was born in Saxony in 1841 and in early life travelled across Europe working in many famous nurseries and gardens. In 1872 on the recommendation of the director of Kew Gardens, Keit emigrated to Natal to become curator of the Durban Botanic Garden. So dilapidated was this garden that Keit was faced with the task of virtually re-establishing it.Though he was largely successful in this endeavour, as he was in fortifying the link between Natal and Kew, Keit could not solve the problems of a severe drought,a labour shortage and a scarcity of funds. In 1881 he resigned his position leaving a solid foundation on which the renowned botanist, John Medley Wood was to build. Keit in later Ufe ran a successful nursery in Durban and for 30 years was curator of the Parks and Gardens Department,in which capacity he did more than anyone else to beautify Durban.

  15. William Keit and the Durban Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. McCracken

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available William Keit was born in Saxony in 1841 and in early life travelled across Europe working in many famous nurseries and gardens. In 1872 on the recommendation of the director of Kew Gardens, Keit emigrated to Natal to become curator of the Durban Botanic Garden. So dilapidated was this garden that Keit was faced with the task of virtually re-establishing it.Though he was largely successful in this endeavour, as he was in fortifying the link between Natal and Kew, Keit could not solve the problems of a severe drought,a labour shortage and a scarcity of funds. In 1881 he resigned his position leaving a solid foundation on which the renowned botanist, John Medley Wood was to build. Keit in later Ufe ran a successful nursery in Durban and for 30 years was curator of the Parks and Gardens Department,in which capacity he did more than anyone else to beautify Durban.

  16. Constipation and Botanical Medicines: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Carla; Capasso, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    Constipation affects 14% of the adult population globally, mainly women, and significantly impacts on health-related quality of life. The causes of constipation are mainly three: lifestyle related (functional constipation), disease related, and drug induced. Constipation can generate considerable suffering, including abdominal pain and distension, anorexia, and nausea. The value of some therapeutic measures such as increased fluid intake, physical activity, diet rich in fiber, and nutritional supplements recommended for the relief of constipation is still questionable. The treatment of constipation can be carried out not only with traditional drugs but also with herbal medicines or with nutraceuticals, which are used to prevent or treat the disorder. We have reviewed the most common botanical laxatives such as senna, cascara, frangula, aloe, and rhubarb and their use in the treatment of constipation.

  17. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  18. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  19. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  20. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  1. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPOSOMAL NEEM GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMITA SINGH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Liposomal formulations have been successfully used in the treatment of a number of dermatological diseases. Various synthetic as well as herbal drugs are incorporated into liposome to improve its efficacy. Incorporation of herbal extract into liposome reduces side effects which are associated with the synthetic ones. Azadirachta indica leaves possesse good anti bacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds of neem. Among aqueous extract and alcoholic extract, alcoholic leaf extracts of A. indica were found to be more active towards the bacterial species. Hence, this extract was incorporated into liposomes to enhance its activity in skin delivery. The objective of the present research work is to convert this age old miraculous herb into nanotechnology based formulations i.e. liposomes. An attempt has been made to prepare liposomal Neem gel for topical use for anti-microbial activity. Methods: Methanolic Neem Extract (MeNE was incorporated into liposomes by thin film hydration method. The batch having lipid ratio i.e. Soya lecithin: Cholesterol (4:1; MeNE concentration 80 mg with entrapment efficiency 69.52 ±1.9% was finalized. Results and Conclusions: The vesicle size was found to be 3.2μm ± 0.67. In vitro drug diffusion and skin retention from liposomal gel was found to be 62.178% ± 0.91 and 20.03% ± 0.63 respectively. Stability studies indicated that formulation was stable over a period of 3 months when stored at 2-8°C.

  3. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  5. Neem (Azadirachta indica):Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80%of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  6. Botanical studies in the Arctic National Wildlife Range: Field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a botanical study in the Arctic National Wildlife Range during 1970. Cooperative studies on flora and fauna were done on selected sites. Sites include...

  7. toxicity bioassays of four different botanicals against the house hold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Studies were carried out on the toxicity of the powders of four botanicals on Periplaneta ameri- ... drates to proteins or fats, however, when they ... Increased public concerns regarding the safety .... mainly volatile oils, have been put into good.

  8. Construction starts for largest botanical garden in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The cornerstone was laid on 30 May for the Qinling Botanical Garden, which boasts the world's largest one in terms of space, in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an, capital of northwest China's Shaanxi Province.

  9. Addressing the threat to biodiversity from botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2011-04-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the role that botanic gardens might have in plant invasions across the globe. Botanic gardens, often in global biodiversity hotspots, have been implicated in the early cultivation and/or introduction of most environmental weeds listed by IUCN as among the worst invasive species worldwide. Furthermore, most of the popular ornamental species in living collections around the globe have records as alien weeds. Voluntary codes of conduct to prevent the dissemination of invasive plants from botanic gardens have had limited uptake, with few risk assessments undertaken of individual living collections. A stronger global networking of botanic gardens to tackle biological invasions involving public outreach, information sharing and capacity building is a priority to prevent the problems of the past occurring in the future.

  10. Botanic gardens science for conservation and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, John S

    2009-11-01

    The contributions of botanic gardens to conservation biology and global-change research need to be understood within the context of the traditional strengths of such gardens in herbarium collections, living collections and interactions with the public. Here, I propose that research in conservation planning, modelling species responses to climate change, conservation of threatened species and experimental tests of global change build on the core strengths of botanic gardens. However, there are limits to what can be achieved through traditional gardens-based programs, and some botanic gardens have adapted their research to include studies of threatening processes and to monitor and verify global-change impacts. There is an opportunity for botanic gardens to use their living collections more effectively in global-change research and for them to have a role in linking biodiversity conservation with benefits derived from ecosystem services.

  11. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-05-16

    May 16, 2009 ... production and protection challenges such as diseases, insect pests ... Pest management innovations are ... The botanicals and other indigenous products locally used by small ..... Credit Constraints as a Barrier to Technology.

  12. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mi-Young Yoon; Byeongjin Cha; Jin-Cheol Kim

    2013-01-01

    Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized...

  13. Botanicals in dermatology: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Merfort, Irmgard; Schempp, Christoph M

    2010-01-01

    Botanical extracts and single compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics but also in over-the-counter drugs and food supplements. The focus of the present review is on controlled clinical trials with botanicals in the treatment of acne, inflammatory skin diseases, skin infections, UV-induced skin damage, skin cancer, alopecia, vitiligo, and wounds. Studies with botanical cosmetics and drugs are discussed, as well as studies with botanical food supplements. Experimental research on botanicals was considered to a limited extent when it seemed promising for clinical use in the near future. In acne therapy, Mahonia, tea tree oil, and Saccharomyces may have the potential to become standard treatments. Mahonia, Hypericum, Glycyrrhiza and some traditional Chinese medicines appear promising for atopic dermatitis. Some plant-derived substances like dithranol and methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) [in combination with UVA] are already accepted as standard treatments in psoriasis; Mahonia and Capsicum (capsaicin) are the next candidates suggested by present evidence. Oral administration and topical application of antioxidant plant extracts (green and black tea, carotenoids, coffee, and many flavonoids from fruits and vegetables) can protect skin from UV-induced erythema, early aging, and irradiation-induced cancer. Hair loss and vitiligo are also traditional fields of application for botanicals. According to the number and quality of clinical trials with botanicals, the best evidence exists for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, i.e. atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However, many more controlled clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy and risks of plant-derived products in dermatology. Safety aspects, especially related to sensitization and photodermatitis, have to be taken into account. Therefore, clinicians should not only be informed of the beneficial effects but also the specific adverse effects of botanicals used for dermatologic disorders and

  14. Botanical Gardens and Collecting of Plants in the Light of the Metamorphosis of Botanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Unetič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late 18th and early 19th century, the collecting of exotic plants became a fashion that took hold of European courts, and was followed by many noblemen, intellectuals, gardeners and others. It was not only popular to grow new plants in gardens, collecting them in herbaria or illustrating and enumerating them in catalogues, but was also important to develop botanical knowledge to enable the owners of the plants to use and present them. In Carniola we can observe this interest in botany in the cases of Baron Joseph Erberg, Barons Žiga and Karl Zois, Jesuit Gabriel Gruber as well as many others. Baron Erberg's activity is recorded in archives which include lively correspondence concerning plant collecting, the exchange and purchase of plants and other botanical matters. So we can see that among plant lovers in Carniola foreign plants such as pelargonium, agave and hydrangea were popular and that they had a special role in gardens devoted especially to exotic plants. The collecting of exotic plants is not just a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but can be traced back to early civilisations such the Assyrians and ancient Chinese and was also notable in a the 16th and 17th centuries with their cabinets of curiosities. But studying the botanical collection of exotic and new (or newly defined plants gardens of the late 18th and early 19th centuries shows us that although we can recognize some of the old “habits” in the process of collecting (collecting of rare, fascinating plants or collecting plants to demonstrate imperial power the social changes in the 18th century left their trace also in this aspect of human activity. Thus we can understand plant collecting of this time as a decline and metamorphosis of the former natural cabinets of curiosities. In botanical gardens of the late 18th and early 19th century we see the development of science of botany, the rise of the amateur botanist, a different perception of nature

  15. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  16. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Neeme Järvi / Joachim Salau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salau, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Auszüge aus Das Märchen von der steinernen Blume. Gennadij Roshdestwenskij (Sprecher), Philharmonia Chorus, Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9095

  18. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... The rooted plants were transplanted to pots for hardening. Key words: .... Plant regeneration in neem was reported ..... induce shoot differentiation and complete plantlet development ... Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 34: 13-18.

  19. Effect of Neem containing Toothpaste on Plaque and Gingivitis--A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Sam, George; Khan, S Nubesh; Chaithanya, K H; Abdul, Nishad

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of toothpaste containing neem on plaque and gingivitis. Randomized, double blind clinical trial was designed. Thirty first year dental students volunteered to participate in the study. Neem containing tooth paste was used as an intervention. Clinical examination was carried out using Silness and Loe plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI). Independent t-test and paired t-test was used for the intergroup and the intragroup comparison. Out of 30 participants, 22 (73.3%) were females and eight (26.7%) were males. A statistically significant difference was found between the test and control group after intervention with respect to the PI and GI. Neem containing toothpaste can be used as an adjunct for maintenance of oral hygiene. Regular brushing with neem toothpaste might act as an adjunct to maintenance of good oral hygiene, and thus improve oral health.

  20. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IMPACT OF MONOCROTOPHOS AND NEEM OIL MIXTURE ON DEFOLIATOR MANGMENT IN GROUNDNUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SAHAYARAJ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrated effect of intercropping, a synthetic pesticide (monocrotopas (M and neem based biopesticide (neem oil - 2% (NO on three-groundnut defoliators damage and also the groundnut production was studied. The monocrotopas and neem oil combination was found to be very effective in reducing the defoliator infestation. Defoliator’s incidence was signifi cantly higher in untreated plots, resulting in signifi cantly lower yield (1539.03 Kg h-1. The groundnut yield was increased (2011.18 Kg h-1 when monocrotophos and neem oil mixture was applied than monocrotophos (1877.77 Kg h-1 and control categories. The estimated avoidable groundnut and black gram yield loss were lower in monocrotopas.

  2. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  3. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  4. Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, Neeme Järvi / Gerhard Pätzig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pätzig, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, (Vorspiel und Konzertsuiten zu Shakespeares Drama), Cassazione, Op.6, Preludio, Tiera. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". BIS/ Disco-Center CD 448 71'43") DDD

  5. Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, Neeme Järvi / Gerhard Pätzig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pätzig, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, (Vorspiel und Konzertsuiten zu Shakespeares Drama), Cassazione, Op.6, Preludio, Tiera. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". BIS/ Disco-Center CD 448 71'43") DDD

  6. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  8. Ultra structural study of the rat cheek epithelium treated with Neem extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Khatoon, Nasira; Ghaffar, Rizwana Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neem extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ultrastructure of the rat oral epithelium, because neem extract has been added in the tooth paste as an anti-plaque-forming substance in Asian countries. The non-toxic dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of Neem extract (NBE) was applied daily to the surface of buccal epithelium for four weeks and controls did not receive Neem extract. After four weeks cheek epithelial tissues were excised and processed for light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy did not show significant differences between NBE-treated and control epithelium. Difference between control and treated rats weight was non-significant. Moreover, time period was also non-significant. Irregular cell surfaces were noticed when compared to control specimens when examined by scanning electron microscopy. Under transmission electron microscopy, wider intercellular spaces were observed in the treated epithelial spinous cellular layers when compared to control. Further, more keratohyalin granules were present in experimental granular cells. It was concluded that present study showed differences between Neem-treated and control in epithelial tissues but these structural differences may not be related to adverse side effects of the Neem extract.

  9. Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency. Agar well diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial efficacy with saline as control. The zone of inhibition was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically with the help of IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics version 20 using analysis of variance test. All the three medicaments showed well-defined and comparable zones of inhibition around their respective wells. All values were significantly higher than the control group. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between zone diameters of chlorhexidine, neem leaf extract, and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis (p neem leaf extract shows comparable zones of inhibition with that of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Neem leaf extract has significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and thus opens the perspectives for the use of neem extract as an intracanal medication.

  10. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Vijayan; Shaik Aafreen; S. Sakthivel; K. Ravindra Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the treatment of acne and pimples as well as improves skin elasticity by solid lipid nanoparticles(SLNs) loadedNeem oil.Method:Neem oil as a natural agent was incorporated intoSLNs prepared by double emulsification method using different concentration of lecithin andTween80.The characteristics ofSLNs with different concentration of lipid were investigated.Result:The average particlesize ofNeem oil loadedSLNs decreased with increasing concentration of surfactant.SLNs of(221.6±2.0) nm with aPolydispersity index of (0.948±0.040) were obtained at higher concentration of lipid and surfactant.High entrapment efficiency of82.10% revealed the ability of solid lipid nanoparticles to incorporate a high quantity ofNeem oil.Furthermore the stability ofSLNs indicated with negligible drug leakage after3 weeks.Conclusion:The result concluded thatNeem oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with more lecithin content in their colloid exhibit sustained effect which satisfactorily produced the antibacterial action onAcne microbes.ThereforeNeem oil loadedSLN was used successfully for prolonged treatment ofAcne.

  13. An extract of neem leaves reduces anxiety without causing motor side effects in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxter, K A; Young, L E; Young, R E; Parshad, O; Addae, J

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety modulation often requires pharmaceutical intervention, and though effective in the short-term, benzodiazepines may cause impaired motor function. As a potential alternative, anxiety-modulating effects of a neem leaf (Azadirachta indica, A Juss) extract were investigated using ethological analysis of rat behaviour on an elevated X maze and compared with diazepam treatment. Sexually immature female Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.07 or 7 mg/kg neem leaf steroidal extract, a sham injection, a 1% DMSO/saline vehicle, 2 mg/kg diazepam or no treatment one hour prior to a recorded five-minute exploration of the elevated X maze. Neem matched diazepam in anxiety reduction as both treatments caused a decrease in per cent protected stretched-attend postures (PPSAP). Neem treatment had no effect on closed arm entries or total rears, distinguishing it pharmacologically from diazepam which resulted in a predictable decrease in those locomotor measures. Whereas both neem and diazepam reduced anxiety in complex ethological behavioural indices, only neem produced anxiolysis without motor deficiency.

  14. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO (acetic acid & citric acid, were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control after three consecutive sprays of TNAU NO(C 2% and TNAU NO(A 2% was 78.3 and 75.2 percent, respectively. The newly extracted and unformulated neem oil, though found inferior to the formulated one, still found to cause 50% and 70% reduction in damage caused by thrips at two and three rounds of sprays, making it useful in pest management. Organoleptic tests conducted on cardamom capsules sprayed with neem oil revealed no significant difference in taste, aroma, and overall acceptability of cow milk boiled with cardamom. Thus, TNAU NO (A and C 2% was found effective against cardamom thrips with no adverse organoleptic properties and can be recommended.

  15. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Camptothecin Derivatives Containing Analogs of Chrysanthemic Acid Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Li; ZHANG Lan; CAO Li-dong; XIE Ru-liang; ZHANG Yan-ning; HE Wei-zhi; JIANG Hong-yun

    2014-01-01

    Creating high-efifcient and environment-friendly pesticides is very important to produce the pollution free agriculture food and maintain the balance of the survival environmental of the human being. According to reports, camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives are now being explored as a class of botanical insecticide in agriculture due to its novel mode of action. In order to improve the insecticidal activity of CPT, ten novel camptothecin (1) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (2) derivatives (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e;2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e) were designed and synthesized via esteriifcation with analogs of chrysanthemic acid, which have outstanding insecticidal activity. The results showed that compound 2a exhibited potent antifeeding effect and the best contact toxicity among the target compounds against the third-instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner. Compound 2a was also found to be the most effective cytotoxic compound to the tested insect cell lines, IOZCAS-Spex-II, which were established from the fat bodies of S. exigua. It was proposed that the 10-hydroxyl group in the camptothecin derivatives is a key factor for the antifeeding activity of a compound. The nature of the substituents was considered the major factor in determining the insecticidal activity of these compounds.

  16. Professional and consumer insecticides for management of adult Japanese beetle on hybrid tea rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Krischik, Vera A

    2007-06-01

    In many states, Japanese beetle, Popilliajaponica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae), is no longer quarantined, and management is left to professional applicators and consumers. Adult management in hybrid tea rose, Rosa L., was compared among biorational insecticides, novel imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip), and conventional insecticides. Efficacy of biorational insecticides used by consumers varied widely and may not offer predictable management: mortality was 3.0% with Garlic Barrier, 5.0% with Monterey Neem Oil, 15.1% with Pygenic (1.4% pyrethrins), and 27.3% with Orange Guard (D-limonene). Only JB Killer (0.02% pyrethrins plus 0.2% piperonyl butoxide) had mortality of 90.9%, probably due to piperonyl butoxide. Professional biorationals did not show significant mortality: 7.7% with Azatin XL (azadirachtin) and 3.7% Conserve (spinosad). In contrast, conventional insecticides demonstrated significant mortality; 88.4% with Decathlon 20 WP (cyfluthrin) and 83.3% with Discus SC (imidacloprid plus cyfluthrin). New imidacloprid applications (tablet, gel, and root dip) worked as well as standard drench and granular methods, but they showed 9.1-42.7% mortality. However, beetles were incapacitated as demonstrated by inability to walk (82-106-s flip time) compared with controls (30-s flip time). No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatments. However, some imidacloprid treatments produced growth enhancement: higher leaf chlorophyll (1X, 3X granular, and one tablet), and larger leaf area and higher nitrogen (3X granular, drench). The highest (active ingredient) imidacloprid was in 3X granular treatment, which in an unplanned infestation, showed highest numbers of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Effects of imidacloprid on leaf quality and mite outbreaks deserves research.

  17. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification.

  18. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  19. Biodegradable Detergents from Azadirachta Indica (neem Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodegradable detergent from Azadirachta Indica (neem seed oil was studied in this work. The synthesized detergent was characterised and compared with commercially available detergents. 33g of biodegradable detergent was produced from 30ml of the oil. In the foamability test, the height of liquid and foam of detergent rose to 3cm in a 250ml beaker thus indicating its effectiveness since it compared favourably with the foam heights of commercial detergents. The surface tension of solution of 5g of the synthesized detergent in 100ml of water determined to be 0.00523 N/m was found to be better that of the commercial detergent of same concentration. The oxygen demand for a solution of the synthesized detergents over a five day period found to be 0.4ppm indicated it was biodegradable.

  20. Neem Oil and Crop Protection: From Now to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Estefânia V. R.; de Oliveira, Jhones L.; Pascoli, Mônica; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. In current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. In this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. However, limitations of biopesticides, including short shelf life, photosensitivity, and volatilization, make it difficult to use them on a large scale. Here, we review the potential use of neem oil in crop protection, considering the gaps and obstacles associated with the development of sustainable agriculture in the not too distant future. PMID:27790224

  1. Neem oil and crop protection: from now to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. A major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. In this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. However, limitations of biopesticides, including short shelf life, photosensitivity, and volatilization, make it difficult to use them on a large scale. Here, we investigate the potential use of neem oil in crop protection, considering the gaps and obstacles associated with the development of sustainable agriculture in the not too distant future.

  2. Effect of Neem seed kernel extract on the incidence of major pest (tukra in mulberry leaves on excretory products in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaindira P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides over a period of time cannot sustain the crop yield and also harmful effects on soil and environment. Mulberry leaves are the predominant food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori rearing. The incidence of Pink mealy bug occurring in mulberry plantation can cause tukra disease that leads to qualitative loss of mulberry plantation. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of neem seed kernel extract having potential against the pests and insects as natural botanicals origin by foliar spray. The seed kernel extract of Azadirachta indica sprayed to occurring mealy bugs at the early cause of infection to V1 mulberry variety and reared to Silkworm. The total ammonia, urea and uric acid parameters were studied in tissue like haemolymph. The ammonia and uric acid activity gradually increased this increase however was significant at (P>0.05. There were a gradual decrease of urea level from day 3 to day 6, this decrease was however non-significant. Foliar spray of seed kernel extract hold greater promise for control of tukra infested mulberry leaves and did not affect the excretory system in silkworms.

  3. Eficiência e efeitos subletais de nim sobre Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Efficiency and sublethal effects of neem on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência e os efeitos subletais de um inseticida à base de nim (10 g.L-1 de azadiractina A sobre a lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota salubricola em laboratório. Nos bioensaios, foi utilizado o produto à base de azadiractina NeemAzal-T/S® nas concentrações de 0,06%; 0,09%; 0,12%; 0,16%; 0,18% e 0,20% do produto comercial (p.c e uma testemunha (água destilada. A dieta artificial foi cortada em cubos e imersa nas caldas das respectivas concentrações do produto, e, em seguida, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas para tubos de vidro, contendo os cubos de dieta tratados. Quando a dieta artificial foi tratada com concentração de 0,20% do produto comercial, houve 100% da mortalidade aos 6 dias após a inoculação. Por outro lado, as concentrações de 0,16 e 0,18% prolongaram a fase larval, reduziram a viabilidade de pupas e afetaram negativamente a fecundidade do inseto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and sublethal effects of neem insecticide (10 g.L-1 of azadirachtin A to the leafroller Bonagota salubricola at laboratory condition. In the bioassays, it was used an azadirachtin based product (NeemAzal-T/S® at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.09%, 0.12%, 0.16%, 0.18% and 0.20% of the commercial product (c.p. and a control (distilled water. The artificial diet was cut in cubes and immersed in the syrups of the respective product concentrations, soon afterwards recently-emerged caterpillars were transferred to glass tubes, containing the diet cubes treated. When the artificial diet was treated with a concentration of 0.20% of the commercial product, the mortality was 100% at the 6th day after inoculation. Additionally, concentrations of 0.16% and 0.18% extended the larval stages, reduced pupae viability and negatively affected the fecundity of the insect.

  4. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used

  5. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  6. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    /botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misidentification/s’ and ‘interaction/s’ in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically......The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...

  7. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAYODE Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed.

  8. A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (Δage) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  9. Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil-Nathan eSengottayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β- glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.1, lipases (EC 3.1.1 Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST, glutathione S-transferase (GST and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.3.1.3.1 and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.3.1.3.2 are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail.

  10. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  11. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC505 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of a foliar neem formulation on colonization and mortality of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on collard plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of foliar sprays of a selected neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) product (GOS Neem 7-Way) on colonization and development by the Middle-East Asia Minor-1 (= B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on collard (Brassica oleracea variety...

  13. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the costs of any environmental or other analysis. The fair market value of forest botanical products... botanical product's fair market value. All other aspects related to the sale of forest botanical products... products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  14. Nutraceuticals and botanicals: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    The discovery, development and marketing of food supplements, nutraceuticals and related products are currently the fastest growing segments of the food industry. Functional foods can be considered part or borderline to these products and may be defined as foods or food ingredients that have additional health or physiological benefits over and above the normal nutritional value they provide. This trend is driven by several factors, mainly due to the current consumer perceptions: the first and dominant being 'Natural is good', and other secondary, such as the increasing cost of many pharmaceuticals and their negative secondary effects, the insistent marketing campaign, the increasing perception of the need of a healthy diet and its importance in the health and homeostasis organism conditions. However, the central point is that nutraceuticals, botanicals and other herbal remedies, including the entry of new functional foods, are important because of their acceptance as the novel and modern forms to benefit of natural substances. Due to the rapid expansion in this area, the development of several aspects is considered as it could influence the future of the market of these products negatively: an imbalance existing between the increasing number of claims and products on the one hand, the development of policies to regulate their application and safety on the other, rapid and valuable controls to check the composition, including the plant extracts or adulteration to improve efficacy, like the presence of synthetic drugs. It is interesting to see that, from the negative factors reported by the market analysts, a change in consumers preferences is absent. The functional properties of many plant extracts, in particular, are being investigated for potential use as novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly improving, the central aspect concerns the validation of these products. The first step of this crucial aspect is

  15. A study on antioxidant and apoptotic effect of Azadirachta Indica (neem) in cases of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenwala, Shaista M; Seth, Reema; Haider, Nazima; Islam, Najmul; Khan, Tamkin; Maheshwari, Veena; Ur Rehman, Suhail

    2012-11-01

    To study the anti-oxidant properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) in inducing apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and estimation of caspase activity and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in monocytes of cervical cancer patients and controls. Monocytes were cultured from blood samples of 65 study cases and 30 controls for the estimation of caspase 3, 8 and 9 with specific inhibitors and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in culture supernatant of monocytes. Two cervical biopsies were taken from 18 cases of moderately differentiated SCC. One biopsy was formalin fixed for histopathology and the other for tissue culture was kept in RPMI-1640 medium to evaluate the apoptotic effect of neem extract on malignant cells. Neem-treated monocytes from cervical cancer patients showed high activity levels of caspase 3, 8, and 9. A decrease in TNF-α and an increase in IFN-γ levels was seen in culture supernatant of monocytes. Cyto- and histomorphology of neem-treated cervical cancer cells exhibited increased apoptosis. Neem is a potent inducer of apoptosis in biopsies of cervical cancer patients.

  16. Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Properties of Sorbed Water of Neem ( Azadirichta indica A. Juss) Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono Mbarga, M. C.; Bup Nde, D.; Mohagir, A.; Kapseu, C.; Elambo Nkeng, G.

    2017-01-01

    A neem tree growing abundantly in India as well as in some regions of Asia and Africa gives fruits whose kernels have about 40-50% oil. This oil has high therapeutic and cosmetic qualities and is recently projected to be an important raw material for the production of biodiesel. Its seed is harvested at high moisture contents, which leads tohigh post-harvest losses. In the paper, the sorption isotherms are determined by the static gravimetric method at 40, 50, and 60°C to establish a database useful in defining drying and storage conditions of neem kernels. Five different equations are validated for modeling the sorption isotherms of neem kernels. The properties of sorbed water, such as the monolayer moisture content, surface area of adsorbent, number of adsorbed monolayers, and the percent of bound water are also defined. The critical moisture content necessary for the safe storage of dried neem kernels is shown to range from 5 to 10% dry basis, which can be obtained at a relative humidity less than 65%. The isosteric heats of sorption at 5% moisture content are 7.40 and 22.5 kJ/kg for the adsorption and desorption processes, respectively. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to give the important parameters necessary for drying and storage of neem kernels, a potential raw material for the production of oil to be used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and biodiesel manufacturing.

  17. Effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse in plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K; Vandana, K L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and gingival health. Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias. Despite the promising results shown in existing randomized controlled trials, the evidence concerning the clinical use of neem mouthrinses is lacking and needs further reinforcement with high-quality randomized controlled trials based on the reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  19. Evaluation of anti-plaque microbial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in vitro: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Abinaya, P; Elanchezhiyan, S; Thangakumaran; Vennila, K; Naziya, K B

    2012-08-01

    Probably microbial plaque is the main etiology for periodontal tissue inflammation. Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity. However, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) against plaque formation is considered to be vital, with lesser side effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and prove the antimicrobial activity of neem using plaque samples. Culture was prepared using brain heart infusion broth reagent. Dental plaque samples were used for that. Kirby-Bauer antimicrobial susceptibility test procedure was carried away with the sample. Neem oil was kept in the agar plate with culture and the diameter of inhibition zones was calculated. Results showed inhibition zones on the agar plate around neem oil. Study shows definite antiplaque activity of neem oil.

  20. Synthesis of insecticidal sucrose esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zi-juan; Li Shu-jun; Chen Xi; Liu Li-mei; Song Zhan-qian

    2006-01-01

    Some synthetic sucrose esters (SE) are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids, which are safe for the environment. Especially, sucrose esters composed of C6-C12 fatty acids have desirable insecticidal properties against many soft-bodied arthropod pests. In our study, sucrose octanoate which has the highest activity against a range of arthropod species was synthesized by a trans-esterification method and proved its insecticidal property. Under the condition of a homogeneous liquid, sucrose octanoate was prepared by reacting ethyl octanoate with sucrose at reduced pressure; the yield was 79.11%. Sucrose octanoate synthesized was identified and its property analyzed by IR, TLC and spectrophotometric analysis. It was shown that the ratio of monoester to polyester in sucrose octanoate was 1.48:1. The insecticidal activity of the synthetic sucrose octanoate was evaluated at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg·mL-1. The mortality of first-instar larvae ofLymantria dispar from its contact toxicity was 72.5% after 36 hours, the revision insect reduced rate of Aphis glycines reached above 80% at 4 and 8 mg·mL-1 after being treated for 5 days. Since the SE products are nontoxic to humans and higher animals, fully biodegradable and hydrolyzed to readily metabolizable sucrose and fatty acid, they are not harmful to crops and appear to be good insecticide candidates.

  1. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, B.P.M.

    1972-01-01

    I. Introduction — The need for a simple method of collecting botanical material from rain-forest trees became evident during the construction of a field key to the rain-forest trees of North Queensland. Many collecting techniques have been developed, e.g. throwing sticks and stones, severing branche

  2. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  3. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  4. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  5. Botanical seed technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on botanical seed technology have potential payoffs for genebank in-house operations as well as promoting efficient use of the germplasm by cooperators. When we tested the effects of soil fertilization, mother plants with extra fertilizer produced more fruit and seeds, but those extra seeds ...

  6. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  7. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, B.P.M.

    1972-01-01

    I. Introduction — The need for a simple method of collecting botanical material from rain-forest trees became evident during the construction of a field key to the rain-forest trees of North Queensland. Many collecting techniques have been developed, e.g. throwing sticks and stones, severing branche

  8. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  9. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MyPhuong T Le

    Full Text Available In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive's fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems.Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production.Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9-9.2 μg/mL followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL-57.3 μg/mL. Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM, cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC50 = 1.0 μM, and

  10. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters –Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  12. Leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem): a potential antibiofilm agent for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, Kusum; Bala, Anju; Gupta, Ravi K; Sharma, Radhika

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well known for its ability to form biofilm on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms are difficult to remove because of their high tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need to look for alternative agents such as medicinal plants, which can eradicate or inhibit biofilm effectively. This study evaluated the role of neem in inhibiting biofilm formation by P aeruginosa Factors contributing to adherence and biofilm formation were also studied. Results demonstrated that neem leaves extract was quite effective in disrupting formation and structure of biofilms. Moreover, the level of exopolysaccharide, alginate, hydrophobic interactions and uroepithelial cell attachment, which contributes to biofilm formation, was also affected significantly. Results confirm the effectiveness of neem extract in inhibiting biofilm formation. Such studies can lead to the discovery of safe antimicrobial drugs from natural sources without the risk of resistance. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  13. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  14. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  15. The Evolving Role of Botanical Gardens and Natural Areas: A Floristic Case Study from Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH

    2011-01-01

    As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of neem oil in the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda Felipe; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Studies of morphological and ultrastructural alterations in target organs have been useful for evaluating the sublethal effects of biopesticides regarded as safe for non-target organisms in ecotoxicological analyses. One of the most widely used biopesticides is neem oil, and its safety and compatibility with natural enemies have been further clarified through bioassays performed to analyze the effects of indirect exposure by the intake of poisoned prey. Thus, this study examined the cellular response of midgut epithelial cells of the adult lacewing, Ceraeochrysa claveri, to neem oil exposure via intake of neem oil-contaminated prey during the larval stage. C. claveri larvae were fed Diatraea saccharalis eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval stage. The adult females obtained from these treatments were used at two ages (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) in morphological and ultrastructural analyses. Neem oil was found to cause pronounced cytotoxic effects in the adult midgut, such as cell dilation, emission of cytoplasmic protrusions, cell lysis, loss of integrity of the cell cortex, dilation of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondria, vesiculated appearance of the Golgi complex and dilated invaginations of the basal labyrinth. Epithelial cells responded to those injuries with various cytoprotective and detoxification mechanisms, including increases in cell proliferation, the number of calcium-containing cytoplasmic granules, and HSP 70 expression, autophagic processes and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but these mechanisms were insufficient for recovery from all of the cellular damage to the midgut. This study demonstrates that neem oil exposure impairs the midgut by causing sublethal effects that may affect the physiological functions of this organ, indicating the importance of studies of different life stages of this species and similar species to evaluate the

  17. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  18. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  19. Control of tomato early blight and wilt using aqueous extract of neem leaves

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    Naziha M. HASSANEIN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of neem (Azadiracta indica leaf extract against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agents of early blight and wilt of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. respectively, was studied. Concentrations (5, 10 and 20% of aqueous neem extract suppressed mycelial growth of both pathogenic fungi and the degree of suppression gradually increased with increasing concentration. A concentration of 20% aqueous neem leaf extract sprayed on tomato plants lowered the incidence of Alternaria early blight from 53.2 to 42.5% after two weeks and from 100 to 79.2% after 4 weeks. Spraying plus irrigation with the same extract lowered the severity of Alternaria early blight from 26.8 to 11.4% after 2 weeks and from 61.7 to 17.9% after 4 weeks (control ratio of 43.71% after 4 weeks. For F. oxysporum wilt, germination of tomato seeds was highest in pots containing the negative control (soil free of pathogen and in pots irrigated with the aqueous neem extract. The lowest disease incidence (19.04% was obtained in pots treated with the pathogen and irrigated with aqueous neem extract, where an 81% control of Fusarium wilt was achieved. Growth parameters of tomato (shoot and root length, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were studied 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing in the presence of the pathogens. There was a significant gradual increase in growth parameters when the plants were sprayed and irrigated with aqueous neem extract with the greatest improvement recorded 8 weeks after sowing.

  20. Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong

    2015-11-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  1. 印楝果实脱皮机的研制%Development of Neem Peeling Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 王成达; 李伟; 郭克君; 满大为

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of developing neem peeling machines and determination of the development scheme are expounded, the working principle of such neem peeling machines is analyzed and the materials used for equipment manufacturing are described.%阐述了开发印楝脱皮机的必要性及其研制方案的确定,分析了印楝脱皮机的工作原理,并对设备制造材料进行了说明。

  2. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  3. Effect of traditionally used neem and babool chewing stick (datun) on streptococcus mutans: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Sankhla, Bharat; Parkar, Sujal M; Hongal, Sudheer; K, Thanveer; Cg, Ajithkrishnan

    2014-07-01

    There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans. The present invitro study was conducted to assess effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% neem and babool extract on Streptococcus mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 6mm diameter. The plates were left for 1h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48h and examined for zone of inhibition. There was no zone of inhibition observed with 5% babool and neem aqueous extract. There was significant difference in mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 10% neem and babool extract (p-value 0.001 neem and babool extract was found to be significant (p-value neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract.

  4. Effect of Traditionally Used Neem and Babool Chewing Stick (Datun) on Streptococcus Mutans: An In–Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhla, Bharat; Parkar, Sujal M; Hongal, Sudheer; K, Thanveer; CG, Ajithkrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The present invitro study was conducted to assess effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% neem and babool extract on Streptococcus mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 6mm diameter. The plates were left for 1h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: There was no zone of inhibition observed with 5% babool and neem aqueous extract. There was significant difference in mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 10% neem and babool extract (p-value 0.001 neem and babool extract was found to be significant (p-value neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract. PMID:25177629

  5. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  7. Combined antioxidant effects of Neem extract, bacteria, red blood cells and Lysozyme: possible relation to periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Leali; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Heyman, Samuel N; Ginsburg, Isaac; Gleitman, Yossi; Feuerstein, Osnat

    2017-08-10

    The common usage of chewing sticks prepared from Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in India suggests its potential efficacy in periodontal diseases. The objective of this study is to explore the antibacterial effects of Neem leaf extract on the periodontophatic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, and its antioxidant capacities alone and in combination with bacteria and polycationic peptides that may be at the site of inflammation. Neem leaf extract was prepared by ethanol extraction. The growth kinetics of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum under anaerobic conditions in the presence of Neem leaf extract were measured. Broth microdilution test was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Neem leaf extract against each bacterial strain. The effect of Neem leaf extract on the coaggregation of the bacteria was assessed by a visual semi-quantitative assay. The antioxidant capacities of Neem leaf extract alone and in combination with bacteria, with the addition of red blood cells or the polycationic peptides chlorhexidine and lisozyme, were determined using a chemiluminescence assay. Neem leaf extract showed prominent dose-dependent antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis, however, had no effect on the growth of F. nucleatum nor on the coaggregation of the two bacteria. Yet, it showed intense antioxidant activity, which was amplified following adherence to bacteria and with the addition of red blood cells or the polycationic peptides. Neem leaf extract, containing polyphenols that adhere to oral surfaces, have the potential to provide long-lasting antibacterial as well as synergic antioxidant activities when in complex with bacteria, red blood cells and lisozyme. Thus, it might be especially effective in periodontal diseases.

  8. Botanicals for mood disorders with a focus on epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha Wanda, Germain Jean Magloire; Ngitedem, Steve Guemnang; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2015-11-01

    Mood disorders are among the major health problems that exist worldwide. They are highly prevalent in the general population and cause significant disturbance of life quality and social functioning of the affected persons. The two major classes of mood disorders are bipolar disorders and depression. The latter is assumed to be the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Studies published during the second half of the 20th century recognized that certain patients with epilepsy present a depressed mood. Synthesized pharmaceuticals have been in use for decades to treat both mood disorders and epilepsy, but despite their efficiency, their use is limited by numerous side effects. On the other hand, animal models have been developed to deeply study potential botanicals which have an effect on mood disorders. Studies to investigate the potential effects of medicinal plants acting on the nervous system and used to treat seizures and anxiety are increasingly growing. However, these studies discuss the two conditions separately without association. In this review, we present animal models of depression and investigative models (methods of assessing depression) of depression and anxiety in animals. Other classical test models for prediction of clinical antidepressant activity are presented. Finally, this review also highlights antidepressant activities of herbals focusing specially on depression-like behaviors associated with epilepsy. The pharmacological properties and active principles of cited medicinal plants are emphasized. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the work done on botanicals for mood disorders, potential mechanisms of action of botanicals, and the major compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  9. Elements of Success in Chicago Botanic Garden's Science Career Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  10. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden

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    Suluh Normasiwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an institute for ex situ plant conservation of high mountains, Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG, has more than 1652 species and 8140 specimens of plant collections. An inventory of potential fruit crop in CBG which will support the conservation program had never been done before. The aim of this activity is to determine its potential collections as fruit crop. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze all the data achieved from registration unit and catalogue of (CBG. The results showed that 422 numbers of collections from 31 family, 56 genus and 114 species have high potential as a fruit crop. Moreover, Cibodas Botanical Garden has 74% collection of indigenous fruit (included 85 species and 61% collection of underutilize fruit (included 68 species from the total number of fruit plant collections. Most of potential plant collections are able to be developed as an edible fruit crop in Indonesia in order to enhance local food security through diversification of fruit crop.How to CiteNormasiwi, S., & Surya, M. I. (2016. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 206-213.

  11. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-08-28

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on (1)H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements.

  12. Fibonacci or quasi-symmetric phyllotaxis. Part II: botanical observations

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    Stéphane Douady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the study of phyllotaxis was greatly helped by the simple description of botanical patterns by only two integer numbers, namely the number of helices (parastichies in each direction tiling the plant stem. The use of parastichy numbers reduced the complexity of the study and created a proliferation of generalizations, among others the simple geometric model of lattices. Unfortunately, these simple descriptive method runs into difficulties when dealing with patterns presenting transitions or irregularities. Here, we propose several ways of addressing the imperfections of botanical reality. Using ontogenetic analysis, which follows the step-by-step genesis of the pattern, and crystallographic analysis, which reveal irregularity in its details, we show how to derive more information from a real botanical sample, in particular, about its irregularities and transitions. We present several examples, from the first explicit visualization of a normal Fibonacci parastichy number increase, to more exotic ones, including the quasi-symmetric patterns detected in simulations. We compare these observations qualitatively with the result of the disk-packing model, presenting evidence for the relevance of the model.

  13. Dermocosmetics for dry skin: a new role for botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, F; Wölfle, U; Gehring, W; Schempp, C M

    2011-01-01

    Dry skin is associated with a disturbed skin barrier and reduced formation of epidermal proteins and lipids. During recent years, skin-barrier-reinforcing properties of some botanical compounds have been described. Searching the PubMed database revealed 9 botanical extracts that specifically improve skin barrier and/or promote keratinocyte differentiation in vivo after topical application. The topical application of Aloe vera (leaf gel), Betula alba (birch bark extract), Helianthus annuus (sunflower oleodistillate), Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort extract), Lithospermum erythrorhizon (root extract), Piptadenia colubrina (angico-branco extract) and Simarouba amara (bitter wood extract) increased skin hydration, reduced the transepidermal water loss, or promoted keratinocyte differentiation in humans in vivo. The topical application of Rubia cordifolia root extract and rose oil obtained from Rosa spp. flowers stimulated keratinocyte differentiation in mouse models. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are discussed. It is concluded that some botanical compounds display skin-barrier-reinforcing properties that may be used in dermocosmetics for dry skin. However, more investigations on the mode of action and more vehicle-controlled studies are required. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan; Marcello Nicoletti; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Kadarkarai Murugan; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Devakumar Dinesh; Jayapal Subramaniam; Rajapandian Rajaganesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies). Methods: Neem cake fractions' total methanol extract (NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract (NTAcOEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRAcOEt), butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH (NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults. Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAcOEt and NRAcOEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and 3.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  15. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Devakumar Dinesh; Jayapal Subramaniam; Rajapandian Rajaganesh; Marcello Nicoletti; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(An.culicifacies).Methods: Neem cake fractions’ total methanol extract(NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract(NTAc OEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMe OH(NRAc OEt),butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH(NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH(NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults.Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAc OEt and NRAc OEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt,NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and3.00 mg/L, respectively.Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  16. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  17. Järjekordne tunnustus maestro Neeme Järvile / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Läti Vabariigi iseseisvuspäeva eelõhtul, 17. novembril, anti Neeme Järvile New Yorgis üle Ülemaailmse Vabade Lätlaste Liidu Kultuurifondi (The Cultural Foundation of the World Federation of Free Latvians - WFFL) audiplom

  18. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-05-26

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  19. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  20. Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...

  1. Indirect effect of neem oil on Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae: biology and predatory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on the development and predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda that have ingested different concentrations of neem oil. The predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus was assessed, separating nymphs (fourth instar and adults (males and females. The treatments consisted of S. frugiperda larvae reared in neem oil aqueous solutions (0.077, 0.359 and 0.599%, deltamethrin EC 25 (0.100% and control arranged in a completely randomized design, with ten replicates. Insects were offered three larval densities (one, three and six, in the third or fourth instars. The predated larvae were examined at 24 and 48 hours after the beginning of the experiment. Biological parameters of Podisus nigrispinus were evaluated in groups of ten second-instar nymphs transferred to pots, in five replicates. Insects were offered 2-6 third and/or fourth-instar larvae reared in the same neem oil concentrations in a completely randomized design. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of each nymph stage (days, nymph mortality (%, weight of fifth-instar nymphs (mg, sex ratio, weight of males and females (mg and longevity of unfed adults (days. The predatory capacity of nymphs and adults of Podisus nigrispinus was influenced by the neem oil at the concentrations of 0.359% and 0.599% in the highest density. The concentration of 0.359% lengthened the nymphal stage and the concentration of 0.599% reduced the weight of males.

  2. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-03-08

    An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats. Neem chippings are a good tool for mosquito larval source management under field conditions. However, more research needs to be done to quantify the contribution of this tool to the overall mosquito borne disease transmission.

  3. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion--a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, C H; Sharma, Yamini; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-02-01

    Nanoemulsion composed of neem oil and non-ionic surfactant Tween 20, with a mean droplet size ranging from 31.03 to 251.43 nm, was formulated for various concentrations of the oil and surfactant. The larvicidal effect of the formulated neem oil nanoemulsion was checked against Culex quinquefasciatus. O/W emulsion was prepared using neem oil, Tween 20 and water. Nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was obtained at a 1:3 ratio of oil and surfactant, and it was found to be stable. The larger droplet size (251.43 nm) shifted to a smaller size of 31.03 nm with increase in the concentration of Tween 20. The viscosity of the nanoemulsion increased with increasing concentration of Tween 20. The lethal concentration (LC50) of the nanoemulsion against Cx. quinquefasciatus was checked for 1:0.30, 1:1.5 and 1:3 ratios of oil and surfactant respectively. The LC50 decreased with droplet size. The LC50 for the ratio 1:3 nanoemulsions was 11.75 mg L(-1). The formulated nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was found to be an effective larvicidal agent. This is the first time that a neem oil nanoemulsion of this droplet size has been reported. It may be a good choice as a potent and selective larvicide for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Scalable synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes bundles using green natural precursor: neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Practical application of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs would have to be determined by a matter of its economical and large-scale preparation. In this study, neem oil (also named Margoaa oil, extracted from the seeds of the neem--Azadirachta indica was used as carbon source to fabricate the bundles of ACNTs. ACNTs have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of neem oil and ferrocene mixture at 825°C. The major components of neem oil are hydrocarbon with less amount of oxygen, which provided the precursor species in spray pyrolysis growth of CNTs. The bundles of ACNTs have been grown directly inside the quartz tube. The as-grown ACNTs have been characterized through Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM techniques. SEM images reveal that the bundles of ACNTs are densely packed and are of several microns in length. High-resolution TEM analysis reveals these nanotubes to be multi-walled CNTs. These multi-walled CNTs were found to have inner diameter between 15 and 30 nm. It was found that present technique gives high yield with high density of bundles of ACNTs.

  5. Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9, Neeme Järvi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9. Ouvertüre School for Scandal, Op. 5; Beach: Sinfonie e-Moll, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi". Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  6. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  7. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  8. Treated Neem Kernel Cake. *1A. Aruwayo, 2S.A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the white blood cell value in treatment A. (11.67x109l) was ... treatment did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference except in SGOT and unconjugated bilirubin. ..... fed fore-stomach digesta and poultry litter waste. ... neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds on performance of young Rabbits. Pakistan. Journal of ...

  9. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC- 12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare

  10. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  11. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a pos

  12. Can neem oil help eliminate lice? Randomised controlled trial with and without louse combing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem oil and wet combing with conditioner are both claimed to facilitate elimination of head louse infestation. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether a 1% neem oil lotion showed activity itself and/or enhanced the effectiveness of combing in treating infestation. Methods: We treated 47 participants with 1% neem-based lotion on four occasions 3-4 days apart in a randomised, community based trial, analysed by intention to treat. The participants were randomly divided between two groups: One group used a grooming comb (placebo and the other a head louse detection and removal comb (wet combing with conditioner method to systematically comb the hair. Cure was defined as no lice on both Day 10 and Day 14. Results: The cure rates of 6/24 (25.0% for the placebo comb group and 8/23 (34.8% for the louse comb group were not significantly different. Conclusion: These results indicate that this formulation of neem oil was ineffective in the treatment of head louse infestations, even when accompanied by combing. Both combing methods were also ineffective, despite being implemented throughout by trained professionals.

  13. Kas oleme valmis NATO vägede saabumiseks? / Neeme Väli ; intervjueeris Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väli, Neeme

    2016-01-01

    NATO rahvusvahelise sõjalise staabi ülema esimene asetäitja, poliitika ja planeerimise osakonna direktor kindralmajor Neeme Väli räägib ees seisvatest ülesannetest seoses liitlasvägede Eestisse saabumisega

  14. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  15. Fabric along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and its comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnat, M.; Azuma, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Eichler, J.; Fujita, S.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Samyn, D.; Svensson, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2014-07-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland was measured in the field by an automatic ice texture analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening rate is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin (HW) climatic transition. From a simple model we estimate that this depth is located at a transition from a state dominated by vertical compression to a state dominated by vertical shear. Comparisons are made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core, drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. This comparison tends to demonstrate that the ice viscosity change with the HW climatic transition must be associated with the shear-dominated state to induce the abrupt fabric strengthening observed at NEEM. This comparison therefore reflects the increasing role of shear deformation on the coring site when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NGRIP. Further along the core, centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the observed folding layers in Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013).

  16. Recent North West Greenland climate variability documented by NEEM shallow ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Steen-Larsen, Hans-Christian; Popp, Trevor; Vinther, Bo; Oerter, Hans; Ortega, Pablo; White, Jim; Orsi, Anais; Falourd, Sonia; Minster, Benedicte; Jouzel, Jean; Landais, Amaelle; Risi, Camille; Werner, Martin; Swingedouw, Didier; Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Gudlaugsdottir, Hera; Box, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Short water stable isotope records obtained from NEEM ice cores (North West Greenland) have been shown to be sensitive to NW Greenland temperature variations, and sea-ice extent in the Baffin Bay area (Steen-Larsen et al, JGR, 2011), with maximum snowfall deposition during summer, therefore providing information complementary to other Greenland ice core records. At the NEEM deep drilling camp, several snow pits and shallow ice cores have been retrieved and analysed at high resolution (seasonal to annual) for water stable isotopes using mass spectrometry and laser instruments in order to document recent climate variability, complementing and facilitating the interpretation of the long records obtained from the deep ice core which extends back to the last interglacial period (NEEM, Nature, 2013). The different pits and shallow ice core records allow to document the signal to noise ratio and to produce a robust stack back to 1750, and up to 2011. The stack record of annual mean d18O depicts a recent isotopic enrichment in parallel with the Greenland warming inferred from coastal weather stations, and shows that many features of decadal variations are in fact well captured by the low resolution profiles measured along the deep ice core data. Recent variations can therefore be compared to long-term trends and centennial variations of the last Holocene, documented at about 5 year resolution. For the past decades to centuries, the NEEM isotopic records are compared with estimations and simulations of local temperature for different seasons, results from NEEM borehole temperature inversions, d18O records from other Greenland ice cores, large scale modes of variability (NAO and AMO) and with simulations from atmospheric general circulation models equiped with water stable isotopes.

  17. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  18. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  19. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Pei Pei, Chong

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) has been used traditionally for many centuries. Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeutic effect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extract in an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice. A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into 7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups) consisting of 12 mice per group. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (NC), 250 mg/kg Neem (N250) or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500). The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS (CC), and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), 250 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 250) or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to evaluate apoptosis (cell death) in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p≤0.05. Non parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays. Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA. TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidence of apoptosis compared with the cancer controls. The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.

  20. The neem Azadirachta indica as a means to control soil nematodes and its application in vegetable cultures in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neem extracts for pest control is less common in nematology than in entomology. The purpose of this paper is to make a short review of the agronomical potential of the neem tree, with particular emphasis on its role for the control of deleterious nematodes. A specifie case for the control of Meloidogyne, which was carried out in Benin, is presented.

  1. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemia nominent 2016

  2. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemia nominent 2016

  3. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemiate nominent 2016

  4. Yield Performance of Heat Tolerant Country Bean (Lablab purpureus Lin. as Influenced by Insecticides During Kharif Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mofazzal Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the research field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during 2009 kharif season to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for increasing yield of country bean by protecting pod damage by bean pod borers. The spray plots gave significantly higher yield than the control plots. Among the insecticides, Neem oil, Fenitrothion50 EC and Emamectin benzoate 5 SG performed best by reducing 59.46, 51.35 & 45.95 % infested pod production respectively. For marketable pod yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenotrothion 50 EC and Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 5.78, 5.48 & 5.39 ton/hectate at the same time increasing 46.70, 38.58 & 36.80 % marketable pod yield over control respectively. Thus for gross yield, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP performed best by producing 6.11, 5.65 & 5.61 ton/ha as well as increasing 41.76, 31.09 & 30.16 % gross pod production. Therefore, Deltramethrin 2.5 EC, Fenitrothion 50 EC & Curtap 50 SP can be recommended for successful country bean cultivation with more production during kharif season.

  5. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  7. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  8. Molecular recognition of neonicotinoid insecticides: the determinants of life or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2009-02-17

    Until the mid-20th century, pest insect control in agriculture relied on largely inorganic and botanical insecticides, which were inadequate. Then, the remarkable insecticidal properties of several organochlorines, organophosphates, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids were discovered, leading to an arsenal of synthetic organics. The effectiveness of these insecticides, however, diminished over time due to the emergence of resistant insect strains with less sensitive molecular targets in their nervous systems. This created a critical need for a new type of neuroactive insecticide with a different yet highly sensitive target. Nicotine in tobacco extract was for centuries the best available agent to prevent sucking insects from damaging crops, although this alkaloid was hazardous to people and not very effective. The search for unusual structures and optimization revealed a new class of potent insecticides, known as neonicotinoids, which are similar to nicotine in their structure and action as agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Fortunately, neonicotinoids are much more toxic to insects than mammals due in large part to differences in their binding site interactions at the corresponding nAChRs. This Account discusses the progress that has been made in defining the structural basis of neonicotinoid and nicotinoid potency and selectivity. The findings are based on comparisons of two acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) with distinct pharmacological profiles that serve as structural surrogates for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the nAChRs. Saltwater mollusk (Aplysia californica) AChBP has high neonicotinoid sensitivity, whereas freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) AChBP has low neonicotinoid and high nicotinoid sensitivities, pharmacologies reminiscent of insect and vertebrate nAChR subtypes, respectively. The ligand-receptor interactions for these AChBPs were established by photoaffinity labeling and X-ray crystallography. Both

  9. A botanical and pharmacological description of petasites species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tys Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the botanical and pharmacological description of Petasites species. Petasides (butterbur as a perennial shrub which was found in Europe and also in a parts of Asia and North America, has been widely used medicinally for centuries. At present, the main phytopharmacology uses for Petasides extracts are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, as well as an antispasmodic agent for bronchial asthma and pertussis. Furthermore, it has been used effectively in preventing gastric ulcers, and in urinary tract spasms and treating patients with irritable bladder. But still, there is a need for more studies on the potential applications of butterbur extract in medicine.

  10. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Kulkarni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG, obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of chemical interaction in between drug and NG. Aqueous coating solution of NG was optimized and consisted of neem gum (13.34%w/w, triethyl citrate (1.25%w/w, talc (0.25%w/w and titanium dioxide (0.17%w/w. The coating parameters such as pan revolutions (rpm, inlet air pressure, inlet temperature, and pan load were optimized. The uncoated and coated tablets were evaluated for hardness, disintegration time, dissolution, drug content. The coated tablets were subjected to accelerated stability conditions for 1 month and the results were compared with marketed drug tablet. Any coating defects, except surface roughness, were absent in case of NG coated tablets. NG coated tablets depicted satisfactory mechanical strength. Dissolution study of NG coated tablets depicted 90% of drug release in 10 minutes and 100% of drug release at 30minutes. Accelerated storage conditions didn’t affect the tablet hardness and % drug release. The coating process efficiency, coating uniformity and loss on drying confirmed that the coating solution was optimum and coating parameters were robust. Industrial relevance. A paradigm shift, from organic solvent-based to water-based film coating of pharmaceutical dosage forms, apparent in pharmaceutical industries, is due to Government regulation, high cost of the organic solvents, safety issues associated with the use of organic solvents. Currently, the commercially available edible coatings utilize synthetic cellulosic polymers namely

  11. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacophore model for neonicotinoid insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Xiu Lian Ju; Feng Chao Jiang

    2008-01-01

    An effective prediction pharmacophore model (RMS = 0.634, Correl = 0.893, Weight = 1.463, Config = 11.940) was success-fully obtained by 3D-QSAR based on a series of nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) agonists, which consists of a hydrogen-bonding acceptor, a hydrogen-bond donor, a hydrophobic aliphatic and a hydrophobic aromatic centre. This pharmacophore modelmay provide theoretical basis for designation and development of higher active insecticides.2008 Xiu Lian Ju. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  14. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  15. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  16. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  17. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons.

  18. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersen, Colleen E

    2003-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant constituents that possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. Although their activities are weak as compared with human endogenous estrogens, the consumption of phytoestrogens may have clinically significant consequences. A number of botanicals, or the compounds contained therein, have been identified as putative estrogenic agents, but consensus in the biomedical community has been hampered by conflicting data from various in vitro and in vivo models of estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens may serve as chemopreventive agents while at the same time being capable of promoting growth in estrogen receptor positive cancer cell lines. Furthermore, they may exert their estrogenic influence through receptor-dependent and/or receptor-independent mechanisms. These findings have led to speculation that phytoestrogen intake might be ill advised for patients at an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers, cancer patients, or cancer survivors. This article will attempt to sort out discrepancies between various experimental models and establish whether certain herbs possess estrogenic activity. The review will focus on 5 popular botanical dietary supplements: Trifolium pratense (red clover), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus (hops), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It will address their mechanisms of action, clinical evidence bases, and implications for use in cancer.

  19. [History of the Nippon Shinyaku Institute for Botanical Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takao

    2011-03-01

    Soon after its foundation in 1919, Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd began to develop the domestic production of Santonin, an anthelmintic agent, which, until then, had been totally imported from Russia. In 1927, Artemisia maritima ssp. monogyna was introduced from Europe and confirmed to contain Santonin. This European aster plant was named Mibu-yomogi after the place name of the headquarters of Nippon Shinyaku. In 1934, Yamashina Experimental Farm was founded to breed Mibu-yomogi cultivars of high quality as a plant material for Santonin production in Japan. In 1953, the Experimental Farm was reorganized into the Institute for Botanical Research for the continuous breeding of Santonin-containing aster plants and for the development of any new medicines from medicinal plants. Through the breeding of Santonin-containing aster plants, many cultivars including Yamashina No. 2 from Mibu-yomogi, Penta-yomogi and Hexa-yomogi which were crosssed with Mibu-yomogi and A. kurramensis, were bred. Furthermore, we still have four ethical drug products originated from medicinal plants. Since 1994, the Institute has become a botanical garden in order to maintain, develop and exhibit the plant collection and for the cultivation studies of rare plants.

  20. Brazilian red propolis--chemical composition and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugsch, Andreas; Moraes, Cleber S; Fort, Patricia; Park, Yong K

    2008-12-01

    Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae) and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea), but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L) Taub. (Leguminosae) to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum) was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  1. Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Gui; Li, Qian; Jiang, Su Rong; Li, Pei; Yang, Ji Zhi

    2017-02-22

    Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC25) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica.

  2. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797.

  3. Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, the world’s more than 3,000 botanical gardens cultivate approximately one-third of known plant species in living collections, and contribute valuable information on plant identification, geographic distributions, morphology, reproduction, and traditional uses. Further, each year botan...

  4. Leadership's Use of Educational Technologies in U.S. Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ginger Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Botanic gardens are rich informational environments that exhibit ideas in limited increments due to constraints of time and physical layout. This study addressed a gap in research about experiences and issues of botanic gardens leaders related to implementing educational technologies. Educational theorists Dewey, Kolb, and Bandura provided the…

  5. Prospects for Chinese Botanical Gardens%中国植物园展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-An HE; Zuo-Shuang ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    In China, a new period of development in the first decaje of the 21st Century with rapid urbanization,was marked by investment in construction of over five billion yuan. At this time of rapid change it is important for botanical gardens to follow three principles, "scientific contents, artistic appearance, and cultural display", so as not to become public parks. The scientific component is important. It is not necessary for every botanical garden to do basic botanical research but they should all be involved in plant conservation issues, especially ex-situ conservation and keep accurate data on their living collections. Although a heavy responsibility this documentation is the foundation and the bottom line of scientific meaning for a botanical garden. Economic plant research, exploring new resources, was a major contribution of botanical gardens historically and remains important for sustainable cities and the national economy of China. Education and ecotourism are important ways for botanical gardens to serve the public displaying the interesting plant collections to enhance relaxation and well-being. It is reasonable to make income through all activities in a botanical garden but this should not be the major goal. It should be understood botanical gardens are comprehensive and multi-functional bodies determined by science, the arts and culture.

  6. Probability of identification (POI): a statistical model for the validation of qualitative botanical identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A qualitative botanical identification method (BIM) is an analytical procedure which returns a binary result (1 = Identified, 0 = Not Identified). A BIM may be used by a buyer, manufacturer, or regulator to determine whether a botanical material being tested is the same as the target (desired) mate...

  7. The Role of a Modern Botanic Garden: the Evolution of Kew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J. MABBERLEY

    2011-01-01

    The history of botanic gardens in the United Kingdom is sketched out with particular reference to the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and its changing role to meet societal requirements over 250 years. Kew's position as a modem scientific institution confronting today's environmental issues through its Breathing Planet Programme yet retaining its heritage buildings and collections is pinpointed.

  8. Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. / Hulot, Jean-Claude

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hulot, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. Paganini: Concerto pour violon no. 1; Tchaikovski: Concerto pour violon op. 35; Concerto pour piano no. 1; Saint-Saens: Concerto pour piano no. 2; Beethoven: Concerto pour piano no. 4; R. Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Don Juan; Cherubini: Requiem en re mineur; Chostakovitch: Fidelite, 8 ballades pour choeur d'hommes op. 136; Haydn: Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2; Tchaikovski: Variations Rococo. Pezzo capriccioso. Andante cantabile. Nocturne. Choeur d'hommes Academique de l'Etat d'Estonie, Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Orchestre Symphonique d'URSS, Grand Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'URSS, Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'Estonie, Gustav Ernesaks, Neeme Järvi. Melodiya 74 321 40 719-2 a 40 724-2, distribution BMG (6 CD:96 F chacun)

  9. Rapid, Bioassay-Guided Process for the Detection and Identification of Antibacterial Neem Oil Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüzselyi, Dániel; Nagy, Róbert; Ott, Péter G; Móricz, Ágnes M

    2016-08-01

    Bioassay guidance was used along the whole process including method development, isolation and identification of antibacterial neem (Azadirachta indica) oil compounds. The biomonitoring was performed by direct bioautography (DB), a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and antimicrobial detection. DB of neem oil showed one antibacterial zone that was not UV-active; therefore, the TLC separation was improved under DB control. The chromatographic zone that exhibited activity against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was characterized by TLC reagents, indicating a lipophilic, fatty acid-like chemical feature. Two compounds were found and identified in the active zone by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fatty acids inhibited B. subtilis, but A. fischeri was sensitive only against linoleic acid.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide-neem oil-chitosan bionanocomposite for food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuja, S; Agalya, A; Umapathy, M J

    2015-03-01

    Nano zinc oxide at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and neem essential oil were incorporated into the chitosan polymer by solution cast method to enhance the properties of the bionanocomposite film. The functional groups, crystalline particle size, thermal stability and morphology were determined using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM, respectively. The results showed that 0.5% nano zinc oxide incorporated composite film have improved tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film transparency and decreased water solubility, swelling and barrier properties due to the presence of neem oil and nano zinc oxide in the polymer matrix. Further antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay method was followed against Escherichia coli which were found to have good inhibition effect. In addition to this food quality application were carried against carrot and compared with the commercial film.

  11. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically combed. Head lice were collected and examined. The neem seed extract shampoo proved to be highly effective against all stages of head lice. No obvious differences regarding the efficacy of the shampoo were observed between an exposure time of 10, 15 or 30 min. No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed.

  12. Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. / Hulot, Jean-Claude

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hulot, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. Paganini: Concerto pour violon no. 1; Tchaikovski: Concerto pour violon op. 35; Concerto pour piano no. 1; Saint-Saens: Concerto pour piano no. 2; Beethoven: Concerto pour piano no. 4; R. Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Don Juan; Cherubini: Requiem en re mineur; Chostakovitch: Fidelite, 8 ballades pour choeur d'hommes op. 136; Haydn: Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2; Tchaikovski: Variations Rococo. Pezzo capriccioso. Andante cantabile. Nocturne. Choeur d'hommes Academique de l'Etat d'Estonie, Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Orchestre Symphonique d'URSS, Grand Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'URSS, Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'Estonie, Gustav Ernesaks, Neeme Järvi. Melodiya 74 321 40 719-2 a 40 724-2, distribution BMG (6 CD:96 F chacun)

  13. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  14. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem has been used traditionally for many centuries.Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeuticeffect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purposeof the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extractin an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice.Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups consisting of 12 mice pergroup. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 inphosphate buffer saline (PBS (NC, 250 mg/kg Neem (N250 or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500.The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS(CC, and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, 250 mg/kg Neemleaf extract (CN 250 or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to evaluate apoptosis(cell death in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statisticalanalysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Non parametric analysis ofvariance (ANOVA was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays.Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA.Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidenceof apoptosis compared with the cancer controls.Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breastcancer BALB/c mice.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANDIDIAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudalkar Mithun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of humans since the dawn of civilization. In recent years, multiple drug resistance has developed due to indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. This drives the need to screen medicinal plants for novel bioactive compounds as plant based drugs are biodegradable, safe and have fewer side effects. Neem (Azadirachta indica is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. Almost all parts of the plant are endowed with medicinal properties. Several pharmacological activities and medicinal applications of various parts of Neem have been documented in the ancient literature. Teeth and their supporting structures are subject to infections by Streptococcus species, a number of facultative anaerobes like Enterococcus faecalis, and opportunistic pathogens like Candida albicans. Literature shows that Neem is a powerful agent that inhibits the increase and establishment of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases in the oral cavity.In the present study we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Neem leaf aqueous and alcohol extracts. To determine the inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica (aqueous and alcoholic extract of neem on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The activity of Azadirachta indica against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was tested by serial broth dilution method and was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the aqueous neem extract to all the organisms was 7.5%. The MIC of the alcoholic neem extract for E. faecalis, S.mutans, C. albicans were 1.88%, 7.5%, and 3.75% respectively.

  16. Seismic Imaging of Sub-Glacial Sediments at Jakobshavn Isbræ and NEEM Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Velez-Gonzalez, J. A.; Black, R. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-glacial sediment conditions can have a major control on glacier flow yet these are difficult to measure directly. We present active source seismic reflection experiments that imaged sub-glacial sections at Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland and at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) location. At Jakobshavn Isbræ we re-processed an existing 9.8 km-long high-resolution seismic line using an iterative approach to determine seismic velocities for enhancing sub-glacial imaging. The seismic profile imaged sediments ranging in thickness between 35 and 200 meters, and the underlying bedrock. Based on the geometry of the reflections we interpret three distinct seismic facies: a basal till layer, accreted sediments and re-worked till. The basal till and accreted sediments vary in thickness from less than 5 m to nearly 100 m thick and are interpreted as the zone of most recent deposition. A reflection polarity reversal observed at a low topographic region along the ice-sediment interface suggests the presence of liquid water spanning approximately 200 m along the profile. At NEEM we acquired a 5.8 km long-offset shot gather. Seismic imaging revealed two prominent reflections at the base of the ice. The upper reflection is interpreted at the base of ice - top of till interface whereas the lower reflection is interpreted as the base of till - top of bedrock. The thickness of the subglacial sediment section at NEEM is estimated to approximately 50 m using seismic imaging. The NEEM ice core drilled through the upper part of this section and ceased drilling before reaching bedrock.

  17. Effect of Neem oil and Haridra on non-healing wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anjali; Singh, Anil Kumar; Narayan, G; Singh, Teja B; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Vrana (wound) has stated as tissue destruction and discoloration of viable tissue due to various etiology. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta described Vrana as a main subject. Most commonly Vrana can be classified into Shuddha and Dushta Vrana (chronic wound/nonhealing ulcers). Among the various drugs mentioned for Dushta Vrana, two of them, Neem (Azadirechta indica A. Juss) oil and Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) powder are selected for their wide spectrum action on wound. To compare the effect of Neem oil and Haridra in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds. Total 60 patients of wounds with more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled and alternatively allocated to Group I (topical application of Neem oil), Group II (Haridra powder capsules, 1 g 3 times orally) and Group III (both drugs). Duration of treatment was considered until complete healing of the wound, whereas 4(th) and 8(th) week were considered for assessment of 50% healing. Wound size was measured and recorded at weekly intervals. Wound biopsy was repeated after 4 weeks for assessment of angiogenesis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. After 8 weeks of treatment, 50% wound healing was observed in 43.80% patients of Group I, 18.20% patients of Group II, and 70.00% patients of Group III. Microscopic angiogenesis grading system scores and DNA concentration showed highly significant effect of combined use of both drugs when compared before and after results of treatment (P Neem oil and oral use of Haridra powder capsule used in combination were found effective for chronic non-healing wounds.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Neem Mouthwash on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Double-blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaluddin, Md; Rajasekaran, U B; Paul, Sam; Dhanya, R S; Sudeep, C B; Adarsh, V J

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of neem-containing mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis. This randomized, double-blinded, crossover clinical trial included 40 participants aged 18 to 35 years with washout period of 1 week between the crossover phases. A total of 20 participants, each randomly allocated into groups I and II, wherein in the first phase, group I was provided with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and group II with 2% neem mouthwash. After the scores were recorded, 1-week time period was given to the participants to carry over the effects of the mouthwashes and then the second phase of the test was performed. The participants were instructed to use the other mouthwash through the second test phase. There was a slight reduction of plaque level in the first phase as well as in the second phase. When comparison was made between the groups, no statistically significant difference was seen. Both the groups showed reduction in the gingival index (GI) scores in the first phase, and there was a statistically significant difference in both groups at baseline and after intervention (0.005 and 0.01 respectively). In the second phase, GI scores were reduced in both groups, but there was a statistically significant difference between the groups only at baseline scores (0.01). In the present study, it has been concluded that neem mouthwash can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash based on the reduced scores in both the groups. Using neem mouthwash in maintaining oral hygiene might have a better impact in prevention as well as pervasiveness of oral diseases as it is cost-effective and easily available.

  19. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Background An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Results Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary poo...

  20. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identi...

  1. The role of botanic gardens in the science and practice of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Kate A; Fiedler, Peggy; Lee, Lyndon C; Pavlik, Bruce; Hobbs, Richard J; Aronson, James; Bidartondo, Martin; Black, Eric; Coates, David; Daws, Matthew I; Dixon, Kingsley; Elliott, Stephen; Ewing, Kern; Gann, George; Gibbons, David; Gratzfeld, Joachim; Hamilton, Martin; Hardman, David; Harris, Jim; Holmes, Pat M; Jones, Meirion; Mabberley, David; Mackenzie, Andrew; Magdalena, Carlos; Marrs, Robert; Milliken, William; Mills, Anthony; Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Ramsay, Margaret; Smith, Paul; Taylor, Nigel; Trivedi, Clare; Way, Michael; Whaley, Oliver; Hopper, Stephen D

    2011-04-01

    Many of the skills and resources associated with botanic gardens and arboreta, including plant taxonomy, horticulture, and seed bank management, are fundamental to ecological restoration efforts, yet few of the world's botanic gardens are involved in the science or practice of restoration. Thus, we examined the potential role of botanic gardens in these emerging fields. We believe a reorientation of certain existing institutional strengths, such as plant-based research and knowledge transfer, would enable many more botanic gardens worldwide to provide effective science-based support to restoration efforts. We recommend botanic gardens widen research to include ecosystems as well as species, increase involvement in practical restoration projects and training practitioners, and serve as information hubs for data archiving and exchange.

  2. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  3. Synthesis of chitosan incorporated neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) for medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, T; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, eco-friendly biosynthesis of Chitosan-Neem seed (CS-NS) composite was prepared by co-precipitation method using aqueous neem seed extract. Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents (Glutaraldehyde and Citric acid) then the synthesized composite coated on cotton fabric by chemical linkage between the composite and the cellulose structure. As synthesized composite materials and treated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional groups confirmation, X-ray diffraction for crystalline behavior determination, UV-vis spectroscopy analysis for optical property and High resolution scanning electron microscopy for Surface morphological properties. The antibacterial activity of CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric and CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric with crosslinking agents were tested against the gram-positive and gram negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The results demonstrated that CS-NS composite with crosslinked coated cotton fabric has higher antibacterial activity than without crosslinked cotton fabric. Thus the chitosan-neem seed composite may be applied to the medical textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Eemian ice from the new Greenland ice core at NEEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2010-12-01

    Bedrock has been reached Tuesday July 27 2010 at the deep ice core drilling site, NEEM, on the Greenland Ice Sheet at the depth 2537.36 m. The NEEM scientists from the 14 nations participating in NEEM project are very excited and happy. The goals of 5 years work are reached and we have got what we came for. Ice from the warm interglacial Eemian period 130.000 to 115.000 years before present and even older ice found under the Eemian ice. The last 2 m of ice before the bedrock is full of material from the bedrock under the ice. We find stones from bedrock, conglomerates and mud and expect the ice to be rich in traces of DNA and pollen that can tell us how about the vegetation before the site was covered with ice and hopefully we will be able to determine how old these traces are. A flow model will be presented based on ice core data and internal radio echo sounding data discussing the origin of the ice from the Eemian climate period and the path of flow it has followed. A very important question to answer is how far back in time and at what depth we expect to have an undisturbed climate record and how what the record can tell us about the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet.

  5. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-08-11

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  6. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  7. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  8. Fire in Ice: Glacial-Interglacial biomass burning in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, Piero; Kehrwald, Natalie; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet. Fire is a key Earth system process with a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, affecting carbon cycle mechanisms, land-surface properties, atmospheric chemistry, aerosols and human activities. However, human activities may have also altered biomass burning for thousands of years, thus influencing the climate system. We analyse the specific marker levoglucosan to reconstruct past fire events in ice cores. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is an organic compound that can be only released during the pyrolysis of cellulose at temperatures > 300°C. Levoglucosan is a major fire product in the fine fraction of woody vegetation combustion, can be transported over regional to global distances, and is deposited on the Greenland ice sheet. The NEEM, Greenland ice core (77 27'N, 51 3'W, 2454 masl) documents past fire activity changes from the present back to the penultimate interglacial, the Eemian. Here we present a fire activity reconstruction from both North American and Eurasian sources over the last 120,000 yrs based on levoglucosan signatures in the NEEM ice core. Biomass burning significantly increased over the boreal Northern Hemisphere since the last glacial, resulting in a maximum between 1.5 and 3.5 kyr BP yet decreasing from ~2 kyr BP until the present. Major climate parameters alone cannot explain the observed trend and thus it is not possible to rule out the hypothesis of early anthropogenic influences on fire activity. Over millennial timescales, temperature influences Arctic ice sheet extension and vegetation distribution at Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and may have altered the distance between NEEM and available fuel loads. During the last Glacial, the combination of dry and cold climate conditions, together with low boreal insolation and decreased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may have also limited the production of available biomass. Diminished boreal forest extension and the southward

  9. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  10. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Bhargava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO,Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.

  12. An Indigenously Developed Insecticidal Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6 "Test" insecticidal aerosols (TA-I to VI indigenously produced were tested during the years 1966-67 as suitable replacements for imported aerosols.TA-I produced deep yellow staining and a yellowish spray mist. Its capacity was only 120 ml fluid. TA-III types II and III containing modified aerosol formulation with "Esso solvent 3245" and mineral turpentine oil (Burmah Shelland Freon 12 11 (all indigenouswere comparable to he "SRA" in insecticidial efficacy. The container was also manufactured in the country and it compared well with the "SRA" in construction, resistance against rough usage and mechanical function. They were both finally approved for introduction in the services as replacement for imported aerosols. TA-IV performed well in inscticidial assessment, but the aerosols formulation. TA-V and VI were similar to TA-III types II and III respectively.

  13. The botanical explorer's legacy: a promising bioprospecting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2016-11-16

    Records about the traditional uses of medicinal plants can be considered useful in bioprospecting (i.e., the search for new active agents or lead structures in nature). Several sources like Egyptian papyri, early modern herbals and pharmacopoeias have been studied in this respect. It is proposed to use recordings of botanically interested explorers of the 19th and early 20th centuries as well. Some of them give detailed information about traditionally used medicinal plants and analysis shows that a considerable number of these have never been scientifically investigated. Existing studies, however, are confirming the traditional uses described to a great extent. Thus, the explorer's writings should not be neglected while looking for starting points for plant screening; success seems more likely than with screening at random.

  14. John Locke's seed lists: a case study in botanical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen A; Anstey, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives a detailed analysis of four seed lists in the journals of John Locke. These lists provide a window into a fascinating open network of botanical exchange in the early 1680s which included two of the leading botanists of the day, Pierre Magnol of Montpellier and Jacob Bobart the Younger of Oxford. The provenance and significance of the lists are assessed in relation to the relevant extant herbaria and plant catalogues from the period. The lists and associated correspondence provide the main evidence for Locke's own important, though modest contribution to early modern botany, a contribution which he would have regarded as a small part of the broader project of constructing a natural history of plants. They also provide a detailed case study of the sort of open and informal network of knowledge exchange in the early modern period that is widely recognised by historians of science, but all too rarely illustrated.

  15. Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbehery Huda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S were used in an artificial diet, to study the mortality of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. A Neem formulation and different ages of natural beeswax combs were used for the effective management of the wax moth. While the diet was being prepared, Neem Azal-T/S was directly added ensure that the Neem formulation was distributed evenly in the diet at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. The obtained results showed that the different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S mixed in the prepared artificial diet had a significant efficacy against the tested 2nd instar larvae. An outstanding elongation of the 2nd larval instar was clear in comparison with the control, even at the least tested concentration (0.25%. Neem Azal-T/S at 4, 2,1, and 0.5% caused 100% mortality for all tested larvae. When using a 4% concentration, all the tested larvae died in the 2nd instar. However, when using a 2% concentration, the larvae died in the fifth instar. When using a decreased concentration of 1.0 and 0.5%, some of the larvae were tolerant and lived till the 6th instar. Feeding the larvae on beeswax combs treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, caused 100% mortality when fed on very old wax. When the diet was old wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 91% mortality was recorded. When the diet was new wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 90% mortality was recorded. A 4% Neem formulation caused mortality for all larvae during the first week of treatment on the different tested ages of beeswax combs.

  16. Evaluation of mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Tiwari, P K; Meshram, G P

    2011-04-12

    The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of neem oil (NO) and its DMSO extract (NDE) were, examined in the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Eight different strains of Salmonella typhimurium were, used to study the genotoxicity of neem oil both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-1254 induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Two-dose treatment protocol was, employed to study the cytogenetic activity in micronucleus assay. Similarly, the antimutagenic activity of neem oil and NDE was studied against mitomycin (MMC) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in the above two test systems. Neem oil was non-mutagenic in all the eight tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium both in the presence and absence of S9 mix. In the present study, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) in neem oil treated groups over the negative control (DMSO) group of animals, indicating the non-clastogenic activity of neem oil in the micronucleus test. Neem oil showed good antimutagenic activity against DMBA induced mutagenicity compared to its DMSO extract. However, neem oil showed comparatively less antimutagenicity against MMC in the Ames assay. In vivo anticlastogenic assays shows that neem oil exhibited better activity against DMBA induced clastogenicity. These results indicate non-mutagenic activity of neem oil and significant antimutagenic activity of neem oil suggesting its pharmacological importance for the prevention of cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. (AJST) INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (Leach). Antifeedant ... The pool of plants possessing insecticidal substances is enormous ... The most economically important of the natural plant ... processing and application of the product inexpensive. In.

  18. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the phen

  19. Preliminary assessment of insecticidal activity of Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... capitata, and the most important pupation reduction was obtained for isolates 37 ... Key words: Moroccan actinobacteria, insecticidal activity, biological screening, ..... extracts against culex tritaeniorhynchus and culex gelidus.

  20. Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Ghanim, Murad

    2012-11-01

    Insects are exposed to a variety of stress factors in their environment, and, in many cases for insect pests to agriculture, those factors include toxic chemical insecticides. Coping with the toxicity of insecticides can be costly and requires energy and resource allocation for adaptation and survival. Several behavioural, physiological and genetic mechanisms are used by insects to handle toxic insecticides, sometimes leading to resistance by constitutive overexpression of detoxification enzymes or inducing mutations in the target sites. Such actions are costly and may affect reproduction, impair dispersal ability and have several other effects on the insect's fitness. Fitness costs resulting from resistance to insecticides has been reported in many insects from different orders, and several examples are given in this mini-review.

  1. GROWING AN INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT FOR PLANT CONSERVATION AND PLANT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOTANIC GARDEN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wyse Jackson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty to thirty years can be said to constitute a new renaissance botanical gardens around the world. One of the main causes is the growing concern of the world community associated with the issue of loss of biodiversity. In addition, because a greater need to be institutions that take part actively in the field of conservation of plant resources. Community botanical garden world is experiencing rapid development, not only in terms of the number of new botanical garden that is built up but also of the purpose and function. There are currently no less than 2,500 botanical gardens worldwide. To prepare for a global framework for policies, programs and priorities of the botanical garden world in the field of conservation of biodiversity, in 2000 BGCI has published the International Agenda for Botanic Gardens in Conservation, which contained the botanical garden's global mission.

  2. A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf (400 mg/kg body weight was compared with that of dexamethasone (0.75 mg, intraperitoneally by administering one hour before the formalin injection and once daily for 7 days in rats. The percentage of inhibition of paw edema in case of neem after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 28%, 40%, 45%, 58% respectively and that in case of dexamethasone after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 43%, 58%, 61%, 65% respectively. The reduction was statistically significant in each case (p<0.001. The present study suggests that anti-inflammatory effect of neem extract is less than that produced by dexamethasone.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-12-01

    Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P neem extract and tulsi extract. Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate.

  4. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDE IN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Sih Joharina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most popular and effective vector control is the use of insecticides. Surveywas done in the houses and some supermarket to know many kind of insecticides usedby people. The formulation, active ingredients, and concentration were recorded andanalyzed. Based on the results of the survey, household insecticides formulated invarious formulations such as liquid, mosquito coils, aerosol, mat and liquid vaporizer,chalk and paper burn. In addition to formulation, active ingredients and concentrationalso vary. Almost all household insecticide products on the market using the syntheticpyrethroid. Selection of household insecticides should be adapted to the type of insectpests because each type of active ingredients and formulations have advantages anddisadvantages. Efficacy of various active ingredients in various formulations has beenstudied and the results vary widely. Insecticide efficacy is influenced by the type ofactive ingredient, dosage, concentration, formulation, and the susceptibility of insectspecies, temperature, sunlight, wind, and application method.Key word: household insecticide, insecticides formulation, active ingredientsABSTRAKPengendalian serangga vektor penyakit yang paling efektif dan populer adalahpenggunaan insektisida. Survei dilakukan di masyarakat dan supermarket untuk mengetahuijcnis-jenis insektisida yang digunakan oleh masyarakat. Berdasarkan hasil survei, insektisidarumah tangga terkemas dalam berbagai formulasi antara lain liquid, mosquito coil, aerosol, mat& liquid vaporizer, kapur serangga dan kertas bakar. Disamping formulasi, bahan aktif dankonsentrasi yang digunakan juga bermacam-macam. Hampir semua produk insektisida rumahtangga di pasaran menggunakan bahan aktif golongan piretroid sintetik. Pemilihan insektisidarumah tangga hendaknya disesuaikan dengan jenis serangga sasaran karena tiap jenis bahan aktifdan formulasi memiliki kelcbihan dan kekurangan. Efikasi berbagai bahan aktif dalam berbagaiformulasi telah

  5. Characterization of rapid climate changes through isotope analyses of ice and entrapped air in the NEEM ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillevic, Myriam

    Greenland ice core have revealed the occurrence of rapid climatic instabilities during the last glacial period, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, while marine cores from the North Atlantic have evidenced layers of ice rafted debris deposited by icebergs melt, caused by the collapse...... four Greenland deep ice cores (GRIP, GISP2, NGRIP and NEEM) are investigated over a series of Dansgaard– Oeschger events (DO 8, 9 and 10). Combined with firn modeling, δ15N data allow us to quantify abrupt temperature increases for each drill site (1σ = 0.6°C for NEEM, GRIP and GISP2, 1.5°C for NGRIP...

  6. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  7. 446-IJBCS-Article-Dr Adenyi S A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Phytochemical screening and insecticidal activity of leaf extracts of Bryophyllum ... have insecticidal properties (Baladrin, 1985;. Rawls, 1986 ... and are used in several insecticide formulations in .... of neem seed kerna and neem gum extract.

  8. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  9. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism.

  10. Verifying the botanical authenticity of commercial tannins through sugars and simple phenols profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Mario; Nardin, Tiziana; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Commercial tannins from several botanical sources and with different chemical and technological characteristics are used in the food and winemaking industries. Different ways to check their botanical authenticity have been studied in the last few years, through investigation of different analytical parameters. This work proposes a new, effective approach based on the quantification of 6 carbohydrates, 7 polyalcohols, and 55 phenols. 87 tannins from 12 different botanical sources were analysed following a very simple sample preparation procedure. Using Forward Stepwise Discriminant Analysis, 3 statistical models were created based on sugars content, phenols concentration and combination of the two classes of compounds for the 8 most abundant categories (i.e. oak, grape seed, grape skin, gall, chestnut, quebracho, tea and acacia). The last approach provided good results in attributing tannins to the correct botanical origin. Validation, repeated 3 times on subsets of 10% of samples, confirmed the reliability of this model.

  11. Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin of Red Propolis, a New Type of Brazilian Propolis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Bruno B; Rosalen, Pedro L; Cury, Jaime A; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Souza, Vinícius C; Esteves, Alessandro; Alencar, Severino M

    2008-01-01

    Red propolis is a new type of Brazilian propolis. This material, as well as the secretions of 20 plant species that are often mentioned as its probable botanical source, have been investigated by RP-HPTLC...

  12. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  13. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Manjunath, S M; Rajanikanth, A V; Sridevi, N

    2012-11-01

    HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES: From the ancient time, neem used to be the traditional medicine for many diseases and was mainly used for cleaning the oral cavity. The incidence of dental caries was less a few decades ago but now the incidence of caries is very aggressive. This might be due to change in dietary habits, life style and more tendency toward processed food. The objective of this study is to find out the truth that if the neem is really efficacious against caries-inducing microorganisms, mainly Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. The dried neem sticks ground into a coarse powder and weighed into 5, 10 and 50 gm were added to 100 ml of deionized double distilled water. After soaking for 2 days, the water was filtered at 4 °C and the fine filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates contains individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 °C for 2 days. At maximum concentrations, neem extract has shown the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans. At less concentration, the efficacy of neem has shown some inhibition of growth for all the four species of microorganisms. Neem chewing provides the maximum benefits. Hence, the use of chewing sticks of neem can be recommended.

  15. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael; Pettit, Erin; Kluskiewicz, Dan; Waddington, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occuring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also combine sonic-velocity measurements and thin-section measurements to produce a more accurate and spatially-complete representation of ice-crystal orientations in the vicinity of the NEEM core.

  16. Fire in ice: two millennia of Northern Hemisphere fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zennaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales, but there remains a need for broad-scale fire proxies that span millennia in order to understand the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. We use the specific biomarker levoglucosan, and multi-source black carbon and ammonium concentrations to reconstruct fire activity from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM ice cores (77.49° N; 51.2° W, 2480 m a.s.l. over the past 2000 years. Increases in boreal fire activity (1000–1300 CE and 1500–1700 CE over multi-decadal timescales coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past two millennia. The NEEM biomass burning tracers coincide with temperature changes throughout much of the past 2000 years except for during the extreme droughts, when precipitation changes are the dominant factor. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low and high latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the NEEM camp. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back-trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  17. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  18. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. THE HISTORICAL OF BOTANICAL RESEARCHES REALIZED IN NEAGRA BROSTENILOR RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a relative small area of approximately 350 Km², the Neagra Brostenilor river basin has been studied from the botanical point of view by numerous romanian and foreign botanists. This paper contains an enumeration of the botanical studies realized in this teritory in the period between 1788-first floristical mention and the 2005 years, and a short physical-geographical caracterization of this area.

  20. Resolving whether botanic gardens are on the road to conservation or a pathway for plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2015-06-01

    A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future

  1. SkelTre - Fast Skeletonisation for Imperfect Point Cloud Data of Botanic Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bucksch, A.; R. Lindenbergh; M. Menenti

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm aiming at the skeletonisation of a laser scanner point cloud, representing a botanical tree without leafs. The resulting skeleton can subsequently be applied to obtain tree parameters like length and diameter of branches for botanic applications. Scanner-produced point cloud data are not only subject to noise, but also to undersampling and varying point densities, making it challenging to ex...

  2. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  3. Isolation,Purification and Identification of the Spermicidal Active Compound from Neem Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhongqiong(殷中琼); Gao Ping; Gao Rong; Jiang Dehong; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the chloroform extract of the neem oil has resulted in the isolation of one new esters derivatives named 2-Octadecanoic acid-4-Palmitic acid-2,4-Pentanediyl ester (compound 1). Its structure is deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The test of in vitro spermicidal activity of the compound 1 shows that the compound 1 can kill all sperms of Kunming mice in vitro in less than 20 sec at the concentration of 2mg/ml.

  4. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  5. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas.

  6. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  7. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  8. Botanical name changes – nuisance or a quest for precision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the need for the seemingly regular changes to plant names applied to many tropical forage species, it is necessary to be aware of the rules that govern botanical nomenclature.  The binomial naming system, first proposed in 1753, is governed by rules defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN.  These rules have been strengthened as necessary over the years in the interest of providing practitioners with plant names that are unique for each species, and presented in an hierarchical format that shows the evolutionary relationships between plants.  This paper includes a table of name changes accepted by the USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN for species used in tropical forage research and development over the last half century.  The need to use legitimate plant names is emphasized and suggestions are made on how practitioners might best deal with the changes.Keywords: Taxonomy, nomenclature, tropical forages.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(334-40

  9. Botanics: a potential source of new therapies for Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syad AN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arif Nisha Syad, Kasi Pandima Devi Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and impairment of multiple cognitive functions. Several factors contribute to the progression and development of the disease including amyloid beta accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, cholinergic deficit, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis. Numerous traditional and herbal medicinal plants have been used to treat several cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. They act as excellent antioxidants, anti-inflammatory mediators, and cholinesterase and β-secretase inhibitors. In addition, these natural compounds also prevent the accumulation of amyloid beta and its fibril formation. Besides acting as core-molecules, these natural compounds act as a template for the production and synthesis of several drug leads with improved pharmacokinetic potentials and greater efficacies. Hence, herbal medicines that have interesting pharmacological effects with noticeable anti-Alzheimer's potential deserve increased attention for further development to drug entities. The present article reviews the botanical pharmacology with special reference to anti-Alzheimer activity of plants and plant-derived compounds. Keywords: neurodegeneration, medicinal plants, antioxidants, Aβ peptide, neuroprotective, clinical trials

  10. Evaluation of chemical, botanical and cultural managements of termites control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufera, Jiregna Tasisa; Fufa, Tena Gobena

    2014-01-15

    The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.

  11. Botanical Characteristics of Polish Honeys from Natura 2000 Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen samples of honeys which were harvested over several beekeeping seasons from apiaries located in the area of the “Kózki” Nature Reserve (central-eastern Poland were the subject of the present study. The “Kózki” Nature Reserve is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 program. A microscopic analysis of the pollen sediment in the honeys showed the presence of 61 pollen types from 32 botanical families in the investigated material. There were represented by nectariferous (72.1% and nonnectariferous plants (27.9% and both entomophilous and anemophilous ones. The total number of pollen taxa in individual samples ranged from 13 to 37. The main sources of nectar from trees and shrubs were: Frangula alnus, Prunus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus, Salix, Tilia. The main sources of nectar from herbaceous plants were: Anthriscus, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea cyanus, Taraxacum, and Trifolium repens. Four unifloral honeys (three fruit tree honeys and one lime honey and fourteen multifloral honeys, with a significant percentage of pollen from several nectariferous plant taxa, were distinguished in the studied material.

  12. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  13. Production of Bio-Diesel to Neem oil and its performance and emission Analysis in two stroke Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Mahesh BABU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In India Neem tree is a widely grown up termed as a divine tree due to its wide relevance in many areas of study. This paper deals with Biodiesel production from neem oil, which is monoester produced usingtransesterification process. Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high lubricity, clean burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing unmodified diesel engine. Neem (Azadirachita Indica is an evergreen tree, which is endemic to the Indian Sub-continent and has beenintroduced to many other areas intropics. The fuel properties of biodiesel including flash point-and fire point were examined. The engine properties and pollutant emissions characteristics under different biodiesel percentages were also studied. The results shows that the biodiesel produced using neem oil could reduce Carbon monoxide and smoke emissions significantly while the Nitrogen oxide emission changed slightly. Thus, the ester of this oil can be used as environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engine.

  14. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

  15. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Biochar Improved Early Growth of Neem (Melia azedarach Linn. Seedling Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wilarso Budi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of biochar on the seedling quality index and growth of neem tree seedlings and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF development  grown on ultisol  soil medium.  Two factors in completely randomised experimental design was conducted under green house conditions and Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to analyse the data. The results showed that neem seedling quality index was improved by interaction of AMF fungi and biochar amandment. The growth of neem seedling was significantly increased by interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biochar.  The combination  treatment of Glomus etunicatum and biochar 10% gave best results of height and diameter, and significantly increased by 712% and 303% respectively, as compared to control plant, while the combination treatment of Gigaspora margarita and biochar 10% gave the best result of shoot dry weight, and root dry weight and significantly increase by 4,547% and 6,957% as compared to control plant.  The mycorrhizal root colonization was increased with increasing biochar added, but decreases when 15% of biochar was applied.  N, P, and K uptake of 12 weeks neem seedling old was higher and significantly increased as compared to control plant.Keywords: AMF development, nutrient uptake , plant growth , seedling quality index, biochar  DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.103

  16. Peterburis pakutakse valgeid öid täis muusikat ning Neeme Järvit / Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Piret, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Peterburis toimuvast 7 nädalat kestvast süvamuusikafestivalist "Valgete ööde tähed/Stars of the White Nights", kontsertidel esinejatest. 25. juunil toimuvast Neeme, Paavo ja Kristjan Järvi ühiskontserdist

  17. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    al., 1999). The occurrence of insecticide resistant Culex mosquitoes has also been reported in Wete, ... Emerged pupae were sucked from the larval containers .... Key: aWHO criteria for assessing susceptibility to insecticides of mosquitoes; ...

  18. Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean Weevil, ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... apply traditional insecticide materials in the protection of bean from insect pests.

  19. Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract on resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V; Perfeito, Márcia L G; Guimarães, Maria A; dos Santos, Raimunda C; Lima, David F; Nascimento, Carlos; Silva, Marcos P N; Soares, Maria José dos S; Ropke, Cristina D; Eaton, Peter; de Moraes, Josué; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-12-04

    There are ethnopharmacological reports supporting the use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf against bacterial and worm infections. However there is a lack of studies about its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the in vitro effects of neem leaf ethanolic extract (Neem EE) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and against S. mansoni worms. Quantification of the Azadirachtin (AZA), thought to be one of their main compounds related to biological effects, was performed. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of Neem EE on biofilm formation and planktonic aggregates of S. aureus was tested using the crystal violet dye method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, respectively. Changes in S. mansoni motor activity and death of worms were analyzed in vitro after exposition to the extract. Treated schistosomes were also examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was observed the presence of AZA in the extract (0.14 ± 0.02 mg/L). Testing Neem EE sub-inhibitory concentrations, a significant biofilm adherence inhibition from 62.5 µg/mL for a sensitive S. aureus and 125 µg/mL for two MRSA strains was observed. AFM images revealed that as the Neem EE concentration increases (from 250 to 1000 µg/mL) decreased ability of a chosen MRSA strain to form large aggregates. In relation of anti-schistosoma assay, the extract caused 100% mortality of female worms at a concentration of 50 µg/mL at 72 h of incubation, while 300 µg/mL at 24h of incubation was required to achieve 100% mortality of male worms. The extract also caused significant motor activity reduction in S. mansoni. For instance, at 96 h of incubation with 100 µg/mL, 80% of the worms presented significant motor activity reduction. By the confocal microscopy analysis, the dorsal surface of the tegument of worms exposed to 300 µg/mL (male) and 100 µg/mL (female) of the extract

  20. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  1. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990–2010 times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623–1750 times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  2. Mineral dust and major ion concentrations in snowpit samples from the NEEM site, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Hwang, Heejin; Hong, Sang Bum; Hur, Soon Do; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Jeonghoon; Hong, Sungmin

    2015-11-01

    Polar ice sheets conserve atmospheric aerosols at the time of snowfall, which can be used to reconstruct past climate and environmental conditions. We investigated mineral dust and major ion records in snowpit samples obtained from the northwestern Greenland ice sheet near the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) camp in June 2009. We analyzed the samples for mineral dust concentrations as well as stable water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and deuterium excess) and major ions (Cl-, SO42-, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), Na+, and Ca2+). Seasonal δ18O and δD cycles indicate that the snowpit samples covered a six-year period from spring 2003 to early summer 2009. Concentrations of mineral dust, nss-Ca2+, and nss-SO42- showed seasonal deposition events with maxima in the winter-spring layers. On the other hand, the Cl-/Na+ ratio and the concentrations of MSA exhibited maxima in the summer layers, making them useful indicators for the summer season. Moreover, an anomalous atmospheric mineral dust event was recorded at a depth of 165-170 cm corresponding to late winter 2005 to spring 2006. A back trajectory analysis suggests that a major contributor to the Greenland aerosol was an air mass passing over the Canadian Arctic and North America. Several trajectories point to Asian regions as a dust source. The mineral dust deposited at NEEM was strongly influenced by long-range atmospheric transport and dust input from arid source areas in northern China and Mongolia.

  3. Beta Cell Regenerating Potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, G; Parshad, O; Brown, P D; Gardner, M T

    2015-05-05

    This study evaluated the ability of 0.8% neem leaf extract (NLE) to treat diabetes mellitus by assessing its effects on blood glucose, insulin levels and islet morphology in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced in two to three-day old rat pups by STZ intraperitoneally (60 mg/kg), followed by a further 40 mg/kg dose 12-23 weeks later. The diabetic treated (DT) rats received 0.8% w/v NLE in tap water while diabetic control (DC) and normal control (NC) rats received water ad libitum. Body weight, water and chow consumption, and blood glucose were evaluated weekly. Blood and pancreas were collected at the end of the study to evaluate serum insulin and islet histology, respectively. Neem leaf extract (0.8%) improved weight gain and beta cell regeneration but did not reduce blood glucose. Serum insulin increased slightly in the treated group and three-fold in the DC group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that NLE has beta cell regenerating potential.

  4. Neem Seed Oil Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Kaushik, Shweta; Shyam, Hari; Agarwal, Satish; Balapure, Anil Kumar

    2017-08-27

    Background: In traditional Indian medicine, azadirachta indica (neem) is known for its wide range of medicinal properties. Various parts of neem tree including its fruit, seed, bark, leaves, and root have been shown to possess antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal and anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells were exposed to various concentrations of 2% ethanolic solution of NSO (1-30 μl/ml) and further processed for cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. In addition, cells were analyzed for alteration in Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) using JC-1 and DCFDA staining respectively. Results: NSO give 50% inhibition at 10 μl/ml and 20 μl/ml concentration in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells respectively and, arrests cells at G0/G1 phase in both the cell types. There was a significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential that leads to the generation of ROS and induction of apoptosis in NSO treated MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells. Conclusion: The results showed that NSO inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Collectively these results suggest that NSO could potentially be used in the management of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Neem (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-09

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000). Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat), except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™) dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE) by using a broth model system.

  6. Expedient preparative isolation and tandem mass spectrometric characterization of C-seco triterpenoids from Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Saikat; Mulani, Fayaj A; Aarthy, Thiagarayaselvam; Dandekar, Devdutta S; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2014-10-31

    C-seco triterpenoids are widely bioactive class of natural products with high structural complexity and diversity. The preparative isolation of these molecules with high purity is greatly desirable, although restricted due to the complexity of natural extracts. In this article we have demonstrated a Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) based protocol for the isolation of eight major C-seco triterpenoids of salannin skeleton from Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. Successive application of normal phase pre-packed silica-gel columns for the fractionation followed by reverse phase in automated MPLC system expedited the process and furnished highly pure metabolites. Furthermore, eight isolated triterpenoids along with five semi-synthesized derivatives were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole/orbitrap-MS/MS spectrometry as a rapid and sensitive identification technique. The structure-fragment relationships were established on the basis of plausible mechanistic pathway for the generation of daughter ions. The MS/MS spectral information of the triterpenoids was further utilized for the identification of studied molecules in the complex extract of stem and bark tissues from Neem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a new controlled pesticide delivery system based on neem leaf powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Baljit, E-mail: baljitsinghhpu@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Sharma, D.K.; Kumar, Ramesh; Gupta, Atul [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India)

    2010-05-15

    In order to minimize the agro-environmental pollution and health hazards caused by pesticides, in the present study, the neem leaf powder '(NLP)', a bio-pesticide, has been exploited to develop the pesticide delivery devices. The presence of neem in the formulations along with the pesticide may enhance the potential of these systems due to its inherent pesticidal activity. We have prepared the NLP and alginate based beads by using CaCl{sub 2} as crosslinker. To study the effect of composition of the beads on the release dynamics of fungicide (thiram), beads were prepared by varying the amount of NLP and crosslinker. The beads formed were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron micrograph (SEM), energy dispersion analysis by X-rays (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis and swelling study. Formulation characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, bead size, percentage equilibrium swelling of the beads and diffusion mechanism for thiram release have been evaluated. Maximum (78.33 {+-} 2.89)% swelling has occurred in the beads prepared with 1.5% NLP, 2.5% alginate and 0.1 M crosslinker solution. In most of the formulations the values for the diffusion exponent 'n' have been obtained >1 and hence the release of fungicides occurred through Case II diffusion mechanism.

  8. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, G.; Fischer, H.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Leuenberger, D.; Mini, O.

    2014-10-01

    The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate) in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species) making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990-2010) times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623-1750) times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively) for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July-August and nitrate during June-July.

  9. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  10. Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayanithi, N B; Kumar, T T Ajith; Kathiresan, K

    2010-07-01

    Marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. There is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. But problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. Since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. Bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clown fishes Amphiprion sebae and A. ocellaris were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ethanol and methanol extracts were highly inhibitory to the bacterial isolates when compared to other solvents. Ethanol extracts exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (75-250 microg ml(-1)) as compared to other extracts. The present finding revealed that the neem leaf extract significantly reduces the bacterial pathogens and their infection in marine ornamental fishes.

  11. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  12. Pretreatment and Process to Control Mycotoxin in Sustainable Feed Production Using Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Idayu Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By some recent estimates, mycotoxins affect as much as 25% of the world’s food crops each year. These highly toxic, naturally occurring compounds are by products (metabolites of the growth of fungi or moulds. Mycotoxins can result in significant economic loss for crop producers and broiler producers since it represent an ongoing risk to profitability. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. This paper highlights the use of naturally derived aflatoxin inhibitors from Azadirachtin compound of neem oil, and tray drying in controlling moisture content to inhibit the aflatoxin contamination in pretreated soy based animal feed. High moisture content found in soy based animal feed increases the risk of fungal growth during storage. Neem extract has shown potential as an effective feed additive to minimize the growth of fungi and possibly reduce the risk of toxic effects from mycotoxin production. Preservation methods by means of tray drying have also shown positive results towards the control of fungal growth.

  13. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  14. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  15. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in north-west Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern times as well as for pre-industrial times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  16. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalakshmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO and its methyl ester (NOME on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at full load, peak cylinder pressure is higher for NOME; peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase is lower for neat NeO and NOME. Ignition delay is lower for neat NeO and NOME when compared with diesel at full load. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly lower for NeO at all engine loads, but in the case of NOME slightly higher at full load. It has been observed that there is a reduction in NOx emission for neem oil and its methyl ester along with an increase in CO, HC and smoke emissions.

  17. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  18. Electronic structure of pesticides: 1. Organochlorine insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Igor, E-mail: inovak@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, POB 883, Orange, NSW 2800 (Australia); Kovac, Branka [Physical Chemistry Division, ' R. Boskovic' Institute, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electronic structure of several organochlorine insecticides has been determined by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and high-level ab initio calculations. {yields} The electronic structure obtained from spectra has been related to their biological activity. {yields} The molecular modes of binding to appropriate receptors are rationalized in view of the molecule's electronic structure and conformational flexibility. - Abstract: The electronic structures of six organochlorine insecticides: {gamma}-lindane (I), aldrin (II), dieldrin (III), DDD (IV), DDE (V) and DDT (VI) have been investigated by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), quantum chemical calculations and comparison with molecular modelling studies. Their electronic and molecular structures are discussed in order to rationalize their biological activity. In this work we relate the biological activity of these insecticides to their experimentally observed electronic and molecular structures.

  19. Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Sima; Mandi, Sukumar; Tarafdar, Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.

  20. Cytochromes P450 and insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J G

    1999-09-01

    The cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (monooxygenases) are an extremely important metabolic system involved in the catabolism and anabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Monooxygenase-mediated metabolism is a common mechanism by which insects become resistant to insecticides as evidenced by the numerous insect species and insecticides affected. This review begins by presenting background information about P450s, the role of monooxygenases in insects, and the different techniques that have been used to isolate individual insect P450s. Next, insecticide resistance is briefly described, and then historical information about monooxygenase-mediated insecticide resistance is reviewed. For any case of monooxygenase-mediated resistance, identification of the P450(s) involved, out of the dozens that are present in an insect, has proven very challenging. Therefore, the next section of the review focuses on the minimal criteria for establishing that a P450 is involved in resistance. This is followed by a comprehensive examination of the literature concerning the individual P450s that have been isolated from insecticide resistant strains. In each case, the history of the strain and the evidence for monooxygenase-mediated resistance are reviewed. The isolation and characterization of the P450(s) from the strain are then described, and the evidence of whether or not the isolated P450(s) is involved in resistance is summarized. The remainder of the review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular basis of monooxygenase-mediated resistance and the implications for the future. The importance of these studies for development of effective insecticide resistance management strategies is discussed.

  1. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant.

  2. Productivity and botanical composition of pasture under grazing and fertilizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic factors in milk and meat production increase a use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as an alternative to grass monoculture withhigh rate of mineral N. The research aimed to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on grassland productivity and botanical composition. On the average, 5.3 % higher total dry matter (DM yield was obtained under S than under C. With N0 was achieved >80 % of N150 DM yield. The grazing management x N rate interaction was recorded for legumes DM yield and their contribution to total DM yield. N150 decreased both parameters only in S, while differences in these parameters between grazing management obtained only in N0, whereas S was less detrimental to legume growth than was cattle grazing. N150 increased grass DM yield for 29.3 % in comparison to N0. The grazing management x N and year x N interactions were recorded for the grass contribution to total DM yield. Differences in this parameter were found only in N0 where C resulted in higher grass content. There were no significant differences in grass content between years in N0, while in N150 grass content in 2000 was lower than grass content in 2000 and 2002. N0 resulted in 88 % higher DM yield and 139 % higher forbs content in comparison to N150. C resulted in 44 % higher content of dead plant material compared to S.

  3. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  4. Acute and reproductive effects of Align, an insecticide containing azadirachtin, on the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigaray, F Javier Sáenz-De-Cabezón; Moreno-Grijalba, Fernando; Marco, Vicente; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Azadirachtin, derived from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae), seems promising for use in integrated pest management programs to control a variety of pest species. A commercial formulation of azadirachtin, Align, has been evaluated against different developmental stages of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). When administered orally, Align reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5, and 10 mg litre(-1). At the highest doses, fecundity and fertility were zero, but longevity was not affected. An LC(50) of 231.5 mg litre(-1) was obtained when Align was sprayed on eggs less than 1 day old. Hatching of all egg classes was significantly reduced, and this reduction was more pronounced for eggs less than 24 h old. LC(50) values of 2.1 mg litre(-1) for first instars and 18.7 mg litre(-1) for third instars were obtained when Align was present in the diet. Larvae reared on a diet containing different concentrations of Align did not molt into adults at the highest concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 1.2), and 50% molted at the lowest concentration (0.15). Phenotypic effects included inability to molt properly and deformities. The combination of acute toxicity and low, effective concentrations of Align observed in this study could lead to the inclusion of insecticides containing azadirachtin in integrated management programs against this pest.

  5. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  6. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  7. Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / G. W.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. (AD: 1991). Chandos/Koch CD 9096

  8. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  9. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  10. Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / G. W.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. (AD: 1991). Chandos/Koch CD 9096

  11. Organic neem compounds inhibit soft‐rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, D.J; Nieto‐Delgado, C; Cannon, F.S; Brennan, R.A

    2015-01-01

    To examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source...

  12. Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; Falourd, S.; Fettweis, X.; Gallée, H.; Garnier, E.; Gkinis, V.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Minster, B.; Paradis, N.; Orsi, A.; Risi, C.; Werner, M.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-08-01

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope-temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825 and 1836-1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation-temperature and δ18O-temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979-2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C-1 and the δ18O-temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C-1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  13. Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; Falourd, S.; Fettweis, X.; Gallée, H.; Garnier, E.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Minster, B.; Paradis, N.; Orsi, A.; Risi, C.; Werner, M.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (north-west Greenland), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterize the isotope-temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic SST, and enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multi-decadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O anomaly values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825 and 1836-1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multi-decadal accumulation-temperature and δ18O-temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979-2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2% °C-1 and the δ18O-temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2‰ °C-1, about twice larger than previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  14. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Wazed [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sultana, Parveen [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Joshi, Mangala [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Rajendran, Subbiyan, E-mail: sr2@bolton.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. - Highlights: • A novel technique whereby the antibacterial components of neem oil are imbued into the compact structure of PET polyester • Trichloroacetic acid-Methylene Chloride treatment facilitated the easy entry of neem ingredients into the PET structure • Neem oil treated PET registered substantial antibacterial efficacy • Antibacterial effect is retained even after multiple use-wash cycles.

  15. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  16. Impact of botanical extracts on histopathology of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mude Jagadish Naik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the effect of various botanical extract on the tissue, cellular an d sub cellular level and histopathology of silkworm, findings of the present study gives useful data concerning the changes in the insect. Three plants extract viz Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Parthenium hysterophorus were used as experimental while untreated leaves consider as control. These botanicals were sprayed on the tukra (Pink mealy bug infected mulberry leaves and feed to silkworm (CSR2 bivoltine hybrid. Findings of the study suggested no change in the fat body of the silkworm feed on the botanical sprayed leaves and it was with normal vacuolization cytoplasm of cells. While hypertrophied nucleus fat body and voculated cytoplasm was reported in the silkworm fed on the tukra infected chawki leaves. The outer layers of the nucleolus were reported somewhat hypertrophied and cytoplasm was reported vacuolate with mild degeneration of cell in silkworm fed on the tukra infected leaves. Silk worm fed leaves revealed almost similar changes to that of normal and there was no change in botanical sprayed fed larvae. The impact in tissue of the silkworm when fed with normal and crude botanical extracts against mealy bugs shows normalcy, but in the t ukra infected mulberry leaves fed by silk worms the tissues sho ws slight degenerative with nutritional impact upon them

  17. Does Concurrent Use of Some Botanicals Interfere with Treatment of Tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, William R; Smith, Aaron; Song, Hailong; Chuang, Dennis; Cheng, Jianlin; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace

    2016-09-01

    Millions of individuals with active TB do not receive recommended treatments, and instead may use botanicals, or use botanicals concurrently with established treatments. Many botanicals protect against oxidative stress, but this can interfere with redox-dependent activation of isoniazid and other prodrugs used for prophylaxis and treatment of TB, as suggested by results of a recent clinical trial of the South African botanical Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. (Sutherlandia). Here we provide a brief summary of Sutherlandia's effects upon rodent microglia and neurons relevant to tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB). We have observed that ethanolic extracts of Sutherlandia suppress production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat primary cortical neurons stimulated by NMDA and also suppress LPS- and interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production by microglial cells. Sutherlandia consumption mitigates microglial activation in the hippocampus and striatum of ischemic brains of mice. RNAseq analysis indicates that Sutherlandia suppresses gene expression of oxidative stress, inflammatory signaling and toll-like receptor pathways that can reduce the host's immune response to infection and reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a precautionary measure, we recommend that individuals receiving isoniazid for pulmonary or cerebral TB, be advised not to concurrently use botanicals or dietary supplements having antioxidant activity.

  18. Mechanism of Long-Range Penetration of Low-Energy Ions in Botanic Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王宇钢; 薛建明; 王思学; 杜广华; 颜莎; 赵渭江

    2002-01-01

    We present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100keV Ar+ ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 × 10-5. The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He+ ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples.

  19. Design, synthesis, anti-TMV, fungicidal, and insecticidal activity evaluation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives based on virus inhibitors of plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-jian; Liu, Yong-xian; Liu, Yu-xiu; Huang, Yuan-qiong; Li, Yong-qiang; Wang, Qing-min

    2014-11-15

    By drawing the creation ideas of botanical pesticides, a series of tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized, and first evaluated for their anti-TMV, fungicidal and insecticidal activities. Most of these derivatives exhibited good antiviral activity against TMV both in vitro and in vivo. Especially, the activities of compounds 8 and 15 in vivo were higher than that of ribavirin. The compound 8 exhibited more than 70% fungicidal activities against Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Alternaria solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Rhizoctonia solani at 50mg/kg, compounds 16 and 20 exhibited more than 60% insecticidal activities against Mythimna separate and Ostrinia nubilalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.