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Sample records for botanical dietary supplements

  1. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Other Resources Botanical Dietary Supplements Background Information Have a question? Ask ... on botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part ...

  2. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  3. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  4. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  6. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  8. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  10. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  12. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  14. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy

    2012-09-28

    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  15. In silico approach to safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients utilizing constituent-level characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jason G; Marsman, Daniel S; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals. Following advanced multi-detector analytical characterization of a botanical, each chemical constituent is: (a.) quantitatively benchmarked against similar constituents in commonly consumed foods or botanicals with well-established safety profiles, (b.) systematically evaluated for toxicity data utilizing structure-activity relationships, and, (c.) compared to established thresholds of toxicological concern in absence of safety data or structural analogs. Finally, where safety endpoint gaps are identified which cannot be resolved without additional in vitro or in vivo studies, the botanical compositional data are critical to inform on study design. Results with three herbal preparations demonstrate the utility of this novel approach to identify potential hazards and establish safe human use levels for botanicals in a cost efficient and informative manner that minimizes animal use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxins in botanical dietary supplements: blue cohosh components disrupt cellular respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B; Khan, Ikhlas A; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-24

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA "black box" warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3), exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage.

  17. Usage, biological activity, and safety of selected botanical dietary supplements consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Annécie Benatrehina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry

  18. Review of the ethnobotany, chemistry, biological activity and safety of the botanical dietary supplement Morinda citrifolia (noni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Alison D; Kinghorn, Douglas A

    2007-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly called noni, has a long history as a medicinal plant and its use as a botanical dietary supplement has grown tremendously in recent years. This has prompted a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of noni. A relatively large number of scientific publications on noni have been published in recent years, including a number of review articles. The goals of this review are to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents found in noni and to provide perspective for its extensive utilization as a major botanical dietary supplement. Included herein are a comprehensive list of known ethnobotanical uses and common names of M. citrifolia, a brief summary of relevant biological studies and a discussion of the safety of noni as a supplement.

  19. Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: a phase I red clover extract as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersen, C E; Booth, N L; Sun, Y; Liang, W; Burdette, J E; van Breemen, R B; Geller, S E; Gu, C; Banuvar, S; Shulman, L P; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-06-01

    Botanical dietary supplements, as compared with nutritional supplements or single-component pharmaceutical drugs, are typically less-refined preparations derived from bulk plant material and, as such, require a modified approach to their development, production, and evaluation. An integrated, multidisciplinary team of scientific and clinical investigators is required in order to develop high quality phytomedicines and rigorously evaluate their safety and efficacy. Research on botanicals involves unique challenges as plant source materials frequently vary in chemical content and may contain unwanted pesticides, heavy metals, contaminant plant species, or other adulterants. Ideally, a botanical formulation should be standardized, both chemically and biologically, by a combination of analytical techniques and bioassays. This combination approach provides multiple measures by which reproducible quality and efficacy of botanical supplements may be achieved, and is particularly useful for botanical products for which the active compound(s) have not yet been identified. Safety and toxicity should be evaluated during the supplement development process in both in vitro and in vivo systems. A number of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods can aid in the assessment of purity, bioavailability, toxicity, metabolism, and molecular target profiling of botanical extracts. Clinical investigators must appreciate the complexity of multi-component phytomedicines and adjust trial protocols accordingly. This review highlights practical considerations of value to basic science and clinical investigators engaged in the study of botanical supplements. Lessons and examples are drawn from the authors' experience in designing and developing a red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) standardized extract for evaluation in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials.

  20. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  1. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...

  2. Research highlights from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: Black cohosh from the field to the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Mahady, Gail B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy at the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois (UIC) at Chicago was funded to establish a Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Center from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The emphasis of the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research (CBDSR) is botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for women's health. Center’s research has focused on BDS that may improve women's health and quality of life, specifically in the areas of menopause, premenstrual syndrome, and persistent urinary tract infections. Center investigators have overcome many challenges associated with botanical dietary supplements research, including acquiring and identifying plant species for investigation, isolating and identifying active constituents, elucidating the mechanisms of action of these botanicals, and conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae)] has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking a botanical dietary supplement from the field, all the way to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. The Center has used an innovative multidisciplinary approach to this type of research, and thus has been very successful in fulfilling its specific aims. PMID:20161501

  3. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Filippelli, Amanda C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the changes in prevalence of dietary supplement use in pregnancy, postpartum, and in a comparison group of nonpregnant women. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices II study. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use by US women with respect to demographic, behavioral, and health factors. We compared pregnant and postpartum women to a comparison group of nonpregnant women who had not given birth in the past 12 months. Our main outcome was the prevalence of dietary supplements. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use during reproductive age, pregnancy, and postpartum. The total sample included 1444 women assessed during the prenatal period, 1422 from the postpartum period, and 1517 women in a comparison group. In terms of herb or botanical use, 15% of the prenatal group, 16% of the postpartum group, and 22% of the comparison group reported using herbs or botanicals. The most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement was omega-3 fatty acid. Among the total prenatal group and comparison group, women eating 5 or more servings of fruits or vegetables were less likely to report using herbs or botanicals. Women in the comparison group self-identifying as black were 4 times as likely to report using herbs or botanicals compared to participants self-identifying as white. In addition, women identifying as a race other than white were almost twice as likely to report herb or botanical use across all study groups. This is one of the rare studies that shows the changing prevalence of herbs or botanicals and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use in women in the reproductive stage of their lives. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Survey on the Quality of the Top-Selling European and American Botanical Dietary Supplements Containing Boswellic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Jürgen; Artaria, Christian; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-04-01

    In consideration of the increasing popularity of frankincense and the widely published quality problems associated with botanical dietary supplements, a survey was conducted for the first time on the quality of frankincense containing botanical dietary supplements. Six US products representing 78 % of the units sold and 70 % of the market value, and 11 European products representing 30 % of the units sold and 40 % of the market value were tested for their boswellic acid composition profile, label compliance, and claimed health benefits. Special focus was also set on the statements made with regard to the frankincense applied.Only five products out of seventeen disclosed all relevant information for the Boswellia extract, mentioning the species, the part of plant used, and the boswellic acid content. Whereas all products but one claimed to use Boswellia serrata, three products did not mention the resin as the part applied and 10 products did not declare the boswellic acid content. Apart from the different boswellic acid composition determined with a sensitive LC/MS method, 41 % of the products did not comply with the label declaration. Hence, one product from Italy did not contain any of the six characteristic boswellic acids (KBA, AKBA, αBA, βBA, AαBA, AβBA) at all and another US product contained only traces, suggesting the absence of frankincense or the use of Boswellia frereana instead of B. serrata. In another product, the ratios of the individual boswellic acids were different from B. serrata gum resin, indicating the use of another species such as Boswellia sacra or Boswellia carterii. Furthermore, two products revealed different boswellic acid contents from those declared on the label. Further, two products did not declare the use of manipulated Boswellia gum resin extract being enriched in acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid content reaching up to 66 %. In addition, consumers could be misled by outdated literature or references to in vitro studies

  5. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from various parts of many botanicals and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 dietary supplements was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was u...

  6. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  7. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of botanical dietary supplements using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup column, and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Lee, Nathaniel S; DiBenedetto, Alex L; Hengel, Mathew J

    2013-05-07

    Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 μg/kg). Tetraconazole (48 μg/kg), tetramethrin (15 μg/kg), methamidophos (50 μg/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 μg/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 μg/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this method's applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements.

  8. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  9. Rapid on-site TLC-SERS detection of four antidiabetes drugs used as adulterants in botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingxia; Cao, Yongbing; Cao, Yingying; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    A novel facile method has been established for rapid on-site detection of antidiabetes chemicals used to adulterate botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for diabetes. Analytes and components of pharmaceutical matrices were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) then surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used for qualitative identification of trace substances on the HPTLC plate. Optimization and standardization of the experimental conditions, for example the method used for preparation of silver colloids, the mobile phase, and the concentration of colloidal silver, resulted in a very robust and highly sensitive method which enabled successful detection when the amount of adulteration was as low as 0.001 % (w/w). The method was also highly selective, enabling successful identification of some chemicals in extremely complex herbal matrices. The established TLC-SERS method was used for analysis of real BDS used to treat diabetes, and the results obtained were verified by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The study showed that TLC-SERS could be used for effective separation and detection of four chemicals used to adulterate BDS, and would have good prospects for on-site qualitative screening of BDS for adulterants.

  10. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for analysis of anti-diabetic drugs in botanical dietary supplements labeled for blood sugar management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2018-03-01

    We developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect and quantitate 14 anti-diabetic, 2 anti-obesity, and 3 cholesterol-lowering drugs in botanical dietary supplements marketed for blood sugar management. Many botanical dietary supplements which carry label statements related to blood sugar management are available over the Internet. Potential adulteration of such dietary supplements with anti-diabetic and other prescription drugs, some of which have been removed from the market due to adverse events, is of concern. No significant matrix effects were observed and mean recoveries of all 19 analytes from a single product matrix were 88 to 113% at spiking concentrations from 500 to 2000 μg/g. Mean recoveries of metformin, phenformin, and sibutramine from matrices prepared from multiple product composites ranged from 93 to 115% at a spiking concentration of 100 μg/g. The relative standard deviations (RSD) (%) of intra-day analyses ranged from 0.2 to 13 for all recovery studies. Eighty dietary supplements obtained in the USA and carrying label statements related to blood sugar management were analyzed using this method and none were found to be adulterated with the above 19 drugs. Two products obtained outside of the USA and known to be adulterated were also analyzed by this method and found to contain phenformin, glibenclamide, and sibutramine. This method provided satisfactory selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for rapid determination of 19 drugs and has broad applicability for the analysis of dietary supplements for possible adulteration with these compounds. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  12. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  13. Phytotherapeutics: The Emerging Role of Intestinal and Hepatocellular Transporters in Drug Interactions with Botanical Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Ullah, Naveed; Mukhtar, Farah; Nawazish, Shamyla; Muneer, Saiqa

    2017-10-21

    In herbalism, botanical supplements are commonly believed to be safe remedies, however, botanical supplements and dietary ingredients interact with transport and metabolic processes, affecting drug disposition. Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant.

  14. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  15. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Share: On This Page Key Points About ... help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements were defined in a law passed ...

  16. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from botanicals and dietary supplements using UHPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-07-01

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 products was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was used because of its high selectivity, and ability to provide structural information. Free base and N-oxides were observed by this method. PAs were analyzed and detected in plants from three different families, viz., Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. The Asteraceae family was found to contain senecionine and lycopsamine type PAs. The Boraginaceae family contained lycopsamine and heliotrine type PAs and the Fabaceae family contained senecionine and monocrotaline type PAs. These PAs may serve as important markers for the detection of these plant materials in food and dietary supplements. PAs were identified in 44 samples by comparing their retention times, accurate mass and mass fragmentation patterns with those of 25 reference standards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  18. Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread.

  19. The University of Illinois at Chicago/National Institutes of Health Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: from plant to clinical use1,2, 3, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Krause, Elizabeth C; Bolton, Judy L; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Graham, James G

    2013-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Chicago/National Institutes of Health Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research began in 1999 with an emphasis on botanical dietary supplements for women’s health. We have concentrated on plants that may improve women’s health, especially to reduce hot flashes in menopausal women, alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, and reduce persistent urinary tract infections. The primary focus of this article is to describe the operation of our center, from acquiring and identifying botanicals to isolating and identifying active constituents, to elucidating their mechanisms of action, and to conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa; syn Cimicifuga racemosa) has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking this plant from the field to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. We conclude that this type of research can only be successful with the use of a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:18258647

  20. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  1. Trends in botanical dietary supplement use among US adults by cancer status: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Hansen, Richard A; Chou, Chiahung; Calderón, Angela I; Qian, Jingjing

    2018-03-15

    Patients with cancer may use botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in an attempt to manage the side effects of chemotherapy, yet evidence about BDS use among patients with cancer is limited. The authors examined trends in BDS use among US adults according to cancer status and patient characteristics. A serial, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2014 (n = 43,644). Self-reported cancer diagnosis history and any BDS use in the preceding 30 days were determined. The prevalence of BDS use was calculated in each cycle for respondents with and without cancer, both overall and by patient characteristics. Simple linear regression models were applied to test for trends in BDS use at a 2-sided P value < .05. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to identify the patient factors associated with BDS use. The results were weighted to represent national estimates. The prevalence of BDS use was greater among participants who had cancer compared with participants who did not have cancer, but trends remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for both groups. Trends in BDS use declined in patients with cancer who were older (P trend  = .047), had a low annual family income (P trend  = .028), and had a lower education level (P trend  = .004). Among the respondents without cancer, trends in BDS use declined in those who were middle-aged (P trend  = .025), non-Hispanic whites (P trend  = .025), those with a lower education level (P trend  = .011), and those who were not receiving prescription medication (P trend  = .036). Patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, and health conditions were associated with BDS use. The overall use of BDS remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for US adults with and without cancer, but it varied by individual characteristics. Cancer 2018;124:1207-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  2. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  3. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content ​​If you provide your ... growth and brain development, so particular vitamins and supplements may be recommended. Rickets , for example, is a ...

  4. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Beware of Fraudulent Dietary Supplements Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... at 1-800-FDA-1088 or online . Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

  5. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions Share Print Almost half ...

  6. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  7. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  8. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...... interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  9. Discussion of a Well-Designed Clinical Trial Which Did Not Demonstrate Effectiveness: UIC Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Study of Black Cohosh and Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Fong, Harry H. S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a clinical trial for pharmaceutical agents is usually undertaken only after there is likely benefit demonstrated from the use of the putative agent. The consideration of botanical products as pharmaceutical agents must similarly go through a rigorous evaluation process. The present work reviews the recently published Phase II study evaluating the effectiveness of black cohosh and red clover in a randomized trial with conjugated equine estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate and placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. We analyze the possible reasons why this study failed to show benefit for either botanical product in reducing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. PMID:21034798

  10. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  11. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Fact Sheet for Consumers If you’re thinking about taking a dietary supplement to lose weight, talk with your health care provider. What are weight-loss dietary supplements and what do they do? The ...

  12. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness.

  13. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keturah R. Faurot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL (n = 16,415, this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively, for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%, and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%. Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31–0.52. Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  14. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  15. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  16. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  17. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and include among others vitamin and mineral products "botanical" or herbal products—These come in many forms and may include plant materials, algae, macroscopic fungi, or a combination of these materials. ...

  18. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  19. Limitations of in vitro assessments of the drug interaction potential of botanical supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Zhu, Hao-Jie

    2012-09-01

    Although there are inherent and recognized limitations of in vitro screening methodologies to assess conventional drug-drug interactions (DDIs) per industry guidelines and those adopted by independent laboratories, further limitations are being appreciated which are unique to the evaluation of botanical products and potential DDIs in which they may participate. Among the larger issues faced are the uncertainty in assigning hepatic concentrations of multiple constituents and their potential metabolites, accounting for oral bioavailability, distribution, first-pass metabolism and active metabolites. Furthermore, the wide variability in the chemical composition of commercially available botanical supplement formulations continues to be a major concern, and manufacturing standards or enforcement thereof is essentially nonexistent in most countries. Differing formulations, unspecified product excipients, administration and absorption of the therapeutic ingredient(s) of a standardized dosage form, the very presence and/or concentration of one or more phytoconstituents within a supplement are typically unknown and nontarget entities. A further issue is the absence of authentic analytical standards, and the inability to accurately screen the entities as mixtures to even approximate typical scenarios, which may occur following the ingestion of dietary supplements, adds additional layers of complexity to experimental design and difficulty in interpreting experimental results. Multiple challenges exist in experimental methodologies employed in performing in vitro research with conventional pharmaceuticals and those unique to botanical extracts. These obstacles prevent the investigators from effectively utilizing high-throughput models to accomplish more than essentially "flag" suspected sources of drug interactions which must be further evaluated in vivo, at present, in order to confirm clinical significance. This review is intended to discuss the problems and challenges in

  20. Dietary Supplement Research Portfolio at the NIH, 2009–201112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Regan, Karen S.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009–2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement–related funding for FYs 2009–2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women’s reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  1. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  2. A Review of the Toxicity of Compounds Found in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amy; Lopez, Elizabeth; Almalki, Ahmad J; Roe, Amy L; Calderón, Angela I

    2018-04-19

    Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities. Using primarily the National Library of Medicine journal database and SciFinder for current reports, 47 toxic compounds in 55 species from 46 plant families were found to demonstrate harmful effects due to hepatic, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and digestive system toxicity. This review further contributes a novel and comprehensive view of toxicity across the botanical dietary market, and investigates the toxicity of the top ten botanical dietary supplements purchased in the United States of America to gauge the exposure risk of toxicity to the public. The criteria of measuring toxicity in this review (plant compound, family, quantity, and toxicity effects) across the entire market in the United States, with special attention to those supplements whose exposure to the consumer is maximal, provides a unique contribution to the investigation of botanical supplements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  5. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  6. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  7. Dietary supplement use among academic pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy MS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available United States sales of dietary supplements exceeded $18 billion in 2002, indicating that dietary supplement use is common among the American public. This report describes a survey of academic pharmacists and their use of dietary supplements and herbs. To date, most data comes from retail or community pharmacists, so a survey was developed to collect information regarding dietary supplement and herb usage from academic pharmacists. Academic pharmacists are probably the most knowledgeable group in regards to assessing the clinical value of supplements. Our results showed that 54% of academic pharmacists have used dietary supplements or herbs. However, it is interesting to note that most of the dietary supplements listed were not in the top ten most commonly used supplements. In addition, there was no excessive use of supplements or herbs by this group of pharmacists since the majority of respondents listed multivitamins.

  8. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  9. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review (Part 1). P van der Bijl. Abstract. Dietary supplements and chemical agents have been used for a number of decades among athletes striving to achieve increased strength and performance. This has led to a huge, growing market for the food supplement ...

  10. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  12. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review (Part 2). P van der Bijl. Abstract. The role of prohormones, 'classic' and 'designer' steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones and newer molecules causing concern in dietary supplements is discussed. Apart from their potential adverse effects on athletes' health, ...

  14. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  15. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says Share: May 2016 © Thinkstock ... for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle Milk thistle is known as silymarin, ...

  16. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Y Z 10 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements for Children and Teens Share: Nearly 12 percent ... complementary health approach, such as dietary or herbal supplements . Some teens use products advertised as dietary supplements ...

  17. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  18. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  19. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  20. Research and development for botanical products in medicinals and food supplements market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Mancari, Ferdinando; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  1. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Falzon, Louise; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-10-07

    Dietary supplements are frequently used for the treatment of several medical conditions, both prescribed by physicians or self administered. However, evidence of benefit and safety of these supplements is usually limited or absent. To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation for people with chronic gout. We performed a search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL on 6 June 2013. We applied no date or language restrictions. In addition, we performed a handsearch of the abstracts from the 2010 to 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) conferences, checked the references of all included studies and trial registries. We considered all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared dietary supplements with no supplements, placebo, another supplement or pharmacological agents for adults with chronic gout for inclusion. Dietary supplements included, but were not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, essential minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotic agents, probiotic agents and vitamins. The main outcomes were reduction in frequency of gouty attacks and trial participant withdrawal due to adverse events. We also considered pain reduction, health-related quality of life, serum uric acid (sUA) normalisation, function (i.e. activity limitation), tophus regression and the rate of serious adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified two RCTs (160 participants) that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. As these two trials evaluated different diet supplements (enriched skim milk powder (SMP) and vitamin C) with different outcomes (gout flare prevention for enriched SMP and sUA reduction for vitamin C), we reported the results separately.One trial including 120 participants, at moderate risk of bias, compared SMP enriched with glycomacropeptides (GMP) with

  2. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  3. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  4. Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyon Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements are regularly used by a majority of the American population, and usage by health professionals is also common. There is considerable interest in usage patterns within the population and in the reasons for using dietary supplements. The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals 2008 Impact Study (HCP Impact Study surveyed usage of dietary supplements by physicians in three specialties: cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Methods The HCP Impact Study was conducted online by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN, a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. Respondents were 900 physicians, including 300 each from three specialties - cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Results Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists. Conclusions Reported dietary supplement use was relatively common in this sample of physicians, and when they recommended dietary supplements to patients, they tended to do so for reasons related to their specialty.

  5. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  6. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT OR UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing...

  7. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  8. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  9. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  10. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  11. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  12. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other less familiar substances—such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes. The 2005-2008 National ... could be harmed by taking both supplements and medicines. “Parents should know that children’s metabolisms are so ...

  13. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  14. Analysis of isoflavones in foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Rader, Jeanne I

    2006-01-01

    Isoflavones are phytochemicals found in many plants. Because of their structural similarity to beta-estradiol, health benefits of isoflavones have been evaluated in age-related and hormone-dependent diseases. Daidzein, genistein, and glycitein are present as free forms or derivatives in foods containing soy or soy protein extracts. The analysis of isoflavones has become more complex, because preparations contain isoflavones from multiple sources (e.g., red clover, kudzu). Red clover contains primarily formononetin and biochanin A, while kudzu extracts, which are becoming increasingly common in dietary supplements, contain puerarin and daidzein, among other components. Isoflavones are present in foods and dietary supplements as free compounds, glucoside derivatives, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-beta-D-glucoside derivatives, and 6"-O-acetyl-7-O-beta-D-glucoside derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry has been applied to the identification of isoflavone derivatives based on the fragmentation pattern of the parent ion, providing high selectivity and sensitivity in the quantitation of isoflavones in complex mixtures. HPLC with ultraviolet detection is often chosen for routine analysis, but a preliminary acid or basic hydrolysis of isoflavone derivatives is often required for the investigation of samples containing extracts from multiple sources. Several internal standards have been used in the analysis of isoflavones from a single botanical source (e.g., soy, red clover), but the identification of a general internal standard remains a challenging process.

  15. Dietary supplements in the management of hypertension and diabetes - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Wintola, Olubunmi Abosede

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive and diabetic patients all over the globe. Hypertension is a silent disease that causes increase in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal morbidity and mortality whereas diabetic complications cause heart attack, stroke, blindness and kidney disease. These are serious and chronic metabolic disorders that have a significant impact on the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients, as well as on the health care systems. Orthodox drugs used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes produce side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, weakness, fatigue and erectile dysfunction. The need for considering alternate therapies in the form of dietary supplements known to promote good health, having little or no side effects therefore arises. This review was carried out using comprehensive and systematic literature reports on the concurrent use of dietary supplements in the management of diabetes and hypertension. Empirical searches were conducted using Google scholar (http://scholar.google.com), and Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com). In addition to these databases, the University database was also used. Searches were also undertaken using keyword combinations such as dietary supplements and the names of the diseases in question. This review chronicled the therapeutic values of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fruits, vegetables, herbs and other botanicals used as dietary supplements. Results show that these supplements provided better and safe substitutes to toxic and expensive conventional drugs. Generally dietary supplements are free from major side effects, readily available and affordable. It is envisaged that the use of dietary supplement will promote good health and improve the status of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Medical doctors are therefore encouraged to incorporate dietary supplements

  16. Re-thinking the dietary supplement laws and regulations 14 years after the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao

    2009-06-01

    In 1994, after intensive lobbying by the supplement industry, US federal legislation passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, and essentially removed so-called 'dietary supplements' from the US Food and Drug Administration control. Some companies are marketing herbal medications in the USA as dietary supplements. Even some dietary supplement manufacturers produce a 'mimic drug' rather than a 'dietary supplement'. The US Food and Drug Administration is able to do nothing except wait for the next incident to occur before other dietary supplement products have also caused serious effects. In the present article, the author discusses international regulations and laws of dietary supplements, and hopes to see more new laws and regulations to assure people of continued access to high-quality natural healthcare products and dietary supplements.

  17. The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.

  18. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Avigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States (US, the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  19. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  1. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  2. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  3. The National Institutes of Health Investment in Research on Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Paul M.; Meyers, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) were both established by Congress in the 1990’s. ODS aims to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements (DS). NCCAM promotes exploration of complementary and alternative medicine in the context of rigorous science. Together, they developed the Botanical Research Centers Program to promote interdisciplinary study of botanicals, particularly those found in DS, by supporting research activities ranging from plant and characterization to preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. These Centers are part of the coordinated efforts of ODS and NCCAM to enhance botanical research. PMID:21075178

  4. The effect of prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation on atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L.; Janssen, Ben J. A.; Briede, Jacco J.; Haenen, Guido R.; Senden, Joan M. G.; van Loon, Lucas J. C.; Poeze, Martijn; Bierau, Jörgen; Gijbels, Marion J.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Sluimer, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    Short term dietary nitrate or nitrite supplementation has nitric oxide (NO)-mediated beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly preventing hypoxia. As these processes are implicated in atherogenesis, dietary nitrate was hypothesized

  5. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  6. Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2007-01-01

    Creatine and phosphocreatine serve not only as an intracellular buffer for adenosine triphosphate, but also as an energy shuttle for the movement of high-energy phosphates from mitochondrial sites of production to cytoplasmic sites of utilization. The spontaneous loss of creatine and of phosphocreatine to creatinine requires that creatine be continuously replaced; this occurs by a combination of diet and endogenous synthesis. Vegetarians obtain almost no dietary creatine. Creatine synthesis makes major demands on the metabolism of glycine, arginine, and methionine. Large doses of creatine monohydrate are widely taken, particularly by athletes, as an ergogenic supplement; creatine supplements are also taken by patients suffering from gyrate atrophy, muscular dystrophy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Children with inborn errors of creatine synthesis or transport present with severe neurological symptoms and a profound depletion of brain creatine. It is evident that creatine plays a critical, though underappreciated, role in brain function.

  7. Are dietary supplements necessary for a healthy person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    A dietary supplement differs from conventional foods in its appearance or way of using. The formulation of a dietary supplement often resembles that of medicines. Research evidence of the benefits of dietary supplements for healthy people is insufficient. A balanced, health-promoting diet will secure adequate intake of nutrients and, based on studies, is beneficial for the prevention of numerous diseases. The use of dietary supplements is justified, if giving variety to a diet that is inadequate in its nutritive content is not possible or successful. The use should be based on careful examination of the diet as well as on reliable biochemical assays.

  8. Dietary supplements and disease prevention: a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition are prevalent conditions that affect global public health. Dietary supplements are widely used in many developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with individual or combined vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are effe...

  9. Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.

  10. Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra—combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra supplements from the US and Canadian markets. Ephedra-free products, however, quickly filled this void. Ephedra-free supplements typically contain multiple caffeine sources in conjunction with other botanical extracts whose purposes can often be puzzling and their pharmacologic properties difficult to predict. Ingestion of these products in the form of tablets, capsules, or other solid dosage forms as weight loss aids, exercise performance enhancers, or energy boosters have once again brought their tolerability and efficacy into question. In addition to Ephedra-free solid dosage forms, caffeine-containing energy drinks have gained a foothold in the world market along with concerns about their tolerability. This review addresses some of the pharmacologic and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish caffeine-containing dietary supplement formulations from traditional caffeine-containing beverages. Such distinctions may account for the increasing tolerability concerns affiliated with these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  12. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  13. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  14. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  15. Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Plemenitaš

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to management of medical conditions are based on a holistic view, taking into account bidirectional connections between physical and mental health. The current pharmacologically focused model has so far provided modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health. Convincing data suggest that diet quality and select nutrient-based supplements might influence a range of neurochemical modulatory activities, improving the management of mental disorders. Examples of these nutrient-based supplements include omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, zinc, B vitamins (including folic acid, and vitamin D. The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered to be the most beneficial diet in our region. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are increasingly aware of the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of mental disorders. Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome involving vagal neurocrine and endocrine signalling mechanisms influences mental and physical wellbeing. These findings suggest that using prebiotics, probiotics or in the strict sense psychobiotics, as well as incorporating fermented foods in the diet, could have a potential role in the management of mental disorders. As of now, we lack sufficient evidence to implement recommendations for dietary supplements in treatment guidelines, however, this might change in light of emerging data from contemporary research studies, at least for certain indications.

  16. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association, also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. Methods As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies, 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Results Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%, overall health and wellness (53%, and to fill nutrient gaps (42%. When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%, to fill nutrient gaps (67%, and overall health and wellness (49%. Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%, managing stress (92%, visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%, exercising regularly (83%, maintaining a healthy weight (80%, and getting a good

  17. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; Bonci, Leslie; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2012-03-14

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep (72%). Nearly all respondents

  18. The effect of dietary supplementation with Peperomia pellucida on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation with Peperomia pellucida on body weight, serum lipids and glucose in normal and nutritionally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. ... This study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of Peperomia pellucida as dietary supplement in normal and

  19. Time to Talk: 5 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z 5 Things You Should Know About Dietary Supplements for Hepatitis C Share: Hepatitis C is a ... C also try complementary health approaches, especially dietary supplements. If you are considering any dietary supplement for ...

  20. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  1. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  2. Dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brendan J; Murray, Linda; Beckmann, Michael M; Kent, Terrence; Macfarlane, Bonnie

    2013-10-24

    Postnatal depression is a medical condition that affects many women and the development of their infants. There is a lack of evidence for treatment and prevention strategies that are safe for mothers and infants. Certain dietary deficiencies in a pregnant or postnatal woman's diet may cause postnatal depression. By correcting these deficiencies postnatal depression could be prevented in some women. Specific examples of dietary supplements aimed at preventing postnatal depression include: omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folate, s-adenosyl-L-methionine, cobalamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamin D and calcium. To assess the benefits of dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression either in the antenatal period, postnatal period, or both. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013). Randomised controlled trials, involving women who were pregnant or who had given birth in the previous six weeks, who were not depressed or taking antidepressants at the commencement of the trials. The trials could use as intervention any dietary supplementation alone or in combination with another treatment compared with any other preventive treatment, or placebo, or standard clinical care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias for the two included studies. Two review authors extracted data and the data were checked for accuracy. We included two randomised controlled trials.One trial compared oral 100 microgram (µg) selenium yeast tablets with placebo, taken from the first trimester until birth. The trial randomised 179 women but outcome data were only provided for 85 women. Eighty-three women were randomised to each arm of the trial. Sixty-one women completed the selenium arm, 44 of whom completed an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In the placebo arm, 64 women completed the trial, 41 of whom completed an EPDS. This included study (n = 85) found selenium had an effect

  3. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  4. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  5. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  6. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  7. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of inorganic phosphorus on feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary supplementation of inorganic phosphorus on feed intake, protein intake, feed conversation and phosphorus gain/loss of the hybrid African catfish Heterobranchus bidorsalis X Clarias gariepinus fry.

  9. Dietary Supplements and Cancer Treatment: A Risky Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some patients with cancer turn to dietary supplements advertised as having anticancer effects or being supportive of general health. But these biologically active compounds may interact dangerously with chemotherapy, radiation, or other cancer treatments.

  10. Preanesthetic Assessment of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Effertz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The use of unregulated herbal and dietary supplements in the United States is steadily increasing, and anesthesia providers are becoming increasingly concerned about the potential for adverse drug reactions...

  11. Herbal Supplements: What to Know Before You Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Regulations ensure that herbal supplements meet manufacturing standards but don't guarantee that ... of herbal remedies goes on and on. Herbal supplements, sometimes called botanicals, are one type of dietary ...

  12. Time To Talk About Dietary Supplements: 5 Things Consumers Need To Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips: What Consumers Need To Know About Dietary Supplements Share: Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and stay ... called “natural products,” are one type of dietary supplement. Dietary supplements can come in the form of ...

  13. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov; Аlbina V. Stepanova; P.P. Vasilyev; K.N. Naumova; A. Sh. Smagulova; Vera V. Anshakova

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters). A...

  14. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of single or combined dietary supplementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of an organic acid, a probiotic or a prebiotic alone or the prebiotic combined with the organic acid or the probiotic on the performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens fed a maize-soya based diet. The six dietary treatments were: a ...

  16. Acceptability of Edible Mushroom as a Dietary Supplement in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the acceptability of edible mushroom as a dietary supplement. Virtually all the respondents (96.6 %) know what mushrooms are, but only half (55.2 %) consumes it. Less than half of the respondents (34.5 %) know the dietary components/benefits of mushroom. A greater majority of the respondents ...

  17. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p training athletes were more likely to consume creatine, glutamine, and protein powders (p < .02). Reasons for supplement use included to stay healthy, increase energy, immune system, recovery, and overall performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

  18. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  20. Dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on gut microbial population and histomorphological characteristics was examined in a 56-day experiment using 128 seven-day-old turkey poults fed with antibiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplemented diets. The experimental design was a Randomised ...

  1. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%, amino acids (16.8%, multivitamins (16.8%, creatine (11.5%, and omega 3 (11.5%. The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%, increase health (44.2%, and improve performance (41.5%. Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Dietary supplement use and associated factors among university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family and friends, doctors and advertising were the main sources of information on the need for supplementation. Students chose to use supplements instead of food because of perceived dietary inadequacy, convenience and the belief that food does not contain sufficient nutrients. Significant gender differences were ...

  3. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and consumption of health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl. ... Conclusions: The demographic profile of the supplement users was similar to that reported in other studies. Knowledge of the ...

  4. Dietary supplements and disease prevention - a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Manson, JoAnn E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Sesso, Howard D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address these issues, dietary supplements and/or food fortification could help meet requirements for individuals at risk of deficiencies. For example, supplementation with vitamin A and iron in developing countries, where women of reproductive age, infants and children often have deficiencies; with folic acid among women of reproductive age and during pregnancy; with vitamin D among infants and children; and with calcium and vitamin D to ensure bone health among adults aged ≥65 years. Intense debate surrounds the benefits of individual high-dose micronutrient supplementation among well-nourished individuals because the alleged beneficial effects on chronic diseases are not consistently supported. Daily low-dose multivitamin supplementation has been linked to reductions in the incidence of cancer and cataracts, especially among men. Baseline nutrition is an important consideration in supplementation that is likely to modify its effects. Here, we provide a detailed summary of dietary supplements and health outcomes in both developing and developed countries to help guide decisions about dietary supplement recommendations.

  5. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  7. Profiling the Use of Dietary Supplements by Brazilian Physical Education Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Silva, Maria Sebastiana; da Silva, Wellington Fernando; Campos, Mário Hebling; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andre Barbosa de Lira, Claudio

    2017-12-27

    A survey was designed to examine the use of dietary supplements by Brazilian physical education professionals. The study included 131 Brazilian physical education professionals (83 men and 48 women). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, standard deviation, and absolute and relative frequencies). A chi-square test was applied to evaluate differences in use of dietary supplements according to particular variables of interest (p supplements. Approximately 59% of dietary supplement users took two or more kinds of supplements. Among users of supplements, men professionals (73%) consumed more dietary supplements than women (27%). The most-consumed dietary supplement was whey protein (80%). The results showed a higher use of dietary supplements by men. The most-consumed supplements were rich in protein. The consumption of dietary supplements by almost half of the participants in this study suggests that participants did not consider their dietary needs to be met by normal diet alone.

  8. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  9. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  10. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korfali Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples, but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  11. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  12. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  13. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  14. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of commercial ginkgo and echinacea dietary supplements for colchicine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkui; Sun, Yongkai; Fitzloff, John F; van Breemen, Richard B

    2002-09-01

    In response to concerns that commercial dietary supplements containing Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) and Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, or Echinacea pallida (echinacea) might be contaminated with colchicine, a highly selective and sensitive assay was developed for colchicine that is based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The method utilizes reversed-phase HPLC separation of compounds in a methanolic extract of the dietary supplement or botanical sample followed by positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation and multiple reaction monitoring of three characteristic fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecule of colchicine, m/z 400 --> 358, 400 --> 326, and 400 --> 310. The minimal detectable concentration of colchicine using this assay was 10 pg on-column, which is equivalent to 20 ppb colchicine in a 0.5 g ginkgo leaf sample. The method was validated by analyzing 0.5 g samples spiked with colchicine and determining the recovery. A total of 26 commercial ginkgo and echinacea dietary supplements were purchased from pharmacies in Chicago, IL, and analyzed for colchicine. In contrast to a recent report, no colchicine was detected in any of the samples. In addition, authenticated ginkgo leaves were collected, assayed, and found to contain no colchicine, which is consistent with the botanical literature. On the basis of the results obtained using this new LC-MS-MS assay, which is more sensitive and more selective than previously published methods for colchicine, we find no cause for concern regarding colchicine contamination of ginkgo or echinacea dietary supplements.

  16. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  17. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn F. Madden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18 and female (n = 22 athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or Adequate Intake (AI for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.

  18. Dietary polyherbal supplementation decreases CD3+ cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and prevents hyperglycemia in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Susan J; Karlstad, Michael D; Conley, Caroline P; Reel, Danielle; Whelan, Jay; Collier, J Jason

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells, a process associated with inflammatory signals. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with botanicals known to contain anti-inflammatory properties would prevent losses in functional β-cell mass in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a rodent model of autoimmune-mediated islet inflammation that spontaneously develops diabetes. Female NOD mice, a model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, were fed a diet supplemented with herbal extracts (1.916 g total botanical extracts per 1 kg of diet) over a 12-week period. The mice consumed isocaloric matched diets without (controls) and with polyherbal supplementation (PHS) ad libitum starting at a prediabetic stage (age 6 weeks) for 12 weeks. Control mice developed hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) within 16 weeks (n = 9). By contrast, mice receiving the PHS diet did not develop hyperglycemia by 18 weeks (n = 8). Insulin-positive cell mass within pancreatic islets was 31.9% greater in PHS mice relative to controls. We also detected a 26% decrease in CD3(+) lymphocytic infiltration in PHS mice relative to mice consuming a control diet. In vitro assays revealed reduced β-cell expression of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL10 after overnight PHS addition to the culture media. We conclude that dietary PHS delays initiation of autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction and subsequent onset of diabetes mellitus by diminishing islet inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of Drug and Dietary Supplement Inquiries by College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, Peter J.; Tsourounis, Candy; Olander, Rachel; Uryasz, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the United States, the National Center for Drug Free Sport manages the drug-testing programs for athletes of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Through its Resource Exchange Center (REC), Drug Free Sport supports athletic staff and athletes with information regarding drugs and dietary supplements. Purpose: To characterize the types of drug-related and dietary supplement–related inquiries submitted to Drug Free Sport through the REC. Study Design: Cross-section...

  20. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes.

  1. Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, Christopher A; Madias, Christopher; Felix-Getzik, Erika M; Weintraub, Andrew R; Estes, N A Mark

    2006-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of ephedrine-based weight-loss products because of their association with many cardiovascular adverse effects. Bitter orange is now being used as a stimulant in "ephedra-free" weight-loss supplements but was recently implicated in adverse cardiovascular sequelae. To our knowledge, this report describes the first case of variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement.

  2. Iron and calcium bioavailability of fortified foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Teucher, Birgit

    2002-11-01

    Bioavailability is a key consideration when developing strategies for preventing mineral deficiencies through improved dietary supply. Factors that affect the bioavailability of iron and calcium, forms used for fortification and supplementation, and methods used to assess bioavailability are described. Illustrations of the impact of introducing iron-fortified foods in developing and industrialized countries are given, and the alternative approach of supplementation with iron and calcium is discussed.

  3. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using proven principles of natural health-based medical science." Text that uses overly impressive-sounding terms, like those for a ... back guarantees." For example: "If after 30 days you have not lost at least 4 ... depart from scientific research and established dietary guidance. Keep in mind ...

  4. 6 Things to Know about Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Know About Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements Share: Diabetes is a group of chronic diseases ... are studying several complementary health approaches, including dietary supplements, to see if they can help people manage ...

  5. Time to Talk: 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z 6 Things You Should Know About Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis Share: Osteoarthritis is the most common ... Many people with OA report trying various dietary supplements, including glucosamine and chondroitin, alone or in combination, ...

  6. Dietary supplement use is not associated with recurrence of colorectal adenomas: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Broring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Wahab, PJ; Tan, A.C.I.T.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle influence colorectal adenoma recurrence. The role of dietary supplement use in colorectal adenoma recurrence remains controversial. In this prospective cohort study, we examined the association between dietary supplement use, total colorectal adenoma recurrence and advanced

  7. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape. Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered ...

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Lipid and myoglobin oxidation are major causes of meat quality deterioration during storage of fresh chicken meat. Our objective is to determine the effects of dietary α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid and colour stability of fresh chicken thigh meat exposed in a supermarket shopwindow or stored in a.

  9. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  10. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics of customers visiting health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl, and to determine their awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intake servings and their fruit and vegetable ...

  11. Effects Of Dietary Supplementation Of Vitamin E And Selenium On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on total white blood cells, mononucleated cells, polymorphonucleated cells and packed cell volume of Trypanosoma congolense-infected rats (Rattus rattus). Ninety adult R. rattus of pure breed of ...

  12. Effect of Dietary Supplementation on Physico-mechanical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was run under RCBD where the camels were blocked according to their initial body weight and alloted randomly within the block to three dietary treatments. The experimental feed was urea (5%) treated maize stover (UTMS) basal diet given ad-libitum and a supplement of concentrate mix of wheat ...

  13. Dietary Supplements in the Management of Hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive and diabetic patients all over the globe. Hypertension is a silent disease that causes increase in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal morbidity and mortality whereas diabetic complications cause heart ...

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid in coccidial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid on broiler chicken challenged with coccidial oocysts was studied. The percentage mortality was significant (P<0.05) for all the treatments. The adrenal weight, caecal length and width for all the treatments were significantly (P<0.05) different. Caecum length was ...

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria alliacea ) leaf and root meals on nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of finishing broiler chicken. ... Crude protein, ash and NFE digestibility of birds fed diet containing PRM were higher compared to birds fed PLM. Birds fed 1500mg/kg had the highest ...

  16. Microbial Contamination of Selected Herbal Dietary Supplements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ten dietary supplement samples comprising Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Cyperus esculentus, Piper guineense, Afromomun melegueta, Allium cepa, Ocimum basilicum, Curcuma longa and Monodora myristica were obtained from different markets in Abeokuta, Ilaro and Sango areas of Ogun State and ...

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of Vitamin A on fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... to study the effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the fertility and the characteristics of the oviductal and uterine flushing's of gilts because in our thermally harsh environment pigs tend to consume less feeds than needed and so expose themselves to some nutritional stress.

  18. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at high

  19. Effects of niacin supplementation (40 weeks) and two dietary levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of niacin supplementation (40 weeks) and two dietary levels of concentrate on performance, blood and fatty acid profiles of dairy cattle. C. Rauls, U. Meyer, L. Hüther, D. von Soosten, A. Kinoshita, J. Rehage, G. Breves, S. Dänicke ...

  20. A free new dietary supplement label database for dietitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of US adults consume dietary supplements (DS). Some of the approximately 50,000 products on the market provide significant sources of nutrients or other bioactive constituents. It is important for dietitians to have information about them. In keeping with their missions, the Office of Di...

  1. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) release 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...

  2. Effect of dietary L- Carnitine supplementation of diets containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary L- Carnitine supplementation of diets containing cashew nut reject meal by broiler chickens. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Between 5-8 weeks of rearing, feed intake increased (P<0.05) as Lcarnitine levels increased in diets while lower (P<0.05) feed to gain value was recorded at high level of ...

  3. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation

  4. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood profile in goats. ... improving the functions of immunity and antioxidation, as well as the digestion and metabolism of nutrients. However, the CHM mixture did not affect their rumen fermentation patterns.

  6. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  7. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it is well recognised that a balanced diet is the foundation for developing optimal training and performance, competitive sport and strenuous phys- ical activity make demands on the human body beyond its normal physiological range.[1] Some ath- letes may therefore benefit from additional supplements to help.

  8. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Keith R Martin, Christy L AppelNutrition Program, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and neurodegeneration. Pro-oxidant-induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases and, as such, dietary antioxidants can quench and/or retard such processes. Dietary polyphenols, ie, phenolic acids and flavonoids, are a primary source of antioxidants for humans and are derived from plants including fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs. Based on compelling evidence regarding the health effects of polyphenol-rich foods, new dietary supplements and polyphenol-rich foods are being developed for public use. Consumption of such products can increase dietary polyphenol intake and subsequently plasma concentrations beyond expected levels associated with dietary consumption and potentially confer additional health benefits. Furthermore, bioavailability can be modified to further increase absorption and ultimately plasma concentrations of polyphenols. However, the upper limit for plasma concentrations of polyphenols before the elaboration of adverse effects is unknown for many polyphenols. Moreover, a considerable amount of evidence is accumulating which supports the hypothesis that high-dose polyphenols can mechanistically cause adverse effects through pro-oxidative action. Thus, polyphenol-rich dietary supplements can potentially confer additional benefits but high-doses may elicit toxicity thereby establishing a double-edge sword in supplement use.Keywords: antioxidant, bioavailability, flavonoids, polyphenols, supplement

  10. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  11. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  12. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  13. Potential harmful effects of dietary supplements in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% of them having a higher estrogenic activity than acceptable. About 50% of the supplements are contaminated by melamine, a source of nonprotein nitrogen. Additional data accumulate toward the safety of nitrate ingestion. In the last 2 years, the safety of emerging supplements such as higenamine, potentially interesting to lose weight, creatine nitrate and guanidinoacetic acid has been evaluated but still needs further investigation. The consumption of over-the-counter supplements is very popular in athletes. Although most supplements may be considered as safe when taking at the recommended doses, athletes should be aware of the potential risks linked to the consumption of supplements. In addition to the risks linked to overdosage and cross-effects when combining different supplements at the same time, inadvertent or deliberate contamination with stimulants, estrogenic compounds, diuretics or anabolic agents may occur.

  14. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nandakumara; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA-conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  16. Estimation of dietary supplements intake in a selected group of women over 50 and the risk assessment of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Joanna; Bruszkowska, Magda

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements and drugs may result in complications of pharmacotherapy due to possible interactions between their ingredients. The aim of the survey was to estimate the intake of dietary supplements in a group of women over 50 and to analyse the risk of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs taken by the women. The study was carried out among 146 women over 50 years of age. Questionnaire included detailed questions on the type of prescription drugs, OTC (over-the-counter) drugs, and dietary supplements taken. The risk of interactions was determined on the basis of chemical composition of the drugs and supplements specified by the manufacturer, by comparing the obtained data with literature reports on known interactions. The analysis has shown that 88.4% of respondents constantly took prescription drugs, 44.5% of them took OTC drugs, and 66.4% of respondents took dietary supplements throughout the survey period. It has been found that 71.3% of surveyed women taking prescription drugs, took dietary supplements as well. Among women taking supplements and drugs, 36.9% of respondents were taking them concurrently, 60.9% kept such an interval, but only 21.8% of them waited for at least two hours. It has been found that the drug-supplement interactions might occur in 35.8% women under the survey. The analysis of the obtained results has revealed that taking dietary supplements by the group under survey was frequent, and the risk of interactions between dietary supplements and drugs was significant. It is recommended that doctors ask their patients about taken supplements during regular check-ups, and inform them about possible interactions between dietary supplements and drugs. Moreover, appropriate would be to change the labelling of dietary supplements, so that the packaging provides information on possible interactions between their ingredients and drugs.

  17. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  18. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils.

  19. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  20. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  1. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L; Hespel, P

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used at all levels of sport. Changes in patterns of supplement use are taking place against a background of changes in the regulatory framework that governs the manufacture and distribution of supplements in the major markets. Market regulation is complicated by the increasing popularity of Internet sales. The need for quality control of products to ensure they contain the listed ingredients in the stated amount and to ensure the absence of potentially harmful substances is recognized. This latter category includes compounds prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Several certification programmes now provide testing facilities for manufacturers of both raw ingredients and end products to ensure the absence of prohibited substances. Athletes should carry out a cost-benefit analysis for any supplement they propose to use. For most supplements, the evidence is weak, or even completely absent. A few supplements, including caffeine, creatine, and bicarbonate, are supported by a strong research base. Difficulties arise when new evidence appears to support novel supplements: in recent years, β-alanine has become popular, and the use of nitrate and arginine is growing. Athletes seldom wait until there is convincing evidence of efficacy or of safety, but caution is necessary to minimize risk.

  2. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  3. Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    In April 2009, EFSA published on its website a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern. The purpose of the Compendium is to assist risk assessors responsible for the evaluation of specific ingredients in food supplements, in more...... easily identifying the compound(s) of concern on which to focus the assessment. The Scientific Committee worked on a second version of that Compendium between January 2010 and February 2012, considering botanicals that appear on a negative list or subject to restricted use (e.g. max. level or certain...... parts allowed only) in at least one European Member State. Two annexes have been added compared to the first version; the first one lists botanicals for which not enough information on possible substances of concern could be found, or for which the information present could not be verified. The second...

  4. Patterns of dietary supplement use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Marriott, Bernadette P; Williams, Christianna; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Dotson, Laura; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2015-10-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are popular in many countries but little data are available on their use by sub-populations such as college students. Since students share a variety of characteristics and similar lifestyles, their DS use may differ from the general population. This study assessed DS use, factors associated with DS use, and reasons for use among U.S. college students. College students (N = 1248) at 5 U.S. universities were surveyed. Survey questions included descriptive demographics, types and frequency of DS used, reasons for use and money spent on supplements. Supplements were classified using standard criteria. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between demographic and lifestyle factors and DS use. Sixty-six percent of college students surveyed used DS at least once a week, while 12% consumed 5 or more supplements a week. Forty-two percent used multivitamins/multiminerals, 18% vitamin C, 17% protein/amino acids and 13% calcium at least once a week. Factors associated with supplement use included dietary patterns, exercise, and tobacco use. Students used supplements to promote general health (73%), provide more energy (29%), increase muscle strength (20%), and enhance performance (19%). College students appear more likely to use DS than the general population and many use multiple types of supplements weekly. Habits established at a young age persist throughout life. Therefore, longitudinal research should be conducted to determine whether patterns of DS use established early in adulthood are maintained throughout life. Adequate scientific justification for widespread use of DS in healthy, young populations is lacking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Dietary Supplement Ephedrine - Should It Be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and increases the rate and strength of heart contractions. Presently, it is an immensely popular ingredient in dietary supplements (over three billion servings a year in 1999) known for its ability to decrease body weight and body fat. However the side effects of the ephedra alkaloids have not gone without notice. Annals of Internal Medicine in March 2003 found that 64% of all the adverse reactions such as stroke,...

  6. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Judy Y; Rynders, Sara D; Patrie, James; McKnight, John; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, -2.0 deg; placebo, -10 deg; p = 0.003). These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS.

  7. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18-49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion: Intake of micronutrients from......-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method: The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000-2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18-75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements...

  8. Fingerprinting Food Supplements and Their Botanical Ingredients by Coupled UV/Vis/FTIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Baciu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as ingredients for a large variety of herbal supplements. Their quality and safety versus efficacy, according to present legal requirements, need to meet the minimum quality criteria to support their use. Specific biomarkers to evaluate and screen their authenticity are phenolic derivatives, phtosterols, lipids or alkaloids. We report here the data obtained  for  two herbal food supplements (A and B obtained from  different mixtures of plants: Taraxacum officinalis, Cynara scolimus Silybum marianum as ingredients for product A  and Hypericum perforatum, Chelidonium majus and Lycopodium clavatum as ingredients for product B. The combination of UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry allowed a specific fingerprint of biomarkers in individual plants and derived supplements ( A and B, by discriminating the specific areas and peaks of individual plants and  mixtures, the significant differences between the methanolic and water extracts. The data were compared using chemometry ( PCA and Cluster analysis. Using Vis spectrometry combined with FTIR  peak intensities at 1732 cm-1 and calibration with gallic acid,  the total phenolics concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 9.58 mg gallic acid eq/ml methanol, with a positive and significant correlation between the two methods (R2= 0.979. The phenolics’ concentration were 2.5 to 4 times lower in water extracts comparing with methanol extracts of  products A and B.  Finally, we assume that herbal supplements can be adequately characterized for their quality and safety by combined UV-Vis spectrometry/FTIR spectrometry, with good, fast and cheap informations about the main biomarkers of authenticity.

  9. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g −1 dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  10. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L. [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Fastner, J. [Federal Environmental Agency, Section II 3.3—Drinking-water resources and treatment, Berlin (Germany); Dietrich, D.R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  11. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  12. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skeie, G.; Braaten, T.; Hjartaker, A.; Lentjes, M.; Amiano, P.; Jakszyn, P.; Pala, V.; Palanca, A.; Niekerk, E. M.; Verhagen, H.; Avloniti, K.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Nimptsch, K.; Haubrock, J.; Walker, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Roswall, N.; Olsen, A.; Wallstrom, P.; Nilsson, S.; Casagrande, C.; Deharveng, G.; Hellstrom, V.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Joensen, A. M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Martinez, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Frasca, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Linseisen, J.; Schienkiewitz, A.; Welch, A. A.; Manjer, J.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the

  13. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  14. Novel dietary supplement association reduces symptoms in endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Pietro G; Viceconte, Rosa; Baldi, Alfonso

    2017-12-15

    Endometriosis is characterized by disabling symptoms that afflict young women with severe physical discomfort, difficulty in relationship life, and infertility; however, the currently available therapeutic strategies are unsatisfactory. Goal of this research was to identify a new combination of natural active ingredients that, administered as dietary supplements, could have the effect of reducing inflammatory response in endometriosis patients, decreasing the symptoms the disease produces and its harmful effects on affected organs. A cohort of endometriosis patient was treated for 3 months with a composition including quercitin, curcumin, parthenium, nicotinamide, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and omega 3/6. Using a VAS scale, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the symptoms in endometriosis patients treated with the dietary composition respect to the controls. Moreover, we demonstrated also a significant reduction in the serum levels of PGE2 and CA-125. Further study are required to compare the effect of this combination of molecules with standard therapies and to evaluate if the use of these dietary supplements in combination with standard therapies may lead to the improvement of the regular medical treatment for endometriosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  16. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves revascularization in chronic ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Totzeck, Matthias; Kropp, Martina; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Niessen, Michael; Heiss, Christian; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-10-16

    Revascularization is an adaptive repair mechanism that restores blood flow to undersupplied ischemic tissue. Nitric oxide plays an important role in this process. Whether dietary nitrate, serially reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequently to nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides, enhances ischemia-induced remodeling of the vascular network is not known. Mice were treated with either nitrate (1 g/L sodium nitrate in drinking water) or sodium chloride (control) for 14 days. At day 7, unilateral hind-limb surgery with excision of the left femoral artery was conducted. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler. Capillary density, myoblast apoptosis, mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+), migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-), plasma S-nitrosothiols, nitrite, and skeletal tissue cGMP levels were assessed. Enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenic mice were used for bone marrow transplantation. Dietary nitrate increased plasma S-nitrosothiols and nitrite, enhanced revascularization, increased mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells to the site of ischemia, and attenuated apoptosis of potentially regenerative myoblasts in chronically ischemic tissue. The regenerative effects of nitrate treatment were abolished by eradication of the nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity through the use of an antiseptic mouthwash. Long-term dietary nitrate supplementation may represent a novel nutrition-based strategy to enhance ischemia-induced revascularization.

  18. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  19. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  20. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  1. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  2. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  3. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss in obese patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a prevalent and worldwide health problem . The most common weight loss method preferred by obese individuals is dietary supplements. This study was performed in order to determine the dietary supplements used by obese individuals for weight loss and to examine the barriers to informing health ...

  4. Dietary Supplement Use during Preconception: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle McKenna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, dietary supplement use among reproductive aged women is becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary supplement use among Australian women during preconception. Self-reported data were collected prospectively for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH. The sample included 485 women aged 31–36 years, with supplement data, classified as preconception when completing Survey 5 of the ALSWH in 2009. Frequency and contingency tables were calculated and Pearson’s chi-square test for associations between demographic variables and supplementation status was performed. Sixty-three per cent of women were taking at least one dietary supplement during preconception. Multiple-micronutrient supplements were the most commonly reported supplement (44%. Supplements containing folic acid and iodine were reported by 51% and 37% of preconception women, respectively. Folic acid (13%, omega-3 fatty acids (11%, vitamin C (7%, B vitamins (4%, iron (3%, and calcium (3% were the most common single nutrients supplemented during preconception. Women trying to conceive, with no previous children, and born outside Australia were more likely to take dietary supplements. In Australia, dietary supplement use during preconception is relatively high. However, supplementation of recommended nutrients, including folic acid and iodine, could be improved.

  5. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000-2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18-75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18-49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with 'intention to eat healthy.' Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users.

  6. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace.

  7. Consumers' perceptions of the dietary supplement health and education act: implications and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The regulatory framework for dietary supplements created by DSHEA has led to significant misperceptions regarding consumers' understanding of the safety and efficacy of supplements. Research shows that consumers erroneously believe that: (1) supplements are approved by the government, (2) supplements have been tested for safety and effectiveness, (3) the content of supplements is analyzed, and (4) manufacturers are required to disclose known adverse effects to consumers. Furthermore, labelling requirements that are intended to provide transparency to consumers are relatively ineffective. The following four recommendations are offered for reforming DSHEA: (1) only allow structure-function claims that are supported by research evidence, (2) require manufacturers to list known adverse effects on the labels of dietary supplements, (3) require that the Food and Drug Administration analyzes the content of dietary supplements and (4) restrict the definition of dietary ingredients. These recommendations would bring DSHEA to more closely align with consumer expectations regarding the regulation of dietary supplements and would likely provide a safer landscape for the use of supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  9. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  10. The epidemiology of dietary supplements consumption in the athletes of Karaj Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hozoori; Azadeh Safaei Motlagh; Azadeh Marzban

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Nutrition has a determinant role in success of professional athletes and dietary supplements can play an important role for supplying the nutritional needs for them in some situations. Consumption of Dietary Supplements (DS) was significantly increased in recent years. Based on this fact, assessing the amount, purposes and type of the supplements are all as prior as the affective factors on the choice and preparation of that. Therefore, we are going to evaluate the consum...

  11. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries by college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Peter J; Tsourounis, Candy; Uryasz, Frank D; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the types of drug and dietary supplement inquiries submitted to the National Center for Drug Free Sport through the Resource Exchange Center (REC). Cross-sectional study. United States, from July 2009 through June 2010. Athletes and athletic personnel associated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Tabulation and classification of drugs and dietary supplement inquiries. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries. Inquiries for prescription medications for albuterol inhalers, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and prednisone were the most common using a drug lookup function. The most common inquiries for over-the-counter medications included pseudoephedrine, loratadine, cetirizine, and caffeine. Among dietary supplements, inquiries for amino acids/metabolites, vitamins and minerals, and herbal products occurred most frequently. One dietary supplement, N.O.-Xplode (Bio-Engineered Supplements and Nutrition, Inc.), accounted for the majority of individual dietary supplement inquiries. Banned substances accounted for 30% of all inquiries submitted to the REC and 18% of medications searched in a drug lookup database. Almost 25,000 inquiries were submitted to the REC. Pharmacists can use this information to advise, counsel, and refer NCAA athletes regarding the use of banned and permitted substances. Education programs regarding stimulants, dietary supplements, and the risk of using substances such as animal byproducts are needed, and pharmacists can participate in these programs.

  12. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH 4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Dietary creatine supplementation and exercise performance: why inconsistent results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Peter W R

    2002-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been considerable interest in both the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation by athletes and the documentation of its effects by scientists. Some believe that this nitrogen-containing compound found in meat and fish has a performance-enhancing capability as important for brief intense exercise efforts as dietary carbohydrate is for activities where glycogen supplies limit performance. The mechanisms thought to be responsible for any ergogenic effect of acute (few d) Cr supplementation include: increased stores of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), faster regeneration of PCr during exercise recovery, enhanced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production from glycolysis secondary to increased hydrogen ion buffering, and/or possible shortened post contraction muscle relaxation time. With chronic (wk mo) supplementation when combined with strength training, Cr may alter muscle protein metabolism directly (via decreasing protein breakdown or increasing synthesis) and/or indirectly as a result of a greater training load made possible by its acute ergogenic effects on strength and power. Cr supplementation is not banned by the International Olympic Committee and, with the exception of a small increase in body mass (approximately 1 kg) over the initial 36 d, does not appear to have any adverse side effects, at least with short-term use. Few scientific data are available for more prolonged use (mo or y) but considering the large numbers of athletes using Cr over the past 6+ y and the absence of reported problems, it may be that the often discussed somewhat nebulous long term adverse effects are presently being overestimated. Intakes of 285-300 mg Cr/kg body mass 1 over 36 d or 3050 mg/kg body mass 1 over approximately 4 wk are sufficient to produce benefits (muscle mass and high intensity power gains); however, not all study results are consistent. The focus of this review is to outline some possible explanations for the inconsistent observations

  14. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robert G; Mellon, Michael W; Katusic, Slavica K; Weaver, Amy L; Matern, Dietrich; Mellon, Bryan; Jensen, Craig L; Barbaresi, William J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves the behavior of children with autism. A group of 3- to 10-year-old children with autism were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a supplement containing 200 mg of DHA or a placebo for 6 months. The parents and the investigator completed the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale to rate changes in core symptoms of autism after 3 and 6 months. The parents completed the Child Development Inventory and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and both parents and teachers completed the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) at enrollment and after 6 months. A total of 48 children (40 [83%] boys, mean age [standard deviation] 6.1 [2.0] years) were enrolled; 24 received DHA and 24 placebo. Despite a median 431% increase in total plasma DHA levels after 6 months, the DHA group was not rated as improved in core symptoms of autism compared to the placebo group on the CGI-I. Based on the analysis of covariance models adjusted for the baseline rating scores, parents (but not teachers) provided a higher average rating of social skills on the BASC for the children in the placebo group compared to the DHA group (P = 0.04), and teachers (but not parents) provided a higher average rating of functional communication on the BASC for the children in the DHA group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Dietary DHA supplementation of 200 mg/day for 6 months does not improve the core symptoms of autism. Our results may have been limited by inadequate sample size.

  15. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  16. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  17. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  18. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M; Roseland, Janet M

    2012-03-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food.

  19. Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Common, Insufficient, and Excessive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A; Hyman, Susan L; Schmidt, Brianne L; Macklin, Eric A; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia R; James, S Jill; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the effect on dietary adequacy of supplements given to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This cross-sectional study examines dietary supplement use and micronutrient intake in children with ASD. Three-day diet/supplement records and use of a gluten/casein-free diet (GFCF) were documented. Estimates of usual intake of micronutrients from food and supplements were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children aged 2 to 11 years (N=288) with ASD from five Autism Treatment Network sites from 2009-2011. Percentage of children meeting or exceeding upper limits of micronutrient intake with or without supplements and relative to GFCF diet status. Micronutrient intake from food and supplements was compared by Spearman rank correlation. Usual intake was estimated by the National Cancer Institute method adjusted for age, sex, supplement use, and GFCF diet. Adequacy of intake was compared between supplement use status and between food and total intake in supplement users relative to Dietary Reference Intakes limits. Dietary supplements, especially multivitamin/minerals, were used by 56% of children with ASD. The most common micronutrient deficits were not corrected (vitamin D, calcium, potassium, pantothenic acid, and choline) by supplements. Almost one-third of children remained deficient for vitamin D and up to 54% for calcium. Children receiving GFCF diets had similar micronutrient intake but were more likely to use supplements (78% vs 56%; P=0.01). Supplementation led to excess vitamin A, folate, and zinc intake across the sample, vitamin C, and copper among children aged 2 to 3 years, and manganese and copper for children aged 4 to 8 years. Few children with ASD need most of the micronutrients they are commonly given as supplements, which often leads to excess intake. Even when supplements are used, careful attention should be given to adequacy of vitamin D and calcium intake. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  20. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p supplements analyzed, except for one caffeine supplement. It can be concluded that caffeine and creatine dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  1. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  3. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  4. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.

  5. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2017-03-01

    The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994. Recent amendments to the FD&C Act require that serious dietary-supplement-related adverse events be reported to the FDA and provide the agency with mandatory recall authority. We discuss the presence of naturally occurring (e.g. Ephedra, Citrus aurantium, Acacia) and synthetic (e.g. β-methylphenethylamines, methylsynephrine, α-ethyl-phenethylamine) biologically active phenethylamines (PEAs) in dietary supplements and of PEA drugs (e.g. clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, lorcaserin) in weight-loss products. Regulatory actions against manufacturers of products labelled as dietary supplements that contain the aliphatic amines 1,3-dimethylamine and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, and PEAs such as β-methylphenethylamine, aegeline, and Dendrobium illustrate the FDA's use of its authority under the FD&C Act to promote dietary supplement safety. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren García-Cortés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements (DS are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™ while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang. Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  7. CONTAMINATION OF PROPOLIS USED AS A DIETARY SUPPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Roman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of the study was to determine the extent of chosen toxic elements (zinc, copper, lead, arsenic and cadmium bioaccumulation in propolis collected in Opole area. The present study demonstrates that propolis can be used as a dietary supplement. The research material were samples of propolis originated from 3 bee colonies in 30 apiaries (n=3x30=90. Quantitative analysis of studied elements were conducted using Varian ICP-AES plasma spectrometer with mass detection controlled, and CETAC-5000 AT ultrasonic nebulizer. The presence of toxic elements was determined in an examined biological materials. The sequence of accumulation level of studied elements in propolis was as follows: Zn>>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. An average concentration of zinc, copper, lead, arsenic and cadmium amounted  to 56.28, 7.12, 6.91, 0.745, 0.218 mg.kg-1, respectively. Only the copper average content in propolis was within acceptable standards, whereas the mean contents of other elements greatly exceed these standards. All portions of propolis should be subjected to toxicological testing before applying these samples for internal use.doi:10.5219/184

  8. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  9. L-arginine as dietary supplement for improving microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melik, Ziva; Zaletel, Polona; Virtic, Tina; Cankar, Ksenija

    2017-01-01

    Reduced availability of nitric oxide leads to dysfunction of endothelium which plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the dietary supplement L-arginine improves the endothelial function of microvessels by increasing nitric oxide production. We undertook experiments on 51 healthy male volunteers, divided into 4 groups based on their age and physical activity since regular physical activity itself increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The skin laser Doppler flux was measured in the microvessels before and after the ingestion of L-arginine (0.9 g). The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine iontophoresis and the endothelium-independent vasodilation by sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. In addition, we measured endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in 81 healthy subjects divided into four age groups. After the ingestion of L-arginine, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the young trained subjects increased (paired t-test, p L-arginine. With aging endothelium-independent vasodilation decreased while endothelium-dependent vasodilation remained mainly unchanged. Obtained results demonstrated that a single dose of L-arginine influences endothelium-dependent vasodilation predominantly in young, trained individuals.

  10. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood Kaylene L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others. Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed. Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals.

  11. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  12. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Proven or Suspected Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26–42% of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18–43% reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7–21% used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16–64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39–95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients’ supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  13. The Prevalence and Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use in the Australian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. O’Brien

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257 using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by sex and age group and investigated the independent predictors of supplement use in adults, adolescents, and children using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 43.2% of adults (34.9% of males, 50.3% of females, 20.1% of adolescents (19.7% of males, 20.6% of females, and 23.5% of children (24.4% of males, 22.5% of females used at least one dietary supplement in the previous two weeks. The most commonly used supplements were multivitamins and/or multiminerals and fish oil preparations. In adults, independent predictors of supplement use included being female, increasing age, being born outside Australia and other main English-speaking countries, having a higher education level, having a healthy BMI compared to those who were obese, being physically active, and being a non-smoker. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of dietary supplement use in a nationally-representative sample of the Australian population. Future studies investigating the contribution of supplements to overall dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are warranted.

  14. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...

  15. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–...

  16. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, d...

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  18. Dietary Supplements Commonly Used by Cancer Survivors: Are There Any Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Mary J

    2017-10-01

    Following a cancer diagnosis, dietary supplements are reportedly used by 20%-80% of individuals. Supplements are most commonly used by breast cancer survivors, followed by patients with prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers, which is not surprising since these are the most common types of cancer diagnosed in adults. Reasons cited for such use include improving quality of life, reducing symptoms related to treatment and/or the disease process, and recommendation from medical practitioners; family and friends may also be an influence. However, controversy surrounds the use of dietary supplements, particularly during treatment-specifically, whether supplements affect treatment efficacy is unknown. This article discusses the evidence related to common dietary supplements used to prevent cancer or a recurrence.

  19. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  20. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  1. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  2. Multivitamin/mineral Calculator for Assessing Nutrient Intake Using the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrient intake from both foods and dietary supplem...

  3. Effects of dietary energy density and L-carnitine supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) density and L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. The experiment was designed with three levels of dietary energy (low, medium and high) and two levels of ...

  4. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  5. Dietary advice with or without oral nutritional supplements for disease-related malnutrition in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, Christine Elizabeth

    2011-09-07

    Disease-related malnutrition has been reported in 10% to 55% of people in hospital and the community. Dietary advice encouraging the use of energy- and nutrient-rich foods rather than oral nutritional supplements has been suggested as the initial approach for managing disease-related malnutrition. To examine evidence that dietary advice in adults with disease-related malnutrition improves survival, weight and anthropometry; to estimate the size of any additional effect of nutritional supplements combined with dietary advice and to compare the effects of dietary advice with oral nutritional supplements. Relevant publications were identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching.Last search: 14 February 2010. Randomised controlled trials of dietary advice with or without oral nutritional supplements in people with disease-related malnutrition in any health-care setting compared with no advice, oral nutritional supplements or dietary advice given alone. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. Forty-five studies (3186 participants) met the inclusion criteria; (dietary advice compared with: no advice (1053 participants); with oral nutritional supplements (332 participants); with dietary advice and oral nutritional supplements (731 participants); and dietary advice plus oral nutritional supplements compared with no additional intervention (1070 participants). Follow-up ranged from 18 days to 24 months. No comparison showed a significant difference between groups for mortality or morbidity. There was a significant change in weight found between groups when comparing dietary advice to no advice for interventions lasting greater than 12 months, mean difference 3.75 kg (95% confidence interval 0.97 to 6.53), and when all studies were combined, mean difference 1.47 kg (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 2.61) although there was significant heterogeneity in the combined analysis (I(2) = 90%). Similar

  6. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine; Kearney, Tom; Bent, Stephen; Ko, Richard; Benowitz, Neal; Olson, Kent

    2008-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations. We collaborated with the FDA Center for Food Safety and Nutrition (CFSAN) to conduct a 1-year prospective surveillance study of dietary supplement-related poison control center calls in 2006. Prompt follow-up of symptomatic cases, laboratory analysis of implicated dietary supplements, and causality assessment by a case review expert panel were performed. Of 275 dietary supplements calls, 41% involved symptomatic exposures; and two-thirds were rated as probably or possibly related to supplement use. Eight adverse events required hospital admission. Sympathomimetic toxicity was most common, with caffeine products accounting for 47%, and yohimbe products accounting for 18% of supplement-related symptomatic cases. Suspected drug-herb interactions occurred in 6 cases, including yohimbe co-ingested with buproprion (1) and methamphetamine (3), and additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs taken with fish oils (1) and ginkgo (1). Laboratory analysis identified a pharmacologically active substance in 4 cases; supplement toxicity was ruled unlikely when analytical testing was negative in 5 cases. Most supplement-related adverse events were minor. Clinically significant toxic effects were most frequently reported with caffeine and yohimbe-containing products. Active surveillance of poison control center reports of dietary supplement adverse events enables rapid detection of potentially harmful products, which may facilitate regulatory oversight.

  8. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  9. Dietary 135-fold cholecalciferol supplementation severely disturbs the endochondral ossification in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Holl, M.S.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Buurman, C.J.; Deluca, H.F.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of excessive non-toxic dietary Vitamin D3 supplementation on Ca homeostasis with specific effects on endochondral ossification and skeletal remodeling were investigated in a group of growing Great Dane dogs supplemented with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3; HVitD) versus a control group

  10. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... completed a strategic planning process resulting in the development of the ODS Strategic Plan for 2010-2014, entitled Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. The strategic plan is available... Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice of availability of the ODS Strategic Plan for 2010...

  12. the potential for enhancement of immunity in cats by dietary supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Morel, P.C.H.; Thomas, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the potential benefits of dietary supplementation on the feline immune system. Forty three cats (8 or 9 per group) were fed a low protein control diet (22.7% DM basis), the same diet supplemented with yeast-derived nucleotides, salmon oil or l-arginine or a

  13. Regulatory alerts for dietary supplements in Canada and the United States, 2005-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Andrew M; Hein, Darren J; Gregory, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplement regulatory alerts published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada were evaluated and characterized. FDA MedWatch and Health Canada websites were reviewed to identify regulatory alerts regarding dietary supplements from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2013. Alerts were analyzed to identify product characteristics that may be predictive of product quality issues and potential patient harm. A total of 1560 dietary supplement-related regulatory alerts were identified. Of those, 1287 (83%) were identified through Health Canada, and 273 (18%) were identified through FDA MedWatch. The country of origin of dietary supplements associated with regulatory alerts was not provided in most regulatory alerts; however, when their origin was provided, the United States was the most common. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement were the subject of 33% of all regulatory alerts identified. Products purchased online were the most likely to be associated with a regulatory alert. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance appeared to pose the greatest risk for patient harm due to product contamination with a pharmaceutical such as a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or sibutramine. Analysis of Canadian and U.S. regulatory alerts concerning dietary supplements revealed that more than 80% of the composite alerts were issued by Health Canada. The most common intended uses of supplements for which alerts were issued were sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance. The most common reason for alerts was the presence of a pharmaceutical contaminant. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying and assessing views among physically-active adult gym members in Israel on dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druker, Inbal; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Sports dietary supplements are available for sale in public places including sports clubs. Although there is uncertainty regarding their safety, many gym members who regularly work out consume them. The present study aimed to identify the approaches and perspectives of the public who work out in gyms and take dietary supplements. It examined how professionals view sports dietary supplement consumption, and how they communicate this issue to gym members. The literature discusses the prevalence of SDS use among athletes, but rarely discusses or compares between the risk perceptions of gym members, trainers, and dietitians, who represent the physically-active general public, regarding SDS. We conducted constructivist qualitative research in semi-structured one-on-one interviews ( n  = 34). We held in-depth interviews ( n  = 20) with a heterogeneous population of adult gym members who take dietary supplements, and ( n  = 14) with dietitians and fitness trainers. The main finding was a gap in risk perception of dietary supplement use between dietitians, gym members and fitness trainers. There was low risk perception among dietary supplements consumers. Trainers believed that benefits of supplement consumption exceeded risk, and therefore they did not convey a message to their clients about risk. In contrast, dietitians interviewed for this study renounced general use of sports dietary supplements and doubted whether trainers had proper nutritional knowledge to support it. Lack of awareness of risks suggests that there is a need for communication on this issue. We recommend that professionals (physicians and dietitians) be present in sports clubs that sell such products in an uncontrolled way.

  15. Clays as dietary supplements for swine: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mohana Devi; Kim, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Clays are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate molecules composed of alkali and alkaline earth cations along with small amounts of various other elements. The best-known are montmorillonite, smectite, illite, kaolinite, biotite and clinoptilolite. The molecules in these clays are arranged in three-dimensional structures creating internal voids and channels capable of trapping a wide variety of molecules. As a result of this structure, clay minerals are regarded as a simple and effective tool for the prevention of the negative effects of many toxic compounds. Dietary supplementation with clays has been shown to improve weight gain and feed conversion in pigs. Where improvements in performance have been noted, one of the most likely explanations for the improvement is the fact clays increase nutrient digestibility. Clays reduce the speed of passage of feed along the digestive tract which allows more time for digestion. Feeding clays also causes morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa such as an increase in villus height and an increase in the villus height to crypt depth ratio. These changes increase the surface area of the gastrointestinal tract thus increasing nutrient digestibility. Several studies have indicated that feeding clay reduces the incidence, severity and duration of diarrhea in pigs. The mechanism for the reduction in diarrhea is likely due to increases in the numbers of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus and decreases in Clostridia and E. coli in the small intestine of pigs fed clays. In addition, the numbers of pigs born alive and weaned, birth weight and weaning weight have been shown to be higher for sows fed clays. Several studies have indicated that clays can help mitigate the effects of mycotoxins. The aim of the present review is to focus on the various clays which have been given attention in recent research and to discuss their potential to improve pig performance.

  16. Analysis of the consumption of dietary supplements for weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Overweight and obesity may lead to a large number of health problems. Prevention and adequately timed treatment can lead to successful body mass regulation. The aim of the study was to analyze body mass index (BMI of the examinees, usage of dietary supplement for weight loss (DSWL by gender and particular products, types of information source and types of information about DSWL which provide doctors and pharmacists. Methods. The survey was conducted in the region of the town of Niš. The survey was carried out among a random sample of 505 participants, 243 men and 262 women, older than 15 years. The tool used was a questionnaire. Results. There is a positive association between aging and BMI. DSWL are used by 20.39% of the examinees. The most of the examinees that use DSWL were overweight and used it for esthetic reasons. Before the use of DSWL, women usually practice diets and men practice fluid consumption. Television is the most important source of information about DSWL. Health care professionals mostly provide information about DSWL consumption (64.08%, and only a third of them provide all the information (usage, eating regime, fluid consumption, and physical activity. Conclusion. The prevalence of obesity emphasizes the need for concentrated efforts to prevent obesity in the early age. The only way to reduce the risk of DSWLs misuse is providing all of the necessary information by the health care professionals. As pharmacists are in the direct contact with patients they have the most important role in rational and effective use of DSWL.

  17. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  18. Use of dietary supplements by pregnant and lactating women in North America1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, Mary Frances; McGuire, Michelle K

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, and iodine), there is a relative paucity of data concerning the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation. Limited data suggest, however, that usage is dependent on demographic, sociologic, and economic factors. Thus, it is possible that the nation's most at-risk populations may be those who are least likely to comply with these recommendations. As researchers continue to study what is meant by “optimal nutrition” during pregnancy and lactation, it is likely that additional recommendations concerning dietary supplements will emerge. For example, it is possible that increased consumption of some of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation may impart a benefit to infant health. Understanding better the population dynamics related to supplement use during these periods will be critical in implementation of campaigns designed to encourage appropriate use—and discourage inappropriate use—of dietary supplements during these important phases of human reproduction. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what is known about the use of dietary supplements in North America and, more specifically, in pregnant and lactating women. In addition, information concerning barriers to supplement use is discussed as are current recommendations for dietary supplement consumption during these periods of the life cycle. PMID:19073789

  19. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with betaine on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Kitano, Tomoko; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Nagura, Taizo; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    The effects of betaine supplementation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice were examined by measuring the accumulation of fat in the livers of NASH model mice compared to a control. Betaine from sugar beets was provided to the model mice as a dietary supplement. After 3 wk of dietary supplementation, there were no significant differences in body weight or liver weight between the groups. However, the liver to body weight ratio in the high-fat diet with betaine (HFB) group was significantly (pNASH model mice.

  1. A Finished Dietary Supplement Stimulates Lipolysis and Metabolic Rate in Young Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Farney, Tyler M.; Canale, Robert E.; Alleman, Rick J.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements are often marketed to increase lipolysis and thermogenesis, with the proposed end result being weight loss and body fat reduction. It was the purpose of the present investigation to study the acute effects of a weight/fat loss supplement within a sample of healthy human subjects. Methods Twelve subjects (men 24.8 ± 4.3 yrs; women 22.8 ± 0.4 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement (OxyELITE Pro™) or a placebo, on two separate days in a double-blind, cross-over design....

  2. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse effects of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficiency: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chong, David Weng Kwai

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic disorder, affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Whilst it is known that a number of drugs, foods and chemicals can trigger haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals, the association between herbal and dietary supplements and haemolysis is less clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between herbal or dietary supplements and adverse events in G6PD deficient individuals. We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively. Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and α-lipoic acid. The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  5. Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timcheh-Hariri, Alireza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2012-10-01

    Dietary supplements have been used for decades for enhancing muscle growth. The harm caused by some of these products is well documented. We investigated and reported toxic hepatitis in 20 male athletes following self-prescribing of a number of dietary supplements which are lesser known. The patients' ages ranged from 24 to 32 with a mean of 28 years. They had taken three kinds of supplements for 1 year including testosterone optimizer agent T Bomb II, a creatine supplement Phosphagen and an amino acid based supplement Cell-Tech. Based on the history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings the cases were diagnosed as toxic hepatitis. After discontinuation of taking the supplements, clinical recovery and improvement of liver function tests were achieved within 30 days. Causality assessment with the CIOMS (Council for International Organization Medical Sciences) scale showed a "possible" grade of causality (+5 points) for these supplements. It can be concluded that these newer anabolic supplements may induce toxic hepatitis. Since the health risks of them may be severe, the use of these kinds of dietary supplements should be discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances placental growth and reproductive performance in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiguo; Jiang, Zongyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zheng, Chuntian; Zhou, Guilian; Chen, Fang; Yang, Lin; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-06-01

    Suboptimal embryonic/fetal survival and growth remains a significant problem in mammals. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation during gestation may improve pregnancy outcomes through enhancing placental growth and modulating hormonal secretions. Gestating pigs (Yorkshire×Landrace, n=108) were assigned randomly into two groups based on parity and body weight, representing dietary supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine-HCl or 1.7% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) between days 22 and 114 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained from the ear vein on days 22, 40, 70 and 90 of gestation. On days 40, 70 and 90 of gestation, concentrations of estradiol in plasma were higher (Psupplemented than in control sows. Moreover, arginine supplementation increased (Psupplementation increased (Psupplementation enhanced (Psupplementation during gestation. These results indicate that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially enhances placental growth and the reproductive performance of sows.

  7. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  8. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  9. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  10. Zeaxanthin-based dietary supplement and topical serum improve hydration and reduce wrinkle count in female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steve; Frank, Emily; Gierhart, Dennis; Simpson, Paula; Frumento, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis. Antioxidant carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated in the eye and skin tissue and believed to decrease the formation of ROS associated with UV light exposure. With zeaxanthin, phytoceramides, and botanical extracts an oral and topical test product (with zeaxanthin, algae extracts, peptides, hyaluronate) have been developed to improve the appearance and condition of skin when used as directed. Subjects were divided into three groups: two tests (skin formula 1 - oral product alone (ZO-1), skin formula 2- oral product with topical product (ZO-2 + ZT)), and one placebo control. The study consisted of a washout visit, baseline (randomization), week two (2), week four (4), week six (6), week eight (8), and week twelve (12). Key parameters measured were as follows: fine lines, deep lines, total wrinkles, wrinkle severity, radiance/skin color (L, a*, b*), discolorations, and skin pigment homogeneity. Thirty-one subjects completed the twelve-week study; no adverse events were recorded during the study. Statistically significant improvements from baseline mean hydration score were observed in active groups at weeks 2, 6, and 8. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean differences from baseline scores for total wrinkle count at week 4 for the combination active groups compared to placebo. A statistically significant difference from baseline scores for fine lines count was also observed at

  11. Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary weight-loss supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Shahnaz; Spector, Jeremy; Mitchell, Robert M

    2006-12-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra in February 2004, numerous "ephedra-free" weight-loss products have appeared on the market. Many of these supplements contain compounds such as bitter orange that are similar in structure and action to ephedra. We describe a patient in whom ischemic colitis developed 1 week after initiation of a bitter orange-containing weight-loss supplement. The patient had no other predisposing factors, and discontinuation of the supplement led to immediate improvement and ultimate resolution of her symptoms. Both consumers and health care professionals should be aware of the potential harm that bitter orange-containing dietary supplements can cause and report such adverse events to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  12. Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α, an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR. Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP or Cellucore HD (CHD induced PGC-1α leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.

  13. Functional foods and dietary supplements: products at the interface between pharma and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Verhagen, Hans; Klungel, Olaf H; Garssen, Johan; van Loveren, Henk; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

    2011-09-01

    It is increasingly recognized that most chronic diseases of concern today are multifactorial in origin. To combat such diseases and adverse health conditions, a treatment approach where medicines and nutrition complement each other may prove to be the most successful. Within nutrition, apart from (disease-related) dietetic regimes, an increasing number of functional foods and dietary supplements, each with their own health claim, are marketed. These food items are considered to be positioned between traditional foods and medicines at the so-called 'Pharma-Nutrition Interface'. This paper encompasses aspects related to the regulatory framework and health claims of functional foods and dietary supplements. The use of functional foods or dietary supplements may offer opportunities to reduce health risk factors and risk of diseases, both as monotherapy and in combination with prescription drugs. Nevertheless, the potential caveats of these products should not be overlooked. These caveats include the increased risk for food-drug interactions due to the elevated amounts of specific functional ingredients in the diet, and the stimulation of self-medication potentially resulting in lower adherence to drug therapy. Health technology assessments should be used more to compare the cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk ratios of drugs, functional foods and dietary supplements, and to evaluate the added value of functional foods or dietary supplements to drug therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  15. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  16. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ — Hawaii, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David I.; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L.; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases’ medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and trace back, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. PMID:26538199

  17. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ - Hawaii, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David I; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of dietary vitamin E and fat supplementation on pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q; Richert, B T; Burgess, J R; Webel, D M; Orr, D E; Blair, M; Fitzner, G E; Hall, D D; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E (VE, alpha-tocopherol acetate) and fat supplementation on growth and carcass quality characteristics, oxidative stability of fresh and cooked pork patty in storage, fatty acid profiles of muscle and adipose tissue, and VE concentrations of plasma, muscle, and adipose tissue were studied. Six hundred pigs were allocated to 1 of 6 diets and fed for 63 d in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 fat levels (normal corn, high oil corn, high oil corn plus added beef tallow) and 2 levels of VE supplementation (40 IU/kg, normal VE supplementation; and 200 IU/kg, high VE supplementation). At 113 kg of BW, 54 pigs were slaughtered as a subsample to evaluate dietary effects on pork quality. Growth performance and meat quality characteristics did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatment groups. The high level of VE supplementation had a beneficial effect on the oxidative stability of pork as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lean tissue had lower (P plasma and muscle. These results indicate that dietary VE acetate supplementation increased (P stability and the VE concentration of muscle.

  19. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszkowska, Barbara; Lepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant.

  20. Use of Dietary Vitamin Supplements and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Nan; Lerro, Catherine C; Dai, Min; Chen, Yingtai; Li, Ni; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert; Zhang, Yawei

    2017-04-24

    Certain dietary supplements have been reported to increase the risk of some cancers. Over half of the US population regularly uses dietary supplements. Thyroid cancer incidence has increased over the past several decades. However, few studies have investigated the association between dietary supplements and thyroid cancer. Thus, it is essential to clarify any association between dietary supplements and risk of thyroid cancer. A population-based case-control study in Connecticut was conducted during 2010-2011 among 462 histologically confi rmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained through in-person interviews and a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of thyroid cancer and dietary supplement use. Overall, no statistically signifi cant associations were observed between dietary supplementation and thyroid cancer risk. Stratifi ed analyses revealed a suggestive protective effect on risk of papillary microcarcinoma among longterm (> 10 years) use of multivitamins (OR = 0.59, 95 % CI: 0.33, 1.04) and calcium supplementation (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI: 0.22, 0.93). An increased risk of large papillary thyroid cancers (tumor size > 1 cm) was observed among short-term (supplements (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI: 1.30, 3.88). No signifi cant associations were observed between supplementation and overall thyroid cancer risk. The different associations between calcium supplements and risk of papillary thyroid cancer by tumor size warrant further investigation.

  1. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  2. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: vitor.ito@outlook.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  3. Surveillance of the armed forces as a sentinel system for detecting adverse effects of dietary supplements in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Austin, Krista G; Farina, Emily K

    2018-04-01

    Half the US population takes dietary supplements, but surveillance systems available to regulatory and public health authorities to determine whether specific dietary supplements present a risk are inadequate and numerous severe injuries and deaths have occurred from their consumption. Uniformed military personnel regularly use dietary supplements and are more likely to use potentially dangerous supplements than civilians. Recently, the supplement 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) was marketed for physical performance-enhancement and weight loss. However, after over 100 reports of illness attributed to DMAA, including six deaths, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning to cease its sale. When DMAA was legal (2010-2011), we conducted, using convenience samples, supplement surveys of service members and determined prevalence of use and self-reported symptoms of DMAA use. We surveyed 4374 armed forces personnel using a standardized dietary supplement survey administered by local health-care professionals. Overall, 11 % of survey respondents used dietary supplements labelled as containing DMAA at least once/week. Regular users were over two times more likely to report tachycardia (Psupplements using electronic surveys and medical records. Since armed forces personnel are much more likely than civilians to use potentially dangerous dietary supplements like DMAA, near real-time surveillance of them using electronic surveys and medical records would provide early warning to regulatory agencies and the medical and public health communities when high-risk dietary supplements are introduced.

  4. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  5. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and organic selenium on the oxidative stability of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M N; Monahan, F J; Fallon, R J; Allen, P

    2001-11-01

    The effects of supplementation of beef cattle diets with organic Se (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin E (300 I.U. alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed), for 55 d preceding slaughter, on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle was examined. Dietary vitamin E supplementation led to an increase (P plasma, and longissimus muscle alpha-tocopherol levels. In minced longissimus muscle stored in 80% 02:20% CO2, lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation were lower (P vitamin E-supplemented animals compared with unsupplemented animals. Dietary Se supplementation did not significantly affect muscle Se levels, glutathione peroxidase activity, or susceptibility to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation in the presence or absence of vitamin E. Covariance analysis indicated that, in addition to muscle alpha-tocopherol, differences in muscle glutathione peroxidase activity, and pH could account for variation in the susceptibility of muscle to lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation.

  7. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics...... following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. METHODS: A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet...... by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pdogs, flaxseed mucilage decreased fat apparent digestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined...

  8. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Celleno, Maria Vittoria Tolaini, Alessandra D'Amore, Nicholas V. Perricone, Harry G. Preuss

    2007-01-01

    Background: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, ...

  10. SPADE, a new statistical program to estimate habitual dietary intake from multiple food sources and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Arnold L M; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Ocké, Marga C

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of both the adequacy of intakes and the risk of excessive intakes of micronutrients, all potential sources should be included. In addition to micronutrients naturally present in foods, micronutrients can also be derived from fortified foods and dietary supplements. In the estimation of the habitual intake, this may cause specific challenges such as multimodal distributions and heterogeneous variances between the sources. We present the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) that was developed to cope with these challenges in one single program. Similar to other methods, SPADE can model habitual intake of daily and episodically consumed dietary components. In addition, SPADE has the option to model habitual intake from dietary supplements. Moreover, SPADE offers models to estimate habitual intake distributions from different sources (e.g., foods and dietary supplements) separately and adds these habitual intakes to get the overall habitual intake distribution. The habitual intake distribution is modeled as a function of age, and this distribution can directly be compared with cutoff values to estimate the proportion above or below. Uncertainty in the habitual intake distribution and in the proportion below or above a cutoff value is quantified with ready-for-use bootstrap and provides 95% CIs. SPADE is implemented in R and is freely available as an R package called SPADE.RIVM. The various features of SPADE are illustrated by the estimation of the habitual intake distribution of folate and folic acid for women by using data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. The results correspond well with the results of existing programs. SPADE offers new features to existing programs to estimate the habitual intake distribution because it can handle many different types of modeling with the first-shrink-then-add approach. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl N. D’Souza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness ( P < 0.001 and chewiness ( P < 0.01 values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased ( P < 0.05 the linoleic acid and reduced ( P < 0.05 the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol ( P < 0.05 at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs.

  12. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  13. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  14. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a term that reflects a heterogeneous group of natural food sources, processed grains, and commercial supplements. Several forms of dietary fiber have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of dietary fiber in the metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of dietary fiber on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of dietary fiber but also quite variable. This report focuses on the role, mechanism of action, and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk and explores the effects of dietary fiber on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of dietary fiber. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-01-01

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process

  16. Dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin increases pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Luis A; Zanatta, Ana L; Farias, Carolina L A; Bieberbach, Eloyse W; Mazzonetto, Ana C; Michellotto, Pedro V; Fernandes, Luiz C; Nishiyama, Anita

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of asthma has risen over the last few decades, and some studies correlate this with the greater consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Dietary PUFAs are known to increase the susceptibility of biological structures to lipid peroxidation, a process by which platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipids can be generated. These lipids functionally mimic the bioactivity of PAF, a potent proinflammatory mediator that exerts several deleterious effects on asthma. Thus, this work aimed to investigate if dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin (SL), a source of PUFAs, increases lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic Wistar rats. Animals were separated into groups: control, supplemented, asthmatic, asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight), asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight) and DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body weight). Asthmatic inflammation increased pulmonary lipid peroxidation, PAF bioactivity, alveolar-capillary barrier permeability and production of nitric oxide. In asthmatics, dietary supplementation with SL promoted an increase in pulmonary lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity, and an increase in the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Moreover, the treatment of asthmatic rats with DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate inhibited the lipid peroxidation and decreased the PAF bioactivity. Therefore, the increase in pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic individuals elicited by the dietary supplementation with SL probably involves the generation of PAF-like lipids. This finding suggests that PAF-like lipids may account for the deleterious effects of dietary PUFAs on asthma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the instructors. PMID:22206347

  18. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  19. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Paoli, Antonio; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Caramazza, Giovanni; Palma, Antonio; Jemni, Monèm

    2011-12-29

    It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the instructors.

  20. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several tonnes of conventionally consumed dietary fibre-containing fruit components are discarded as wastes in the processing of fruits into fruit juices, resulting in the loss of food nutrients and the increased ... The proximate composition and the functional properties of the raw material and final product were determined.

  1. Effect of dietary organic and inorganic copper supplement on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary copper source and dosage on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, trace mineral retention, ileal morphology and blood parameters of cockerel chicks were investigated using two hundred and forty (240) day-old chicks arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements involving 2 Cu sources (copper sulphate ...

  2. Phosphorus Balance in Adolescent Girls and the Effect of Supplemental Dietary Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Gallant, Kathleen M Hill

    2018-03-01

    There are limited data on phosphorus balance and the effect of dietary calcium supplements on phosphorus balance in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine phosphorus balance and the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake with a supplement on net phosphorus absorption and balance in healthy adolescent girls. This study utilized stored urine, fecal, and diet samples from a previously conducted study that focused on calcium balance. Eleven healthy girls ages 11 to 14 years participated in a randomized crossover study, which consisted of two 3-week periods of a controlled diet with low (817 ± 19.5 mg/d) or high (1418 ± 11.1 mg/d) calcium, separated by a 1-week washout period. Phosphorus intake was controlled at the same level during both placebo and calcium supplementation (1435 ± 23.5 and 1453 ± 28.0 mg/d, respectively, p = 0.611). Mean phosphorus balance was positive by about 200 mg/d and was unaffected by the calcium supplement ( p = 0.826). Urinary phosphorus excretion was lower with the calcium supplement (535 ± 42 versus 649 ± 41 mg/d, p = 0.013), but fecal phosphorus and net phosphorus absorption were not significantly different between placebo and calcium supplement (553 ± 60 versus 678 ± 63 versus mg/d, p = 0.143; 876 ± 62 versus 774 ± 64 mg/d, p = 0.231, respectively). Dietary phosphorus underestimates using a nutrient database compared with the content measured chemically from meal composites by ~40%. These results show that phosphorus balance is positive in girls during adolescent growth and that a calcium dietary supplement to near the current recommended level does not affect phosphorus balance when phosphorus intake is at 1400 mg/d, a typical US intake level. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  4. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  5. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  6. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  7. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  8. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements? 111.370 Section 111.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  9. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  10. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  11. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  12. Fatty Acid Dietary Supplements in Treatment of Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil and evening primrose oil (in a ratio of 80% to 20% compared to placebo were assessed in a randomized, controlled trial in 117 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, aged 5-12 years, at the University of Oxford, UK.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme complex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of REAP® enzyme into corn-soybean diet on the energy utilization in poultry and performance of broiler chicks. In the first experiment, a total of 16 50 weeks adult roosters (ISA-Brown) were divided into 4 groups with 4 birds per replicate ...

  14. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  15. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic species are considered more toxic to humans than organic arsenic and total arsenic. Analysis of total arsenic in metallic form, organic and inorganic arsenic species from seaweeds and dietary supplements using LC-ICP-MS was developed. Solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extr...

  16. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  17. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  18. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on mRNA level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Our aims are to determine the effects of dietary betaine supplementation on growth performance, percentage of abdominal fat, ... egg quality. As a product of choline degradation, betaine acts as a methyl donor to homocysteine to form methionine, or upon complete demethylation results in glycine formation ...

  19. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  20. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  1. Estrogenic botanical supplements, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a HEAL study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether estrogenic botanical supplement (EBS use influences breast cancer survivors' health-related outcomes. Methods We examined the associations of EBS use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, with fatigue, and with 15 hormone-related symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats among 767 breast cancer survivors participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL Study. HRQOL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short form-36 physical and mental component scale summary score. Fatigue was measured by the Revised-Piper Fatigue Scale score. Results Neither overall EBS use nor the number of EBS types used was associated with HRQOL, fatigue, or hormone-related symptoms. However, comparisons of those using each specific type of EBS with non-EBS users revealed the following associations. Soy supplements users were more likely to have a better physical health summary score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.70. Flaxseed oil users were more likely to have a better mental health summary score (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.94. Ginseng users were more likely to report severe fatigue and several hormone-related symptoms (all ORs ≥ 1.7 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Red clover users were less likely to report weight gain, night sweats, and difficulty concentrating (all OR approximately 0.4 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Alfalfa users were less likely to experience sleep interruption (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12-0.68. Dehydroepiandrosterone users were less likely to have hot flashes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.82. Conclusions Our findings indicate that several specific types of EBS might have important influences on a woman's various aspects of quality of life, but further verification is necessary.

  2. The influence of dietary supplementation on testicular growth rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty adult Merino rams were fed a ration with a 16% protein and. 75% TDN content. Live body mass increased by 51,4% and testes volume by 111,7% in 210 days. Testicular growth responded rapidly to supplementation and testes volume increased by86,5% inonly 60days. Inanother experiment diets of four groups of 15 ...

  3. Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentrations in broilers. One thousand two hundred one-day old Ross-308 broiler chicks of mixed sex were randomly divided into four treatment groups of 300 birds each. The treatments ...

  4. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... serum were determined. Ca and P of muscle and ... A supplemental organic acid reduces intestinal pH and can also bind various ... Serum P levels were analyzed according to method described by Thomasl (1998) using inorganic phosphorus kit (Pars azmon, Iran) and serum levels of Ca was determined ...

  5. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickens were fed with diets containing 25 (control), 100, 200 or 300 mg vitamin E/kg of food for 20 days before slaughtering. Peroxide value (PV) and oxidation products specific extinctions (K232 and K270), chosen as markers for oxidative deterioration of lipids, were lower in chicken meat from animals supplemented with ...

  6. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beluga is one of the most important fishes in Caspian Sea. The purpose of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of soybean meal (SBM) as a fishmeal (FM) partial replacement and citric acid (CA) supplement on the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) of muscle, scute and serum of Beluga diets. Three isonitrogenous and ...

  7. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to a box format,13 the pilot study formed part of the formal survey. ...... Potter JD. Vitamins and Lifestyle Cohort Study: study design and characteristics of supplement users. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:83–93. 7. Satia-Abouta J, Patterson RE, King IB, Stratton KL, Shattuck AL, Kristal AR, Potter JD, Thornquist MD,.

  8. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Meo, Concetta; Laurenti, Patrizia; de Waure, Chiara; Terracciano, Elisa; Di Nardo, Francesco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following a...

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary chitosan on growth performance and immune index were investigated in ducks. One-day-old ducks were fed on a control diet or diets containing 0.00, 0.30, 0.60, 1.20, 2.40 and 4.80 g/kg of 85.20% deacetylated chitin (chitosan) or 0.45 g/kg aureomycin for 35 days. The results indicate that the ducks in ...

  10. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance and Health Benefits of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Stanaway

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with nitrate (NO3−-rich beetroot juice has been shown to improve exercise performance and cardiovascular (CV responses, due to an increased nitric oxide (NO availability. However, it is unclear whether these benefits are greater in older adults who have an age-related decrease in NO and higher risk of disease. This systematic review examines 12 randomised, crossover, control trials, investigating food-based NO3− supplementation in older adults and its potential benefits on physiological and cognitive performances, and CV, cerebrovascular and metabolic health. Four studies found improvements in physiological performance (time to exhaustion following dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults. Benefits on cognitive performance were unclear. Six studies reported improvements in CV health (blood pressure and blood flow, while six found no improvement. One study showed improvements in cerebrovascular health and two found no improvement in metabolic health. The current literature indicates positive effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults on physiological performance, with some evidence indicating benefits on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health. Effects on cognitive performance were mixed and studies on metabolic health indicated no benefit. However, there has been limited research conducted on the effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults, thus, further study, utilising a randomised, double-blind, control trial design, is warranted.

  12. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  13. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Fernando; Franklin, Natasha M.; Tuttle, Ryan B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca 2+ and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca 2+ on branchial Ca 2+ transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca 2+ . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 μg/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 μg/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca 2+ ). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca 2+ supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms

  14. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake and risk of preterm birth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Lv, Ling; Zhang, Hanru; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Zhou, Min; Xu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Lerro, Catherine; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Bai, Haiya; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Huang, Huang; Liang, Jiaxin; Qiu, Weitao; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-06-01

    Folic acid supplementation has been suggested to reduce the risk of preterm birth. However, results from previous epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake during pre- and post-conception reduces the risk of preterm birth. We analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lanzhou, China, including 10,179 pregnant women with live singleton births. Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users with >12-week duration had a reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.55-0.83) with a significant dose-response relationship (P for trend = 0.01). A similar pattern was observed for spontaneous preterm birth. Stronger associations were seen for ever use of folic acid supplement and very preterm birth (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.36-0.69) and spontaneous very preterm birth (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.29-0.63). Dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy were also associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.56-0.83, OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.47-0.70 for the highest quartiles, respectively), particularly for spontaneous very preterm (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24-0.72, OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.15-0.47 for the highest quartiles, respectively). There were also decreased risks of preterm birth observed per 10-µg increase in dietary folate intake, and similar associations were found after stratification by folic acid supplementation status. Our results suggest that folic acid supplementation and higher dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth, and the protective effect varies by preterm subtypes.

  15. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  16. Taking weight-loss supplements may elicit liberation from dietary control. A laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Given that changes in diet and exercise habits are difficult to initiate and maintain, the use of weight-loss supplements has become an appealing alternative approach to weight management for many individuals. The current research examined whether the use of weight-loss supplements induced overly optimistic assessments of progress toward weight reduction, leading to psychological abdication of dietary regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to take either an identified placebo or a purported weight-loss supplement (actually the same placebo). Each participant reported perceived progress toward weight reduction following the manipulation. Consumption of snacks in a taste test and choice of sugary drinks were recorded. The results showed that participants receiving a purported supplement ate more in a taste task and preferred larger quantities of sugar in their reward drinks than did controls. Mediation analysis supported that the perception of progress toward weight reduction contributed to the liberating effect. Using weight-loss supplements may increase perceived progress toward weight reduction but decrease dietary self-regulation. These thought-provoking findings can serve as a basis for educating the public about the myth that they are free to feel liberated from the need to regulate their eating when using weight-loss supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wu, Zhenlong; Jia, Sichao; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Feng, Shuo; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted with rats to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, male and female rats were fed a casein-based semi-purified diet containing 0.61 % L-arginine and received drinking water containing L-arginine-HCl (0, 1.8, or 3.6 g L-arginine/kg body-weight/day; n = 10/group). These supplemental doses of L-arginine were equivalent to 0, 286, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body-weight/day, respectively, in humans. After a 13-week supplementation period, blood samples were obtained from rats for biochemical analyses. Supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, homoarginine, urea, and nitric oxide metabolites without affecting those for lysine, histidine, or methylarginines, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Based on general appearance, feeding behavior, and physiological parameters, all animals showed good health during the entire experimental period; Plasma concentrations of all measured hormones (except leptin) did not differ between control and arginine-supplemented rats. L-Arginine supplementation reduced plasma levels of leptin. Additionally, L-arginine supplementation increased L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase activity in kidneys but not in the liver or small intestine, suggesting tissue-specific regulation of enzyme expression by L-arginine. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (e.g., 3.6 g/kg body-weight/day) is safe in rats for at least 91 days. This dose is equivalent to 40 g L-arginine/kg body-weight/day for a 70-kg person. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.

  18. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  19. Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengdi; Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted with a swine model to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine-HCl or L-arginine free base. Beginning at 30 days of age, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (31.5 g/kg body weight/day) supplemented with 0, 1.21, 1.81 or 2.42 % L-arginine-HCl (Experiment 1) or with 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 % L-arginine (Experiment 2). The supplemental doses of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 % L-arginine provided pigs with 0, 315, 473, and 630 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, which were equivalent to 0, 286, 430, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, in humans. At 121 days of age (91 days after initiation of supplementation), blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of pigs at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, albumin and reticulocytes, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and neutrophils. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Other variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, serum concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among all the groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (up to 630 mg/kg body weight/day) is safe in pigs for at least 91 days. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.

  20. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Salmaan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s with the drug(s alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist.

  1. Using the theory of planned behavior to explore attitudes and beliefs about dietary supplements among HIV-positive Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. [Interactions between synthetic drugs used in treatment of selected central nervous system disorders and dietary supplements and herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The risk of interaction between dietary supplements, herbal drugs and synthetic drugs increases when patients are treated chronically, e.g. due to impairment of central nervous system (CNS)--depression, psychotic disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. On the basis of scientific literature, there was shown that simultaneous intake of antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and herbal drugs or dietary supplements containing: St. John's wort, valerian root, ginkgo biloba leaf, hops, and food ingredients: dietary fiber or folic acid, may lead to interactions. Dietary fiber supplementation should be applied carefully during treatment of Parkinson's disease and in case of Alzheimer disease treatment--supplements containing ginkgo biloba leaf can increase the risk of interaction. Knowledge of these interactions is essential in effective treatment of this illness. However this area of science should be verified constantly due to growing number of new products registered as a supplements--often with complex composition.

  4. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Granulosa cells were aspirated from the ovary, and their proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunocytochemistry. To assess secretory activity and its response to gonadotropin, ovarian fragments of treated and control ewes were cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 IU/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones into the culture medium was evaluated. Finally, to examine the direct action of yucca on the ovary, ovarian fragments from control ewes were cultured with and without yucca extract (1, 10, or 100 μg/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones was measured. Yucca supplementation significantly decreased the size of small antral follicles (2 to yucca supplementation did not affect the size of larger follicles and number of follicles, volume and weight of ovaries, length and weight of oviducts, caspase 3 accumulation, cell proliferation, testosterone (T) or IGF-I serum levels, or T or E2 release by cultured ovarian fragments and their response to FSH. Yucca addition to culture medium inhibited P4 and IGF-I, but not T or E2 release at the lowest (1 μg/mL) dose, and stimulated P4, but not T, E2, or IGF-I release at the highest (100 μg/mL) dose. These data suggest that yucca supplementation can reduce small antral ovarian follicle development possibly via the stimulation of apoptosis of their granulosa cells, suppression of ovarian P4 and E2 release, and

  5. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  6. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoako, Prince O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Uden, Peter C., E-mail: pcuden@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Tyson, Julian F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  7. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  9. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Simitzis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the dose effects of hesperidin dietary supplementation on fattening rabbits’ growth performance, as well as carcass and meat quality characteristics. Forty-eight Hyla hybrid male weaned (35 d old rabbits were purchased and randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups of 16 rabbits each and fed diets supplemented with the antioxidant hesperidin at 0, 1 and 2 g/kg feed. At 80 d of age, the rabbits were slaughtered and samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle were used to estimate meat quality traits. No significant differences were observed in body weight at the age of 80 d, feed conversion rate (35 to 80 d, or organ weights among the 3 groups. The pH, colour, percentage of released water, shear force values and intramuscular fat content of LL muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Hesperidin dietary supplementation at both levels reduced the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly arachidonic (C20:4n-6, docosapentaenoic (C22:5n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3 (only at 2 g/kg, and PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01. Based on the malondialdehyde (MDA values, hesperidin inclusion did not influence meat antioxidant status during the 9-d refrigerated storage at 4°C. Thus, we may conclude that dietary supplementation with hesperidin at the selected concentration levels did not generally influence growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality or antioxidant capacity in fattening rabbits, although meat values for PUFAs appeared to be decreased.

  10. Effect of Alzheimer disease genetic risk disclosure on dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Roberts, J Scott; Hiraki, Susan; Chen, Clara A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Green, Robert C

    2010-05-01

    Genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer disease (AD) with APOE genotype disclosure is not recommended for clinical use but is available through direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies. Little is known about whether APOE genotype disclosure would actually prompt changes in nutrition behaviors among at-risk individuals. We studied the effect of APOE genotype disclosure for AD risk assessment on dietary supplement use in adults with a family history of AD. As part of a secondary analysis of data from the second Risk Evaluation and Education for Alzheimer's Disease Study, we examined the effect of genotype disclosure on health-behavior changes among 272 unaffected first-degree relatives of persons with AD. Overall, 16% of all participants reported a change in dietary supplement use after AD risk assessment. Participants who learned that they had at least one copy of the risk-increasing epsilon4 allele (epsilon4+) had 4.75 times the odds of reporting a change in dietary supplement use than did their counterparts who had an absence of the risk-increasing epsilon4 allele (epsilon4-) (95% CI: 2.23, 10.10; P exercise, or medications. In this sample of first-degree relatives receiving genetic susceptibility testing for AD, an APOE epsilon4+ genotype status was positively associated with dietary supplement use after risk disclosure. Such changes occurred despite the absence of evidence that supplement use reduces the risk of AD. Given the expansion of DTC genetic tests, this study highlights the need for future studies in disease risk communication.

  11. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  12. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counseling Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid J M; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne H M; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2017-02-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counseling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counseling as compared with athletes not receiving dietary counseling. Of the athletes, 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counseling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counseling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counseling seemed to result in better-informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  13. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Betaine Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Japanese Quails

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    A Ratriyanto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. In total, 765 Japanese quails were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 17 quails each. Three basal diets were formulated to contain three crude protein levels (16.5, 18.0, and 19.5%. Each protein level was supplemented with 0, 0.06, and 0.12% betaine. The diet with 16.5% dietary crude protein with no betaine supplementation resulted in the lowest crude fiber digestibility, while the 18.0% CP diet supplemented with 0.12% betaine generated the highest crude fiber digestibility (p<0.05. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein increased crude fiber digestibility, but reduced ether extract digestibility (p<0.01. Moreover, betaine supplementation increased dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and crude ash (p<0.01 digestibility and tended to increase ether extract digestibility (p=0.09. The increase in egg weight for the 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets was correlated with a decrease in feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. However, feed intake and egg production were not affected by protein levels. Betaine supplementation enhanced all performance variables (p<0.01. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein resulted in heavier yolks and eggshells than the 16.5% crude protein diet (p<0.05, whereas betaine supplementation increased yolk, albumen, and eggshell weight (p<0.01. The 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets produced similar responses in most evaluated parameters. Laying Japanese quails can be fed diets with 18.0% crude protein. Moreover, betaine supplementation provided several benefits, and particularly improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and egg quality.

  15. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  16. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  17. Dietary supplementation of high-performance Canadian athletes by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Fung, Tak S; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Verhoef, Marja J; Reimer, Raylene A

    2007-11-01

    To determine dietary supplementation practices and opinions, preferred means for dietary supplement (DS) education, and antidoping opinions among elite Canadian athletes varying in age and gender. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Elite athlete training centers in Calgary, Canada and surrounding area. A total of 582 high-performance athletes (314 male, 268 female). High-performance athletes representing 27 sports with a mean age of 19.96+/-3.91 years completed a validated questionnaire assessing DS practices and opinions by recall. Sport categories included varsity, Canadian Sport Centre Calgary (CSCC), and National Sport School (NSS). There was extensive DS use, with 88.4% of participants taking>or=1 DS (mean of 3.08+/-1.87 DS per user) during the previous 6 months. Overall, sport drinks (22.4%), sport bars (14.0%), multivitamins and minerals (13.5%), protein supplements (9.0%), and vitamin C (6.4%) were most frequently reported. Older athletes were significantly more likely to report greater DS usage; to be advised by teammates, health food store retailers, and magazines; to prefer supplementation education via individual interviews; to claim awareness of anti-doping rules; and to perceive anti-doping compliance. Relative to gender, significant differences were observed for the types of DS reported; supplementation advisors; justifications for DS use; and awareness of anti-doping regulations. Utilization of this validated and reliable questionnaire has the potential for broad use and provides insight into the factors that influence DS use in elite athletes.

  18. A Dietary Supplement Containing and Velvet Bean Improves Sleep Quality in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Methods Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Results Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire ( P < 0.05, with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. Conclusions An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446 and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372. Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90. Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements. Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable.

  1. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  2. [Dietary supplements on the domestic market adulterated with sildenafil and tadalafil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezsö; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Vékes, Erika; Veres, Katalin; Micsinay, Akos; Szendrei, Kálmán; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-10-24

    Mandatory requirements regulating the manufacture and sale of dietary supplements are much less stringent than those related to pharmaceuticals. Hence, the sheer number and diversity of marketed products in this category has shown an unprecedented increase Europe-wide. Not surprising, that cases for incorrect marketing/promotion, incorrect recommendations for product use, as well as reported incidents of questionable product quality and/or deliberate adulterations have also become frequent in recent years. Typical adulterations consist of admixtures of synthetic pharmaceuticals to the matrix fraudulently declared to consist exclusively of extracts of various (medicinal) plants. In the present paper, the results of qualitative investigations of ten plant-based preparations, marketed in Hungary, and recommended as (or alleged to be) natural aphrodisiacs, are reported. Sildenafil and/or tadalafil or related analogs were detected in six of the ten products. These results highlight, once more, the unacceptable risks for the consumers of such adulterated dietary supplements.

  3. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-08-26

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  5. Dietary supplementation with tart cherries for prevention of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Ashli

    2017-01-01

    The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...

  6. Effects of fermentable dietary fiber supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang-Min; Ge, Yi-Yun; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Yi-Qiong; Li, Jun-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and malnutrition are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. High dietary intake in soluble fiber can decrease the elevated level of serum c-reactive protein in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of dietary water-soluble fiber on oxidative and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we examined the effects of supplementation of dietary fiber on oxidative and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. 124 hemodialysis patients were randomly selected and given either 10 g/d, 20 g/d of fiber or placebo for 6 weeks. Anthropometric indices and 24 h diet recall intake was assessed. The CRP, albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL were measured before and after of the intervention. The malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), Cu-Zn superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured. After 6 weeks of intervention, in 10 g and 20 g/d of fiber supplement groups, TC and LDL level and TC:LDL ratio were significantly decreased, T-AOC was significantly increased, MDA level was significantly deceased, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and CRP level were significantly deceased. TG, HDL, SOD and GSH-Px had no change before and after the intervention. Dietary fermentable fiber supplementation improved lipid profile and oxidative status, decreased systemic inflammatory state of hemodialysis patients. Thus, it may decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in these patients.

  7. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  8. LC-QTOF-MS Analysis and Activity Profiles of Popular Antioxidant Dietary Supplements in Terms of Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Sieniawska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary supplements with claimed antioxidant activity constitute a substantial part of the dietary supplement market. In this study, we performed the LC-QTOF-MS analysis and investigated the activity profiles of popular antioxidant dietary supplements from different chemical groups in terms of quality control. The commonly used antioxidant tests and statistical analysis revealed that substantial part of the results was comparable if 1 g sample was considered, but while comparing single and daily doses, significant differences in antioxidant values were noticed in all assays. The best antioxidant activity was obtained in ORAC assay (from 142 to 13814 μM of Trolox equivalents per 1 g of sample, and the strongest correlation occurred between TPC and ORAC. The LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that catechins were present in samples having the best antioxidant activity and that dietary supplements showing the weakest activity contained very small amount of any chemical constituents.

  9. LC-QTOF-MS Analysis and Activity Profiles of Popular Antioxidant Dietary Supplements in Terms of Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Sawicki, Rafal; Wanat, Aleksandra; Wojtanowski, Krzysztof Kamil; Ginalska, Grazyna; Zgorka, Grazyna; Szymanska, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    The dietary supplements with claimed antioxidant activity constitute a substantial part of the dietary supplement market. In this study, we performed the LC-QTOF-MS analysis and investigated the activity profiles of popular antioxidant dietary supplements from different chemical groups in terms of quality control. The commonly used antioxidant tests and statistical analysis revealed that substantial part of the results was comparable if 1 g sample was considered, but while comparing single and daily doses, significant differences in antioxidant values were noticed in all assays. The best antioxidant activity was obtained in ORAC assay (from 142 to 13814 μM of Trolox equivalents per 1 g of sample), and the strongest correlation occurred between TPC and ORAC. The LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that catechins were present in samples having the best antioxidant activity and that dietary supplements showing the weakest activity contained very small amount of any chemical constituents. PMID:28642814

  10. Effect of a Soy Dietary Supplement on Menopausal Symptoms and Hormones in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Margo

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of a dietary soy supplement resulting in an intake of 45 mg/day of phytoestrogens, was tested in a randomized cross-over design in menopausal women aged 45-58 years of age who reported...

  11. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vidak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  12. Analysis of Menaquinone-7 Content and Impurities in Oil and Non-Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Szterk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, global technological development has caused the food industry to use concentrated food component sources like dietary supplements ever more commonly as part of the human diet. This study analysed the menaquinone-7 (MK-7 content of dietary supplements in oil capsule and hard tablet forms. A novel method for separating and measuring geometric isomers of MK-7 in dietary supplements was developed and validated. Eleven different isomers of cis/trans- menaquinone-7 were identified. Identification of cis/trans isomers was performed by combination of HPLC, UPLC and HRMS-QTOF detection, whereas their quantities were determined by DAD detection. The content of menaquinone impurities was ascertained, including cis/trans- menaquinone-6 isomers (5.5–16.9 µg per tablet/capsule and cis/trans-menaquinone-7 isomers (70.9–218.7 µg tablet/capsule, which were most likely formed during the chemical synthesis of the menaquinone-7. The all-trans MK-7 content was lower than the isomeric form and often lower than what the labels declared. A new method of quantification, developed and validated for menaquinones in oil capsules, provided on average 90% recovery and a limit of quantification (LOQ of approximately 1 µg mL−1.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements by HPLC and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H; Kim, J W; Han, K M; Lee, J H; Hwang, I S; Lee, J H; Kim, J; Kweon, S J; Cho, S; Chae, K R; Han, S Y; Kim, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to test health foods for illegally added diuretics for weight loss, we developed simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods using HPLC and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements. HPLC conditions were set with a Capcell-pak C18, using a mobile phase consisting of gradient conditions, UV detection at 254 nm and validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.999), precision (CV ≤ 3%), recoveries (90.4-102.8%) and reproducibility. Identification and quantification of 17 diuretics were accomplished by ion-spray LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The chromatographic separation was carried out under the reversed-phase mechanism on an HSS-T3 column. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.99) and precision (CV Diuretics were not detected in all samples. Extraction recovery was also investigated and the extraction recoveries in different formulations were from 88% to 110% and from 81% to 116% using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, respectively. There was no significant difference in recoveries in the type of dietary supplements. Based on this result, the developed methods to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using HPLC and LC-MS/MS are simple, fast and reliable. Therefore, it is applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.

  14. Effect of a dietary antioxidant supplementation on semen quality in pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, K; Palm, F; Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Aurich, C

    2008-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation contributes to the damage of the sperm plasma membrane. In different species, dietary supplementation with antioxidants has been shown to improve semen quality. Therefore, we tested effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidants and l-carnitin on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions (n=6). Semen was collected twice a week over a time period of 16 weeks. From weeks 5 to 12, a special diet for stallions containing a variety of antioxidants (STALLION, Pavo Pferdenahrung GmbH, Goch, Germany; tocopherol 300 mg/day; ascorbic acid 300 mg/day; l-carnitin 4000 mg/day; folic acid 12 mg/day) was added to the basal diet (hay, mineral supplements, water). Ejaculates were evaluated for total sperm count, semen motility (percentage of totally and progressively motile spermatozoa, longevity for 24 h at 5 degrees C) and membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI staining): All values given are means+/-S.E.M. No changes in motility, progressive motility and membrane integrity or semen longevity for 24 h were detected. A slight but significant reduction of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found (weeks 1-4: 43.7+/-7.1%; weeks 13-16: 39.4+/-7.2%, p<0.05). Results show that a supplementary diet with antioxidants in the given concentration and duration does not result in pronounced effects on semen quality of stallions. It is therefore questionable to support stallions with dietary antioxidants as long as they receive an adequately balanced basal diet.

  15. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  17. Raw coffee based dietary supplements contain carboxyatractyligenin derivatives inhibiting mitochondrial adenine-nucleotide-translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Fromme, Tobias; Beusch, Anja; Lang, Tatjana; Klingenspor, Martin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Capsules, powders and tablets containing raw coffee extract are advertised to the consumer as antioxidant rich dietary supplements as part of a healthy diet. We isolated carboxyatractyligenin (4), 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl carboxyatractyligenin (6) and 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-carboxyatractyligenin)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) from green coffee and found strong inhibitory effects on phosphorylating respiration in isolated mitochondria similar to the effects of the known phytotoxin carboxyatractyloside. LC-MS/MS analysis of commercial green coffee based dietary supplements revealed the occurrence of carboxyatractyligenin, 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-carboxyatractyligenin)-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl carboxyatractyligenin in concentrations up to 4.0, 5.7, and 41.6μmol/g, respectively. These data might help to gain first insight into potential physiological side-effects of green coffee containing dietary supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 and -6 on fresh and frozen/thawed sperm quality of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For years, fatty acids have been recommended as a dietary supplement to improve canine hair. For animal reproduction, supplementation with omegas has been used to increase the reproductive efficiency and conception rate, but few studies have been conducted in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily dietary supplementation with omega-3 and -6 on the quality of fresh and frozen/thawed semen in canines. Semen was collected from seven dogs and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, concentration, and morphology. The 17-week study included 119 ejaculates and was divided according to oral supplementation with omega-3 and -6: M1 (1st-5th week or pre-supplementation; M2 (6th-9th week and M3 (10th-13th week or during supplementation; and M4 (14th-17th week or post-supplementation. After analysis, the semen was frozen and then revaluated both immediately and 30 minutes (at 37° C after thawing. Supplementation with omegas increased sperm motility, vigor, and concentration; however, supplementation had no influence on semen freezability. In addition, there was no improvement in sperm motility after supplementation when the thawed cells were maintained at 37° C for 30 minutes. We concluded that dietary supplementation with omega-3 and -6 for 4 to 8 weeks can improve the quality of fresh semen, although it has no effect on the freezability of canine semen.

  19. Energy drinks and other dietary supplement use among adolescents attending secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babwah, Terence J; Maharaj, Rohan G; Nunes, Paula

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge and practices among Trinidad and Tobago school-attending adolescents towards energy drinks (ED), alcohol combined with energy drinks (AwED), weight-altering supplements (WAS) and vitamin/mineral supplements (VMS) and their experience of adverse effects associated with such use. A cross-sectional, proportionate, stratified sampling strategy was adopted using a self-administered, de novo questionnaire. Secondary schools throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Students aged 15-19 years. Five hundred and sixty-one students participated, an 84% response rate; 43·0% were male, 40·5% East Indian and 34·1% mixed race. VMS, ED, WAS and anabolic steroids were used by 52·4%, 44·0%, 8·9% and 1·4% of students, respectively, with 51·6% of ED users using AwED. Predictors of use of AwED were males and students who played sport for their school (OR = 1·9; 95% CI 1·2, 3·2 and OR = 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·7, respectively). Predictors of ED use were males and attendees of government secondary schools (OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·1, 2·4 and OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·2, 2·4, respectively). Side-effects, mainly palpitations, headaches and sleep disturbances, were reported in 20·7% of dietary supplement users. Many adolescent students in Trinidad and Tobago use dietary supplements, including ED and AwED, and about one-fifth of users experience side-effects. Identification of students at risk for ED, AwED and WAS use and education of students about the dangers of using dietary supplements need to be instituted to prevent potential adverse events.

  20. Comparison of ease of swallowing of dietary supplement products for age-related eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherman, Donald P; Bayraktaroglu, Tolgar O; Garofalo, Renee J

    2004-01-01

    To examine patients' perceptions on the relative importance of the physical characteristics and appearance of dietary supplements, and to evaluate two supplements with the same combination of vitamins and minerals used in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) with respect to ease of swallowing and other features in elderly patients. A single-site, single-visit, crossover design, subject-masked comparison of two dietary supplements (ICaps AREDS Formula--Alcon; Ocuvite PreserVision-Bausch & Lomb). Ophthalmology practice. 50 patients aged 50 years or older. Patients ranked the importance of eight physical characteristics of a vitamin tablet or capsule (ease of swallowing, size, shape, color, smell, coating, texture, and taste) irrespective of the test products used in the study and then took both test products randomly and were asked to indicate which product they preferred based on the same eight characteristics. Overall patient preference and preference for swallowing two tablets at once. The highest rated (most important) characteristic in a vitamin supplement was ease of swallowing, with a median score of 9.0 on a 0-10 visual analogue scale. The characteristic of least importance was tablet color, with the lowest median score of 1.0. Statistically significant differences were detected between the products with regard to preferences for ease of swallowing, swallowing two tablets at once, size, and coating (P preferred the ICaps AREDS formula to Ocuvite PreserVision with respect to these characteristics and overall preference (P preferences. Based on the results of this study, ease of swallowing is the most important characteristic of dietary supplement tablets for elderly patients, followed by taste, size, and smell. Significant differences in preference exist between the study products, which contain similar formulations but have different physical characteristics.

  1. Dietary calcium supplementation in adult rats reverts brown adipose tissue dysfunction programmed by postnatal early overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Oliveira, Elaine; Guarda, Deysla Sabino; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; Quitete, Fernanda Torres; Calvino, Camila; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas; Manhães, Alex Christian; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction is associated with obesity and its comorbidities, such as hypertension, and the improvement of BAT function seems important for obesity management. Here we investigated the effects of dietary calcium supplementation on BAT autonomic nerve activity, sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular parameters in adult obese rats that were raised in small litters (SL group). Three days after birth, SL litters were adjusted to three pups to induce early overfeeding. The control group remained with 10 pups/litter until weaning (NL group). At PN120, the SL group was randomly divided into the following: rats fed with standard chow (SL) and rats fed with dietary calcium carbonate supplementation (SL-Ca, 10g/kg chow). Animals were killed either at PN120 or PN180. At both ages, SL rats had higher BAT autonomic nervous system activity, mass and adipocyte area, as well as increased heart rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic); 2 months of calcium supplementation normalized these parameters. At PN180 only, UCP1 and TRβ1 in BAT were decreased in SL rats. These changes were also prevented by calcium treatment. Also at PN180, the SL group presented higher tyrosine hydroxylase and adrenal catecholamine contents, as well as lower hypothalamic POMC and MC4R contents. Calcium supplementation did not revert these alterations. Thus, we demonstrated that dietary calcium supplementation was able to improve cardiovascular parameters and BAT thermogenesis capacity in adult animals that were early overfed during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Timing, Optimal Dose and Intake Duration of Dietary Supplements with Evidence-Based Use in Sports Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, Alireza; de Oliveira, Erick P.; Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present narrative review was to consider the evidence on the timing, optimal dose and intake duration of the main dietary supplements β-alanine, nitrate, caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein. [Methods] This review article will focuses on timing, optimal dose and intake duration of main dietary supplements for consuming. [Results] This paper reviewed the evidence to determine the optimal time, efficacy doses and intake duration for sports su...

  3. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard GM; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. PMID:29540367

  4. Impact of botanical oils on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and leukotriene generation in mild asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary supplementation with botanical oils that contain n-6 and n-3 eighteen carbon chain (18C)-PUFA such as γ linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6), stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) and α linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) have been shown to impact PUFA metabolism, alter inflammatory processes including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and improve inflammatory disorders. Methods The diet of mild asthmatics patients was supplemented for three weeks with varying doses of two botanical seed oils (borage oil [Borago officinalis, BO] and echium seed oil [Echium plantagineum; EO]) that contain SDA, ALA and GLA. A three week wash out period followed. The impact of these dietary manipulations was evaluated for several biochemical endpoints, including in vivo PUFA metabolism and ex vivo leukotriene generation from stimulated leukocytes. Results Supplementation with several EO/BO combinations increased circulating 20–22 carbon (20–22C) PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and dihommo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA), which have been shown to inhibit AA metabolism and inflammation without impacting circulating AA levels. BO/EO combinations also inhibited ex vivo leukotriene generation with some combinations attenuating cysteinyl leukotriene generation in stimulated basophils by >50% and in stimulated neutrophils by >35%. Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation with BO/EO alters 20–22C PUFA levels and attenuates leukotriene production in a manner consistent with a reduction in inflammation. PMID:24088297

  5. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)Dchildren enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  7. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  8. Association of dietary and supplemental iron and colorectal cancer in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph H; Lesko, Samuel M; Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Muscat, Joshua E; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Harper, Gregory; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary iron, heme iron, and supplemental iron on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania, including 1005 incident cases and 1062 controls. Diet was assessed through a modified food frequency questionnaire that included supplement use and a meat-specific module. Cases reported intakes for the year before diagnosis, whereas controls reported intakes for the year before interview. Heme iron intake was calculated using a new heme database developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, there were no significant associations between heme iron or total iron intake and CRC incidence. Dietary iron intake was inversely associated with CRC among women (OR Q5 vs. Q1=0.45; 95% CI=0.22-0.92), but not among men. Supplemental iron intake of more than 18 mg/day versus none was positively associated with CRC incidence (OR=2.31; 95% CI=1.48-3.59; P-trendconsumption of more than 18 mg/day of supplemental iron may increase risk for CRC.

  9. Dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Yee, J A; Thompson, L U; Yan, L

    1999-07-19

    We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a lignan precursor isolated from flaxseed, on experimental metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Four diets were compared: a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with SDG at 73, 147 or 293 micromol/kg (equivalent to SDG provided in the 2.5, 5 or 10% flaxseed diet). Mice were fed the diet for 2 weeks before and after an intravenous injection of 0.6 x 10(5) tumor cells. At necropsy, the number and size of tumors that formed in the lungs were determined. The median number of tumors in the control group was 62, and those in the SDG-supplemented groups were 38, 36 and 29, respectively. The last was significantly different from the control (P SDG at 73, 147 and 293 micromol/kg also decreased tumor size (tumor cross-sectional area and volume) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control values. These results show that SDG reduced pulmonary metastasis of melanoma cells and inhibited the growth of metastatic tumors that formed in the lungs. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with SDG reduces experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

  10. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  11. Do Studies Evaluating QT/QTc Interval Prolongation with Dietary Supplements Meet FDA Standards: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tinh An; Kurian, Amy; Leong, Jessica; Patel, Umang M; Shah, Sachin A

    2017-07-04

    Dietary supplement use is continuously increasing, but the safety evaluation of these products remains partial. While dietary supplements have no mandate for assessing cardiovascular safety, all new drug entities (NDE) are required to undergo a thorough QT/corrected QT (QTc) assessment to determine their propensity to impact cardiac repolarization. Independent investigators and manufacturers of dietary supplements voluntarily initiate safety studies; however, the quality of these studies is controversial. We sought to compare studies evaluating the QT/QTc effects of dietary supplements based on the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH)-E14 recommendations for NDE. Twenty-six published dietary supplement studies assessed QT/QTc interval prolongation. Sample sizes ranged from nine subjects to 206 among the 15 crossover studies, six parallel design studies, and five observational studies. A plan to account for electrocardiogram (ECG) morphological abnormalities was included in 10 studies, and two studies reported cardiovascular adverse events. Eight studies found a significant change in QT/QTc intervals. The majority of studies included in this review contained many of the critical elements recommended by the ICH E14, which includes the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance document for QT/QTc interval assessment. Compared with the thorough QT (TQT) standards, studies are typically well performed but can be bolstered by some study design changes. More than 30% of the included studies showed some degree of ECG changes, suggesting the need for continued cardiovascular safety assessment of dietary supplements.

  12. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  13. Dietary L-arginine supplementation affects the skeletal longissimus muscle proteome in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2015-01-01

    Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs.

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation affects the skeletal longissimus muscle proteome in finishing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong Ma

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01, it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1 protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs.

  15. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-10-01

    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  16. Dietary Chromium Supplementation for Targeted Treatment of Diabetes Patients with Comorbid Depression and Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function – that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the “one size fits all” approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype. PMID:25838140

  17. Acute myocardial infarction associated with dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Triston B; Staub, Brian A; Natarajan, Gayathri M; Lasorda, David M; Poornima, Indu G

    2014-02-01

    We describe the case of a previously healthy 22-year-old man who presented with anginal chest pain and was diagnosed with a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. For 3 weeks, he had been ingesting the dietary supplements Jack3d® (principal ingredient, 1,3-dimethylamylamine) and Phenorex™ (principal ingredient, Citrus aurantium) daily, before undertaking physical activity. Coronary angiograms revealed a proximal left anterior descending coronary artery thrombus with distal embolization. A combined medical regimen led to resolution of the thrombus. Three months later, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of ischemia. The primary ingredients in the sympathomimetic supplements taken by our patient are controversial in the medical community and have been individually associated with adverse cardiac events. There are no safety data on their simultaneous use. We discuss other reports of adverse effects associated with these supplements and recommend that the relevant safety guidelines be revised.

  18. Dietary L-arginine supplementation protects weanling pigs from deoxynivalenol-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Liao, Peng; He, Liuqin; Feng, Zemeng; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% L-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  19. The Effect of Dietary Supplements on the Development of Bombyx Mori L. Silkworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We know that the silkworms consume leaves in large quantities. The scope of the research was their reaction to various additives for their food. Mulberry leaves spray-coated in several dietary supplements were administered starting with the 5th day of the 3rd instar. The substances used were flax (linseed oil, hemp oil and 2.5% fat cow’s milk. The research was performed on four different silkworm hybrid strands. Each hybrid was separated in 4 lots, a control group and one for each of the three supplements. The preliminary conclusions of the research were that the best results were obtained with the 2.5% milk supplement, where we observed the highest individual mass and silk quantity compared to the other lots.

  20. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Ortiz, Christian Mañas; Baladía, Eduard; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-10-04

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  1. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas Ortiz, Christian; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. PMID:28976928

  2. Uso de suplementos alimentares por adolescentes Dietary supplement use by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar crititcamente o uso, benefícios e efeitos adversos dos principais suplementos alimentares utilizados por adolescentes. FONTES DOS DADOS: A pesquisa bibliográfica, realizada nos últimos 10 anos, utilizou os bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. Foram examinados 377 artigos, sendo selecionados 52. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O consumo de suplementos dietéticos é amplamente difundido entre adolescentes. Tal fato é constatado, com frequência, nos consultórios de pediatria e hebeatria. Na maioria das vezes ele ocorre sem uma necessidade específica, sendo motivado pela busca do corpo ideal. Outros motivos para essa suplementação são: compensar dieta inadequada, aumentar imunidade, prevenir doenças, melhorar o desempenho competitivo e superar os próprios limites. Os suplementos alimentares mais utilizados e discutidos nesse artigo e para os quais existem poucas evidências de um efeito benéfico de sua utilização por adolescentes saudáveis são: proteínas, aminoácidos, betahidroxibetametilbutirato, microelementos, carnitina, creatina, vitaminas, cafeína e bicarbonato. CONCLUSÃO: O uso irrestrito de suplementos dietéticos deve ser desaconselhado, uma vez que expõe o adolescente a vários efeitos adversos, além da falta de evidência de que tal prática levará a melhora no desempenho. Uma nutrição balanceada, com aquisição da energia e dos nutrientes necessários é geralmente suficiente para boa performance nas atividades físicas. A reposição com suplementos dietéticos deve ser reservada para atletas competitivos que não consomem uma dieta balanceada, após a comprovação de alguma deficiência específica.OBJECTIVE: To review the use, benefits and adverse effects of the main dietary supplements consumed by adolescents. SOURCES: The literature review was performed using MEDLINE and LILACS databases (1997-2008. We analyzed 377 articles, and 52 of them were selected as references. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

  3. Volumetric Titrations Using Electrolytically Generated Reagents for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Iron in Dietary Supplement Tablets: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…

  4. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  5. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Finished Dietary Supplement Stimulates Lipolysis and Metabolic Rate in Young Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary supplements are often marketed to increase lipolysis and thermogenesis, with the proposed end result being weight loss and body fat reduction. It was the purpose of the present investigation to study the acute effects of a weight/fat loss supplement within a sample of healthy human subjects. Methods Twelve subjects (men 24.8 ± 4.3 yrs; women 22.8 ± 0.4 yrs ingested a dietary supplement (OxyELITE Pro™ or a placebo, on two separate days in a double-blind, cross-over design. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 60 and 120 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA. Breath samples were collected immediately before ingestion and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post ingestion, for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure using indirect calorimetry. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times and rate pressure product (RPP was calculated. Results AUC was greater for supplement compared to placebo for glycerol (22.74 ± 1.98 μg · mL -1 · 2 hr -1 vs. 15.76 ± 1.36 μg · mL -1 · 2 hr -1 ; P = 0.001, FFA(1.62 ± 0.07 mmol · L -1 · 2 hr -1 vs. 0.78 ± 0.12 mmol · L -1 · 2 hr -1 ; P < 0.0001, and kilocalorie expenditure (149 ± 7 kcal · 2 hr -1 vs. 122 ± 8 kcal · 2 hr -1 ; P = 0.005. Heart rate ( P = 0.02, systolic blood pressure ( P < 0.0001, and RPP ( P = 0.002 were higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™ resulted in an increase in blood markers of lipolysis, as well as metabolic rate, during a two-hour post ingestion time period. An increase in hemodynamic variables was also observed. These findings are in reference to a sample of healthy men and women who were naïve to treatment with the dietary supplement. Additional work is needed to determine if the acute changes observed here would persist with chronic use of the supplement and possibly lead to weight

  7. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  8. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on 1H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements. PMID:26244884

  9. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Xue, Jingyi; He, Ying; Wang, Jian; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan; Teng, Jianhua; He, Yonghan; Li, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%). Height, weight, fat mass (FM), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m(2) (overall obesity); WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І) and waist hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П). The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05). Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05). Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  10. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  11. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  12. Use of dietary supplements in Denmark is associated with health and former smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V. K.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    on Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases, 1997-1998. Subjects: Participants were 3707 women (selected age groups between 18 and 65 years) and 942 men (60-65 years). Participation rate was 50%. Supplement data were collected in a personal interview. Data on education, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity...... and gender, being highest among elderly women (78%). Ex-smokers were more likely to use supplements than subjects who had never smoked (odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.76). Supplement use was more likely among subjects who had many days of illness (OR=1.37,95% CI 1.......12-1.66) and among users of medication (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42). Subjects who perceived their health as poor were more likely to use supplements other than just a multivitamin/mineral tablet (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.31-3.77). Conclusions: Use of dietary supplements was related to age, gender and smoking, but also...

  13. Effect of dietary taurine and arginine supplementation on bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arginine or -taurine alone and taurine plus arginine on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone formation and bone resorption in growing female rats. Forty female SD rats (75 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into four groups (control, taurine, arginine, taurine + arginine group) and treatment lasted for 9 weeks. All rats were fed on a diet and deionized water. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co, Wisconsin, USA) in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and the bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline cross-links. Femur BMD was significantly increased in the group with taurine supplementation and femur BMC/weight was significantly increased in the group with arginine + taurine supplementation. Rats fed an arginine or taurine supplemental diet increased femur BMD or femur BMC, but a taurine + arginine-supplemented diet does not have a better effect than arginine or taurine alone in the spine BMD. The femur BMC, expressed per body weight, was higher in arginine + taurine group than in the taurine or arginine group. The results of this study suggest that taurine + arginine supplementation may be beneficial on femur BMC in growing female rats. Additional work is needed to clarify the interactive effects between the taurine and arginine to determine whether dietary intakes of arginine and taurine affect bone quality in growing rats.

  14. Use and perception of herbal and dietary supplements in the Hutterites of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stacy; Shiyanbola, Olayinka

    2013-12-01

    South Dakota is home to 6,000 Hutterites, the largest population of Hutterites in the United States. Observation of frequent supplement use by this population prompted the current survey based study. Use of supplements is on the rise with around 53 percent of Americans reporting at least one herbal and dietary supplement (HDS). Use and perception of HDS has not previously been evaluated in the Hutterite population. Participants were 18 years of age and older and had to be present at the time of survey administration. Surveys were administered before and after an educational presentation at five colonies to volunteer participants. Survey data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi-square tests. One-hundred and six surveys were completed with 81.1 percent being female. Approximately 78 percent reported using at least one type of HDS, with an average of 2.7 (SD = 1.4) supplements per person. Women were more likely to report supplement use than men. Hutterites reported they felt HDS were safer than prescription medications. Education was effective on some aspects such as telling their doctor if they are taking HDS. Some study limitations included small sample size, possible lack of survey understanding, and the limited number of male participants. The frequency of HDS use in South Dakota Hutterites appears to be very high. Baseline knowledge on the safety and regulation of HDS reveals that education of this population is needed. Further investigation of HDS use in Hutterites is warranted.

  15. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity.

  16. [Statistical analysis of the consumption of nutritional and dietary supplements in gyms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Antonio J Sánchez; León, María Teresa Miranda; Hernández, Eduardo Guerra

    2008-09-01

    The abuse of all types of substance to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements in a group of 415 individuals (260 males and 155 females) from 4 gyms in Seville (Spain). The users completed a previously designed questionnaire whose content validity had been tested in a pilot study. Out of the total sample, 56.14% had consumed a supplement at some time. Among these, the objective was improvement of physical appearance in 57.16%, health care in 16.7%, and sports performance enhancement in 13.2%. The profile of the supplement consumer is a young man who has performed activities in gyms for some time, goes to the gym for several hours a week and is on some type of diet. The percentage of nutritional supplement users (56%) is within values reported in other studies. The five supplements most frequently consumed by these individuals were (in decreasing order): proteins (28%), L-carnitine (18.6%), sport drinks (18.3%), creatine (17.1%) and vitamin complex (17.1%).

  17. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; Psupplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (Psupplementation decreased (Psupplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, R Z; Li, H Y; Fang, Y; Sun, H X; Zhou, D W

    2015-07-01

    Ujumqin sheep are susceptible to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, which reduces productivity and total meat yield in sheep. Thus, the effects of green tea polyphenol (GTP) supplements (0, 2, 4, or 6g of GTP/kg feed) on dietary nutrient digestibility and meat quality in lambs infected with H. contortus were examined; control lambs were not infected. H. contortus infections did not affect digestion but the apparent digestibilities of nutrients were decreased by dietary 2g of GTP/kg feed supplementation. There was an interaction between treatment and sampling time on plasma total protein, urea nitrogen, and amino acid concentrations. The antioxidant activity and meat color of INFGTP0 lambs decreased. In conclusion, H. contortus infections in lambs decreased meat quality, but appropriate levels of dietary GTP supplementation diminished these negative effects though lower dose of GTP supplement showed negative effects on digestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Masculinization of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell 1838 by dietary supplementation of 17α-methyltestosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaeman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the possible use of dietary supplementation of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to produce all-male population of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell 1838, as a step forward in producing neomales, which later can be used to produce an all-female population. Larvae were fed 17α-MT at various concentrations, viz. 0 (control, 9 and 18 mg/kg diet for the period of 30 days from 31 to 60 days post hatching (dph. Phenotypic sex ratios at 225 dph identified through histological examination revealed that MT significantly (P  0.05 in gonad weight (GW, gonad length (GL and gonadosomatic index (GSI among treatments which may indicate that the resulting neomales were viable. The MT supplementation did not influence the mortality rate, but significantly (P < 0.05 increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR. The study suggests that the dietary supplementation of MT at 9–18 mg/kg of the diet from 31 to 60 dph larvae is effectively in inducing masculinization in silver perch.

  20. Dietary supplementation of calcium may counteract obesity in mice mediated by changes in plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraichi, Sarah; Parra, Pilar; Zamanillo, Rocío; El Amarti, Ahmed; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2013-08-01

    The scope of this study was to assess the impact of calcium and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on plasma fatty acid profiles and to evaluate potential synergistic effects of both compounds against dietary obesity. Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, respectively. Both dietary calcium and CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity.

  1. Effect of novel dietary supplement on metabolism in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro. Human males ingested either a placebo or commercially available supplement (RF in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over fashion. Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood pressure were measured hourly for 3 h post-ingestion. To investigate molecular effects, human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD and mouse myocytes (C2C12 were treated with various doses of RF for various durations. RF enhanced energy expenditure and systolic blood pressure in human males without altering substrate utilization. In myocytes, RF enhanced metabolism, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial content suggesting RF may target common energetic pathways which control mitochondrial biogenesis. RF appears to increase metabolism immediately following ingestion, although it is unclear if RF provides benefits beyond those provided by caffeine alone. Additional research is needed to examine safety and efficacy for human weight loss.

  2. Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher; Wylie, Lee J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Fulford, Jonathan; Black, Matthew I; Kelly, James; McDonagh, Sinead T J; Carter, James; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that 4 wk of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty-six recreationally active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4-wk period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1 ) SIT and [Formula: see text]-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2 ) SIT and [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot juice (~13 mmol [Formula: see text]/day; SIT+BR); or 3 ) no training and [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR). During moderate-intensity exercise, pulmonary oxygen uptake was reduced by 4% following 4 wk of SIT+BR and NT+BR ( P 0.05). The relative proportion of type IIx muscle fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle was reduced in SIT+BR only ( P interval training. Compared with placebo, dietary nitrate supplementation reduced the O 2 cost of submaximal exercise, resulted in greater improvement in incremental (but not severe-intensity) exercise performance, and augmented some muscle metabolic adaptations to training. Nitrate supplementation may facilitate some of the physiological responses to sprint interval training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Dietary protein supplementation in the elderly for limiting muscle mass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Zanella, Rudyard; Tanabe, Stefan Gleissner Ohara; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blachier, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Supplementation with whey and other dietary protein, mainly associated with exercise training, has been proposed to be beneficial for the elderly to gain and maintain lean body mass and improve health parameters. The main objective of this review is to examine the evidence provided by the scientific literature indicating benefit from such supplementation and to define the likely best strategy of protein uptake for optimal objectified results in the elderly. Overall, it appears that an intake of approximately 0.4 g protein/kg BW per meal thus representing 1.2-1.6 g protein/kg BW/day may be recommended taking into account potential anabolic resistance. The losses of the skeletal muscle mass contribute to lower the capacity to perform activities in daily living, emphasizing that an optimal protein consumption may represent an important parameter to preserve independence and contribute to health status. However, it is worth noting that the maximal intake of protein with no adverse effect is not known, and that high levels of protein intake is associated with increased transfer of protein to the colon with potential deleterious effects. Thus, it is important to examine in each individual case the benefit that can be expected from supplementation with whey protein, taking into account the usual protein dietary intake.

  4. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  5. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  6. Effect of yoghurt serum powder dietary supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of serum are produced during the strained yoghurt manufacturing process, which is the predominant type of yoghurt in Greece. However, the exploitation of this by-product as an alternative source of energy, protein and mineral elements in animal diets has not yet been examined. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary yoghurt serum supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in sheep. Fourty eight male 2 months old lambs of Chios breed were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; control group was fed with a commercial basal diet, whereas the other two groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that concentrated feed was uniformly supplemented with two levels of yoghurt serum powder (YS1: 25 g/kg feed or YS2: 50 g/kg feed. Lambs were weighed in a weekly basis from the beginning until the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected to measure antioxidant status. No significant effect of yoghurt serum powder on growth performance of fattening lambs was demonstrated, even after 28 days of dietary supplementation (P>0.05. At the same time, malondialdehyde (MDA levels in blood plasma were not significantly different among the experimental groups (P>0.05 and no incidents of lambs with diarrhea were recorded. It can be concluded that yoghurt serum powder appears as a promising alternative of the cereals in the diets of fattening lambs, since no negative effects on growth performance and health status were observed.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese medicinal herbs on polymorphonuclear neutrophil immune activity and small intestinal morphology in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Lee, T T; Shih, Y C; Yu, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-01-01

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber

  9. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  11. [Acute poisoning with weight-loss dietary supplement falsely suggesting the use of amphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Tezyk, Artur; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of abuse of weight-loss dietary supplement in 27-year-old man, with characteristic for amphetamine sympathomimetic symptoms and positive analysis of this drug in the urine by immunoassay method (FPIA; Axsym, Abbott). However positive result was not confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The patient ate nine tablets of the Thermal Pro with declared composition of caffeine (250 mg), bitter orange (200 mg), beta-phenylethylamine (100 mg), willow bark (75 mg), Cayenne pepper (40 mg), 1,3-dimethyloamyloamine (DMAA, 35 mg), gooseberry extract (20 mg), bergamot orange (20 mg), black pepper (5 mg), after two-month period of regular consumption at dose of 2-3 capsules per day. After 4 hours, during admission to the Department of Toxicology, patient manifested typical sympathomimetic symptoms: anxiety, agitation, pale skin, sweats, tachycardia 120/min, mydriasis. Following the outcome of detecting amphetamine/methamphetamine in the patient's urine at 2377 ng/mL concentration using FPIA method, drug intoxication was suspected. It was considered that the ingestion was intentional or unconscious of adulterated dietary supplement. In view of the strong opposition of the patient, who denied any use of psychoactive substances, it was decided to re-examine collected speciments. The liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method did not confirm the presence of amphetamine in the patient's blood and urine. Based on the composition of dietary supplements for substances which could be responsible for the positive amphetamine result in urine by FPIA method and available literature data, it was concluded that the substances that may react in the immunoassay could be dimethylamyloamine (DMAA, geranamine) or bitter orange components. False positive urinalysis towards amphetamine/methamphetamine by immunoassay and presence of sympathomimetic effects may contribute to a false diagnosis of this drug

  12. Effect of dietary selenium yeast supplementation on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the protective role of dietary selenium (Se yeast supplementation in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infected mice. Forty-eight Kun Ming female mice were randomly assigned to Se yeast group (0.3%Se +basal diet, n = 24 and control group (basal diet, n = 24. After 3 days of adaptive feeding and 15 days treatment with the experimental feed, mice were challenged by intraperitioneal injection of PCV2 at the dosage of 2000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infection dose, TCID50. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β levels were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20 days post infection (dpi. The PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung, and the microscopic lesions in the liver, spleen and lung also were determined on 5, 10, 15, and 20 dpi. Dietary Se yeast supplementation decreased (Pμ0.05 the serum levels of TNF-α, but had no significant effect on the activity of SOD and the levels of MDA, CRP and IL-1β between experimental and control groups. Dietary Se yeast supplementation had little effect on the PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung. However, mice in the selenium yeast group showed a significant decrease in microscopic lesion scores in the lung and spleen compared with those in the control group (Pμ0.05. These data indicate Se yeast attenuated the PCV2 infection through altering the systemic inflammation and maintaining the normal organ morphology.

  13. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustrat Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group or olive oil (placebo group for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95. A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62% and active (65% group (p = 0.52. The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91. Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497

  14. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  15. Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Crane, N T; Wilson, D B; Yetley, E A

    1999-08-01

    There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated food fortification program and to correct folate intakes for the apparently higher bioavailability of synthetic folic acid (SFA; ie, folate added to foods or from dietary supplements) than of naturally occurring folate so as to express intakes as dietary folate equivalents. It was not possible to chemically analyze foods, so adjustments were made to food-composition data by using information about food ingredients and characteristics. Total folate intakes were estimated for several sex and age groups by using the modified data coupled with dietary supplement use. Within the limitations of the data, our findings suggested that 67-95% of the population met or surpassed the new estimated average requirement, depending on the sex and age group and survey. Nonetheless, some subgroups had estimated intakes below these standards. Estimated SFA intakes suggested that approximately 15-25% of children aged 1-8 y, depending on the survey, had intakes above the newly established tolerable upper intake level. We estimated that 68-87% of females of childbearing age had SFA intakes below the recommended intake of 400 microgram/d, depending on the age group and survey. There is a need to explore ways to improve folate intakes in targeted subgroups, including females of childbearing age, while not putting other population groups at risk of excessive intakes.

  16. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal with a dietary supplement, Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Edward W; Babu, Kavita M; Macalino, Grace E; Compton, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    We examined the use of Kratom (Mitragyna sp.), a dietary supplement with mu-opioid agonist activity, by members of a cybercommunity who self-treat chronic pain with opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Within one year, an increase in the number of mentions on Drugbuyers.com, a Web site that facilitates the online purchase of opioid analgesics, suggested that members began managing opioid withdrawal with Kratom. This study demonstrates the rapidity with which information on psychoactive substances disseminates through online communities and suggests that online surveillance may be important to the generation of effective opioid analgesic abuse prevention strategies.

  17. Dietary Supplementation at Home Improves the Regain of Lean Body Mass After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hessov, Ib

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about nutritional intake after discharge though it takes months to regain preoperative weight after gastrointestinal surgery. We studied whether a 4-mo intervention with dietary advice and protein-rich supplements would increase nutritional intake and gain in lean body mass (LBM...... with the intake of the general population that did not increase further. During the 4 m, the intervention patients had an increased intake of protein (+22%) and energy (+16%), and an enhanced gain of LBM after 2 mo (control 0.8 kg versus intervention 2.1 kg; P = 0.009). After the 4-mo intervention, both LBM...

  18. Isolation and structural identification of a novel minoxidil analogue in an illegal dietary supplement: triaminodil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2018-01-01

    A new minoxidil analogue was detected in an illegal dietary supplement advertised as a hair-growth treatment. The analogue was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound was structurally elucidated as a minoxidil analogue in which the piperidinyl group of minoxidil was replaced with a pyrrolidinyl group corresponding to a molecular formula of C 8 H 13 N 5 O. The new analogue has been named triaminodil. As this is the first report of the compound, there are no chemical, toxicology or pharmacological data available.

  19. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p alkaline phosphatase (p effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  20. Effects of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia and serum proteins of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, J I; Okeke, M C; Ngene, A A; Omeje, J N; Abonyi, F O

    2013-10-01

    Trypanosomosis has been associated with immunosuppression, anemia and oxidative damage while selenium possesses both immunostimulatory and antioxidative effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia, survival pattern and serum protein profiles of trypanosome-infected rats. Twenty five rats, divided into five groups (A-E) of 5 each, were treated as follows: 4, 8 and 16 ppm (ppm) of selenium in their feed, respectively throughout the experimental period and were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei on day 14 post supplementation, infected not supplemented and the negative control. Supplementation at 4 and 8 ppm increased the packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on day 7 of supplementation (PS) when compared with the unsupplemented groups. Following infection on day 14 PS, the PCV, Hb of 16 ppm and infected not supplemented groups were significantly (P Supplementation did not lead to significant (P > 0.05) changes on the total protein, albumin and globulin by day 14 PS. Infection, however, caused significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the total protein and albumin from day 28. The supplementation did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase the pre-patent period but caused a significant reduction in the parasitemia levels and increased survival intervals. Dietary selenium supplementation, from the results, may show promise in the management of African trypanosomosis as the supplementation was able to: reduce anemia and parasitemia and increase survival intervals of trypanosome infected rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Whether the advertisement of dietary supplements is objective source of data about their impact on health? Analysis of broadcasting advertisements in the terms of the food law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are intensively advertised in the media. Due to their form analogous to drugs many people don't notice differences between them, although it is fundamental. The dietary supplement, as the category of food don't have medicinal properties and suggesting such properties by producers is forbidden. The aim of this study was analysis of advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the media in accordance with the law requirements, especially with the conditions of nutrition and health claims established in 2012. Advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the period of one week (17-23 of September 2014 r.) into 5 radio and television channels. In the analysed period commercials of 27 assortments of the dietary supplement were being transmitted. Advertisements of 23 of them declared improvement the action of organs or concentration of biochemical indicators in the body. The strength of declarations about the benefits of action of dietary supplements was diversified, from expressions such as "support" to "treat" and "prevent". In some advertisements the authority of medical profession was being used. Moreover many advertisements emphasized the unique and comprehensive active ingredients of dietary supplement on the market. Advertisements of dietary supplements promise beneficial effect to the human body. In spite of more and more detailed legal requirements many of them are going beyond conditions established for food. It can cause incorrect opinion about the role of dietary supplements in curing medical disorders.

  2. Effects of dietary nucleotides supplementation on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance and acute stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi-Kohyani, Ahmad; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Nematollahi, Amin; Mahmoudi, Nemat; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2012-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary nucleotides (NT) on fish performance and acute stress response on fingerling rainbow trout (23 g ± 0.01, mean weight ± SEM). Five experimental diets according to different levels of supplemented nucleotides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) were assayed on experimental fish for 8 weeks. Growth, hematological parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil count), serum proteins (globulin, albumin), and plasma enzymatic activity (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; aspartate transaminase, AST; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; alanine transaminase, ALT) were assayed. At the end of feeding trial, fish fed the control and 0.2% diets were subjected to handling and crowding stress. Modulatory effects of nucleotides on acute stress response (cortisol and glucose) and plasma electrolytes (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), and Ca(2+)) were studied. The percentage of body weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish were better when the fish were fed 0.15-0.2% diets. Fish fed the nucleotide-supplemented diets tended to have lower levels of serum enzymes including ALP, AST, LDH, and ALT. Plasma cortisol levels of fish fed on 0.2% diet under handling and crowding stress were significantly lower than fish fed the control diet at all post-stress time intervals. In our study, fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet had significantly lower concentrations of glucose compared to those fed the basal diet. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium of fish fed the control diet were significantly lower than in fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet. Dietary nucleotides administration seems to promote growth and to enhance resistance against handling and crowding stress in fingerling rainbow trout.

  3. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. A secondary aim was to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Participants (N = 189; 77% female; 92% White; age, M = 58 years, SD = 14 years) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to a placebo or a supplement of 16 g total dietary fiber per day from 1 of 3 sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and 2 segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. The odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2-2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared with baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Participants with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated.

  4. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of Supplemental Dietary Fat and Processed Barley Grain on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A Alijoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on performance of lactating dairy cows were studied in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Eight Holstein cows with mean body weight (BW of 572 ± 71 kg and 45 ± 10 days in milk were allocated to 4 dietary treatments including 1 ground barley with cottonseed 2 pelleted barley with cottonseed 3 ground barley with canola seed 4 pelleted barley with canola seed. The nitrogen intake and fecal N were higher in cows fed ground barley in comparison with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat or barley processing had no effect on milk fat and milk protein contents. Milk SNF yield was higher in cows fed canola as supplemental fat source and ground barley (P < 0.05. Milk yield was affected by method of barley grain processing and was 0.64 to 1.9 kg/d higher in cows fed ground barley compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04. Plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood urea nitrogen were similar in all treatments. Dry matter intake was affected by barley grain processing. The cows fed ground barley consuming 1.15 to 2.18 kg/d more DM compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04.Total tract digestibilities of DM, crude fat, ADF, NDF and OM were not affected by the barley grain processing as well as source of oilseed. The results indicated that interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat can improve the performance of lactating dairy cows, However, more detailed studies are required

  6. European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Immune Status and Disease Resistance Are Impaired by Arginine Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Rita; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Fouz, Belén; Tort, Lluis; Aragão, Cláudia; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases and fish feeds management are probably the major expenses in the aquaculture business. Hence, it is a priority to define sustainable strategies which simultaneously avoid therapeutic procedures and reinforce fish immunity. Currently, one preferred approach is the use of immunostimulants which can be supplemented to the fish diets. Arginine is a versatile amino acid with important mechanisms closely related to the immune response. Aiming at finding out how arginine affects the innate immune status or improve disease resistance of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against vibriosis, fish were fed two arginine-supplemented diets (1% and 2% arginine supplementation). A third diet meeting arginine requirement level for seabass served as control diet. Following 15 or 29 days of feeding, fish were sampled for blood, spleen and gut to assess cell-mediated immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. At the same time, fish from each dietary group were challenged against Vibrio anguillarum and survival was monitored. Cell-mediated immune parameters such as the extracellular superoxide and nitric oxide decreased in fish fed arginine-supplemented diets. Interleukins and immune-cell marker transcripts were down-regulated by the highest supplementation level. Disease resistance data were in accordance with a generally depressed immune status, with increased susceptibility to vibriosis in fish fed arginine supplemented diets. Altogether, these results suggest a general inhibitory effect of arginine on the immune defences and disease resistance of European seabass. Still, further research will certainly clarify arginine immunomodulation pathways thereby allowing the validation of its potential as a prophylactic strategy.

  7. Cutaneous reactive hyperaemia is unaltered by dietary nitrate supplementation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brett J; Keen, Jeremy T; Levitt, Erica L

    2017-10-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous reactive hyperaemia. Seven participants were tested pre- and postnitrate supplementation (25 ml beetroot juice); participants consumed one shot per day for 3 days. Participants were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres: control (Ringer's solution) and NO synthase inhibition (20 mM L-NAME). Skin blood flow was measured via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). A blood pressure cuff was placed on the experimental arm and inflated to 250 mmHg for 5 mins to occlude arterial inflow. The cuff was released, and the resultant reactive hyperaemia was measured. Blood pressure was continuously measured via plethysmography from a finger on the non-experimental arm. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated (LDF/MAP) and normalized to maximal vasodilatation (%CVC max ). Only diastolic blood pressure was reduced following nitrate supplementation (71 ± 2 vs. 66 ± 1 mmHg; Peffect of nitrate supplementation on peak reactive hyperaemia at control (Pre: 52 ± 3 vs. Post: 57 ± 2%CVC max ) or L-NAME (Pre: 52 ± 2 vs. Post: 59 ± 4%CVC max ) sites. There was no effect of nitrate supplementation on total reactive hyperaemia at either control (Pre: 4197 ± 943 vs. Post: 4523 ± 1040%CVC max * sec) or L-NAME (Pre: 5108 ± 997 vs. Post: 5694 ± 1002%CVC max * sec) sites. These data suggest cutaneous reactive hyperaemia is unaffected by dietary nitrate supplementation in healthy humans. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  9. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  10. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2013-01-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO2−) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O2 cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO3− supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO3− supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (3–6 months) were administered either NO3− (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg−1 day−1, BR n= 8) or untreated (control, n= 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min−1, 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and blood [lactate] (control: 2.6 ± 0.3, BR: 1.9 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) compared to control. Total exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min−1 (100 g)−1, P < 0.05) and vascular conductance (control: 0.78 ± 0.05, BR: 1.16 ± 0.10 ml min−1 (100 g)−1 mmHg−1, P < 0.05) were greater in rats that received BR compared to control. The relative differences in blood flow and vascular conductance for the 28 individual hindlimb muscles and muscle parts correlated positively with their percentage type IIb + d/x muscle fibres (blood flow: r= 0.74, vascular conductance: r= 0.71, P < 0.01 for both). These data support the hypothesis that NO3− supplementation improves vascular control and elevates skeletal muscle O2 delivery during exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO3− supplementation improves metabolic control. PMID:23070702

  11. Effects of dietary Gracilaria sp. and Alaria sp. supplementation on growth performance, metabolic rates and health in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to pathogen infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria João; Salas-Leitón, Emílio; Brito, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Effects of dietary seaweed supplementation on basal physiology and health biomarkers were assessed in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to bacterial infection, using Photobacterium damselae subsp. Piscicida (Phdp) as the etiologic agent. Three test diets were prepared by supplementing a basal...

  12. Association between general self-efficacy level and use of dietary supplements in the group of American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increased nutritional demands of athletes should be covered with a variable well-balanced diet, supported by dietary supplements stimulating synthesis of energy, development of muscle mass and strength, and improving physical capacity. The aim of this study was to analyze an association between the level of general self-efficacy and dietary supplement use among Polish athletes practicing American football on a competitive basis. The study included the group of 100 athletes (20-30 years of age, mean 24.27±2.76 years) who practiced American football on a competitive basis. The popularity of various dietary supplements was determined with an original survey, and the level of general self-efficacy with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) by Schwarzer et al. Statistical analysis, conducted with Statistica 10.0 PL software, included intergroup comparisons with the Chi-square test. Isotonic drinks (74%), vitamin (65%) and mineral supplements (50%) and protein concentrates (53%) turned out to be the most popular ergogenic supplements among the American footballers. The group of less popular supplements included caffeine and/or guarana (44%), joint supporting supplements (40%), BCAA amino acids (39%), creatine (36%), carbohydrate concentrates (30%) and omega-3 fatty acids (30%). Analysis of a relationship between the popularity of ergogenic supplements and general self-efficacy showed that the athletes presenting with lower levels of this trait used multivitamin supplements significantly more often than did the persons characterized by lower self-efficacy levels (p<0.05). The popularity of some dietary supplements varied depending on the general self-efficacy level of the athletes; the popularity of vitamins was significantly higher among the sportsmen who presented with lower levels of this trait.

  13. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability.

  14. Omega-3 Supplementation as a Dietary Intervention to Reduce Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Olivia; Raine, Adrian

    2018-04-05

    Although there is an increasing body of literature on the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggressive/antisocial behavior, evidence to date suggests that there are mixed findings on the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation as a dietary intervention to reduce such behaviors. This article describes the current state of the research regarding omega-3 supplementation and aggressive/antisocial behavior from intervention studies, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials. The current evidence base indicates a small effect size (approximately d = .20) for the efficacy of increased omega-3 intake in reducing aggressive and antisocial behavior in children and adults. How precisely omega-3 supplementation results in such behavioral improvement is an open question, although upregulation of dysfunctional prefrontal regions is one candidate mediator. Directions for further research include understanding the more basic mechanisms that may underlie any intervention effects, delineating dose-response relationships, ascertaining optimal treatment duration and composition, conducting follow-ups post-treatment, and testing the provisional hypothesis that more impulsive, reactive forms of aggression may be particularly amenable to omega-3 supplementation.

  15. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  17. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  18. Dietary supplements for treating osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Machado, Gustavo C; Eyles, Jillian P; Ravi, Varshini; Hunter, David J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for patients with osteoarthritis. An intervention systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched from inception to April 2017. Randomised controlled trials comparing oral supplements with placebo for hand, hip or knee osteoarthritis. Of 20 supplements investigated in 69 eligible studies, 7 (collagen hydrolysate, passion fruit peel extract, Curcuma longa extract, Boswellia serrata extract, curcumin, pycnogenol and L-carnitine) demonstrated large (effect size >0.80) and clinically important effects for pain reduction at short term. Another six (undenatured type II collagen, avocado soybean unsaponifiables, methylsulfonylmethane, diacerein, glucosamine and chondroitin) revealed statistically significant improvements on pain, but were of unclear clinical importance. Only green-lipped mussel extract and undenatured type II collagen had clinically important effects on pain at medium term. No supplements were identified with clinically important effects on pain reduction at long term. Similar results were found for physical function. Chondroitin demonstrated statistically significant, but not clinically important structural improvement (effect size -0.30, -0.42 to -0.17). There were no differences between supplements and placebo for safety outcomes, except for diacerein. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation suggested a wide range of quality evidence from very low to high. The overall analysis including all trials showed that supplements provided moderate and clinically meaningful treatment effects on pain and function in patients with hand, hip or knee osteoarthritis at short term, although the quality of evidence was very low. Some supplements with a limited number of studies and

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  20. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement and medication adherence in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.

  1. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  2. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  3. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Dietary Supplementation Induces Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Walters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have anti-inflammatory effects at low concentrations; however increased dietary consumption may conversely increase susceptibility to oxidation by free radicals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PUFAs on selective oxidative injury and inflammatory biomarkers in canine urine and serum. Dogs (n=54 consumed a diet supplemented with 0.5% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, or 200 mg/kg docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid for 21 days. All dogs exhibited significantly increased plasma PUFA concentrations. All dogs had significant elevations in urinary F2a isoprostane concentration, though dogs consuming a diet containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter had the highest increase (P=.0052. Reduced glutathione concentrations within erythrocytes decreased significantly in all three dietary treatment groups (P=.0108. Treatment with diets containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter resulted in the greatest increase in oxidant injury. Caution should be exercised when supplementing PUFAs as some types may increase oxidation.

  4. Dietary supplements based on selenium containing culture of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tregub

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of selenium in the humankind being. The analysis based on the published data shows that the biological synthesis is a perspective way to obtain an organic form of selenium, which can be used in dietary supplements. The ability of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus 412/307to accumulate inorganic forms of selenium (selenites, selenates, turning them into organic forms, with purposeful trace element enrichment of culture medium is described in the article. The main organic forms of selenium, which are being used in the process of biotransformation from its inorganic forms by microorganisms, have been reorganized. The relationship between the increasing of concentrations of sodium selenite in the culture medium and the growth of biomass of lactic acid bacteria was established. It was found the depressing effect of increasing concentrations of sodium selenite on optical density rate. It was estabilished the optimal conditions for the maximum accumulation of selenium containing culture of lactic acid bacteria. The influence of selenium concentration on the lactic acid bacteria biomass accumulation was determined also by changing the values of optical density. Due to the obtained data, the selenium containing dietary supplement «Selenolakt» was created. The main microbiological indicators that characterize the quality of the obtained product are given. The content of organic form of selenium in products reaches –195 ± 1 mkg/g.

  5. Study of dietary supplements compositions by neutron activation analysis at the VR-1 training reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Rataj, Jan; Huml, Ondrej; Sklenka, Lubomir

    2017-11-01

    The VR-1 training reactor operated by the Czech Technical University in Prague is utilized mainly for education of students and training of various reactor staff; however, R&D is also carried out at the reactor. The experimental instrumentation of the reactor can be used for the irradiation experiments and neutron activation analysis. In this paper, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is used for a study of dietary supplements containing the zinc (one of the essential trace elements for the human body). This analysis includes the dietary supplement pills of different brands; each brand is represented by several different batches of pills. All pills were irradiated together with the standard activation etalons in the vertical channel of the VR-1 reactor at the nominal power (80 W). Activated samples were investigated by the nuclear gamma-ray spectrometry technique employing the semiconductor HPGe detector. From resulting saturated activities, the amount of mineral element (Zn) in the pills was determined using the comparative NAA method. The results show clearly that the VR-1 training reactor is utilizable for neutron activation analysis experiments.

  6. The Role of Glucose Modulation and Dietary Supplementation in Patients With Central Nervous System Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Grossman, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    Central nervous system gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, and these are most often high-grade gliomas. Standard therapy includes a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy which provides a modest increase in survival, but virtually, no patients are cured, the overall prognosis remains poor, and new therapies are desperately needed. Tumor metabolism is a well-recognized but understudied therapeutic approach to treating cancers. Dietary and nondietary modulation of glucose homeostasis and the incorporation of dietary supplements and other natural substances are potentially important interventions to affect cancer cell growth, palliate symptoms, reduce treatment-associated side effects, and improve the quality and quantity of life in patients with cancer. These approaches are highly desired by patients. However, they can be financially burdensome, associated with toxicities, and have, on occasion, reduced the efficacy of proven therapies and negatively impacted patient outcomes. The lack of rigorous scientific data evaluating almost all diet and supplement-based therapies currently limits their incorporation into standard oncologic practice. Rigorous studies are needed to document and improve these potentially useful approaches in patients with brain and other malignancies.

  7. Prevention of erosive/abrasive enamel wear due to orange juice modified with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Fj; Günthart, N; Sener, B; Attin, T

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive/abrasive enamel wear after contact with orange juices modified with different dietary supplements. A total of 96 bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to eight groups (1-8; n = 12). Samples were eroded (120 s) in 200 ml of the following eight solutions: 1: water (control), 2: orange juice, 3: water + calcium effervescent tablet, 4: orange juice + calcium effervescent tablet, 5: water + 0.75 g acid/base regulating powder (Probase), 6: water + 0.375 g Probase, 7: orange juice + 0.75 g Probase and 8: orange juice + 0.375 g Probase. After erosion, the samples were brushed with 40 brushing strokes (load 2.5 N). Enamel wear was measured using surface profilometry after 20 and 40 cycles of erosion/abrasion respectively. Highest mean enamel wear (± SD) after 20 and 40 cycles of erosion/abrasion was observed for the unmodified orange juice (group 2) (0.605 ± 0.240 μm; 1.375 ± 0.496 μm respectively). The enamel wear in all other groups (3-8) was significantly lower (P abrasive enamel wear induces by orange juice and tooth brushing could be reduced significantly by modification with free available dietary supplements. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The Search for Dietary