WorldWideScience

Sample records for boston area community

  1. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  2. 75 FR 52023 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ..., at 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at the Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room, Boston, MA. The..., at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room, Boston, MA. FOR FURTHER... Council was appointed by the Director of National Park Service pursuant to Public Law 104-333. The...

  3. Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevale...

  4. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... of six cranes from the barge CHICAGO BRIDGE to Conley Terminal in South Boston. This rule is intended... entry into the Reserved Channel and control the speed of all vessels transiting within the RNA. The RNA... while the barge CHICAGO BRIDGE conducts crane offload operations at Conley Terminal, Berth 12, for...

  5. 76 FR 36311 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR 20595). We... race area: All waters of Boston Harbor near Boston, MA, surface to bottom, encompassed by an area... participating in the Extreme Sailing Series event from entering the designated race area. DATES: This rule...

  6. Boston's Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaff, A L

    1991-01-01

    The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion is a program designed to promote changes in individual behavior and community relationships to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the many problems affecting poor, minority communities in the United States. Problems of particular concern to be addressed by the program include violence, injuries, substance abuse, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infant mortality, child abuse and neglect, and cardiovascular d...

  7. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. PMID:26914093

  8. Boston in the 1970s: is there a lesbian community? And if there is, who is in it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This excerpt from Amy Hoffman's memoir, An Army of Ex-Lovers: My Life at the Gay Community News (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007), describes some of the alternative community institutions serving lesbian feminists in Boston in the late 1970s. Hoffman, in her twenties at the time and fairly newly out, is an enthusiastic patron of these institutions. However, after a while, she begins to wonder about them. Boston in the 1970s was racially segregated and tense; a judicial order to desegregate the schools led to racist riots. The women's community was, sadly, no more diverse than the city's neighborhoods, and the alternative institutions, Hoffman realizes, are organized by and cater mostly to young, white, middle-class women like her. They fail to appeal to the needs and interests of poor women of color-although of course some do participate, and others become active in service organizations such as battered women's shelters. PMID:24641074

  9. Awareness and use of hepatitis B vaccine among homosexual male clients of a Boston community health center.

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, J; Hill, E. M.; Mayer, K H

    1990-01-01

    Factors associated with awareness and acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine were identified among 150 homosexual male clients of a Boston community health center. Five percent of the subjects were unaware of hepatitis B and 25 percent had a history of hepatitis. Among the remaining 106 men, 68 percent were aware of the vaccine, and 25 percent of these had been vaccinated. Awareness of vaccine was associated with education beyond the baccalaureate level. Factors associated with vaccination include...

  10. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  11. School- and Classroom-Based Supports for Children Following the 2013 Boston Marathon Attack and Manhunt

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Holt, Melissa K.; Kwong, Lana; Reid, Gerald; Xuan, Ziming; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    School staff provide key mental health services following mass crisis events and teachers, in particular, can provide important supports within their classrooms. This study examines Boston-area teachers’ perception of classroom-wide psychiatric distress and the types of supports that schools and teachers provided following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. Boston-area K-12 teachers (N = 147) in communities with varying levels of exposure to the bombing and manhunt compl...

  12. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ...; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of the Port Zone, MA'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 16370). We received...), (m)(2); 33 U.S.C. 1509(a); E.O. 12777, sec. 2; E.O. 13286, sec. 34, 68 FR 10619; Department of.... * * * * * Dated: August 10, 2010. D.A. Neptun, Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, Commander, First Coast...

  13. Supporting Families and Developing Parent Advocates and Leaders among the Immigrant Chinese Community in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, many resources are spent on programs to ameliorate poor educational and economic outcomes for our children and families, in particular for urban and immigrant families. Programs like the federally funded Head Start, Community Development Block Grants, and thousands of nonprofits across the nation provide out-of-school-time academic and…

  14. 76 FR 53941 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Advisory Council will be held on Wednesday, September 14, 2011, at 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at Independence Wharf.... DATES: September 14, 2011, at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room... INFORMATION: The Advisory Council was appointed by the Director of National Park Service pursuant to...

  15. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  16. Boston, Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Boston, MA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given. The City of Boston and its Solar America Cities program, Solar Boston, are helping to debunk the myth that solar energy is only feasible in the southern latitudes. Boston has some of the highest energy prices in the country and will likely be one of the first locations where solar power achieves grid parity with conventional energy technologies. Solar Boston is facilitating the rapid development of solar energy projects and infrastructure in the short-term, and is preparing for the rapid market growth that is expected with the imminent arrival of grid parity over the long-term. Solar Boston developed the strategy for achieving Mayor Menino's goal of installing 25 MW of solar energy throughout Boston by 2015. Through Solar Boston, the city has developed a strategy for the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including mapping feasible locations, preparing a permitting guide, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city has also worked with local organizations to maximize Boston's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. The resulting accomplishments include the following: (1) Created an online map of current local renewable energy projects with a tool to allow building owners to calculate their rooftop solar potential. The map is currently live at http://gis.cityofboston.gov/solarboston/. (2) Supported the city's Green Affordable Housing Program (GAHP), in partnership with the Department of Neighborhood Development (DND). Under GAHP, the city is installing more than 150 kW of PV on 200 units of affordable housing. DND requires that all new city-funded affordable housing be LEED silver

  17. CHED Events: Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    These CHED committee meetings are planned for the Fall 2007 ACS Meeting in Boston. They will take place in the Seaport District: the Boston Convention and Exposition Center (BCEC), the Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel, or the Seaport Hotel. CHED members are invited to attend these open meetings. When you are on your way to a committee meeting, it is always prudent to check in the lobby or foyer for the inevitable last-minute room changes that may be posted there.

  18. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  19. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  20. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  1. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  2. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  3. High levels of concomitant behavioral health disorders among patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3% were men who have sex with men, and 40.0% had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4%), anxiety (21.9%), attention deficit disorder (7.8%), p...

  4. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  5. Racial Segregation and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chungmei

    2004-01-01

    Boston’s disastrous failure to achieve peaceful desegregation of its schools three decades ago, particularly the mob violence at South Boston High School, and the transition of the Boston schools to overwhelmingly white enrollment, are commonly seen as areas why the region need not think about patterns of school segregation--nothing can be done about it. This thinking ignores the better experiences of many other cities and also the METCO program that is intact and still in high demand. ...

  6. Banco de Reserva Federal Boston - Massachusetts - EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbing, Hugh

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its being located in a heavily built-up downtown area of Boston, the new Federal Reserve Bank Building enjoys privileged surroundings, in the middle of ponds and landscaped areas with trees, etc. It was designed taking the maximum advantage of the particular conditions of the property, while reinforcing and increasing prestige attributes of this part of the city, called for, in the urban development plans, to be the centre of community and business activities. The project includes an office tower overlooking the harbour and a low building containing ail public banking functions. The design was based on specific research of the different aspects of banking activities, from the most minute details of furniture and fixtures, through the fenestration work, up to the highly sophisticated security systems.

    Pese a estar situado en un área céntrica de Boston, en una zona densamente urbanizada, el nuevo edificio del Banco Federal goza de un entorno privilegiado, circundado por estanques y jardines con árboles. Su arquitectura procura sacar partido de las particulares características de la parcela, fortaleciendo y elevando la categoría de esa parte de ciudad a la que los planes urbanísticos asignan el papel de centro de actividades comunitarias y comerciales. La construcción cuenta con una torre de oficinas, con amplias vistas sobre el puerto, y un bloque bajo dedicado a actividades bancarias públicas. Para su realización se utilizaron los resultados de investigaciones específicas sobre los diversos aspectos de la actividad bancaria, comprendiendo desde los más pequeños detalles del mobiliario y de la carpintería exterior, hasta los más modernos y complejos sistemas de seguridad.

  7. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  8. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  9. Structure of an Anuran community in a Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Richter Boix, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    [eng] The thesis research concerned evolutionary ecology and community ecology of amphibians in two different areas of a Mediterranean region. The goal of the research was to test how anuran species coexist along a lentic freshwater gradient from ephemeral to permanent ponds. The community structure across the gradient has been explained by different ecological models, based on different trade-offs and inherent properties of the species. To test the different models he used four-year field su...

  10. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ..., Table 21 Table 21 to Part 679—Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA Community Community Governing...

  11. 76 FR 20595 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public...-motorized vessels, except as may be permitted by the COTP Boston or the designated on-scene representative...-scene patrol and law enforcement vessels. (c) Effective Period: This regulation is effective from 1...

  12. High Levels of Concomitant Behavioral Health Disorders Among Patients Presenting for HIV Non-occupational Post-exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center Between 1997 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3 % were men who have sex with men, and 40.0 % had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4 %), anxiety (21.9 %), attention deficit disorder (7.8 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3 %), and psychotic disorders (3.3 %). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9 %) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4 %) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disorders (aOR = 4.86; 95 %CI:1.76-13.5) and substance use disorders (aOR = 1.89; 95 %CI:1.28-2.80). Substance use at the time of exposure was associated with: depression (aOR = 1.95; 95 %CI:1.36-2.80), anxiety (aOR = 2.22; 95 %CI:1.51-3.25), attention deficit disorder (aOR = 1.96; 95 %CI:1.18-3.27), and substance use disorder (aOR = 4.78; 95 %CI:3.30-6.93). Mental illness should be screened for and addressed at nPEP visits to optimize HIV risk-reduction. PMID:25689892

  13. Plant Community Traits of Shohada Protected Area, West Azerbijan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH; Lala MALK MOHAMADI

    2010-01-01

    Shohada Protected Area, consisting of Shohada Valley and it�s adjacent areas with an area of 577 hectares is located in south of Urmia, and is known as an important natural plant station of Urmia. It is studied with respect to the important factors which influence the vegetation cover in whole, particularly, with regard the composition and formation of plant communities. To study the area, Brown-Blanquet�s method was used. Plant samples were taken from 77 sample plots. The study resulted in r...

  14. Cloud Communities and Travel Diaries. Virtual Representations of Tourist Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Platania; Salvo Torre

    2014-01-01

    Collective construction of descriptions can radically change the image of an area. This uncontrollable process is destined to become one of the main priority research areas also in tourism studies. The spread of Web sites in which telling stories and descriptions of territories has become a significant element in the network society, and the growing use of social networks and cloud communities, often in planning tourism, contributes to social description of touristic landscapes and influence ...

  15. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community. PMID:25707419

  16. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  17. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  18. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM SOMESUL CALD CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Battes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.

  19. Plant Community Traits of Shohada Protected Area, West Azerbijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shohada Protected Area, consisting of Shohada Valley and it�s adjacent areas with an area of 577 hectares is located in south of Urmia, and is known as an important natural plant station of Urmia. It is studied with respect to the important factors which influence the vegetation cover in whole, particularly, with regard the composition and formation of plant communities. To study the area, Brown-Blanquet�s method was used. Plant samples were taken from 77 sample plots. The study resulted in recognition of four herbaceous types and seven shrub types in the studied area. In addition, the investigation led to the fact that the most important factors which influence the vegetation cover, are: geographical orientation, altitude, gradient and soil texture. The study also resulted in preparation of a colored vegetation map with a scale of 1:20000.

  20. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raciti, Steve M., E-mail: Steve.M.Raciti@Hofstra.edu [Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Gittleson Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549 (United States); Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hutyra, Lucy R.; Newell, Jared D. [Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha{sup −1}), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha{sup −1}) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R{sup 2} = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R{sup 2} = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic

  1. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha−1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha−1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha−1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha−1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2 = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3

  2. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  3. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, R. W.; Marc T. Hockings; Joanna C. Axford

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs) in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes “success” is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way “outsiders” perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involveme...

  4. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described. PMID:11700659

  5. Center Plaza - Boston (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welton Becket, Associates, arquitectos

    1972-02-01

    Full Text Available This building is an interesting architectural experiment, wherein traditional and modern trends were combined, to be in harmony with the Boston city style. Building materials were also skillfully used. This commercial building was built in three stages, and because of its 270 m length may be regarded as one of the longest In the country. The two large through entrances, for pedestrians, are also a particular feature of the design.Constituye este edificio una interesante experiencia arquitectónica, en la que se combinaron las tendencias tradicionales y contemporáneas de la ciudad de Boston y donde se ha acertado en la elección de los materiales empleados en su construcción. Proyectado como edificio comercial y construido en tres fases, puede considerarse, con sus 270 m de longitud, como uno de los más largos del país. Caben destacarse, también, sus dos grandes porches para tránsito de peatones, que facilitan las entradas al edificio.

  6. The Rebirth of Education in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1980-01-01

    In 1974, the federal court in Boston ordered busing and a massive effort to accelerate the pace of academic progress in the Boston schools. Included in the order was the creation of twenty-two magnet schools and an unprecedented level of parent participation with the vehicles to make it possible. (JOW)

  7. The air quality impacts of road closures associated with the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clougherty Jane E

    2006-05-01

    measurable influence of DNC-related road closures on air quality patterns in the Boston area, and that a low-cost monitoring study combining passive badges for spatial heterogeneity and continuous monitors for temporal heterogeneity can provide useful insight for community air quality assessments.

  8. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  9. Cloud Communities and Travel Diaries. Virtual Representations of Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Platania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective construction of descriptions can radically change the image of an area. This uncontrollable process is destined to become one of the main priority research areas also in tourism studies. The spread of Web sites in which telling stories and descriptions of territories has become a significant element in the network society, and the growing use of social networks and cloud communities, often in planning tourism, contributes to social description of touristic landscapes and influence the collective imaginary. In social space, territories are the result of the superposition of different layers, from the real one to the virtual, bound to a constant exchange of information. This phenomenon that could guide tourist attraction, begins to affect the choices of local institutions and residents.The aim of the paper is to give an interpretation on the construction of collective representation, which takes place, after the journey, through the on-line publication of a diary. The research is divided into two parts. In the first, we explain some theoretical aspects related to the representation of the travel, the sharing of information in virtual form and the construction of an imaginary touristic. Subsequently, are taken into account the results obtained in previous studies related to the analysis of the narratives of tourism experiences, shared within virtual spaces freely accessible on the net. These results will be used to develop a model of interpretation on the virtual representation of tourist areas.

  10. Infectious keratitis in patients undergoing Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro procedure: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Moraes do Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of two cases of infectious keratitis in patients after Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro implantation. The first case refers to a patient that had the device indicated due to limbal deficiency secondary to severe dry eye who presented a fungal infection by Aerobasidium pullulans that was successfully treated with amphotericin B eye drops. The second case reports a patient with Boston KPro implantation due to previous corneal transplant rejection showing bacterial keratitis in the fourth postoperative month. The etiologic agent was identified asStreptococcus sp and topical treatment with vancomycin was effective. The importance of postoperative surveillance in Boston KPro eyes is discussed.

  11. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  12. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people’s territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  13. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  14. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R W. (Bill. Carter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes “success” is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way “outsiders” perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involvement; and sustainability. Multivariate analysis distinguished two groups, a Big picture group and a Locally focused group. These differ in how they define success, as well as their organizational alignment. The Big picture group, largely from funder agencies and international NGOs, were focused on the broad issues of success, especially the sustainability of CCAs. The Locally focused group was concerned with the practical workings and needs of successful CCAs in the Pacific; many in this group were based with Pacific island governments and NGOs or CCAs. The study concludes that success in CCAs should not be defined solely on project objectives, especially when these have been developed by an external entity or under their guidance. If they are, high rates of failure are to be expected.

  15. Boston AF symposium moves to Orlando !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy MD, FACC, FHRS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the winter issue of 2013. Congratulations to Jeremy Ruskin MD and the organizing team on successfully concluding the 18th edition of Boston Atrial Fibrillation Symposium. Despite the beating cold weather the enthusiasm was unfettered from the participants as well as the speakers. The quality of the symposium was superb with live cases transmitted from MGH on the Lariat LAA ligation. It was good to see all the exciting stuff that the frontiers men in the field have been working on. As everyone agreed on the importance of accomplishing durable pulmonary vein isolation, there was significant debate on how to get there and therapeutic strategies for non-paroxysmal AF. Left atrial appendage related technology and the newer anticoagulants took the center stage. A special session on cardiovascular autonomics and its role in AF modulation was very informative. The three day premier event ended with an announcement to shift the venue down to Orlando, Florida starting next year. This was a bitter sweet moment for all of those who braved the Boston Winters for several years now. It has almost become a ritual for a lot of us to be in Boston every January against all odds. Boston we are going to miss you!

  16. Dewey in Boston: 1876-1883.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    Between 1876 and 1883, Melvil Dewey worked as a Boston entrepreneur promoting a variety of educational schemes that addressed the nation's library, metric, and spelling reform interests. During that time he started and lost one business and started another within weeks. In addition, he used his reform zeal to develop credibility with a number of…

  17. The Boston Rehabilitation Program, An Independent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Langley C., Jr.

    BURP, The Boston Rehabilitation Program, is described and analyzed in this monograph published by the Joint Center for Urban Studies. Its purpose is to provide an independent analysis of BURP as a political, economic, and social event. Examination is given to the nation's first effort to carry out large-scale residential rehabilitation in blighted…

  18. Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is one of the focuses of the research on ecotourism. The research on community participative model is of great theoretical and practical significance. Based on the former experts' studies, this paper analyzes ecotourism demonstration areas in Diqing Shangri-La of Yunnan as a case study. It mainly expounds the relationship between ecotourism and community participation and puts forward such a community participative model of ecotourism in Shangri-La.

  19. A community-based disability programme for rural areas / Lizél Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Lizél

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Heuningvlei community in the Kgalagadi District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province. This study was part of the "Tshwaragano Project" with the general aim of empowering the disadvantaged communities in rural areas. The aim of this research was to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based disability programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province. To achieve this aim, the following...

  20. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  1. SOUTHCOM Deputy engages NPS Foreign Area Officer community

    OpenAIRE

    Ammon, Grant P.

    2011-01-01

    Army Lt. Gen. P.K. Keen meets with a small group of NPS students before delivering a lecture at the Joint Foreign Area Officer Skill Sustainment Pilot Program (JFSSPP). Keen spoke for nearly an hour to more than 35 students participating in the in-residence course for Latin America Foreign Area Officers (FAO)

  2. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Northside Partnership "Healthy Community" Pilot Area Walkability Audit

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, David; Borscheid, Matthias; Reid, Odran; ni Lochlainn, Meadhbh

    2015-01-01

    Poor health has been identified as an issue for people who live in areas affected by structural disadvantage and social exclusion. One area in the North East of Dublin City has been identified for the development of a project addressing health inequality and promoting a “Healthy Community” by Northside Partnership, a local development company established in 1991 to address social exclusion. The Partnership has been assisted in the development of the programme by a wide range of statutory and ...

  4. Reliable Change on the Boston Naming Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Bonnie C.; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Pedraza, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Serial assessments are commonplace in neuropsychological practice and used to document cognitive trajectory for many clinical conditions. However, true change scores may be distorted by measurement error, repeated exposure to the assessment instrument, or person variables. The present study provides reliable change indices (RCI) for the Boston Naming Test, derived from a sample of 844 cognitively normal adults aged 56 years and older. All participants were retested between 9 and 24 months aft...

  5. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084

  6. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  7. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  8. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  9. Learning from disaster: Community-based marine protected areas in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines whether and how experiencing climate-related disasters can improve the rural poor fs adaptation to climate change through community-based resource management. Original household survey data in Fiji capture the unique sequence of a tropical cyclone and the establishment of community-based marine protected areas as a natural experiment. The analysis reveals that household disaster victimization increases its support for establishing marine protected areas for fut...

  10. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Velazquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302

  12. Amphibian and reptile communities in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI: relations between SCI area, heterogeneity and richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Canova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of amphibians and reptiles were observed in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI of the Lodi Province (NW Italy. Distribution and relative abundance of amphibians appeared more variable than reptiles. Some species of conservation concern as R. latastei were influenced by habitat physiognomy, i.e. the surface of wooded areas are important in predict presence and relative abundance of this species. SCI with wider surfaces and higher habitat heterogeneity included higher number of species. Species richness, here considered as a raw index of biodiversity value and community quality, was significantly related to SCI area and habitat heterogeneity; since this significant positive relation is confirmed both for amphibians and reptiles we suggest that, in planning of natural areas, priority must be retained for biotopes able to host the higher number of species.

  13. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  14. 33 CFR 165.120 - Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for the safe navigation of vessels. (2) All vessel(s) speed shall be kept to a minimum considering... Chelsea River channel is obstructed by vessel(s) moored at the Northeast Petroleum Terminal located... Oil Terminal located on the East Boston Side of the Chelsea River downstream of the Chelsea...

  15. Diurnal variation of phytoplankton community in a high frequency area of HABs: Daya Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Song, Xingyu; Huang, Liangmin; Zhong, Yu; Shen, Pingping; Qin, Geng

    2011-07-01

    Phytoplankton community was investigated in the cage culture area of Daya Bay during a diurnal cycle. Two rainfalls occurred during the course of the experiment and decreased the surface seawater salinity in the aquaculture area. A total of 38 species were identified, of which the dominant species included Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Skeletonema costatum. Water stratification obstructed the vertical migration of dinoflagellates. Statistical analysis indicated that Synechococcus showed negative relationship with silicate and ammonia, which indicated that Synechococcus adapted to grow at oligotrophic environment. Phytoplankton community structure implied the risk of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in the aquaculture area of Daya Bay.

  16. Resilient capacity assessment for geological failure areas: examples from communities affected by debris flow disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ting-Yeh

    2009-02-01

    This study establishes a novel method for assessing the community resilient capacity of debris flow disasters with appropriate parameters, such as responding, monitoring and communication capabilities. This study adopts eight communities in Taiwan, namely Nangang, Tongfu, Jhongyang, Laiyuan, Chingfu, Sinsheng, Shangan and Jyunkeng, as examples. First, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied to establish the framework of the community resiliency capacity, including the community’s resources for disaster resilience and resident capabilities. The community’s resources for disaster resilience are identified by surveying the community leaders via checklists. Resident capabilities are determined using questionnaires. The community resilient capacity refers to the sum of the results from these two investigations. The two investigations have similar weights, indicating that they are equally significant when evaluating community resilient capacity. Second, FLO-2D software is utilized for hazard analysis by simulation results of deposited areas for debris flows, and then these areas were categorized according to hazard degrees. Finally, the vulnerability of communities is classified based on the land use type. In summary, the values of capacity, hazard and vulnerability are integrated to determine the risk of debris flow for each community. A risk map is then generated.

  17. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Newell, Jared D

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355Gg (28.8MgCha(-1)) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7MgCha(-1)), but residential (32.8MgCha(-1)) and developed open (23.5MgCha(-1)) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R(2)=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R(2)=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances

  18. Mapping Carbon Storage in Urban Trees with Multi-source Remote Sensing Data: Relationships between Biomass, Land Use, and Demographics in Boston Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assess the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compare our results with lower resolution estimates, and explore the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha-1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha-1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha-1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha-1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances in

  19. Effects of Protected Areas on Forest Cover Change and Local Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Juan Jose; Corral, Leonardo; Blackman, Allen; Asner, Gregory; Lima, Eirivelthon

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of forest conservation in developing countries. Yet we know little about their effects on forest cover change or the socioeconomic status of local communities, and even less about the relationship between these effects. This paper assesses whether “win-win” scenarios are possible—that is, whether protected areas can both stem forest cover change and alleviate poverty. We examine protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon using high-resolution satellite images and...

  20. Effects of Protected Areas on Forest Cover Change and Local Communities: Evidence from the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Juan José; Corral, Leonardo; Blackman, Allen; Asner, Gregory; Lima, Eirivelthon

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of forest conservation in developing countries. Yet we know little about their effects on forest cover change or the socioeconomic status of local communities, and even less about the relationship between these effects. This paper assesses whether “win-win” scenarios are possible—that is, whether protected areas can both stem forest cover change and alleviate poverty. We examine protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon using high-resolution satellite images and...

  1. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are…

  2. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.138 Section 110.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.138 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1)...

  3. Household livelihoods and conflict with wildlife in community-based conservation areas across northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, J; Borgerhoff Mulder, M; Grote, MN; Ghiselli, M; Packer, C

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2015 Conservation strategies to protect biodiversity and support household livelihoods face numerous challenges. Across the tropics, efforts focus on balancing trade-offs in local communities near the borders of protected areas. Devolving rights and control over certain resources to communities is increasingly considered necessary, but decades of attempts have yielded limited success and few lessons on how such interventions could be successful in impro...

  4. Food For Thought: The Social Impact of Community Gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area

    OpenAIRE

    Flachs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    While the benefits of healthy eating and greenspace development have been well documented, the social impact of urban and community gardens remain less studied. This paper explores the social and cultural effects of urban gardening in the greater Cleveland area. Gardening is shown to have a multitude of motivating factors, including economic, environmental, political, social, and nutritional. While analyzing the impact that gardens have on community building, identity, and food security, s...

  5. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical commun...

  6. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  7. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  8. We Don’t Feel Welcome Here: African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics report persistent discrimination in the workplace, in seeking housing, and in their day-to-day encounters with other metro area residents. Also...

  9. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  10. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.Methods:Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique.Results:Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years.Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  11. Capacity of local communities in pre and post disasters situation in coastal area of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razzaq, Khan; Dr. Pervez Ahmed, Pathan; Dr. Abdida, Taherani; Sadia Razzaq, Khan

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas of Pakistan that cashed in one's chips in the monsoon flood, 2010. This assessment helps to recognize the vulnerability of local people of coastal communities for planning better developmental work. The study conducted through field work in two districts “Thatta and Badin” of coastal area of Sindh Province of Pakistan. Multistage cluster sampling technique has used to select the sample size of 360 households from the are...

  12. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  13. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Rhodes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  14. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline rel

  15. Fungal community in animal-impacted soils at the cattle overwintering area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, J.; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav

    Edinburgh : British Mycological Society, 2010. [International Mycological Congress , The Biology of Fungi /9./. 01.08.2010-06.08.2010, Edinburgh] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600660605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : fungal community * animal-impacted soils * cattle overwintering area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Scanning the Front Range Environment: A Statistical Snapshot of the Front Range Community College Service Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report from Front Range Community College (FRCC) in Colorado examines trends in population, demographics, income, and education in the college's service area. The report begins with Kathleen Cain's essay, "Environmental Scanning," indicating that the four major objectives of environmental scanning are to detect…

  17. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  18. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  19. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. PMID:20945775

  20. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  1. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  2. Boston Harbor and approaches samples (WILLETT72 shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Boston Harbor (and its approaches) is a glacially carved, tidally dominated estuary in western Massachusetts Bay. Characterized by low river discharge and...

  3. Sediments of Boston Harbor acquired in 1968 (MENCHER shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A study was made of the composition, grain-size distribution, and organic content of grab samples collected from Boston Harbor. In general, the coarsest mean sizes...

  4. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies. PMID:25639179

  5. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  6. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  8. The vegetation of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province. 3. The plant communities of the Bergfontein, Rooiwaterspruit and Phesantefontein areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Mcdonald

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The fynbos shrubland communities of the southeastern Langeberg. Cape Province were analysed after sampling 97 quadrats in the Bergfontein, Rooiwaterspruit (Garcia's Forest Reserve and Phesantefontein areas. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet (BB procedures. One Afromontane forest community and 16 fynbos communities are recognized and described. A hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is proposed.

  9. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care. PMID:24912830

  10. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Skerritt, Louise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  11. Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L

    1992-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work. PMID:1575858

  12. Book of abstracts: biodiversity hotspots in the mediterranean area: species, communities and landscape level

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    This Book of Abstracts contains 264 contributions and in particular 69 oral invited and proposed comunications and 195 posters. The congress was attended by 602 participants from 30 countries.It was the 45th International SISV & FIP Congress on “Biodiversity Hotspots in the Mediterranean Area: species, communities and landscape level" held in Sardinia, Italy, at the University of Cagliari on June 22-24, 2009.

  13. The Strategic and Community Safety Response to Domestic Violence in a Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a criminological exploration on the impact rurality has on both the strategic and community safety response to domestic violence. It also considers how rurality affects the delivery of services and subsequently victims’ experiences. The thesis explores the relationship between service provider’s views – police, housing, probation etc – of victims’ experiences of domestic violence in a rural area, and their perceptions of the service and strategic response to domestic viol...

  14. Mutual Gains and Distributive Ideologies in South Africa: Theorizing Negotiations between Communities and Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Derick A

    2008-01-01

    With the rise of joint management of protected areas, community representatives are increasingly involved in formal negotiations with state officials, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other actors. Policy recommendations have commonly idealized “win-win” scenarios. Theoretical work on negotiation from psychology and management studies, however, points to identifiable circumstances under which the goal of a mutually beneficial “win-win” situation may limit the strategies, and ultimatel...

  15. Houston-Area Community Colleges Reap Rewards of Cooperative Television Campaign. Presentation to the National Council of Community Relations National Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Joyce; Lestarjette, Steve

    In response to a statewide economic crisis resulting in a 9% funding cut for Texas community colleges, the presidents of nine Houston area community colleges formed a consortium to pool their resources and aggressively market the colleges. Since 1986, the Gulf Coast Consortium has mounted late-summer television and radio advertising campaigns to…

  16. Dung beetle communities in coal mining areas in the process of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Zamprônio Bett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetles that are sensitive to environmental alterations may be used as indicator species to mark the recovery of degraded areas. This work aimed at registering and comparing the communities of Scarabaeinae located in areas with different periods of environmental recovery after being used for coal mining. This study was developed in Lauro Müller, Santa Catarina, and consisted of two areas in the process of recovery, one for one year and one for five years. Fifteen pitfall traps baited with human feces were placed in each area in order to attract the dung beetles. The counting, identification and measurement of body size and biomass of the specimens captured were carried out in the laboratory. Sampling sufficiency was verified and variables from both areas were compared using a t test. The recorded species were Canthon aff. chalybaeus, Canthon angularis, Canthon rutilans cyanescens, Deltochilum multicolor, Dichotomius sericeus, Eurysternus parallelus and Ontherus sulcator. A total of 35 individuals were captured, three in the one-year recovery area and 32 in the area under recovery for five years, C. rutilans cyanescens being the most abundant species (40.6%. All species collected were found in the five-years recovery area, whereas only C. aff. chalybaeus and D. multicolor were found in the one-year recovery area. Individuals sampled in the area with one year of recovery had an average size of 11.03 mm and average biomass of 0.051 g, whereas in the five-years recovery area the average size and the biomass of the dung beetles sampled was 12.25 mm and 0.093 g, respectively.

  17. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  18. Titanium Coating of the Boston Keratoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Kolovou, Paraskevi Evi; Chiang, Homer H.; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the feasibility of using titanium to enhance adhesion of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. Methods Cylindrical rods were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) over a layer of polydopamine (PMMATiO2), smooth (Ti) and sandblasted (TiSB) titanium, and titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox and TiSBox). Topography and surface chemistry were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adhesion force between rods and porcine corneas was measured ex vivo. Titanium sleeves, smooth and sandblasted, were inserted around the stem of the B-KPro and implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the stem was assessed and compared to an unmodified B-Kpro after 1 month. Results X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated successful deposition of TiO2 on polydopamine-coated PMMA. Oxygen plasma treatment did not change the XPS spectra of titanium rods (Ti and TiSB), although it increased their hydrophilicity. The materials did not show cell toxicity. After 14 days of incubation, PMMATiO2, smooth titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox), and sandblasted titanium rods (TiSB, TiSBox) showed significantly higher adhesion forces than PMMA ex vivo. In vivo, the use of a TiSB sleeve around the stem of the B-KPro induced a significant increase in tissue adhesion compared to a Ti sleeve or bare PMMA. Conclusions Sandblasted titanium sleeves greatly enhanced adherence of the B-KPro to the rabbit cornea. This approach may improve adhesion with the donor cornea in humans as well. Translational Relevance This approach may improve adhesion with donor corneas in humans. PMID:27152247

  19. [Yearly Changes of Phytoplankton Community in the Ecology-monitoring Area of Changli, Hebei in Summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-lin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Han, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Jian-da; Gao, Wei-ming

    2015-04-01

    Based on the investigation of phytoplankton and water body nutrient concentration in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in summer from 2005 to 2013, the phytoplankton community structure was analyzed. The result showed that in recent 9 years, 3 phyla including 23 families, 39 genera and 105 species of phytoplankton were identified, in which 85.7% were diatoms and 13.3% were dinoflagellate. Only one species was found belonging to golden algae. There was great difference in dominant species among different years. According to the value of dominance, there were Coscinodiscus radiatus, Coscinodiscus debilis, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Cerataulina bergoni, Coscinodiscus wailesii, Thalassiosira sp., Ceratium tripos, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Skeletonema costatum. The cell abundance was decreased yearly. The Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton community ranged from 0.015 to 3.889, and the evenness index ranged from 0.009 to 1, which showed little yearly change. And phytoplankton species were unevenly distributed among the 19 sites, there were relatively low amount of dominant species, but the dominance was relatively high. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results of the phytoplankton community and its environmental factors showed that the environmental factors influencing the change of phytoplankton community structure in summer included water temperature, nutrients (TP, TN and NO3(-) -N, NH4(+)-N) and salinity, and the structural change was the result of the interactions of different environmental factors. PMID:26164906

  20. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments.

  1. Diversity and survival of carabid communities in the area affected by the barrage system Gabcikovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in representation of individual ecological groups of Carabidae in the within-dike area of the Danube during the period 1989-1994 show that the drainage process has started in this area, and resulted in initial stages of community succession tending to rise of ecologically less valuable heterogeneous ecotonal communities. This succession started as early before the diversion of the Danube main flow as a result of long-term continuous decrease of average ground water level, climatic fluctuations and various human activities in the past. In 1992-1994, after the Danube diversion it was considerably accelerated. The further development of the Carabidae communities has three alternatives characterised briefly as: 1) increase of the dominance of mesohygrophilous species and the dominance or extinction of polyhygrophilous species, 2) the vanishing hygrophilous species may be partially substituted by some tolerant species, 3) preservation of more or less a species spectrum characteristic for floodplain forest, with lower alpha-diversity. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  2. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  3. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  4. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  5. Plant community development within the F- and H-Area tree-kill zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline fed wetlands down-slope from the basins was observed in the late 1970`s, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts. Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area seepage basins. Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds. A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soils matrix. In 1988, the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins were closed and covered with a clay cap to reduce the rate of dispersion of the contaminants in the soil beneath the basins. Subsequent studies of the chemical composition of the tree-kill zone groundwater and toxicological characteristics of the seepline soil have shown a reduced contaminant flux. In 1993, an initial vegetation study was undertaken to determine the level of recovery by the plant communities in the tree-kill zones. This study repeats the initial vegetation investigation in order to further analyze and characterize the recovery of plant communities in the zones after an additional year of growth.

  6. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m−2 of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m−2 of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). -- Highlights: •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes. •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban and community areas is estimated at 1.36 billion tonnes. •Net carbon sequestration in U.S. urban areas varies by state and is estimated at 18.9 million tonnes per year. •Overlap between U.S. forest and urban forest carbon estimates is between 247 million and 303 million tonnes. -- Field and tree cover measurements reveal carbon storage and sequestration by trees in U.S. urban and community areas

  7. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  8. Frederick Law Olmsted y el "Emerald Necklace" de Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Austrich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En 1879, Frederick Law Olmsted, el creador del Central Park en Nueva York, Prospect Park en Brooklyn, inventor de la profesión de paisajismo (Landscape Architecture en los EE.UU., arriba a Boston agotado y exhausto. Acaba de renunciar el cargo de paisajista de Central Park, sintiéndose defraudado por las intrigas políticas de la comisión de parques de Nueva York, viajaba a Boston a descansar y pasar un rato con sus amigos en las cercanías de Boston, en Cambridge y Brookline. Su gran amigo, Henry Hobson Richardson, el reconocido arquitecto de la época, vivía y trabajaba en Brookline, y sirve como su anfitrión, tanto como sus amigos en Cambridge.

  9. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates (boulders

  10. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  11. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    David Barton Bray; Elvira Duran; Oscar Molina

    2012-01-01

    Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs) in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the im...

  12. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Snyman

    2014-01-01

    In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...

  13. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@falw.vu.nl; Koolhaas, Josee E. [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo [Institute of Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinecke, Sophie A. [Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes.

  14. Engaging the recreational angling community to implement and manage aquatic protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-06-01

    Recreational angling is a popular leisure activity, the quality of which is greatly dependent on fish abundance and well-functioning aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) are used to help maintain and even restore aquatic systems and their associated biota, including fish species that are popular with recreational anglers. Paradoxically, the use of APAs has been a source of much contention and conflict between members of the recreational angling community and those interested in or mandated to protect aquatic resources on the basis of the interests of multiple stakeholder groups. The angling community is concerned about the loss of fishing opportunities and effectiveness of APAs. Although it is still unclear whether establishment of APAs alone can effectively protect aquatic resources, actively including the recreational angling community in the design, implementation, and management of APAs will help ensure the values of this rather substantial user group are incorporated into aquatic conservation strategies. Conversely, the probability of increasing the sustainability of recreational angling and related economies will be greatest if recreational angler groups remain open minded to both short-term and long-term goals of fisheries conservation strategies, including the use of APAs. PMID:21175844

  15. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  16. 78 FR 717 - ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National Consumer Law Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National..., ENE (Environment Northeast), Greater Boston Real Estate Board, National Consumer Law Center,...

  17. Des gentrifieurs mobilisés. Les associations de quartier du South End à Boston The mobilised gentrifiers. The neighbourhood associations of South End, Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Tissot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un processus de gentrification dans un quartier d’une grande agglomération des États-Unis, Boston. Il montre que ce processus n’a pas seulement résulté de l’évolution des forces du marché et du retour des capitaux dans les centres-villes, des politiques de rénovation urbaine et de transformations culturelles. La mobilisation collective des nouveaux propriétaires a eu un impact décisif, via les associations de quartier dans lesquelles ils se sont engagés depuis les années 1960.This article concerns the process of gentrification in a district of a large urban area in the United States, Boston. It shows that this process has resulted not only from the evolution of market forces and the return of wealth to the inner cities, urban renewal policies and cultural transformations. The collective mobilisation of new property owners has also had a decisive impact, via the neighbourhood associations in which they have been involved since the 1960s.

  18. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    community productivity. The experimental defoliation exerted a pronounced effect on plant productivity and modified the nature of interaction between annual grasses and other growth forms. These mechanisms may explain the ability of Avena and Hordeum species to form persistent annual climax grasslands in semi-arid rangelands. These findings may suggest that Avena and Hordeum species may be used in revegetating degraded arid areas

  19. Quality Assessment of Shallow Groundwater in Some Selected Agrarian Communities in Patigi Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study was conducted to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in agrarian communities. An in-situ membrane filtration test kit was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from protected shallow wells during wet and dry seasons of the year 2012 to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of the analysis show that Gapkan had the least value of pH of 6.7 while Lade had the highest value of 8.4. ANOVA (P<0.05 showed pH to be statistically higher during the wet season than in the dry season. The conductivity during the wet season was observed to range between 1210 µS/cm and 1678 µS/cm for Kpada and Gakpan communities respectively. Turbidity values during the wet season ranged between 4 and 7 NTU while dry season analysis ranged between 2 and 3 NTU. Sulphate concentration was the lowest at 431 mg/L in Fey and highest of 532 mg/L at Duro and Rifun Woro during the wet season. Chloride content within the wet season varied between 260 and 269 mg/L while that of the dry season varied between 124 and 130 mg/L. Highest and lowest concentrations of nitrate recorded during wet season was 0.42 and 0.23 mg/L for Kusogi and Fey respectively. The colour observed during the wet season ranged between 17 TCU and 19TCU while that of the dry season ranged between 10 and 13 TCU. Current status of the water in the study areas are fit as source of drinking water for the community, though plans should be put in place for mini treatment plants that can serve these communities to enhance good drinking water delivery..

  20. [Metabolic characteristics of air microbial communities from sandstorm source areas of the Taklamakan desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei-Wei; Lou, Kai; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Rong; Shi, Ying-Wu; He, Qing; Liu, Xin-Chun; Sun, Jian; Chao, Qun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to compare the characteristics and the differences in carbon catabolic diversity of air samples collected from five locations that around the edge of Taklamakan desert. The characteristics and the differences of carbon metabolic profiles were detected by using the BIOLOG micro plate (BIOLOG EcoPlate). The results showed that the average well color development (AWCD) curve of all five samples did not reach clear saturation during the incubation time (10 days), but differences among them were significant. The highest AWCD value appeared in Shache and the lowest was in Hotan, which were 0.24 and 0.1, respectively. Carbon utilization showed that all samples exhibited high level of polymer, carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acid; however, amine and the phenol compound were the lowest. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated that twenty categories of carbon significantly related to PC1 and twelve categories for PC2. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed these five areas could be divided into 2 clusters: (1) Hotan, Pishan, (2) Shache, Luntai, Ulugqat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that those community functional diversities were highly affected by some environmental factors, such as wind speed, altitude, humidity. Further investigation by correlation analysis revealed that the microbial communities using single carbon source were significantly affected by abiotic factors, such as the utilization of beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-galacturonic acid and putrescine had significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05) with latitude; 2-hydroxy benzoic acid and alpha-D-lactose significantly related to wind speed (P < 0.05); and D-glucosaminic acid was positive with air pressure, but it negatively correlated with altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion,the carbon sources provided by BIOLOG EcoPlate were utilized slowly by air microbial communities; and the characteristics of the air community carbon catabolic along the edge of the Taklamakan desert

  1. Vertical distribution of airborne bacterial communities in an Asian-dust downwind area, Noto Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Hara, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kakikawa, Makiko; Matsuki, Atsushi; Chen, Bin; Shi, Guangyu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial populations transported from ground environments to the atmosphere get dispersed throughout downwind areas and can influence ecosystem dynamics, human health, and climate change. However, the vertical bacterial distribution in the free troposphere was rarely investigated in detail. We collected aerosols at altitudes of 3000 m, 1000 m, and 10 m over the Noto Peninsula, Japan, where the westerly winds carry aerosols from continental and marine areas. During the sampling period on March 10, 2012, the air mass at 3000 m was transported from the Chinese desert region by the westerly winds, and a boundary layer was formed below 2000 m. Pyrosequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that the bacterial community at 3000 m was predominantly composed of terrestrial bacteria, such as Bacillus and Actinobacterium species. In contrast, those at 1000 m and 10 m included marine bacteria belonging to the classes Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. The entire 16S rDNA sequences in the clone libraries were identical to those of the terrestrial and marine bacterial species, which originated from the Chinese desert region and the Sea of Japan, respectively. The origins of air masses and meteorological conditions contribute to vertical variations in the bacterial communities in downwind atmosphere.

  2. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  3. Public sector unions shaping hospital privatization: the creation of Boston Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Savage

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author examines, through a case study of a hospital merger in Boston, MA, the ways in which a locally scaled union strategy can shape privatization. She first examines recent economic changes in the US hospital industry, which have resulted in a record number of mergers, closures, and conversions. A case study of the merger between a public hospital, Boston City Hospital, and a private hospital, Boston University Hospital, into the private, nonprofit, Boston Medical Center i...

  4. A novel nutrition medicine education model: the Boston University experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Carine; Gorman, Kathy; Milch, Hannah; Decker, Ashley; Harvey, Nanette; Stanfield, Lorraine; Lim-Miller, Aimee; Salge-Blake, Joan; Judd, Laura; Levine, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Most deaths in the United States are preventable and related to nutrition. Although physicians are expected to counsel their patients about nutrition-related health conditions, a recent survey reported minimal improvements in nutrition medicine education in US medical schools in the past decade. Starting in 2006, we have developed an educational plan using a novel student-centered model of nutrition medicine education at Boston University School of Medicine that focuses on medical student-mentored extracurricular activities to develop, evaluate, and sustain nutrition medicine education. The medical school uses a team-based approach focusing on case-based learning in the classroom, practice-based learning in the clinical setting, extracurricular activities, and a virtual curriculum to improve medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice skills across their 4-y period of training. We have been using objectives from the NIH National Academy Awards guide and tools from the Association of American Medical Colleges to detect new areas of nutrition medicine taught at the medical school. Although we were only able to identify 20.5 h of teaching in the preclerkship years, we observed that most preclerkship nutrition medicine objectives were covered during the course of the 4-y teaching period, and extracurricular activities provided new opportunities for student leadership and partnership with other health professionals. These observations are very encouraging as new assessment tools are being developed. Future plans include further evaluation and dissemination of lessons learned using this model to improve public health wellness with support from academia, government, industry, and foundations. PMID:23319117

  5. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Olsson

    Full Text Available The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  6. Charter, Private, and Public Schools Work Together in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  7. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  8. The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lisa; Snow, Pamela

    In 1870, Boston, Massachusetts, was an overcrowded, noisy, and dirty city. Concerned with the health and happiness of Bostonians restricted to these unhealthy surroundings, the city hired Frederick Law Olmsted to design a park system. The series of parks he designed over the next several years is known as the Emerald Necklace. From lovely…

  9. Information Graphics at the "Boston Globe": From Concept to Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Sean

    1998-01-01

    Shows how the "Boston Globe" brings words, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs together in evocative information packages. Traces the process of discussion and decision making among reporters, editors, art directors, and graphic artists as the team chooses concepts the graphics will illustrate, and produces the graphics themselves. (SR)

  10. Zooplankton community occurrence in an area influenced by uranium mine, Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM), situated on the Pocos de Caldas - MG Plateau, is Brazil's first venture in uranium ore mining and chemical treatment and it belongs to Brazilian Nuclear Industries today. At UTM, radioactive effluents are generated due to the mine's acid drainage processes (MAD). Thus, due to the lack of scientific information with emphasis on Zooplankton Communities in areas impacted by uranium mine and MAD, the current study aimed to evaluate parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, uranium, thorium, manganese, zinc and aluminum, as well as richness and density of the zooplankton organism's, all in samples from the Pit Mine. The electrical conductivity values observed were elevated (1976 to 2760 μS cm-1), while the pH values remained acidic (3.6 to 4.1). In respect to the SO4-2, elevated concentrations were observed (366.6 - 1832.0 mg L-1), as well as for F- (33.4 to 75.1 mg L-1). The U presented highest and lowest concentrations in Oct/08 and July/09, that is, 4.25 mg L-1 and 0.12 mg L-1, respectively. The Th concentrations remained constant (0.10 - 0.30 mg L-1). In respect to the Zooplankton Community low species richness and density were observed throughout the whole period. The low richness and density values of the zooplankton species can be related to the adverse environmental conditions, which are unfavorable to the development of this community: elevated values of electrical conductivity and acidic pH, both associated to the chemical composition of the effluent in natura. (author)

  11. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  12. Diversity and Species Composition of Subaerial Algal Communities in Forested Areas of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kharkongor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with a comparative study on diversity and species composition of subaerial algal communities from tree barks of closed undisturbed sacred grove, mixed plantation, and open disturbed forest. A total of 85 taxa had been recorded, 30 cyanobacteria and 55 algal species belonging to six classes of algae. Sacred grove harboured the highest subaerial algal diversity compared to those of plantation and open disturbed forest. There was a strong significant difference in species composition among the three different sampling areas. High number of diatoms with 14 species was recorded in sacred grove. Cyanobacteria with 22 species were the frequent group in disturbed forest whereas Trentepohliales dominated in plantation. Canonical correspondence analysis confirmed that high photon irradiance favored the growth of cyanobacteria in disturbed forest. The abundance of Trentepohliales members correlated to high rainfall and photon irradiance. High diversity and presence of many diatom species in undisturbed Mawphlang sacred grove were associated with low photon irradiance and high relative humidity and could also be due to a presence of suitable substrata formed by the growth of mosses. Sunlight, relative humidity, and rainfall were the important factors which played a major role in determining the diversity and distribution of subaerial algal communities.

  13. Community Knowledge and Attitude on Malaria in Outbreak Area Rowokele Subdistrict, Kebumen Regency: an Ethnoscience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggi Septia Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria was becoming a re-emerging disease in central java, especially for Kebumen Regency, it has been hit by malaria outbreak with the increasing case. A study was conducted in rural area of sub district Rowokele, Kebumen, Central java to identify local knowledge and practice of the community that has been becoming one of the important factors for vector borne disease control, including malaria control. Methods: This research was conducted between June 2011 and November 2011, applying qualitative method with ethnoscience approach. Data were retrieved from in-depth interviews and focus-group. Qualitative thematic content analysis was applied to understanding sharpening of the social and cultural aspect of malaria disease. Results:Qualitative method using in-depth interview able to explain several findings, such as the result of a local term of malaria, called “udug-udug” in rowokele sub-district. It shows the insufficient understanding of malaria signs and symptoms in the sub of villages, it leads to delay for illness recognition and its treatment. Conclution: Misperceptions on the preventive activities, as well as confusion of malaria with dengue fever, were identified. This study detected risk group of malaria infection in community practices such as a farmer who works in the forest and seasonal migration. Recommendation:Promotion intensification and health education on vector, prevention and therapy are important to be introduced.

  14. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  15. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAND S. BISHT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisht AS, Sharma KD. 2014. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 15: 92-98. Garhwal Himalaya possesses luxuriant a varied vegetation with in the Himalaya region. Almost every plant has economic value in the form of shelter, food, water, medicine, fuel and industrial products and fodder. Surveys were conducted in entire Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India in order to get information on traditional uses of plants by local inhabitants. A total of 169 plants were collected of which 40 species of vegetables, 19 species of forest and agroforestry, 24 species of ornamental flower, 71 species of less known medicinal plants and 15 species of agricultural crops were found economically important as they are used by the people frequently for various purposes.

  16. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi......-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years...... only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P < 0.17). Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline...

  17. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  18. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  19. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis. PMID:19999976

  20. Linking environmental forcing and trophic supply to benthic communities in the Vercelli Seamount area (Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Covazzi Harriague

    Full Text Available Seamounts and their influence on the surrounding environment are currently being extensively debated but, surprisingly, scant information is available for the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, although the deep Tyrrhenian Sea is characterised by a complex bottom morphology and peculiar hydrodynamic features, which would suggest a variable influence on the benthic domain, few studies have been carried out there, especially for soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages. In order to fill this gap, the structure of the meio-and macrofaunal assemblages of the Vercelli Seamount and the surrounding deep area (northern Tyrrhenian Sea - western Mediterranean were studied in relation to environmental features. Sediment was collected with a box-corer from the seamount summit and flanks and at two far-field sites in spring 2009, in order to analyse the metazoan communities, the sediment texture and the sedimentary organic matter. At the summit station, the heterogeneity of the habitat, the shallowness of the site and the higher trophic supply (water column phytopigments and macroalgal detritus, for instance supported a very rich macrofaunal community, with high abundance, biomass and diversity. In fact, its trophic features resembled those observed in coastal environments next to seagrass meadows. At the flank and far-field stations, sediment heterogeneity and depth especially influenced the meiofaunal distribution. From a trophic point of view, the low content of the valuable sedimentary proteins that was found confirmed the general oligotrophy of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and exerted a limiting influence on the abundance and biomass of the assemblages. In this scenario, the rather refractory sedimentary carbohydrates became a food source for metazoans, which increased their abundance and biomass at the stations where the hydrolytic-enzyme-mediated turnover of carbohydrates was faster, highlighting high lability.

  1. 78 FR 34577 - Safety Zone; Ad Club's 100th Anniversary Gala Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the Port A. Regulatory... hazards associated with the fireworks display. Entering into, transiting through, mooring or anchoring... activation of the zone; this zone is located on the outer edge of the Boston Main Ship Channel and...

  2. The Path Forward: School Autonomy and Its Implications for the Future of Boston's Public Schools. Understanding Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dan; Hawley Miles, Karen; Nathan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Boston Public Schools is at a crossroads. Nearly one-third of the system's schools operate under one of several "autonomy" structures, where school leaders have increased flexibility regarding staffing and other resources, and choice data indicate parents are far more likely to prefer these schools over so-called "traditional"…

  3. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

    2014-07-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms

  4. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  5. Microbial communities and biogeochemistry in an area of Engraulis encrasicolus spawning in the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2014-06-01

    The rates of production, hydrolysis and degradation activities were quite low, in agreement with the general oligotrophy of the area and in agreement with this findings, picophytoplankton contribution to total production amounted to over than 65%. In terms of metabolic activities, different spatial distributions were observed between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components. In particular, heterotrophic metabolism showed high values in the layer located below the thermocline and above the DCM. Concerning the enzymatic activities, total leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the highest rates, followed by alkaline phosphatase and beta-Glucosidase (Caruso et al., 2014. Distribution of the dissolved enzymatic activities acting on proteins varied widely along the column, accounting for 5 to 90% of the total enzymatic activity and always prevailed on dissolved b-GLU. Total enzymatic activity rates were comparable to those obtained in the oligotrophic zones of Ionian and Mediterranean Sea (Zaccone et al., 2012, while the analysis of the dissolved fraction was the first report for the Mediterranean. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary scientific approach used in this study depicted a complex picture of the study area evidencing a high heterogeneity and dynamism of plankton communities, probably associated to peculiar hydrology of this ecosystem. On the whole, the study area appeared to be characterized by a relatively efficient microbial food web. However, low trophic conditions were stressed by all the biological and biochemical patterns, suggesting an important role of heterotrophic processes in this area in the examined summer period. Consequently, how and how much the microbial web sustains fish reproduction and larval survival need a more comprehensive analysis and will be focused in further research.

  6. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga. PMID:26881432

  7. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area: comparison between lecture and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area. PMID:24705761

  8. INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERSONAL PM2.5 FOR A PANEL OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE OR COPD LIVING IN BOSTON, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated personal, home indoor, home outdoor, and ambient particulate and gaseous pollutant levels were characterized for individuals with cardiovascular disease or COPD and their partners living in the Boston area. Health status was determined by self-reported history of myoc...

  9. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors. PMID:26031097

  10. Evaluating the performance of urban management in community sustainable: Case Study in area of Narmak - Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban development that was coincided with the Industrial Revolution, make living in a city faced with new problems that were completely antithetical to sustainable development. To solve this problem, administrators, planners, and urban management in general, have prepared plans for development. Because of their unresponsive to urban neighborhoods, development plans and because of their upward to downward processes, these development projects were incapable of solving problems, and many of them have failed. On the other hand, for better urban governance, participation of all actors in both public and private sector and civil society were essential. In addition, on this level of cooperation, leading to ready all actors for culture governance of democratic were realized. This study investigated the role of community-based management in achieving sustainable urban development deals and has analyzed social stability in four dimensions including cultural, economic, physical and environmental. Study area, was a neighborhood of Tehran, in the area of eight, Narmak. The research was a descriptive - analytical study and collecting information and data were performed in the form of documents and survey. The results suggest that the effects of urban management on stabilizing neighborhoods, in physical and environmental aspects, are quite tangible. However, with regard to social and economic dimensions, this effect was more diminished. Certainly, the role and power of urban management in social and economic dimensions could be obtained more sustainability for Narmak neighborhood.

  11. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  12. Sense of Community among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area: Findings from the PINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sense of community is a concept that has significant implications cross multiple disciplines, particularly in public health practice. However, there exists a knowledge gap in utilizing the sense of community in investigating the health of older immigrant populations. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perception of the sense of community among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. We administered the Sense of Community Index to measure the levels of sense of community. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Results: Our results suggest that Chinese older adults in this study sample reported a strong sense of community. In total, 86.7% of the participants reported satisfaction with the current neighborhood, and 78.4% expressed their desire to continue living in the community as long as possible. In addition, older age (r =0.11, having higher levels of income (r =0.08, being female (r =0.08, being unmarried (r =-0.06, living with fewer people (r =-0.22, having more children (r =0.11, having been in the U.S. for more years (r =0.12, longer residency in the community (r =0.15, higher overall health status (r =0.18, better quality of life (r =0.23, and improved health status in the past year (r =0.11 were significantly correlated with the higher levels of the sense of the community. Conclusions: The study investigation provided the basis for generating empirical knowledge for understanding the sense of community among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms underlying sense of community and health in the increasingly diverse aging population.

  13. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area : comparison between lecture and practice

    OpenAIRE

    TANI, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students’ attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sens...

  14. Temporal distribution of bacterial community structure in the Changjiang Estuary hypoxia area and the adjacent East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial community structure and the effects of environmental factors on the microbial community distribution were investigated in the Changjiang Estuary hypoxia area and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS) in June, August and October, 2006. Profiles of bacterial communities were generated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequence analysis. The dominant bacterial groups were affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophaga–Flavobacteria–Bacteroides (CFB), Deltaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, which were mostly from the marine seawater ecosystem. Effects of environmental factors on the bacterial community distribution were analyzed by the ordination technique of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure were different in the three months; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and temperature in June and nitrite in August. No environmental variables displayed significant influence on the bacterial community at the 5% level in October. The seasonal environmental heterogeneity in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent ECS, such as seasonal hydrodynamic conditions and riverine input of nutrients, might be the reason for the difference in the key environmental factors determining the bacterial community in the three months. (letter)

  15. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  16. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  17. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  18. Lessons From the Boston Marathon Bombing: An Orthopaedic Perspective on Preparing for High-Volume Trauma in an Urban Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Daniel; von Keudell, Arvind; Rodriguez, Edward K

    2015-10-01

    The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing resulted in a mass casualty event that tested the limits of Boston-area trauma centers. The explosions, 12 seconds apart, led to the rapid influx of 124 patients with primarily lower extremity injuries in 5 different adult level 1 trauma centers. This study aimed to examine the existing hospital systems in place for disaster scenarios at the time of the event and identify areas for improvement. Preparation before the Boston Marathon bombing included coordinating the delivery of patients to area facilities and creating a framework for response at an institutional level. These simulations, coupled with the fact that the explosions occurred at a nexus of medical facilities, helped provide impactful care preventing any fatalities in patients who arrived at a Boston hospital that day. The experience at our institution led to the implementation of a more robust communication infrastructure and reinforced the value of preparatory drills. Within the Orthopaedic Surgery Department, we developed a more robust organizational hierarchy for mass casualty events and implemented a multitrauma follow-up clinic. We believe that it is the responsibility of every hospital to have systems in place to handle the rapid arrival of patients with multiple-trauma, and we hope that others can learn from our experience. PMID:26356215

  19. Pediatric orthopedic surgical simulation at Boston Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donald S; Waters, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    Orthopedic surgical simulation has become an increasing valuable means for optimizing patient care, promoting patient safety, improving education, and fostering clinical research. The purpose of this review was to discuss the rationale for simulation training, describe current simulation efforts within the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Boston Children's Hospital, and provide an example of how these simulation efforts touch both patient care and clinical research. PMID:27058820

  20. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine L. Bradbury; Mary A. Burke; Robert K. Triest

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  1. Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is the largest source of anthropogenic emissions of methane (CH4) in the United States. To assess pipeline emissions across a major city, we mapped CH4 leaks across all 785 road miles in the city of Boston using a cavity-ring-down mobile CH4 analyzer. We identified 3356 CH4 leaks with concentrations exceeding up to 15 times the global background level. Separately, we measured δ13CH4 isotopic signatures from a subset of these leaks. The δ13CH4 signatures (mean = −42.8‰ ± 1.3‰ s.e.; n = 32) strongly indicate a fossil fuel source rather than a biogenic source for most of the leaks; natural gas sampled across the city had average δ13CH4 values of −36.8‰ (±0.7‰ s.e., n = 10), whereas CH4 collected from landfill sites, wetlands, and sewer systems had δ13CH4 signatures ∼20‰ lighter (μ = −57.8‰, ±1.6‰ s.e., n = 8). Repairing leaky natural gas distribution systems will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase consumer health and safety, and save money. Highlights: ► We mapped 3356 methane leaks in Boston. ► Methane leaks in Boston carry an isotopic signature of pipeline natural gas. ► Replacing failing gas pipelines will provide safety, environmental, and economic benefits. - We identified 3356 methane leaks in Boston, with isotopic characteristics consistent with pipeline natural gas.

  2. Spatial distribution and diversity of bird community in an urban area of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Manhães

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the campus of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has different landscapes, it turns up to be a useful ecological model to evaluate the influence of habitat heterogeneity on bird communities. Our research goals were to know the local avifauna and compare its composition and bird diversity within the different landscapes. Species were identified in point counts without distance estimation, in four habitats: secondary woodlot, lake and surroundings, scrub/abandoned grazing areas and urban areas. One hundred and twenty-one species were identified, but no difference in diversity among the habitats was found. However, analyses indicated the existence of greater similarities among the sampling points belonging to the same kind of habitat. Results suggests that small and isolated forest fragments in urban areas fail to sustain a greater diversity than the adjacent areas, even though the environment's heterogeneous aspect favours local bird richness.O Campus da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora possui diferentes paisagens e pode representar um modelo ecológico útil para avaliar a influência da heterogeneidade de hábitats sobre a diversidade de aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a avifauna local e comparar a composição e diversidade de aves nas distintas paisagens existentes. As espécies foram identificadas em pontos de contagem, em quatro hábitats: mata secundária, lago e arredores, capoeira/pastagem abandonada e urbanizada/jardinada. Foram identificadas 121 espécies, mas não houve diferença de diversidade entre os hábitats. Entretanto, as análises indicaram a existência de maiores similaridades entre os pontos amostrais pertencentes ao mesmo tipo de hábitat. Os resultados sugerem que pequenos fragmentos de mata fortemente isolados em áreas urbanas não sustentam uma diversidade maior do que as áreas adjacentes mas o aspecto heterogêneo do ambiente pode favorecer a riqueza de aves

  3. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  4. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  5. Community-level effects in edaphic fauna from an abandoned mining area: integration with chemical and toxicological lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara C; Castro, Bruno B; Moreira, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    As a part of the Ecological Risk Assessment of a deactivated uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa), the aim of this study was to assess the drivers of litter arthropod community (ecological line of evidence) inhabiting soils with different degrees of contamination. Litter arthropods were collected in the mining area using a total of 70 pitfall traps, in the spring and autumn of 2004. Unlike information previously collected in the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we found no clear evidence of impacts of soil contamination on the edaphic arthropod assemblage. Multivariate analyses were unable to extract relevant environmental gradients related to contamination, as most of the sites shared the same taxa overall. Given the consistency of the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we must conclude that the litter arthropod assemblage underestimated the impacts of contamination in this abandoned mining area. In part, this could be due to the uncertainty caused by confounding factors that affect the litter arthropod community in the area. Nevertheless, despite the overall lack of responsiveness of the epigeic arthropod community data, a few taxa were negatively correlated with metal concentrations (Clubionidae and Staphylinidae), while Pseudoscorpionida were associated with the toxicological profile of the sites. These evidences suggest that community-level approaches with other animal and plant assemblages are necessary to reduce uncertainty relatively to the assessment of risks in higher evaluation tiers in the Cunha Baixa mine area. PMID:23174268

  6. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  7. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

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    Ogwang Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5% of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0% parishes and 32/212 (15.1% villages (clusters, were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54 and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14. Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community

  8. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by

  9. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae M Noble

    Full Text Available Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP. Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  10. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.

    2013-01-14

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. © 2013 Noble et al.

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-441-1765, New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the Industrial Commission of Ohio, worker complaints of skin disease at the New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio were investigated. The request was based on seven reports of dermatitis thought to be associated with steam exposure during coke quenching. Quench water had a pH of 8.85 and contained phenol, ammonia, calcium-oxide, and suspended particulates (82% organic compounds); no irritant threshold levels were found for these compounds. Skin tests in rabbits showed a minimal irritant capacity for quench water. Medical records did not reveal the origin of dermatitis. Active skin lesions were characterized as nummular eczema or atopic dermatitis, which were not thought to be of occupational origin. The author concludes that coke-quenching steam does not pose a skin hazard, but certain work activities may aggravate existing skin conditions. Recommendations include elimination of abrasive cleansing agents, use of skin moisturizers after washing, and prompt medical evaluation of skin complaints.

  12. The emergence of the area of Science and Mathematics Teaching like a scientific community: a documentary study

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    Clériston Ribeiro Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the changes in the area of teaching of Science and Mathematics, were raised by the documents from CAPES between the years 2000 and 2013 more discussions were aggregated from scientific societies on the subject. To support this study, relationships were drawn to the theory of Thomas Kuhn, for paradigms, scientific community, and other related. We make a timeline for the area, it was revealed that emerged from practices that have occurred since the 60s, while having its own area boundary only in 2000, when it moved from the area of Education and was restructured in 2011 to the area of teaching. It is believed that the area will consolidate, because with the increased quantity and quality of graduate programs, most committed researchers will contribute to the identity of the area of teaching of Science and Mathematic in Brazil.

  13. Community participation in natural resources management: reality or rhetoric? Lessons learnt from the Kasanka Game Management Area (GMA) communities, Serenje District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Emmanuel

    2004-12-01

    In the developing world, the term 'participation' has in recent years become a household word in the same way that 'democracy' or 'gender' have. Development agencies are demanding increased participation in their programmes. The use of the word or its application has become a centre of debate. Due to the difficulties involved in measuring 'participation' or indeed determining levels at which participation should take place, who participates and when, many 'doubting Thomases' have questioned its effectiveness. It has, however been acknowledged in many areas that popular participation changes policies and enhances management and governance. In complex issues of natural resources management, participatory techniques have helped communities develop collective responsibilities towards management of their resources and projects. This paper discusses the complexities of community participation in natural resources management, ranging from interrelations among stakeholders to resource ownership based on the experiences in the Kasanka Game Management Area (KGMA). PMID:15641374

  14. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  15. Understanding the Early Years: Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area, Montreal, Quebec. An Analysis of the Communities Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gong-Li; Ahmed, Nina; Abbes, Chahreddine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents survey findings from two cycles of data collection in a 45-km area of Montreal located east of the city centre. The study was conducted by Statistics Canada as part of the second pilot phase of the Understanding the Early Years initiative (UEY-II), using the Communities Survey, a research tool adapted from the National…

  16. 75 FR 57051 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... recreation/community center; a new library; a new park/open space; retail shopping and commercial space; and... facilities, and a new public library. The Sunset Area contains many public amenities and publicly-owned...; environmental justice; historic/cultural resources; housing; land use; noise; parks and recreation; plants...

  17. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  18. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    OpenAIRE

    Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in a...

  19. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó B Tóth

    Full Text Available The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896-1950 to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950-2013. Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied

  20. Developing Service Area Indices for Community Colleges: California's Method and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommeren, Alice; Liddicoat, Catharine; Hom, Willard

    2008-01-01

    The economic, educational and social environments of the students served by a community college are important factors in college performance accountability, policy analysis, program evaluation, and strategic planning. For example, previous research shows that income per county is a significant predictor of transfer rates for community colleges.…

  1. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  2. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  3. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  4. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  5. NDVI statistical distribution of pasture areas at different times in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem. However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed (Niemeyer 2008). 'Biomass index' based on satellite image derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used in countries like United States of America, Canada and Spain for pasture and forage crops for some years (Rao, 2010). This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' (IBI). IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield (or revenue) losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values (historical data) that is correlated with farm-level losses (Xiaohui Deng et al., 2008). Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid (Spain) has been delimited. Then, NDVI historical data was reconstructed based on remote sensing imaging MODIS, with 500x500m2 resolution. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. The results show that the normal distribution is not the optimal representation when IBI is available; the implications in the context of crop insurance are discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Kolli N Rao. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial

  6. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  7. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from

  8. Analysis of bacterial isolates and community DNA from four different succession plots in post-mining area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Halbritter, A.; Krištůfek, Václav; Biró, B.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2004, s. 93-96. ISBN 80-86525-03-1. [Present methods for investigation of microbial community biodiversity in soils and substrates. Methodological workshop /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 02.03.2004-03.03.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bacterial isolates * community DNA * succession plots in post-mining area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Community involvement in the development of an environmental education programme: the Tswaing meteorite crater conservation area as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Swanepoel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the relevance of applied research in education is its actual impact on society. A case study was undertaken to determine how research insights could be implemented by involving a local community in the design and implementation of environmental education programmes in their environment. The Tswaing Meteorite Crater conservation area project was undertaken with the active participation of teachers, learners and education officers from the communities living around Tswaing, as well as subject specialists. Issues which should be considered in the development of similar programmes were also highlighted.

  10. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites. PMID:25592734

  12. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton Bray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.

  13. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Hammerling

    Full Text Available The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA, and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish. The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method, though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  14. Boston Children's Hospital approach to brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillermin, Carley; Bauer, Andrea S

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of infants with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) continues to be a focus at Boston Children's Hospital. Over the last 15 years, there have been many developments in the treatment of infants with BPBP. Some of the greatest changes have emerged through technical advances such as the advent of distal nerve transfers to allow targeted reinnervation as well as through research to understand the pathoanatomical changes that lead to glenohumeral dysplasia and how this dysplasia can be remodeled. This review will discuss our current practice of evaluation of the infant with BPBP, techniques for microsurgical reconstruction, and prevention and treatment of secondary glenohumeral dysplasia. PMID:27137763

  15. Games of School Choice under the Boston Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Haluk Ergin; Tayfun Sönmez

    2005-01-01

    Many school districts in the U.S. use a student assignment mechanism that we refer to as the Boston mechanism. Under this mechanism a student loses his priority at a school unless his parents rank it as their first choice. Therefore parents are given incentives to rank high on their list the schools where the student has a good chance of getting in. We characterize the Nash equilibria of the induced preference revelation game. An important policy implication of our result is that a transition...

  16. Seasonal Abundance of Benthic Communities in Coral Areas of Karah Island, Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim*(1), Sakri; Hussin(1), Wan Mohd Rauhan Wan; Kassim(1), Zaleha; Joni(1), Zuliatini Mohamad; Zakaria(1), Mohamad Zaidi; Hajisamae, Sukree

    2006-01-01

    Benthic communities are important to marine ecosystem and form important food source for most marine organisms especially fish. Study of this biota is important as it could be an indicator to overall aquatic productivity. Benthic communities in Karah Island, Terengganu, Malaysia were studied to find their relationship with different monsoon seasons and types of substrate. Surveys were conducted 4 times; two times each during pre-monsoon phase (September - October) and post-monsoon phase (Apri...

  17. Does arsenic play an important role in the soil microbial community around a typical arsenic mining area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As) can cause serious hazards to human health, especially in mining areas. Soil bacterial communities, which are critical parts of the soil ecosystem, were analyzed directly for soil environmental factors. As a consequence, it is of great significance to understand the ecological risk of arsenic contamination on bacteria, especially at the local scale. In this study, 33 pairs of soil and grain samples were collected from the corn and paddy fields around an arsenic mining area in Shimen County in Hunan Province, China. Significant differences were found between the soil nitrogen, As concentrations, and bacteria activities among these two types of land use. According to the structural equation model (SEM) analysis, compared with other environmental factors, soil As was not the key factor affecting the bacterial community, even when grain As was beyond the threshold of the national food hygiene standards of China. In the corn field, soil pH was the main factor dominating the bacterial richness, composition and grain As. Meanwhile, in the paddy field the soil total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were the main factors impacting the bacterial richness, and the bacterial community composition was mainly affected by pH. The interactions between grain As and soil As were weak in the corn field. The bacterial communities played important roles in the food chain risk of As. The local policy of transforming paddy soil to dry land could greatly reduce the health risk of As through the food chain. PMID:27055093

  18. Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system. I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communa...

  19. The vegetation of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province. 1. The plant communities of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J Mcdonald

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fynbos shrublands and forests of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area, southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa, is presented. Data were collected at 119 sites in mature fynbos vegetation (>10 years old and at five sites in patches of Afromontane Forest. Emphasis was placed on the fynbos shrublands and sample sites were subjectively located along a transect from south to north across the Langeberg range in the study area. This south to north orientation follows a complex gradient of changes in aspect, slope, geology, soil form and climate. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet procedures. One forest subassociation and 12 fynbos communities were identified and described. A proposed hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is presented.

  20. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  1. Effectiveness of a San Francisco Bay area community education program on reducing home energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ellen M.

    In order to promote the adoption of home energy reduction practices and mitigate the climate impact of the collective greenhouse gas emissions generated by consumers, it is critical to identify an effective educational approach. A community-based educational intervention model that employs norms, information, commitment, feedback, and face-to-face communication strategies was examined for its ability to motivate changes in everyday energy-use behavior in two communities compared to a control group. A follow up study was also conducted to evaluate whether behaviors adopted as a result of the intervention were long lasting, and whether the community-focused features of the intervention were motivating to participants. Results showed that a greater number of individuals participated in the intervention over its five-month duration, reported significantly higher numbers of adopted behaviors, and maintained more adopted behaviors post-intervention than did people in the control group. In addition, intervention participants reported that some of the community-based features of the intervention motivated their behavior changes. These findings lend support to a number of social and community psychology theories about how to design effective interventions by leveraging social awareness and support.

  2. A Century of Change in Kenya's Mammal Communities: Increased Richness and Decreased Uniqueness in Six Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Anikó B.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. M...

  3. Aquaculture, a Component of the Farming Systems among the Fishing Communities in Oil Producing Areas of Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on ascertaining the relative importance of aquaculture in the farming systems of Oil Producing Areas Delta State, Nigeria. A stratified random sample of 598 households from 47 communities was used. Primary data collected between the months of May 2009 and February 2011 by means of structured questionnaire, complemented by oral were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that 69% of the respondents were into fishing/fish farming either as...

  4. 75 FR 77693 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps for Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, as submitted by the City of Manchester, New Hampshire, under the provisions of Title I of...

  5. From Vision to Action: Solving Problems through Inquiry at Boston Day and Evening Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    On a mid-week day in mid-December 2008, Boston Day and Evening Academy's room 209, usually used for board meetings, student assessments, awards dinners, and other occasions requiring an intimate atmosphere, smelled like Chinese food. These second-trimester students at Boston Day and Evening Academy (BDEA) were having a reunion after just a few…

  6. The Boston Compact: A Model for Interagency Collaboration and School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equity and Choice, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Boston Compact is a five-year effort to foster collaboration among the Boston Public Schools, private industry, and 25 postsecondary education institutions. The program's goals focus on improving educational preparedness and employability of and opportunities for urban students. (GC)

  7. 76 FR 35013 - Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park..., pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Boston National Historical Park is modified to include.../80,800 prepared by the National Park Service in March 2008. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  8. Forward: Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ethology of Fishes Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria E.ABATE; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Current Zoology concerning the behavior, ecology, and evolution of fishes is comprised of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ecology of Fishes Biennial Conference that was held June 29-July 3 at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

  9. Transcription of Gail Jefferson, Boston University Conference on Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, 9 June 1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    This is a CLAN transcription of the film recording of a conference talk by Gail Jefferson in Boston in 1977. The film recording was generously made available by George Psathas, Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Boston University. Prof Doug Maynard (University of Wisconsin) arranged for the origi...

  10. Deficit in community species richness as explained by area and isolation of sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The potential community species richness was predicted for 85 patches of seminatural grassland in an agricultural landscape in Denmark. The basis of the prediction was a very large dataset on the vegetation, soil pH and topography in Danish grasslands and related communities. Species were inserted...... into potential species pools according to their preferences regarding soil acidity and water availability (expressed as potential solar irradiation), and to the ranges in these two factors observed in each grassland patch. The difference between the predicted and the observed patch-level species richness...

  11. Mental health and illness in Boston's children and adolescents: one city's experience and its implications for mental health policy makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, K.; Drainoni, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the Boston Public Heath Commission used data from a variety of sources to explore the level of mental health disturbance in Boston's children and adolescents. Data for 1997 from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that about 20% of Boston public high school students had ever experienced suicidal ideation, while approximately 10% had actually attempted suicide. About one in five teenage respondents to the Boston Youth Survey said they were frequently depressed. While females were mo...

  12. Mosquito Vector Biting and Community Protection in a Malarious Area, Siahoo District, Hormozgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Shahandeh

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Study subjects were aware of an association between mosquito bite and malaria transmission. Health work­ers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about self-protection to help community members to be involved more in malaria control.

  13. Building Strong Communities: An Evaluation of a Neighborhood Leadership Program in a Diverse Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate an intervention used to train neighborhood leaders about community organizing and to enhance leadership skills. A mixed-method design was used which included (a) a pre- and posttest assessment of 83 participants, and (b) qualitative descriptive interviews of 33 participants. Over half of the…

  14. Assessing Community Understanding of Local Environmental Issues in Two Areas of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Gina M.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Kuhar, Christopher W.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Apell, Peter; Kasoma, Panta

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many conservation education projects working in Uganda, there is currently little evaluation of educational initiatives in the communities. A survey was developed to better understand the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of people in 2 districts of Uganda. The main environmental problem listed by the respondents…

  15. Local Area Network: Community Involvement, Social Capital, and Glocalization at NetU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevett-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic and interview data from a long-term study of "NetU," a wired community and college, are used to investigate the effects of computer-mediated communication on social relationships. During the course of this research "LAN" residents of NetU are compared with a similar group of non-LAN residents who lived in the same neighborhood, but…

  16. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  17. [Seasonal variations of community structures phytoplankton in groundwater discharge areas along the Northern Yucatán Peninsula coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia Catalina; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The highly touristic Yucatán Peninsula is principally constituted with coastal marine environments. Like other coastal areas, this has been affected by the increase of waste water discharge, hydrological modifications and land use changes in the area. The phytoplankton community structure is one of the main components of coastal ecosystems and the most affected in hydrological processes. In order to follow the seasonal variations, the phytoplankton was characterized to follow the hydrological variability in two sites (Dzilam and Progreso) of the Northern Yucatán Peninsula. For this, cruises were carried out monthly during one year, from April 2004 to March 2005, with two samplings per season (dry, rainy and "nortes"). Hydrological variability was associated with seasonality and directly linked to groundwater discharges in the Dzilam area, and waste water discharges in the Progreso area. The highest nutrient concentrations occurred mainly during the rainy season. The phytoplankton community changes observed throughout the year suggested that the hydrological and chemical variability associated with seasonality and anthropogenic impacts have a strong influence. The substitution of diatoms by dinoflagellates as the dominant group in Progreso was the result of seasonal variability itself, but also could have been caused by eutrophic processes; while in Dzilam, the major presence of diatoms could have been favored by groundwater discharges. The results of this study can be used to understand the linkages between stressors from the anthropogenic activities and coastal water quality and changes. PMID:22458216

  18. Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Apis Melifera Carpatica Honey Bee Workers, Depending on Season and Area

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marina Mot; Emil Tirziu; Ileana Margareta Nichita

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know that the intestinal flora of most organisms play a decisive role in nutrient assimilation or diseases defending action and honeybees are not an exception. The importance and composition of the intestinal micro-flora define the health and growth of honeybees. For this study were been collected as far as 10 honeybee workers from each area, from three different areas: Brasov county, near Perşani mountains, Timiş county, from plane area and Arad county. from hillside area,...

  19. A study of power availability in Oleh community in Isoko South local Government area of Delta state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Otuagoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the availability of electric power supply in the Oleh community of Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out. The methods employed in achieving this include the use of Hour – Meter to register the number of hours supply was available for a period of three months, Multimeter and Ammeter were used to measure the supply voltage and current at any given time. The load shedding method adopted in the community by the Benin Electricity Distribution Company, BEDC, was also investigated. The results showed that power availability in the community for the three months under review was very bad. The average percentage of power available for the three months was 11.8%, meaning 88.2% of the time, power was unavailable. The power reliability index for each month of the study was negative; -5.94, -7.82 and -5.94 for June, July and August, 2015 respectively against a recommended value of high reliability of 0.989. This poor power availability accounts for the underdevelopment of the community.

  20. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of rupicolous plant communities in the limestone areas of North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romo, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rupicolous plant communities of the Moroccan Rif and Atlas Mountains and the Algerian Djurjura Mountains have been studied in this contribution. The structure and floristic composition of these plant communities are described according to the phytosociological methodology. The following seven new syntaxa are described: Saxifrago tricrenatae-Poetum ligulatae and Saxifrago globuliferae-Seslerietum argenteae from the Western Rif; Drabo hispanicae-Pterocephaletum kunkeliani from the Eastern Rif; Saxifrago globuliferae-Geranietum cataractari from the Middle Atlas; Arabido alpinae-Festucetum atlanticae from the High Atlas; Centaureo benoistii-Galietum ephedroides from the Saharan Atlas and Poo alpinae-Saxifragetum numidicae from the Djurjura mountainous region.
    New data referring to the chorology and floristic composition of the other previously described syntaxons are also provided.

    No disponible.

  2. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Groenigen, J. W.; Jeffery, S; Mommer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a fi...

  3. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it cou...

  4. Fish communities in the Poodří Protected Landscape Area (the Odra River basin)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojkásek, B.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2004), s. 121-130. ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093105; GA ČR GA206/00/0824; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish communities * River Odra * floodplain Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.227, year: 2004 http://www.cazv.cz/attachments/5-Lojkásek.pdf

  5. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant communities of International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill had low number of plant species as related to control area. Importance value index of all the species were determined. Senna holosericea (Fresen. Greuter, Corchorus depressus (L. Stocks and Amaranthus viridis L. were found in all the communities whereas, Corchorus trilocularis L. and Abutilon indicum (L. Sweet were present in industrial areas. A relationship between soil characteristics and plant communities of the industries of Landhi and control site were conducted. Industrial plant communities have low level of water holding capacity and organic matter and high concentrations of total soluble salts and available sulfate as relative to soil of plant community of control area. The research demonstrated that the plant species were retarded in numbers due to soil pollution as compared to control area of Karachi University Campus due to industrial existing contamination and pollution in soil in the area

  6. The composition of common woody plant species and their influence on bird communities in urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban green areas are important habitats for birds in rapidly urbanized areas. The composition of woody plant species has a significant influence on the structure of bird communities in urban green areas. Therefore, to enhance the function of public green areas as wild bird habitats, we studied how woody plants influenced the composition of the bird community in Binjiang Forest Park, a typical urban green area in Shanghai city. A total of 5,368 individual birds belonging to 64 species from 25 families and 10 orders were recorded during line transect and point-count surveys conducted between 2009 and 2010. Data on bird abundance showed significant differences among months, with the two highest abundances recorded in April and November. A plot of the data on bird species richness against time (months showed a curve with two peaks, with the highest abundance recorded in April and December. The values of the Simpson index showed significant variation in bird diversity over the year, with the highest value recorded in October and the lowest in August. With square-plot (400 m2 sampling analysis, a total of 77 woody plant species in the park was identified. Only 14 of these species were recorded in at least five plots (nine trees and five shrubs. These species were considered common woody species. The fruiting seasons of 12 of these species occurred during periods between September and the following February. The principal outbreaks of insects with significance to forestry occurred from May to November. A principal component analysis was used to group all birds observed on the 14 woody plant species into 8 guilds according to their diets, foraging behaviors, and distributions in various vegetation layers. A Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the autumn-winter fruiting season was significantly positively correlated with 5 bird guilds, including vegetarians, omnivores, raptors, and insectivores. The abundant food supply coincided with the

  7. Endophthalmitis in Boston keratoprosthesis: case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Jay; Panchal, Bhavik; Das, Taraparasad; Pathegay, Avinash; Motukupally, Swapna R; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender

    2015-10-01

    To report the clinical and microbiological characteristics of infectious endophthalmitis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis (B-K-Pro) implantation. Retrospective analysis of 136 eyes that received a B-K-Pro type 1 between 1999 and 2012 was performed. Five eyes with a diagnosis of exogenous endophthalmitis after B-K-pro type 1 were identified and information about demographic data, indication for K-Pro, post-operative bandage contact lens use, post-operative prophylactic antibiotic use, timing and clinical presentation of endophthalmitis, gram stain and culture results of intraocular fluid and preoperative and post-operative visual acuity were collected. The incidence of endophthalmitis was 3.67% (5 of 136 eyes) and average time to develop endophthalmitis was 5.62 months (range 2 days to 8 months). Mean patient age was 31.4 years (5 to 65 years). The surgical indications included corneal injury due to chemical burns (n = 2), multiple failed grafts secondary to microbial keratitis (n = 2) and congenital glaucoma with congenital herpetic keratitis (n = 1). Post-Boston K-Pro, the visual acuity ranged from light perception (LP) to 20/50. K-pro was explanted in 4 patients. There was bacterial and fungal growth in two patients each and one vitreous did not grow anything. All the eyes were phthisical at last visit. Infectious endophthalmitis after K-Pro implantation in our study had a higher incidence, early onset and extremely poor visual outcome compared with post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis, as reported in literature. Not only bacterial but also fungal infections are an important etiology for infectious endophthalmitis in these cases. PMID:25183460

  8. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  9. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stakeholders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stakeholder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a 'Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room', which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stakeholders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media, and internal Stakeholders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium mining

  10. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, M; BROPHY, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, ...

  11. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome

    OpenAIRE

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes; Elisa Caldeira Pires Catão; Renata Henrique Santana; Anderson de Souza Cabral; Rodolfo Paranhos; Thiago Pessanha Rangel; Carlos Eduardo Rezende; Edwards, Robert A.; Thompson, Cristiane C; Fabiano L. Thompson; Ricardo Henrique Kruger

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of sili...

  12. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it could lead to higher chances of water borne diseases among them.

  13. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.)

  14. Pollution-induced community tolerance as an ecological risk assessment tool for diffuse heavy metal contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, M.; Wouterse, M.; Boivin, M.-E.; Greve, G.; Breure, T. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands). Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment

    2003-07-01

    In the Netherlands, large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, at concentrations in the range of the environmental quality criteria set for protecting the environment. Yet, it is difficult to demonstrate adverse effects of these metals in the field on ecosystem structure and functioning. Emerging techniques like determination of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) with nematodes and bacteria, and community structure analysis of organisms in the soil food web might be sensitive and promising tools for risk assessment in such ecosystems. As part of the Simulation Program on System-oriented Ecotoxicological Research (SSEO) of the Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research (NWO), we set out field investigations in a contaminated peat area in the central western part of the Netherlands. From about the 14{sup th} to the 20{sup th} century, this area has been contaminated with heavy metals due to a specific agricultural practice called 'Toemaken', the application of sand and sediment together with domestic wastes from the towns to improve soil quality. In this way about 500 km{sup 2} have been contaminated, mostly with lead, copper and zinc. Since the majority of the soil is moderately contaminated, and gradients are relatively small, special emphasis is given to the sampling technique for finding significant gradients of pollution including reliable references in a patchy environment. The goal of the project is: 1. to demonstrate relationships between PICT and more 'classical' ecological observations, like abundancies, community structure and functioning, and 2 to demonstrate field effects at multiple trophic levels, i.e. bacteria and nematodes. (orig.)

  15. An experience of community mental health program in rural areas of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era, mental disability is a major public health problem in the society. Many of the mental disabilities are correctable if detected early. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and pattern of mental disability. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study. Patients of all age groups in the age range of 0-60 years were randomly selected from 10 blocks of 2 districts, viz., Ranchi and Hazaribagh. Thirty villages from each block were taken for the study. The study was conducted by making house-to-house visits, interviewing and examining all the individuals in the families selected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the proportions. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of mental disability was found higher among males (67.9% than among females (32.1%. The prevalence rate was higher among the productive groups and among individuals with low socioeconomic status. There is scope of community-based rehabilitation of the mentally disabled.

  16. [Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in Xiaojiang backwater area during the preliminary operation stage of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-song; Sheng, Jin-ping; Li, Zhe; Gao, Xu; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Hong

    2010-07-01

    According to one year's continuous observation on algae in the Xiaojiang backwater area in Three Gorges Reservoir, our group analyzed algae community and its succession in the Xiaojiang backwater area at the beginning of the function of the reservoir. The algae cell density and biomass are the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The maximal value of cell density is 421.64 x 10(3) cells x L(-1), and the minimal value is 2.06 x 10(5) cells x L(-1); and maximal value of biomass is 39,231.84 microg x L(-1), and the minimal value is 226.17 microg x L(-1). From May 2007 to May 2008, there are 7 phylum, 101 category, 262 genus appeared in the Xiaojiang backwater area, in which 51 categories are Chlorophyta accounting for 50.5%, 22 categories are Bacillariophyta accounting for 21.8%, 18 categories are Cyanophyta accounting for 17.8%, and 4 categories are Dinophyta, 2 categories are Cryptophyta, 3 categories are Euglenophyta, 1 category is Xanthophyta and others. Cryptomonas, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Oocystis, Chlamydomonas, Schroederia, Aulacoseira, Stephanodiscus and Fragilaria are familiar categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. Asterionnella, Aulacoseira, Coelastrunm, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Aclinastnrum, Dictyosphaerium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Merismopedia, Ceratium, Peridinium and Cryptomonas are the preponderant categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20825015

  17. Current and Emerging Threats of Homegrown Terrorism: The Case of the Boston Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 15, 2013, two coordinated Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs exploded near the finish line of the famous Boston Marathon. The fatalities were low but the symbolism was high: more than a decade after 9/11, the United States is still not safe from militant jihadist terrorist attacks. The bombers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had planned on killing and dying in the name of the global jihad after their second set of attacks on New York’s Time Square. They were stopped before getting to New York where the fatalities could have been much greater. The two brothers were self-radicalised homegrown terrorists. At this moment of writing, existing evidence points to the fact that, while inspired by militant jihadism and in loose contact with terrorists in Dagestan, they operated alone. This is an analysis of the radicalisation process that led those two young men to adopt violent jihad, and the failures of U.S. counterterrorism efforts that enabled them to kill three people and injuring some 250 others. This analysis shows that much still needs to be done in international inter-agency collaboration and in community engagement to prevent further attacks of this sort from happening on U.S. soil.

  18. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  19. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  20. Impacts of Community Forest Management and Strictly Protected Areas on Deforestation and Human Well-Being in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala

    Protected areas and Community Forest Management (CFM) are among the most widespread interventions to conserve forests in tropical countries. In addition to their impacts on forests and the biodiversity they contain, these interventions also affect human well-being, particularly that of the local...... contain) and human well-being. However, while scientifically rigorous impact evaluation of programs is well advanced in fields such as development, health and education, it is rare in nature conservation. The rare existing studies focus mostly on protected areas and other interventions, such as CFM, are...... observed relationship between the intervention and the outcome. Potential rival explanations are factors that can confound impact estimates by affecting both assignment of units to intervention and the outcome. Another potential rival explanation is baseline outcome data that should have been collected...

  1. Commuter networks and community detection: a method for planning sub regional areas

    CERN Document Server

    De Montis, Andrea; Chessa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    A major issue for policy makers and planners is the definition of the "ideal" regional partition, i.e. the delimitation of sub-regional domains showing a sufficient level of homogeneity with respect to some specific territorial features. In Sardinia, the second major island in the Mediterranean sea, politicians and analysts have been involved in a 50 year process of identification of the correct pattern for the province, an intermediate administrative body in between the Regional and the municipal administration. In this paper, we compare some intermediate body partitions of Sardinia with the patterns of the communities of workers and students, by applying grouping methodologies based on the characterization of Sardinian commuters' system as a complex weighted network. We adopt an algorithm based on the maximization of the weighted modularity of this network to detect productive basins composed by municipalities showing a certain degree of cohesiveness in terms of commuter flows. The results obtained lead to ...

  2. Pastoralist Community's Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Sharma, Hardeep Rai; Alemie, Getahun Asres

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8%) of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3%) of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community. PMID:24381757

  3. [Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from microbial communities of Goryachinsk Thermal Spring (Baikal Area, Russia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, A M; Gaĭsin, V A; Sukhacheva, M V; Namsaraeva, B B; Panteleeva, A N; Nuianzina-Boldareva, E N; Kuznetsov, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Species composition of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats of the Goryachinsk thermal spring was investigated along the temperature gradient. The spring belonging to nitrogenous alkaline hydrotherms is located at the shore of Lake Baikal 188 km north-east from Ulan-Ude. The water is of the sulfate-sodium type, contains trace amounts of sulfide, salinity does not exceed 0.64 g/L, pH 9.5. The temperature at the outlet of the spring may reach 54 degrees C. The cultures of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, nonsulfur and sulfur purple bacteria, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were identified using the pufLM molecular marker. The fmoA marker was used for identification of green sulfur bacteria. Filamentous cyanobacteria predominated in the mats, with anoxygenic phototrophs comprising a minor component of the phototrophic communities. Thermophilic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus were detected irn the samples from both the thermophilic and mesophilic mats. Cultures ofnonsulfur purple bacteria similar to Blastochloris sulfoviridis and Rhodomicrobium vannielii were isolatd from the mats developing at high (50.6-49.4 degrees C) and low temperatures (45-20 degrees C). Purple sulfur bacteria Allochromatium sp. and Thiocapsa sp., as well as green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium sp., were revealedin low-temperature mats. Truly thermophilic purple and gree sulfur bacteria were not found in the spring. Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria found in the spring were typical of the sulfuret communities, for which the sulfur cycle is mandatory. The presence of aerobic bacteriochlorophylla-containing bacteria identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) tumifaciens in the mesophilic (20 degrees C) mat is of interest. PMID:25844460

  4. Response of benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling to reductions in wastewater loading to Boston Harbor, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jane; Giblin, Anne E.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Kelsey, Samuel W.; Howes, Brian L.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the long-term response of benthic metabolism in depositional sediments of Boston Harbor, MA, to large reductions in organic matter and nutrient loading. Although Boston Harbor received very high loadings of nutrients and solids it differs from many eutrophic estuaries in that severe hypoxia was prevented by strong tidal flushing. Our study was conducted for 9 years during which a series of improvements to sewage treatment were implemented, followed by 10 years after the culminating step in the clean-up, which was to divert all wastewater effluent offshore. Counter to expectations, sediment oxygen demand and nutrient effluxes initially increased at some stations, reaching some of the highest rates recorded in the literature, and were spatially and temporally quite variable. Early increases were attributed to macrofaunal effects, as sediments at some sites were rapidly colonized by tube-building amphipods, Ampelisca spp., which dominated a dense macrofaunal mat community. As reductions in loading progressed, however, mean rates in oxygen uptake and release of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate all decreased. At the point of outfall diversion, rates and variability had already decreased substantially. By the end of the study, average oxygen uptake had decreased from 74 to 41 mmol m-2 d-1 and spatial and temporal variability had decreased. Similarly, nutrient fluxes were less than half the rates measured at the start of the project and also less variable. Other evidence of improved conditions included a decrease in the carbon content of sediments at most stations and higher Eh values at all stations, illustrating less reducing conditions. Denitrification also showed an overall decrease from the beginning to the end of the 19-year study, but was highest during the intermediate phases of the cleanup, reaching 9 mmol N m-2 d-1. At the end of the study denitrification averaged for all sites was 2.2 mmol N m-2 d-1, but when compared to current loadings, had become

  5. Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Apis Melifera Carpatica Honey Bee Workers, Depending on Season and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know that the intestinal flora of most organisms play a decisive role in nutrient assimilation or diseases defending action and honeybees are not an exception. The importance and composition of the intestinal micro-flora define the health and growth of honeybees. For this study were been collected as far as 10 honeybee workers from each area, from three different areas: Brasov county, near Perşani mountains, Timiş county, from plane area and Arad county. from hillside area, from beekeepers, both in June and December. First was been detected the total number of bacteria contained in honeybees intestine samples through dilution method. The largest number of countered bacteria colonies was obtained from Timiş county (2946 colonies/milliliter in December. The smallest number of countered bacteria colonies was obtained in Braşov county (527 colonies/milliliter in June. After the growing colonies of bacteria from studied samples on special mediums of culture have been detected many species, Gram-positive including Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Gram-negative including Escherichia spp., Proteus, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas. Also have been detected Lactobacillus strains.

  6. Establishment and Management of Community Sanitary Complexes in Rural Areas : A Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Ministry of Rural Development; World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Indian remains one of the countries wherein a lot of efforts are still required to eliminate the practice of open defecation. In rural areas, open defecation though reduced in scale continues to be a socially and culturally accepted traditional behavior largely. Low awareness of the potential health and economic benefits of better sanitation and hygiene practices, perception of high costs ...

  7. “To live with the sea” Development of the Velondriake community - Managed protected area network, Southwest Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Harris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s southwest coast supports some of the largest coral reef systems in the western Indian Ocean. These reefs not only provide critical habitat to thousands of marine species but also are essential to the survival of the indigenous Vezo people who rely on healthy marine resources for food, transport, cultural identity and income. However, coastal populations are growing rapidly and international fisheries companies have begun exploiting the region’s waters through a sophisticated collection network to supply an expanding export market. In recent years local fishers have begun reporting declines in the size and number of their catches. Building on the success of a pilot marine no take zone launched three years ago in the remote fishing village of Andavadoaka, Blue Ventures Conservation (BV, Madagascar’s Institute of Marine Sciences (Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines – IHSM and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS are now working with 21 neighbouring villages, and fisheries collection and export companies to develop a network of community - run marine and coastal protected areas that will span more than 800 km2, aiming to benefit more than 10,000 people and protect coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds and other threatened habitats along Madagascar’s southwest coast. The villages, grouped into three constituent geographic regions, have established a management committee which serves as a liaison between conservation scientists and community members, providing input and insight into all phases of conservation planning, from research activities to implementation of management plans. The management committee also selected a unifying name for the network: Velondriake, which means “to live with the Sea.” Along with protecting biodiversity and livelihoods, the network is working to increase environmental awareness among communities, expand local and national capacity for biodiversity conservation and serve as a model

  8. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, M Z

    2011-01-01

    Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OFTHE COMMUNITIES OF FRINGE AREAS: A STUDY OF LUCKNOW CITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has tried to unveil the environmental health situation of the people of the fringe area through the case study of peripheral locality of Lucknow city. Some selected peripheral villages of the Lucknow city has been taken under the study. The study is based on the primary data collected from the field survey. Paper mainly gives the situation of health of the people of the study area and the situation of pollution mainly on Air, Water and Space. Therefore, this article attempts to investigate the environmental changes in the fringe region by deeply analyzing the issues such as the change in pollution levels and the various factors behind the change in pollution levels and its consequences on human health etc. It also delves deeply upon the endeavours of forestation and preparedness of health care system to meet challenges in such an environment by analyzing coverage of various health care schemes and access to health care professionals and infrastructure.

  10. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

  11. ANALYSIS OF HOWECOTOURISMIN PROTECTED AREAS INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Elena NEAGU; Virgil NICULA

    2013-01-01

    Tourism, which, by its specific, uses natural resources, is an important contribution to environmental damage. In this context, efforts to find and promote holiday forms that have a low environmentalimpact, forms known as ecotourism, ecological tourism, tourism in protected areas, green tourism. Tourism industry stakeholders have become increasingly sensitive to environmental issues and few are those who now believe commercial activities have nothing to do with the development of ecological a...

  12. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  13. Using the Boston Consulting Group Matrix To Analyze College Programs: Should that New Major Be Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark T.; Odom, Lamar; Alexander, Jacquelyn; Hudspeth, Elizabeth; Hudsepth, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Describes potential use of Boston Consulting Group Matrix to evaluate proposed new college and university programs or majors. The product evaluation matrix consisted of two major variables: product growth rate and market share. Provides an example of the matrix. (PKP)

  14. Defined Map Units of the seafloor of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BOTTOMTYPE, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is a qualitatively-derived interpretative polygon shapefile defining the bottom types of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches,...

  15. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  16. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims. PMID:26289501

  17. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  18. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  19. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  20. A Nonstationary Negative Binomial Time Series with Time-Dependent Covariates: Enterococcus Counts in Boston Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    E. Andres Houseman; Brent Coull; James Shine

    2004-01-01

    Boston Harbor has had a history of poor water quality, including by enteric pathogens. We conduct a statistical analysis of data collected by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) between 1996 and 2002 to evaluate the effects of court-mandated improvements in sewage treatment. We propose a negative binomial model for time series of Enterococcus counts in Boston Harbor, where nonstationarity and autocorrelation are modeled using a nonparametric smooth function of time in the predi...

  1. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  2. Interactions between urban vegetation and surface urban heat islands: a case study in the Boston metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, Eli K.; Wang, Jonathan A.; Miller, David L.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston’s SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston’s urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18–22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston’s urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  3. Master Agreement between Board of Directors of Iowa Valley Community College District (Merged Area VI) and Iowa Valley Community College Education Association/ISEA, 1987-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Valley Community Coll. District, Marshalltown, IA.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Directors of the Iowa Valley Community College District and the Iowa Valley Community College Education Association outlines the terms of employment for all faculty, librarians, and counselors and certain other professional staff at Marshalltown and Ellsworth Community Colleges. The 13…

  4. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Elster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves, micro-fungi (hyphae and spores, bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters, yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area, Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia, Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie, and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie. Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation. Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and

  5. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  6. Governance and Community Responses to Floods in Poor Peri-urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline

    see their already considerable vulnerability increased for every flooding event. In the long term, climate change is expected to make matters worse for these already tried populations, due to an increase in storm frequency and intensity, and with them in the risk of floods. However, climate change...... not mean that the urban poor are simply passive victims of climate change, or that collective services and interventions relative to flood management are inexistent or ungoverned. Instead, the ability to respond to floods is to a large extent formed outside the realm of the state and is maintained......In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly severe and frequent problem for the poor in many West African urban centres. In diverse metropoles of the region, including Lagos, Cotonou, Accra, Abidjan and Dakar, low-income populations who typically live undesirable flood-prone areas...

  7. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveit Ingvar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections.

  8. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  9. The new PhysTEC program at Boston University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Juliet; Duffy, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The Boston University Physics Department was recently awarded a three-year grant from the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC). PhysTEC's main aims are to improve the education of future physics teachers, and to increase the number of qualified physics teachers in the school system. Although there have been over 20 PhysTEC-funded sites across the country, BU is the first PhysTEC site in New England. Our goals with this poster are to raise awareness about PhysTEC, and to talk about what we are doing and what we plan to do at BU with our PhysTEC funding. A key part of the PhysTEC program is the teacher-in-residence (TIR), an experienced physics teacher who comes to campus for a year to promote physics teaching as a profession and to lend their experience to education-related efforts. Our first TIR is Juliet Jenkins. The poster will discuss Ms. Jenkins' role in the Department of Physics and in the School of Education as we move forward with new efforts to promote teaching, including a Learning Assistant program, a pilot studio section of one of our introductory physics courses, and a new education course that allows undergraduate students to observe teachers in the classroom.

  10. ASIC Design and Data Communications for the Boston Retinal Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Douglas B.; Ellersick, William; Kelly, Shawn K.; Doyle, Patrick; Priplata, Attila; Drohan, William; Mendoza, Oscar; Gingerich, Marcus; McKee, Bruce; Wyatt, John L.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design and testing of a custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been developed as a key component of the Boston retinal prosthesis. This device has been designed for patients who are blind due to age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. Key safety and communication features of the low-power ASIC are described, as are the highly configurable neural stimulation current waveforms that are delivered to its greater than 256 output electrodes. The ASIC was created using an 0.18 micron Si fabrication process utilizing standard 1.8 volt CMOS transistors as well as 20 volt lightly doped drain FETs. The communication system receives frequency-shift keyed inputs at 6.78 MHz from an implanted secondary coil, and transmits data back to the control unit through a lower-bandwidth channel that employs load-shift keying. The design’s safety is ensured by on-board electrode voltage monitoring, stimulus charge limits, error checking of data transmitted to the implant, and comprehensive self-test and performance monitoring features. Each stimulus cycle is initiated by a transmitted word with a full 32-bit error check code. Taken together, these features allow researchers to safely and wirelessly tailor retinal stimulation and vision recovery for each patient. PMID:23365888

  11. Agentes de saúde em comunidades urbanas Community-based health workers in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio L. Fernandes

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agentes comunitários nos programas de atenção primária à saúde é uma experiência amplamente difundida, principalmente nos países do Terceiro Mundo. É importante, entretanto, discriminar o perfil de atuação destes agentes em função da área onde atuam, principalmente no que diz respeito às diferenças entre o meio rural e o urbano. A simples substituição de profissionais de medicina, odontologia, psicologia etc, por agentes comunitários pode significar uma abordagem limitada do conceito de atenção primária, levando ao desenvolvimento de modelos assistenciais distintos, determinados em função da classe social a que se dirigem. Neste artigo, é apontada a necessidade de formação de recursos humanos de nível superior para a atenção primária à saúde, buscando-se também identificar o lugar dos agentes comunitários nesta área, sua especificidade técnica, bem como alguns obstáculos percebidos neste campo profissional.The employment of community-based health workers (CHWs in primary health care projects is a widespread experience, mainly in Third World countries. However, it is important to differentiate between the rural and urban profiles of these professionals. The replacement of medical/odontological/psychological professionals by CHWs alone may represent a limited approach to primary health care problems, leading to the development of different health care patterns, depending on the social class they are addressed. This paper points to need for the qualification of high-level health personnel also trying to identify the location of CHWs in this field, their technical specificity, as well as some difficulties observed in this practice.

  12. Personality Traits among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E-Shien Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Personality traits are important indicators of health and well-being. Neuroticism and conscientiousness in particular, are closely associated with morbidity and mortality in old age. However, little is known regarding the levels of these two key personality traits among U.S. Chinese older adults. This report aimed to examine the levels of personality traits among this population. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 and above. We measured neuroticism and conscientiousness using modified NEO personality inventory. Results: Of the 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 58.9% were female, and mean age was 72.8 years. Compared to neuroticism, conscientiousness trait was endorsed higher among Chinese older adults in our sample. Each conscientiousness item had at least 67.8% of participant endorsement, in comparison to the lowest endorsement rate of 14.3% in the neuroticism measure. Younger age (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.14 and fewer children (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.06 were correlated with both traits. Female gender (r = 0.11, poorer health status (r = -0.26, poorer quality of life (r = -0.23 and worsened health over the past year (r = -0.15 were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism. In contrast, male gender (r = -0.05, better health status (r = 0.20, higher quality of life (r = 0.17 and improved health over the past year (r = 0.07 were correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness. Education level (r = 0.15 was positively correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness, but not with neuroticism; whereas income level (r = -0.04 was negatively correlated with neuroticism but not with conscientiousness. Conclusion: U.S. Chinese older adults generally possess higher agreement level on conscientiousness traits than neuroticism. Future analysis should be conducted to explore the complex associations between

  13. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  14. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

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    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  15. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs. PMID:26761709

  16. Novel Instrumentation for Column Measurements and Regional Eulerian Modeling for Network Design in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Samra, J.; Gottlieb, E.; Budney, J.; Wofsy, S. C.; McKain, K.; Hase, F.; Gerbig, C.; Chance, K.; McManus, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas emit most of the greenhouse gases and therefore represent the largest sources of human influence on climate change. Their emission flux is currently determined by the measured gas concentration near the earth's surface, but this alone is insufficient due to the high variance associated with small-scale atmospheric motions, planetary boundary layer dynamics and heterogeneity of the urban landscape. Path-integrated column measurements that integrate through a mixed layer or across a plume are much more compatible with the scale of atmospheric models. The changes in time and space of the column-averaged concentration directly track anthropogenic emissions because the mass balance itself is sensed. Current column measurement instrumentation is however costly and operationally complex. In this paper we present the development of a compact, simplified solar-tracking spectrometer, measuring the vertical column amount of CO2, CH4, CO, O2, H2O, etc. in the atmosphere. It will add the 3rd dimension (vertical) information to the existing surface network in Boston. Using the sun as a light source, the column-averaged number densities of different gas species are captured in the solar radiation spectrum recorded by a near-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (0.1 cm-1 resolution) at the ground. The current setup is based on diffuser optics and is able to record the whole solar disk. It therefore is insensitive to the solar variability, has fewer tracking requirements, and is rugged and mobile at the same time. These spectrometers have the potential to be deployed in a multi-dimensional network gathering data from upwind, inside and downwind of Boston. A mobile spectrometer unit can be deployed to transect the urban dome, providing measurements continuously in space. The network strategy is developed using a data-model framework based on the regional Eulerian WRF Greenhouse Gas model WRF-GHG. In this paper we will mainly discuss the development of the novel column

  17. The effect of breast cancer health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice: a community health center catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664

  18. Alternatives to the conflict between environmental authorities and communities of protected areas in Colombian Páramos

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    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country biologically and culturally megadiverse. Presented inside the largest expanse of páramos of the world, which are considered the planet's water plants and habitats of high biological diversity. However, human occupation of the Colombian Páramos has generated conflict between environmental regulations and productive land uses. This article analyzes the alternative proposed solutions to the conflict between environmental authorities of protected areas and inhabitants of the Páramos in Colombia. Previously there were two types of alternatives: The first suggested granting ecotourism services in parks and land purchases by mixed companies. The second proposed the abandonment of the production activities of farmers, mediated by educational processes and in compliance with environmental standards on pain of facing punitive action by the state. We propose a third alternative, that involves community management plans with time and institutional funding, and implementation of agroecological models, biocultural rescue memory and changes in agrarian structure

  19. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. PMID:25807991

  20. Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Jormfeldt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

  1. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence of chemical products usage, causing and irreversible damage to environment and producers and consumers life quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. under Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston as phosphate rock solubilizing bacteria. The study took place in the Research Centre Tibaitatá-Corpoica, located in Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Results demonstrated that the strains have an intrinsic capacity to solubilize low solubility phosphorus sources as phosphate rock. Inoculants application based on: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 and Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 strains displayed the best results. The strains Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 and K35, are capable of producing indoles and siderophores. The green house experiment showd that strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 of phosphate rocks represents a viable economic and ecological alternative in sustainable agriculture systems.

  2. Boston Public Schools K1 and K2 Programs Needs Assessment. Internal Report to the Department of Early Childhood, Boston Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Roberts, Joanne; Mills, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The Boston Public Schools (BPS) Department of Early Childhood commissioned a needs assessment of current kindergarten (K2) and preschool (K1) programs (1) to inform the BPS Department of Early Childhood about professional development needs to improve the quality of existing K1 and K2 programs; and (2) to inform the Department of additional…

  3. Characteristics and distribution of trulli constructions in the area of the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli

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    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The agro-forestry territory in the Region of Apulia, southern Italy, is characterised by a widespread and diversified presence of dry stone constructions, including trulli, rural buildings with a characteristic a conical shape. The trulli are mainly to be found in the central and eastern part of the region, called Murgia of Trulli. Trulli are perfectly integrated with the agro-environment specificity of the area, creating a unique landscape and establishing themselves as a testimony of tradition and rural culture. In fact, in this area, from the 17th until the mid-20th century, the trulli accompanied the development of agricultural activities. According to the number of cones they had, they were used as temporary shelters, places of support for primary production, or comfortable houses for the rural population. In recent decades, for several social and economic reasons, this heritage of rural buildings has been affected by abandonment and degradation phenomena. Interventions aimed at recovery and re-use have not always respected the origin of the buildings, their design characteristics or the landscape in which they had been built. In order to reduce the impact that this situation has had on environmental and territorial quality it is, therefore, necessary to develop initiatives to protect and valorise the trulli while respecting the identity of place, the architectural elements, and the agricultural and environmental characteristics of the territory. For this purpose, we need to analyse and characterise the heritage of the existing trulli and its relationship with the local reality. The present paper analyses the typology and distribution of the trulli located on the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli, a protected area with high environmental value in the central-eastern area of the Region of Apulia. Specifically, we analysed the relationship between the trulli buildings and the agro-environment context to acquire a basic

  4. Patient’s expectation on communication performances community of Dental Health Services providers located in urban and rural area

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    Taufan Bramantoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of dentist’s communication skills is considered as one of important aspects on the quality of dental health services assessment. During the initial interview conducted at Ketabang, Dupak, and Kepadangan community dental health services at Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia, it appeared that eighty percent of initial respondents were not satisfied with the communication aspect. Community Dental Health Services (CDHS need to assess the communication performances based on community characteristics in effort to promote the quality and effectiveness of the denta health services. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze patient’s expectation values priorities on dentists' communication performances in CDHS that located in urban and rural area. Methods: The study was conducted in Ketabang Surabaya, Dupak Surabaya and Kepadangan Sidoarjo CDHSs. The participants were 400 patients above 18 years old. Participants were assessed their expectation value using the communication performances of dental health services questionnaire. Results: Patients in urban CDHS appeared that there were two priority aspects which had high values, namely the clarity of instructions and the dentist’s ability of active listening to the patient, while patients in rural CDHS revealed that the clarity of instructions and dentist-patient relationship were the aspects with high values. Conclusion: Patients in CDHS that located in rural area expect more dentist-patient interpersonal relationship performance than patients in CDHS located in urban area. This finding becomes a valuable information for CDHS to develop communication strategies based on community characteristics.Latar belakang: Kualitas komunikasi dari dokter gigi merupakan salah satu aspek penting dalam penilaian kualitas layanan suatu sarana pelayanan kesehatan. Pada wawancara pendahuluan yang dilaksanakan di puskesmas Ketabang, Dupak dan Kepadangan di Surabaya dan Sidoarjo

  5. Relationship between diversity of forest plant and community dynamics in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-gui; XING Ya-juan; ZHOU Xiao-feng; HAN Shi-jie

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity was studied in 26 communities with different structures in Maoershan National Park and Liangshui Natural Reserve of Northeast Forestry University in Heilongjiang Province, China. Composition index (CI) was taken as a parameter to quantify the community dynamics, which can nicely describe forest community dynamics, meanwhile, the relationship between diversity and community dynamics were also investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the total number species of community, richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were obviously different in every community. The richness decreased with the increasing CI of every community, which means richness was in inverse proportion to community dynamics. The Shannon-Wiener index of every community increased from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession, and then decreased in the climax stage. The coverage weighted foliage-height diversity index increased along with the increase of CI, which was similar as the pattern diversity.

  6. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  7. Effects of disturbance area on fouling communities from a tropical environment: Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Eduardo de Almeida Xavier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In marine fouling communities, free space is one of the key limiting resources for settlement of new organisms. In this way, removing biomass through physical disturbances would play an important role in the structure and dynamics of these communities. The disturbance size seems to be a characteristic that influences recolonization patterns, thus affecting species diversity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of growing disturbance areas on fouling communities. Fouling panels were allowed to develop for 6 mo. at Guanabara Bay (22°52'S, 043°08'W prior to a single application of randomly positioned, circular physical disturbances of growing areas (7 levels, from 0 to 75% removed cover, 10 replicates per treatment. Samples were taken fortnightly after the disturbance event, so as to follow the development patterns of the community afterward. At the first sampling the diversity showed maximum indices in communities to which intermediary disturbance levels were applied. However, this profile changed later to a diversity peak in communities with higher disturbance levels. It also showed a continuous increase in richness and diversity through time until the 7th sample (110 days after the disturbance event, with subsequent decrease. Such patterns seem to corroborate the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, despite the drastic profile change with time, revealing that disturbance is indeed an important factor structuring hard bottom communities at Guanabara Bay, and highlighting the importance of longer term studies of disturbance impacts in marine communities.Em comunidades incrustantes marinhas, o espaço livre no substrato é um dos principais recursos limitantes para o estabelecimento de novos organismos. Assim sendo, distúrbios físicos que removam biomassa se mostram importantes agentes para a estruturação e dinâmica dessas comunidades. A extensão do distúrbio é uma característica que parece afetar os padrões de recoloniza

  8. Differences in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Composition in Soils of Three Land Use Types in Subtropical Hilly Area of Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Caihuan; Gu, Zhenhong; Cui, Hang; Zhu, Honghui; Fu, Shenlei; Yao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Land use type is key factor in restoring the degraded soils due to its impact on soil chemical properties and microbial community. In this study, the influences of land use type on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community and soil chemical properties were assessed in a long-run experimental station in subtropical hilly area of southern China. Soil samples were collected from forest land, orchard and vegetable field. Soil chemical properties were analyzed, and PCR-DGGE was performed to ex...

  9. The effect of education and training in rehabilitation of inmates and its probable curbing of recidivism : a case of community reintegration at Rooigrond Management Area / Kgosietsile Christopher Rantsome

    OpenAIRE

    Rantsome, Kgosietsile Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education and training in the rehabilitation of inmates and its probable curbing of recidivism at Rooigrond Management Area. The study determined the impact the community and other stakeholders has in placing back law abiding citizens into the community. Due to the complexity of the research two methods were adopted, viz. qualitative and quantitative methods. The research comprised of two types of respondents, sixty i...

  10. Sterols and fatty acid biomarkers as indicators of changes in soil microbial communities in a uranium mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maria J; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Kátia; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Duarte, Armando C; Freitas, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Included in the 2nd tier of a site specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa uranium mine, Central Portugal), fatty acids biomarkers and sterols were analyzed to assess the impact of soil contamination with metals and radionuclides in the structure of the microbial community in seven sampling sites located at different distances from the mine. Surface soil samples were collected in those sampling sites in the four different seasons of the year. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on fatty acid biomarkers and sterols. Subsequently PCA scores obtained for both components were used to test the effect of sites and seasons, on soil samples collected in the Cunha Baixa uranium mine, through bi-factorial ANOVAs. Through PCA analysis, two distinct groups were set apart along the first two components. One group included sites at a great distance from the mine which were negatively correlated with higher contents of iC15:0 and iC17:0, both indicators of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as with ergosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol. The second group, in turn, was composed of the sampling sites most impacted by ore exploration, in situ leaching of poor ore, and spread of sludge from the effluent treatment pond. These sites were positively correlated with higher levels of iC16:0 (Gram-positive bacteria indicator), cyC17:0 (generally common in gram negative bacteria) and C18:0 and C17:0 biomarkers of non-specific bacteria. The profile of fatty acids obtained in the sampling sites revealed variable predominance of groups of bacteria which are a clear indication of differences in the soil microbial communities that are directly related to the environmental conditions prevailing in the uranium mine area. PMID:21547821

  11. Longitudinal associations with changes in outdoor recreation area use for physical activity during a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Forthofer, Melinda; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent; Child, Stephanie T; Hughey, S Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Outdoor recreation areas (ORA) are important resources for physical activity (PA) and health promotion. While past research has identified correlates of ORA use, few studies have examined predictors of longitudinal changes in park- and trail-based PA in community settings. Using data from a 6-month community-based walking intervention study, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of PA in ORAs. Data were collected from baseline and 6-month assessments from participants (n=295) in a group walking intervention in South Carolina; participants enrolled from January 2012-May 2013. A decomposition scheme was used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of average group ORA use for PA, including social support, self-efficacy for PA, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and accelerometer-based PA, adjusting for gender. On average, participants were 49.4+13.3years old, 66.1% were Black, and the majority were women. There was a mean increase in group ORA use of 2.1+0.4days/month from baseline to 6months. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of the percentage of time in MVPA, self-efficacy, and social support were associated with greater group-average ORA use. Longitudinally, increased social support from friends and rating of lighter motorized traffic were associated with increased group ORA use. Additionally, longitudinal increases in percentage of MVPA and more favorable rating of the neighborhood as a place to walk were both associated with decreased group ORA use. Better understanding how social and physical environmental characteristics impact ORA use for PA can lead to more effective intervention strategies and warrants greater attention in future research and public health promotion efforts. PMID:26096192

  12. In search of the Boston Strangler: genetic evidence from the exhumation of Mary Sullivan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, David R; Starrs, James E

    2004-01-01

    The Boston Strangler was one of the United States' most notorious serial killers, raping and strangling with decorative ligatures thirteen woman in Boston during the early 1960s. Albert DeSalvo, never a suspect in the slayings, confessed in prison (where he was later murdered) to being the Boston Strangler, and the investigation largely ended. Mary Sullivan was the last victim of the Boston Strangler, found sexually assaulted and strangled in her Boston apartment in 1964. Recently, a team of forensic scientists undertook the exhumation and subsequent scientific analysis of Mary Sullivan's remains, in hope of finding consistencies or inconsistencies between DeSalvo's confessed description of the murder and any evidence left behind. Included in these analyses was extensive DNA testing of all UV fluorescent material associated with the body. The large majority of results were negative, however, fluorescent material located on the underwear and entwined in her pubic hair generated two human mitochondrial DNA sequences. Neither of these matched the victim nor members of the forensic team who worked on the evidence. Most importantly, neither DNA sequence could have originated from Albert DeSalvo. PMID:14984214

  13. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  14. Dynamics of Community Participation, Student Achievement and School Management: The Case of Primary Schools in a Rural Area of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…

  15. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  16. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Telarolli Junior

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  17. Community development: an important way for coordinating development of population and social economy in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J

    1995-01-01

    This article explains how community development is important to rural socioeconomic development in China. Almost all rural socioeconomic activities occur at the community level. Community development encourages voluntarism and self-development, which contribute to adoption of more modern ideas, morals, and values. Community development stimulates changes that favor decreased childbearing and a high quality of child rearing. The special features of Chinese rural communities are identified as underdevelopment, population pressure and resource degradation, collective entities, greater social cohesion, flexibility, affiliations as government units, and access to other useful community organizations. The development model for communities varied over time from an emphasis on family planning to a focus on women's development, poverty alleviation, or economic development. Well-developed communities focused on social security systems, service networks, or environmental protection. Community development is tied to economic development. The growth of collectives played an important role in community development. Women's active and extensive participation and leadership by other influential persons were important forces in community development. Women served as agents of change. Mass participation is now a key feature of community development. Former communes did not include the same level of voluntarism. Community development directly supports increased incomes for families, which decreases the emphasis on children as a source of income. The economic value of children is reduced when communities provide social security. The greater value placed on males is reduced when women's income is increased. Community development lowers the social value of children by improving people's quality of life and by creating a modern social environment. PMID:12290858

  18. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the

  19. Impact Of Training On The Knowledge Of Community Health Guides In Some Selected Areas Of Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi R. R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study conducted in Kashi Vidyapeeth Block of Varanasi District, 20 Community Health Guides (CHGs were trained in order to strengthen their knowledge in some selected areas of Primary Health Care. Of the total score of 235, the mean score in pre-training was 115.65 (49.21%. During the first post-training assessment done after 3 months the mean score increased by 61.50 (26.17% which was statistically significant During the third post-training assessment after 9 months of training, the mean score increased significantly from the pre-training assessment by 38 (16.17%. Separate analysis for each item revealed significant improvements in the knowledge of CHGs after training. Age had no significant influence in the gain of knowledge. The increase in knowledge was significantly greater in CHGs with higher formal education. The “practitioner” group of CHGs could gain and retain more knowledge compared to the “non-practitioner” group.

  20. The impact of hydraulic blade dredging on a benthic megafaunal community in the Clyde Sea area, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.; Moore, P. G.

    2003-08-01

    A study was made of the impacts on a benthic megafaunal community of a hydraulic blade dredge fishing for razor clams Ensis spp. within the Clyde Sea area. Damage caused to the target species and the discard collected by the dredge as well as the fauna dislodged by the dredge but left exposed at the surface of the seabed was quantified. The dredge contents and the dislodged fauna were dominated by the burrowing heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum, approximately 60-70% of which survived the fishing process intact. The next most dominant species, the target razor clam species Ensis siliqua and E. arcuatus as well as the common otter shell Lutraria lutraria, did not survive the fishing process as well as E. cordatum, with between 20 and 100% of individuals suffering severe damage in any one dredge haul. Additional experiments were conducted to quantify the reburial capacity of dredged fauna that was returned to the seabed as discard. Approximately 85% of razor clams retained the ability to rapidly rebury into both undredged and dredged sand, as did the majority of those heart urchins Echinocardium cordatum which did not suffer aerial exposure. Individual E. cordatum which were brought to surface in the dredge collecting cage were unable to successfully rebury within three hours of being returned to the seabed. These data were combined to produce a model of the fate of the burrowing megafauna dredged and dislodged in order to collect 10 kg of marketable razor clams.

  1. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055

  2. Epipelagic mesozooplankton succession and community structure over a marine ouffall area in the northeastern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li Chun; Kumar, Ram; Dahms, Hans Uwe; Chen, Chun Te; Chen, Qing Chao; Hwang, Jiang Shiou

    2008-05-01

    This study analyses distribution and abundance patterns of mesozooplankton communities at 13 stations in the coastal waters over a marine outfall area in the northeastern South China Sea. Cruises were conducted in March, June and September 2002, and plankton samples were collected with a 333 microm North Pacific net. The Mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid Copepods, Cladocera, Chaetognatha and Pteropoda. Stations located near the entrance of the harbor provided a relatively higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians. In total, 20 zooplankton groups were identified in which, Calanoida, Cladocera, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda, Poecilostomatoida and Appendicularia comprised 92.77% of the total zooplankton abundance. Copepoda dominated in all three cruises, comprising 65.32% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Samples collected in June recorded higher mesozooplankton abundance than March and September samples. Onshore stations recorded higher BOD values, higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians and a relativelylower abundance of the overall mesozooplankton. Total mesozooplankton abundance did not correlate significantly with temperature, pH, or dissolved oxygen, but correlated negatively with BOD. PMID:18972677

  3. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en lactuca sativa cultivar white boston

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López; Ana María García Hoyos; Felipe Andrés Romero Perdomo; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonTítulo en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonResumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos...

  4. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80%) of 135 patients (7 men) with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28) years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients ...

  5. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80%) of 135 patients (7 men) with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28) years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109)...

  6. 78 FR 8686 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Manchester-Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), notice is being given that the FAA is considering a request from Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH to waive the surplus property requirements for approximately 19 acres of airport...

  7. An Integrated Model of Care: A Visit to The SPARK Center, a Program of Boston Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This article features The SPARK Center, a program of Boston Medical Center, located in Mattapan, Massachusetts. The Center has pioneered a whole-child approach to address the multi-dimensional needs of Boston's most at-risk children, recognizing that vulnerable children need more than educational supports to flourish. The Center's integrated model…

  8. Transformations of soils and forest communities in the areas of Early-Medieval strongholds (examples from Chełmno Land)

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Renata; Kamiński, Dariusz; Markiewicz, Maciej; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Zbyszewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research concerned transformations of soils in the areas of Early-Medieval strongholds and connected differences in floristic composition between forest communities from strongholds and non-synanthropic habitats. The study focused on two areas where Early-Medieval strongholds were situated – Gronowo and Płutowo (Chełmińska Upland, Northern Poland) – surrounded by various types of soils: rusty soils and black earths, respectively. Detailed pedological and floristicphytosociological investi...

  9. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors. PMID:26320916

  10. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  11. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  12. Development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers Desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers, and to investigate the effects of age, education and gender on both the original and the adapted Boston Naming Test in respect of Brazilian Portuguese speakers. METHOD: Eighty items, including the 60 original ones and 20 adapted items were administered to 739 healthy Brazilian subjects aged between 6 and 77 years who received 0 to 17 years of education. RESULTS: The coefficients of the General Linear Model estimation suggested that both age and education were statistically significant to predict total scores. In addition, score variances, justified by such predictors, were 41.20% in the original Boston Naming Test against 25.84% in the adapted Boston Naming Test. These results suggest that the scores from the original BNT are more dependent on age and education than those from the adapted Boston Naming Test. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated the suitability of the adapted Boston Naming Test version for the Brazilian population and described provisional norms for the original and adapted Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers.OBJETIVO: Apresentar o desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa e investigar os efeitos da idade, escolaridade e gênero nas versões original e adaptada do Boston Naming Test. MÉTODO: 80 itens foram administrados incluindo os 60 originais e 20 itens adaptados em 739 brasileiros saudáveis com idades entre 6 e 77 anos e escolaridade entre 0 e 17 anos. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de estimação do Modelo Linear Geral sugeriram que a idade e escolaridade eram preditores significativos do resultado total. Além disto, as variâncias dos resultados explicadas por estes preditores no Boston Naming Test original era de 41,20%, enquanto que no adaptado era de 25,84%. Estes achados sugerem que os resultados do Boston Naming Test original são mais dependentes de

  13. Earth Sciences at Boston University: Reorientation and Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Simpson, C.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1994 with the renaming of its Department of Geology as the Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University has invested much effort into developing a modern, energetic department that excels in its dual research and teaching mission. These changes required strong leadership at the departmental and senior administrative level, but they have resulted in a moderately sized program (9.5 full time faculty) that is competing with "Top Ten" institutions for graduate students and faculty, and which is also placing its undergraduates in the leading graduate programs. Most of the revitalization was achieved over a 5-year period in which across the board changes occurred in our undergraduate curriculum and during which we recruited junior and mid-level faculty on the basis of their scholarly abilities and for their belief in the culture of our new mission and program. The undergraduate curriculum, which had been oriented towards traditional geologic offerings, was greatly increased in rigor (requiring a full year each of calculus, physics, and chemistry) and redesigned to expand flexibility in the broad field of earth sciences. During the evolution of the curriculum, it was extremely important not to confuse "tradition" with "rigor". Undergraduates became more critically involved with our research mission through senior theses, a formal Undergraduate Research Opportunities program, and by work-study participation in the laboratories. By making the program more challenging, over the period of 3 years we doubled the number of majors and minors and increased the average GPA by 0.5 units. Now, after 8 years, we have nearly tripled our overall number of students, with further improvements in quality and intellectual diversity. The opportunity to replace departing senior faculty was achieved through effectively arguing to the central administration that modern earth sciences are an essential component of any leading institution of higher education. By persuading the

  14. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  15. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  16. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Haug

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs. We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  17. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  18. Combining demographic and land-use dynamics with local communities perceptions for analyzing socio-ecological systems: a case study in a mountain area of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauteri M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities are facing increasing social heterogeneity and organization complexity consequently to land use changes, demographic dynamics and glo­balization processes. Members of the communities should have a direct perception of their own territories, recognizing any positive or negative change that may occur. A better knowledge of these processes may be achieved by investigating local community awareness and perspectives. A research was carried out in a rural and mountainous area of Central Italy with the following aims: (i to highlight demographic dynamics and land use changes that affected the area during the last decades; (ii to assess local communities’ perceptions and awareness of their own territories; (iii to verify and validate a research methodology by evaluating the resilience of socio-ecological systems. The study area involved four municipalities that were analyzed considering the historical changes of demographic data and land-use system. A questionnaire was submitted to a sample of local population. The questionnaire was aimed to investigate the following issues: (i level and quality of participation and communication within the community life; (ii awareness of environmental resources of the territories; (iii socio-cultural opportunities and expectations of future changes within the communities. In each municipality, different behaviors and needs emerged according to the age of the inhabitants. In spite of that, awareness of social, cultural and environmental constraints/potentialities emerged in all the communities. Communication capability seems a key factor to reinforce both the social capital and the resilience of the territories. Thus, sharing of experience and knowledge could play a major role in developing an efficient go­vernance of the occurring territorial changes. Finally, the study highlights that serious efforts should be spent especially to satisfy expectations of young people concerning the territorial

  19. Reflections on the History of Ethnomethodology: The Boston and Manchester "Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psathas, George

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the development of programs in ethnomethodology at Boston University and Manchester University by offering comparisons with the ideal type model of "school," The Chicago School of Sociology. It focuses primarily on institutional structures and arrangements rather than shared theoretical or methodological…

  20. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  1. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... comment at the Web site http://www.regulations.gov . These safety zones are needed pending implementation... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from...

  2. An Evaluation of the EDC Role in the Bilingual Transitional Clusters of the Boston Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Marvin G.; Joyce, John F.

    The report documents the early stages and reflections of some of the initial staff of the Boston Bilingual Clusters program designed for public school instruction for Puerto Rican immigrant children. Conceived as a transitional educational experience, the program seeks to effect the diagnosis and remediation of school problems and unmet needs in…

  3. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  4. Immigration, Suicidal Ideation and Deliberate Self-Injury in the Boston Youth Survey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Azrael, Deborah; Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Molnar, Beth E.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and immigration-related correlates of deliberate self-injury (DSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) were estimated in a sample of Boston public high school students in 2006. Compared with U.S.-born youth, immigrant youth were not at increased risk for DSI or SI, even if they had experienced discrimination due to their ancestry. By…

  5. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  6. Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets alumnus Tom Roberts named Boston College game Hokie Hero

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets alumnus retired Col. James Tom Roberts, U.S. Army, who earned a degree in business administration from the Pamplin College of Business in 1962 has been selected as the Hokie Hero for the Virginia Tech versus Boston College game.

  7. The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    Dr. David Morens reads excerpts from his essay about Cotton Mather’s diary, which details the experience and tragedy of the measles outbreak in Boston, Massachusetts in 1713.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  8. The Path Forward: School Autonomy and Its Implications for the Future of Boston's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dan; Miles, Karen Hawley; Nathan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the question of how Boston Public Schools (BPS) can strengthen and support autonomy and accountability across its portfolio to promote innovation and expand access to equity and high performance. Some of the specific questions guiding this work are: (1) Should all schools within BPS operate within autonomous structures? (2) Is…

  9. The Means Analysis of Common Areas of Community%社区公共空间管理的Means分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀; 王卫红; 杨少飞

    2005-01-01

    Means Process provided by SPSS can provide the mean of every group mean, the degree of the material difference between groups, the degree of association between dependent variable and indepencent variable etc.. Now the management of the community public space is a hot social topic. Aim to the management system of the community public space, by an investigation, the writer did Means analysises to 49 questions of the questionnaire, and got the topics about which there is a great difference between different type , age and education level groups and an association with type, age and education, to guide the community management practice better.

  10. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  11. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; J. Mataix-Solera; Scow, K M; V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-Beneyto

    2009-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of ...

  12. Economic Evaluation of a Community Based Early Intervention Program Implemented in a Disadvantaged Urban Area of Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Matthew; Homel, Ross; Smith, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Children raised in socio-economically disadvantaged regions have increased probabilities of school failure, delinquency, drug abuse, and juvenile crime. The Pathways to Prevention project attempts to reduce these risks in a disadvantaged community through the implementation of child-focused (school-based) and family focused (community-based) interventions. Preliminary results from an economic evaluation of the Pathways project are reported. Project costs are compared with the costs of a numbe...

  13. 奇台县满营湖区荒漠植被群落稳定性%Community Stability of Desert Vegetation at Manyinghu Area of Qitai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚文婷; 安放舟

    2012-01-01

    以奇台县满营湖区荒漠植被为研究对象,结合研究区内37个样方调查资料,利用改进的M.Godron稳定性测定方法测定了群落稳定性.结果表明,叉毛蓬群落在研究区内稳定性最高,是演替的顶级群落.%According to the investigation data about 37 quadrats of desert vegetation in Manyinghu area of Qitai County, the modified method of M. Godron was used to measure the community stability. The results showed that Petrosimonia community had the highest stability, and was the climax community of succession.

  14. A summary of the benthic-invertebrate and fish-community data from streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 1981-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Dobrowolski, Edward G.; Shoda, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittently, during 1981–2012, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled sites in the White River and several tributaries in the Indianapolis metropolitan area of Indiana for benthic invertebrates and fish communities. During 1981–87, one study focused on benthic-invertebrate data collection at three sites along the White River. During 1994–96, 21 sites were sampled for benthic invertebrates; after 1999, up to 13 sites were sampled for benthic invertebrates and fish communities. The information collected during these studies was used in conjunction with the Indianapolis Department of Public Works and CWA Authority, Inc., programs to help improve overall health of the White River and its tributaries by reducing combined sewer overflows and other point and non-point sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area.

  15. Anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water and finished water of community water systems in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2004–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.; Stark, James R.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Smith, Erik A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, two Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) were conducted during 2004–05 in unconfined parts of the glacial aquifer system and in unconfined parts of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota and Wisconsin. SWQAs are two-phased sampling activities in the NAWQA Program. The first phase evaluated the occurrence of 265 (258 are included in this report) anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) through monitoring source water in 30 of the largest-producing community water system wells completed in the aquifers underlying the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area. The AOCs included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and other AOCs. During the second phase of the study, 15 of the original community water system wells, those with the greatest number of AOC detections, were resampled along with associated finished water.

  16. An ecological study of the plant communities and degraded areas of the Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa / Mahlomola Ernest Daemane

    OpenAIRE

    Daemane, Mahlomola Ernest

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify, classify, describe and map the plant communities in the proposed Highveld National Park, including the degraded Spitskop areas. Vegetation sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of 108 stratified random relevés were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) was used and the result was refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented ...

  17. Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ingeborg Haug; Sabrina Setaro; Juan Pablo Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs ...

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and practices assessment concerning community conservation and participatory rural appraisal in the areas that neighbour the Kisite Mpunguti Marine park and reserve.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwadzaya, H.; Ndung'u, M.; Sumba, D.

    1995-01-01

    This Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by Community Wildlife Programme of the Kenya Wildlife Service as part of the activities of the USAID funded Conservation of Biodiverse Resources Areas (COBRA) project. The survey and PRA methods were combined and carried out in August 1995 in all villages that neighbour the Kisite Mpunguti Marine Park and Reserve. A sample of 152 respondents were interviewed for the sur...

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  20. Effect of land cover on biodiversity and composition of a soil macrofauna community in a reclaimed coastal area at Yancheng, China

    OpenAIRE

    GE, Baoming; ZHANG, Daizhen; Tang, Boping; Zhou, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Reclamation was considered the primary factor that caused coastal wetland loss in China. Along with land conversion, there were different types of land cover on the reclaimed coast. In early March 2012, we selected 5 habitats with different land cover from a reclaimed coastal area at Yancheng City that was diked about 30 years before, and the biodiversity and composition variations in soil macrofauna communities were studied. We found that higher biodiversity values appeared in the uncultivat...

  1. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Srinivas; Ranjit Mankeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of...

  2. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in local bank vole Myodes glareolus populations in an area with low human PUUV infection (nephropathia epidemica [NE]) incidence in northern Belgium was monitored for 2 consecutive years. Bank voles were trapped in preferred...... activity patterns, local environmental conditions and rodent community structure are also likely to play a role in determining PUUV infection risk for humans....

  3. Incidence and pattern of injuries among residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoaje Eme T

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of infectious diseases in developing countries, injuries still contribute significantly to the health burden. There are few reports of rural, community-based injury surveys in Nigeria. This study describes the incidence and pattern of injuries among the residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria. Methods It was a community based cross-sectional study. Two of six census areas were randomly selected and all households in the two areas visited. Information on the sociodemographic characteristics, individual injury events and outcomes was obtained with a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. Results Information was obtained on the 1,766 persons in 395 households. Fifty-nine injuries were recorded by 54 people, giving an injury incidence of 100 per 1,000 per year (95% CI = 91.4–106.9. Injury incidence among Conclusion Injuries were common in Igbo-Ora, though resultant disability and fatality were low. Males and those aged ≥ 30 years had significantly higher proportions of the injured. Falls and traffic injuries were the most commonly reported injuries. Appropriate interventions to reduce the occurrences of injuries should be instituted by the local authorities. There is also need to educate the community members on how to prevent injuries.

  4. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Community Growth Options: Vacant, Developed, and Constrained Areas; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2007); [developable

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS raster data set illustrates vacant, developed, and constrained areas for the 35 parishes in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan South Louisiana study area....

  5. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  6. EASE-Grid Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice Masks Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice (LOCI) files provide land classification masks derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product...

  7. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  8. bh_1mBS.tif: Backscatter Imagery from Sidescan Sonar 1 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km²...

  9. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in contrasting environmental settings: Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Zappia, H.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of invertebrate assemblages along gradients of urban intensity were examined in three metropolitan areas with contrasting climates and topography (Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Salt Lake City, Utah). Urban gradients were defined using an urban intensity index (UII) derived from basin-scale population, infrastructure, land-use, land-cover, and socioeconomic characteristics. Responses based on assemblage metrics, indices of biotic integrity (B-IBI), and ordinations were readily detected in all three urban areas and many responses could be accurately predicted simply using regional UIIs. Responses to UII were linear and did not indicate any initial resistance to urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urbanization than were density metrics. Metrics that were good indicators were specific to each study except for a richness-based tolerance metric (TOLr) and one B-IBI. Tolerances to urbanization were derived for 205 taxa. These tolerances differed among studies and with published tolerance values, but provided similar characterizations of site conditions. Basin-scale land-use changes were the most important variables for explaining invertebrate responses to urbanization. Some chemical and instream physical habitat variables were important in individual studies, but not among studies. Optimizing the study design to detect basin-scale effects may have reduced the ability to detect local-scale effects. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  10. Small Drones for Community-Based Forest Monitoring: An Assessment of Their Feasibility and Potential in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered through community-based forest monitoring (CBFM programs may be as accurate as those gathered by professional scientists, but acquired at a much lower cost and capable of providing more detailed data about the occurrence, extent and drivers of forest loss, degradation and regrowth at the community scale. In addition, CBFM enables greater survey repeatability. Therefore, CBFM should be a fundamental component of national forest monitoring systems and programs to measure, report and verify (MRV REDD+ activities. To contribute to the development of more effective approaches to CBFM, in this paper we assess: (1 the feasibility of using small, low-cost drones (i.e., remotely piloted aerial vehicles in CBFM programs; (2 their potential advantages and disadvantages for communities, partner organizations and forest data end-users; and (3 to what extent their utilization, coupled with ground surveys and local ecological knowledge, would improve tropical forest monitoring. To do so, we reviewed the existing literature regarding environmental applications of drones, including forest monitoring, and drew on our own firsthand experience flying small drones to map and monitor tropical forests and training people to operate them. We believe that the utilization of small drones can enhance CBFM and that this approach is feasible in many locations throughout the tropics if some degree of external assistance and funding is provided to communities. We suggest that the use of small drones can help tropical communities to better manage and conserve their forests whilst benefiting partner organizations, governments and forest data end-users, particularly those engaged in forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation projects such as REDD+.

  11. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  12. Assessment of the public health in the course of the Eurasian Economic Community programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inter-state target programme of the Eurasian Economic Community 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines' includes assessment of impact of these facilities on the public health at the adjacent areas and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases. This work will be carried out as follows: collection of indicators of the State medical statistic reporting by areas of natural uranium mining and milling waste storage to be reclaimed; data input to the database, data verification, calculation of relative indexes and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; comparative analysis of the public health at inspected and reference areas, estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; development of recommendations on enhancing medical service of the population. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre developed the method of data collection in order to assess and to perform the comparative analysis of the public health. At the early stage of the programme, for the purpose of the comparative analysis of the public health at the contaminated areas, we are going to identify areas affected by uranium plants and some reference areas with approximately same quality of health-care service. When collecting medical data of the public, the special attention will be paid to malignant neoplasm incidence, including trachea, bronchus, lung cancer and psycho-somatic diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and others). This kind of data will be collected as the number of registered patients by sex and age groups in the report of the state medical statistics 'Information on malignant neoplasm incidence over 1990 - 2014' (according to the reporting form 'Information on the number of diseases registered at the area under the clinic service'). The statistical bodies of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states will organize the

  13. Assessment of the public health in the course of the Eurasian Economic Community programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inter-state target programme of the Eurasian Economic Community 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines' includes assessment of impact of these facilities on the public health at the adjacent areas and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases. This work will be carried out as follows: collection of indicators of the State medical statistic reporting by areas of natural uranium mining and milling waste storage to be reclaimed; data input to the database, data verification, calculation of relative indexes and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; comparative analysis of the public health at inspected and reference areas, estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; development of recommendations on enhancing medical service of the population. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre developed the method of data collection in order to assess and to perform the comparative analysis of the public health. At the early stage of the programme, for the purpose of the comparative analysis of the public health at the contaminated areas, we are going to identify areas affected by uranium plants and some reference areas with approximately same quality of health-care service. When collecting medical data of the public, the special attention will be paid to malignant neoplasm incidence, including trachea, bronchus, lung cancer and psycho-somatic diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and others). This kind of data will be collected as the number of registered patients by sex and age groups in the report of the state medical statistics 'Information on malignant neoplasm incidence over 1990 - 2014' (according to the reporting form 'Information on the number of diseases registered at the area under the clinic service'). The statistical bodies of the Eurasian Economic Community

  14. Community Based Assessment of Biochemical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural and Tribal Area of Himalayan Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj; Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar Raina; Pradeep Bansal; Satya Bhushan; Vishav Chander

    2013-01-01

    Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis....

  15. Community based ecotourism as a panacea for protected areas: the use of common property theory in its analysis and development

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Victoria M.

    2004-01-01

    Tourism is the worlds largest employer, accounting for 10% of jobs worldwide (WTO, 1999). There are over 30,000 protected areas around the world, covering about 10% of the land surface(IUCN, 2002). Protected area management is moving towards a more integrated form of management, which recognises the social and economic needs of the worlds finest areas and seeks to provide long term income streams and support social cohesion through active but sustainable use of resources. Ecotourism - 'respon...

  16. Insuring the City: The Prudential Center and the Reshaping of Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Elihu James

    2009-01-01

    Insuring the City examines the development of the Prudential Center in Boston as a case study of the organizational, financial, and spatial forces that large insurance companies wielded in shaping the postwar American city. The Prudential Center was one of seven Regional Home Offices (RHOs) planned by Prudential in the 1950s to decentralize its management. What began as an effort to reinvigorate the company’s bureaucratic makeup evolved into a prominent building program and urban planning phe...

  17. Insuring the City: The Prudential Center and the Reshaping of Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Elihu James

    2009-01-01

    Insuring the City examines the development of the Prudential Center in Boston as a case study of the organizational, financial, and spatial forces that large insurance companies wielded in shaping the postwar American city. The Prudential Center was one of seven Regional Home Offices (RHOs) planned by Prudential in the 1950s to decentralize its management. What began as an effort to reinvigorate the company’s bureaucratic makeup evolved into a prominent building program and urban planning p...

  18. The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadiroğlu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua David; Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value relative to a regular public education remains open. We estimate the causal effect of exam school attendance using a regression-discontinuity design, reporting bot...

  19. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  20. A Novel Nutrition Medicine Education Model: the Boston University Experience123

    OpenAIRE

    Lenders, Carine; Gorman, Kathy; Milch, Hannah; Decker, Ashley; Harvey, Nanette; Stanfield, Lorraine; Lim-Miller, Aimee; Salge-Blake, Joan; Judd, Laura; Levine, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Most deaths in the United States are preventable and related to nutrition. Although physicians are expected to counsel their patients about nutrition-related health conditions, a recent survey reported minimal improvements in nutrition medicine education in US medical schools in the past decade. Starting in 2006, we have developed an educational plan using a novel student-centered model of nutrition medicine education at Boston University School of Medicine that focuses on medical student–men...

  1. Managementul portofoliului de produse in planificarea strategica de marketing utilizand Metoda Boston Consulting Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Caescu; Florin Tudor Ionescu

    2008-01-01

    Instrumentele de analiza de portofoliu utilizate in analiza portofoliului de produse oferite pe piata business to business au in vedere atractivitatea pietei, competitivitatea produsului si ciclul de viata a produsului si a pietei in general. Acestea au in vedere modalitatea in care prin utilizarea unor instrumente precum ciclul de viata a produsului, metoda Boston Consulting Group, matricea General Electric sau matricea Arthur D. Little companiile de pe piata business to business pot obtine ...

  2. Srategi The Boston Consulting Group Untuk Memastikan Kesinambungan Produk PT Gudang Garam Tbk Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Poniran Poniran

    2013-01-01

    Lingkungan bisnis saat ini meningkat secara kompetitif, setiap perusahaan dituntut untuk memiliki kekuatan untuk bersaing di perdagangan global. PT Gudang Garam sebagai pasar dalam industri tembakau, untuk mempertahankan kondisi ini harus pandai dalam menentukan kebijakan manajemen . Alternatifnya adalah dengan menggunakan Strategi Analisis The Boston Consulting Group, sebuah analisis untuk mengukur pertumbuhan dan  pasar untuk produk SBU. Dengan analisis ini akan diketahui strategi apa yang ...

  3. The Great Diseases Project: A Partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-01-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, impacting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston publ...

  4. The effect of foreclosure on Boston public school student academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katharine; Mary A. Burke; Robert K. Triest

    2013-01-01

    Although the recent wave of mortgage foreclosures has clearly been accompanied by economic hardship, relatively little research has examined how foreclosures affect the academic performance of students. This paper investigates the relationship between mortgage foreclosures and the academic performance of students using a unique dataset that matches information on the standardized test scores and attendance of individual Boston Public School students with real estate records indicating whether...

  5. The Boston Longshoremen's Strike of 1931: A Conflict Over the Weight of the Sling Load

    OpenAIRE

    Francis McLaughlin

    1998-01-01

    In the winter of 1931, in the depth of the Great Depression, and under extremely adverse circumstances Boston longshoremen engaged in, and endured, a long and bitter strike because of a fundamental disagreement with their employers about what constituted a reasonable pace of work. This account of that strike illustrates the enduring need in a rational industrial relations system for institutional means for resolving fairly, unavoidable differences between employers and employees about the con...

  6. CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF LANDSAT-DERIVED OCEAN COLOUR PRODUCTS IN BOSTON HARBOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sheldon, Patrick; Peri, Francesco; Wei, Jianwei; Shang, Zhehai; Sun, Qingsong; Chen, Robert F.; Lee, ZhongPing; Schaaf, Crystal B.; John R. Schott; Loveland, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat data archive provides a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term evolution of coastal ecosystems at fine spatial scales that cannot be resolved by ocean colour (OC) satellite sensors. Recognizing Landsat’s limitations in applications over coastal waters, we have launched a series of field campaigns in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay (MA, USA) to validate OC products derived from Landsat-8. We will provide a preliminary demonstration on the calibration/validatio...

  7. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Thomas, Tinku; Raj, Tony; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods: The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of th...

  8. Boston Consulting Group II – A Business Portfolio Analysis Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Tudor Ionescu

    2011-01-01

    The continuous development and market introduction of new businesses can play an important role in the future performance of companies. The business portfolio analysis represents an analytical approach by means of which managers have the possibility to view the corporation as a set of strategic business units that must be managed in a profitable way. Also, by taking into account features specific to the area in which the company operates, by taking into account the competitive advantage and t...

  9. Boston Gas tackles leaks with unique drilling rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews a new drilling method and new drilling equipment used to pinpoint gas leaks in urban areas. It describes the drill spacing and drilling time involved in finding such leaks. It discusses the size of the drilling equipment and speed of penetration through various materials, including frozen soils. The use of this equipment has dramatically increased the speed necessary to identify the leak and instigate repairs

  10. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY INVOLVED IN THE CARBON CYCLE IN DIFFERENT AREAS AND TYPES OF SOIL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Landi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the diversity of two soil bacterial groups involved in the biogeochemical carbon cycle: bacteria implicated in chitin degradation and methanotrophs. To evaluate the influence of soil physico-chemical and anthropic characteristics on the diversity of these microbial groups, total DNA was directly extracted from soils differently managed and sampled in central and south Italy. PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analyses targeting genes coding for chitinase (chiA, particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA and 16S rRNA from bacteria, actinomycetes and type I or II methanotrophs were used to fingerprint the soil bacterial communities. DGGE cluster analysis showed a clear separation of the bacterial communities on the basis of the sampling sites. The Canonical Corrispondance Analysis (CCA suggests that the edaphic factors such as granulometry and pH, could be responsible for determining the composition of these bacterial groups.

  11. The role of community organizations in the transformation of the health services delivery system in the Montreal metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R; Frohlich, K L

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the Montreal Regional Health and Social Services Board began a major process of change to its health care system. This transformation places particular emphasis on primary health care and increases the role of local community services centres (CLSCs) and community organizations (COs). In order to understand this process as experienced by COs, the present exploratory study was conducted during the summer and fall of 1996. We targeted 12 COs, 4 CLSCs, the Quebec Federation of CLSCs, and the Montreal CLSC Working Group. Semi-structured group interviews and CO documents were used as sources of information. Most participants believe in the need for change but feel that the strategies and implementation have been mismanaged. COs are feeling the pressure to professionalize and specialize current and future services. The "social economy" appears to be gaining momentum in the health sector. PMID:10910565

  12. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This study sought to take a close-up look at cross-border Mexican migration by collecting detailed information about one binational migratory village-based community. five major findings have resulted from this investigation: 1. Migrants are generally poor rural or urban dwellers who depend on reciprocity networks of mutual exchange with their friends and relatives and not on public institutions for their survival. 2. Migratory networks undergo a maturation process over time. 3. Job and so...

  13. Spatial heterogeneity of macrofaunal communities in and near a giant pockmark area in the deep Gulf of Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Menot, Lenaick; Galeron, Joelle; Olu, Karine; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Crassous, Philippe; Khripounoff, Alexis; Sibuet, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    The structure and familial-level composition of macrofaunal communities were examined within and at distance from the giant pockmark Regab in the Southern Gulf of Guinea, at 3200 m depth. The two main questions addressed in this study were (i) does habitat partitioning by large symbiont-bearing taxa. influence macrofaunal assemblages and their environment? and (ii) to what extent does the chemosynthesis-based ecosystem influence the structure and the composition of nearby macrobenthic communi...

  14. Bird communities as indicators of the impact of changes in agriculture in the Mar Menor catchment area (Murcia, SE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean coastal landscapes have suffered significant changes along the last decades due to agricultural intensification and tourism, that have altered the hydrological regime of wetland, as ha occurred in the Mar Menor (Southeast Spain). Such alterations and the consequent changes in nutrient flows are threatening the conservation of these wetlands. We analyze the effects of these ecosystems changes on the bird assemblages, focusing on two especially sensitive communities: water birds and steppe passerines. (Author) 2 refs.

  15. Holding onto the Green Zone: A Youth Program for the Study and Stewardship of Community Riparian Areas. Leader Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kate; Wooster, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are an exciting and dynamic subject for study. These areas are valuable lands and important wildlife habitats, and they contribute greatly to the environmental health of an area. Definitions for the term "riparian" vary, but in this curriculum, the land called the "Green Zone" lies between flowing water and upland ecosystems.…

  16. Research on the Harmonious Development of New Rural Communities under the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of offering a definition of New Rural Communities (NRCs), the paper analyzes the values of New Rural Communities and argues that the construction of NRCs is able to contribute to the enhancement of the comprehensive agricultural production capability as well as the development of social productivity. Meanwhile the incomes of the rural residents can be boosted, which denotes the realization of a harmonious society where the achievements of China’s reform and development are shared by each citizen. Moreover, the construction of NRCs facilitates the economization of land use and thus improves the overall living standard of the residents, while helping to cut the administrative cost and promote democracy at the primary level. This paper also points out various problems arising during the construction of NRCS in China: blindly following suit in accordance with the modes of the urban communities; lack of funds, which leads to the absence of the supporting mechanisms of NRCs; vague positioning and the ensuing shortage of impetus for continued development. Finally, the paper raises the corresponding measures and suggestions: first, based on reality, make overall planning and scientific arrangement; second, the government should play the dominant role while respecting the principal position of the rural residents and introducing the market mechanism; third, increase science and technology input and attach equal importance to economic and social benefits; fourth, broaden fund-raising channels while completing the supervision mechanism.

  17. A measure of community health needs and actions in a rural area of Iraq. The Abu-al-Khasib experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G; Sugathan, T N; Ramankutty, P; Alkafajei, A M; Antony, R; George, A; Habib, O S; Yacoub, A A; Mahmood, D A; Ajeel, N A

    1982-01-01

    A longitudinal enquiry was carried out among randomly selected households in four villages in Abu-al-Khasib district of Iraq, to study health needs as perceived by the community and actions people take when the need arises. Almost three-quarters of the spells of sickness as perceived by the community were among mothers and children. Most of the morbidity was found to be within the scope of preventive services at the local health centre level. Health centre services were underutilised. Only half of the spells of sickness were reported to the local health centres for medical care; a reason for this phenomenon is the emerging preference for care at the hands of clinical specialists. The action the community takes when a health need arises depends on their perception and this is determined by rapid social and educational development. The need to increase demand for normal care, especially that of mother and child, is stressed; this care may be strengthened through introduction of a domiciliary component. PMID:7179469

  18. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  19. Ecological, economical and social impact of uranium mining activity on local communities in the area of Banat-Oravita branch of National Uranium Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the ecological, economical and social effects of uranium mining activity on environment and local communities in Caras Severin county are considered. 4412 radiochemical analyses and about 6730 radiometric measurements were made. The waters of local rivers were found to be contaminated with natural uranium and 226 radium, but the biological risk is not significant. Their concentrations and effective doses are presented in 8 tables referring to the rivers Lisava, Jitin, Caras. Also, samples of water from springs and wells in the Banat mining area were analysed for natural uranium and 226 Ra, their concentrations being found under the maximum permissible level. The air quality was not affected by accidental radon emissions. In order to limit the ecological impact on the environment, remedial action measures are proposed. The economic and social impact on the local communities are due mainly to the decline of activity, the most important effect being the unemployment

  20. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  1. 76 FR 18573 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area... shopping and commercial space; and green infrastructure. Sunset Terrace's redevelopment provides...

  2. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058

  3. Carusel fraud - method for tax dodging in the area of the VAT on intra-community level

    OpenAIRE

    Madalin CINCA

    2008-01-01

    The fraud and the dodging, in general meaning regarding the VAT distorts the well function of the unique market and is in detriment of the financial purposes of the member states, as well as the financing the community budget, impacting the loyal competition on the unique market and decreases the fiscal incomes of the member states. The type of VAT dodging with worst consequences measured throughout the value of the amounts eluded from payment and it is very difficult to be detected is the on...

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  5. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content AreaCommunity Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  6. Endemicity of urinary schistosomasis in ogbese-ekiti community of ise-orun local government area of ekiti state, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In random examination of 191 students of Ogbese-Ekiti community of Nigeria for urinary schistosomasis, 170 (89%) were found positive for Schistosoma haematobium eggs in their urine. The prevalence in the secondary school was 97.4%, while the prevalence in the primary school was 87.5%. The overall mean intensity of S. haematobium eggs/10 ml of urine in this community was 339.4. Also, 5.9% of the infected pupils excreted above 1000 eggs/10 ml of urine, while 59.8% had moderate intensity (50-499 eggs/10 ml of urine). The perentage macrohaematuria was 84. Among five aquatic snails Bulinus (B) forskalii, Bulinus (B) globosus, Pila ovata, Potadoma moerchi and Melanoides tuberculata of river Ogbese, only B. (P) globosus shed the characteristics cercariae of S. haematobium. A monthly mean of B. globosus in river Ogbese was 53.2 and an increase in the population density of the snail occurred between November and May, 2004. The highest infection rate of B. (P) globosus with S. haematobium occurred in the month of March. (author)

  7. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  8. Distribution of the herpetofauna community associated to four areas with different interference degree in Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1840 individuals from 28 species (19 reptiles and 9 amphibians) were found in Gorgona Island, during June and July 2001. Based on 32 transects placed in four areas with different antropic perturbation degree (Prison, palm plantations, secondary forest and primary forest) it was found that the species richness was higher at the secondary forest. The species registered at primary and secondary forest where very similar as well as the species present at the prison and the palm plantations. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that Boa constricto1; Basiliscus galeritus. Ameiva bridgesii and Epipedobates boulengeri were found to be associated to open areas and their distribution was hardly affected by the environmental temperature. From the following species associated with forested areas, the canopy cover over the micro habitat influenced the distribution of Eleutherodactylus gularis. Eleutherodactylus achatinus and Bothrops atrox. While the understory cover influenced the distribution of Atelopus elegans. Bufo typhonius. Micrurus mipartitus y Enyalioides heterolepis

  9. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  10. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  11. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  12. Natural Communities and Rare Vascular Plants of West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge; Mapping, Description, and Ecological Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to apply a landscape-scale approach to management of the lands, natural communities of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin...

  13. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  14. The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu,1 Leiming Luo,1 Ping Ye,1 Yuan Liu,1 Bing Zhu,1 Yongyi Bai,1 Jie Bai2 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods: The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results: Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion: Overweight is common for both sexes in the People's Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. Keywords: anthropometric indices, residence area, lifestyle, cardiometabolic abnormalities, Chinese community-dwelling population

  15. The MOBILIZE Boston Study: Design and methods of a prospective cohort study of novel risk factors for falls in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Marian T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are the sixth leading cause of death in elderly people in the U.S. Despite progress in understanding risk factors for falls, many suspected risk factors have not been adequately studied. Putative risk factors for falls such as pain, reductions in cerebral blood flow, somatosensory deficits, and foot disorders are poorly understood, in part because they pose measurement challenges, particularly for large observational studies. Methods The MOBILIZE Boston Study (MBS, an NIA-funded Program Project, is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. Using a door-to-door population-based recruitment, we have enrolled 765 persons aged 70 and older. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2 segments: a 3-hour home interview followed within 4 weeks by a 3-hour clinic examination. Measures included pain, cerebral hemodynamics, and foot disorders as well as established fall risk factors. For the falls follow-up, participants return fall calendar postcards to the research center at the end of each month. Reports of falls are followed-up with a telephone interview to assess circumstances and consequences of each fall. A second assessment is performed 18 months following baseline. Results Of the 2382 who met all eligibility criteria at the door, 1616 (67.8% agreed to participate and were referred to the research center for further screening. The primary reason for ineligibility was inability to communicate in English. Results from the first 600 participants showed that participants are largely representative of seniors in the Boston area in terms of age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The average age of study participants was 77.9 years (s.d. 5.5 and nearly two-thirds were women. The study cohort was 78% white and 17% black. Many participants (39% reported having fallen at least once in the year before baseline. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting

  16. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

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    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  17. Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  18. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere. PMID:18237256

  19. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Dos Santos, Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-08-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored. PMID:27547346

  20. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  1. The image of the nursing profession as perceived by the community members of three adjacent residential areas of Empangeni in KwaZulu-Natal

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    P J Kunene

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken out of concern that nurses and the nursing profession project a negative image to the public they serve. Diverse aspects of nursing examined in this study included standards or quality of nursing care and its influence on encouraging clients to utilise health care services, communication, attitudes, expertise, availability at all times and patients’/clients’ participation in decision-making. Nurses are part of the communities they serve. The rationale for the study was that nurses should be alert to perceptions of the communities about the service they provide, whether expressed formally or informally. Survival of nursing as a profession is dependent upon the positive impact it has on consumers in the past, present and the future. The aim of the study was to discover, through a systematic, scientific inquiry, the positive and negative perceptions that communities have about nursing. An exploratory, descriptive study was done in KwaZulu-Natal on a sample of 50 participants from three adjacent historically Black residential areas (townships using questionnaires. Findings of the study were contrary to the assumption that nursing has a negative image. All aspects except one were rated very good or good by the majority of the participants. Those who had negative perceptions, though in the minority, highlighted important reasons directed at both the authorities and the nurses. These were used as a basis for recommendations for further improvement of the image of nursing. The area of gross dissatisfaction among the majority was feeling unsafe with nurses getting increasingly involved in unionism, which would lead to abandonment of patients in times of industrial action.

  2. Protected Area Safeguard Tree and Shrub Communities from Degradation and Invasion: A Case Study in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Carter Ingram, J.; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Razafindrazaka, Rova; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina

    2009-07-01

    Despite their prevalence in both developed and developing countries, there have been surprisingly few field assessments of the ecological effectiveness of protected areas. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a key protected area in eastern Madagascar, Ranomafana National Park (RNP). We established paired 100 × 4-m vegetation transects (400 m2) within RNP and in remnant forests in the park’s peripheral zone. In each 400-m2 plot, all woody stems >1.5 cm in diameter at breast height were measured and identified to species. All species were also identified as native or non-native. We identified utilitarian species within all transects and they were sorted into use category. We calculated plot-level taxonomic biodiversity and functional diversity of utilitarian species; the latter was calculated by clustering the multivariate distances between species based on their utilitarian traits, and all metrics were tested using paired t-tests. Our results showed that there was significantly higher biodiversity inside RNP than in remnant forests and this pattern was consistent across all diversity metrics examined. Forests not located within the park’s boundary had significantly higher non-native species than within RNP. There was no statistically significant difference in functional diversity of utilitarian species inside RNP vs. remnant forests; however, the overall trend was toward higher diversity inside park boundaries. These findings suggested that RNP has been effective at maintaining taxonomic diversity relative to surrounding unprotected areas and restricting the spread of non-native plants. The results also suggested that low functional redundancy of forests outside of RNP might be of concern, because residents in surrounding villages may have few other substitutes for the services provided by species that are of critical importance to their livelihoods. This study highlights the challenges of trying to reconcile biodiversity conservation with human use

  3. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

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    Mitchell Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  4. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies. PMID:27249614

  5. Anemia in Children Aged Four to Eight from a Semirural Community in Central East Area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmela, María L; Pezzani, Betina C; Larrain, Marina Isla; Martínez, Cecilia P; Apezteguía, María C; Minvielle, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first stage of the Program for the Control of Intestinal Parasitosis and Nutrition, analyzing the frequency of anemia and its relation with intestinal parasitic infections and socio-cultural and environmental factors present in school children from a semirural community of Argentina. A total of 123 children aged 4-8 years were interviewed; 93 (75.6%) of them showed up for blood extraction and a fecal sample was taken properly. The frequency of anemia was 33.3%; 45.0% in children aged 4-5 years and 24.5% in those aged 6-8 years (p=0.038). Intestinal parasites were found in 83.9% of the children; 75.0% in children aged 4-5 years and 90.6% in those aged 6-8 years (p=0.043). No statistical differences were found when relating parasitic infections, social/cultural variables and housing characteristic with anemia, probably of nutritional origin. This study reveals the coexistence of anemia and parasitic infections in apparently healthy children who were unnoticed by the conventional public health system. PMID:27009768

  6. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jinya Niu; Shivani Sahni; Susu Liao; Tucker, Katherine L.; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Xiang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d) and insomnia symptoms (difficulty ini...

  7. Beacon Hill Village in Boston: Ein erfolgreiches Beispiel einer Mitgliederorganisation auf Quartiersebene

    OpenAIRE

    Osl, Philipp; Benz, Alain; Österle, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Beacon Hill Village erbringt und koordiniert als Intermediär ein breites Spektrum von Dienstleistungen für ältere Menschen in Boston. Durch Kombination professioneller Dienstleister und Freiwilligenarbeit sowie alternative Preismodelle für finanzschwache Mitglieder ist es der Organisation gelungen, ein an den Kundenbedürfnissen orientiertes Angebot für (fast) alle Menschen zugänglich zu machen. Der Beitrag stellt das Geschäftsmodell von Beacon Hill Village vor und diskutiert die Umsetzbarkeit...

  8. Parkways und Freeways in der Bestimmung der Landschaft der Amerikanischen Grossstaedte. Der Fall Boston.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Maria Brignoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Die Tradition der amerikanischen Landschaftarchitektur hatt aus Boston ein Planungsexperiment gemacht. Das Emerald Necklace, eine echte Ikone der Landschaftsarchitektur, bezeugt immer noch wirkungsvoll, wie die Landschaftsplanung die Struktur moderner Grossstaedte mit Raum zum wohnen staerken kann. Heute muss die Stadt mit ihren von der Central Artery hervorgerufenen Wunden fertigwerden, mit Risultaten, die wahrscheinlich nicht der Groesse ihrer Geschichte entsprechen. Der teilweise Erfolg der Rose Kennedy Greenway macht die Notwendigkeit klar, die Regelung fuer die Planung der offenen Gebiete neu zu bestimmen.

  9. ADA Congress 2015 in Boston (USA - an overview of the main topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vasil'evna Nikonova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From July 5 to July 9, 2015 in Convention Center in Boston (USA there took place anniversary 75th session of the annual congress of the American Diabetic Association (ADA. The congress united more than 14000 participants from 124 countries. Programs of scientific sessions of the congress included the most topical issues of diabetology: modern approaches to diagnostics, prevention and treatment of DM and its complications, the results of the international researches of anti-diabetic preparations, problems connected with diabetes 2 types and obesity and many others.

  10. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

  11. A Tenor Analysis of Barack Obama's Speech on Boston Marathon Bombing Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骥

    2013-01-01

    Systemic-Functional Grammar is a sociologically oriented functional linguistic approach developed by M. A. K. Halli-day. One of the focuses of SFG is register, which is composed of field, tenor and mode. Halliday particularly developed these three main parameters, which are useful for characterizing the nature of the social transaction of the participants. In this essay, the method of tenor is used for analyzing Barack Obama's speech on Boston Marathon bombing event to explore how Obama trans-fers his ideas to audience in order to achieve his goals.

  12. Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 IO Asekun-Olarinmoye,2 WO Adebimpe,1 AI Olugbenga-Bello3 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Oke-Baale, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Public Health, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose: This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods: In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results: The study revealed that 283 (66.6% and 142 (33.4% of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6% respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and

  13. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    OpenAIRE

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Roya Kelishadi; Mansour Siavash; Gholamhossein Sadri; Hossein Malekafzali; Masoud Pourmoghaddas; Shahin Shirani; Maryam Boshtam; Sedigheh Asgary; Noushin Mohammadifard; Ahmad Bahonar; Babak Eshrati; Farhad Ghamsari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Naja...

  14. Effects of nutrients and protozoan grazing on community composition of bacteria that were transferred from a nutrient-rich to a nutrient-poor area of a dam reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manipulation experiment combining 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' factors regulating microbial community dynamics was conducted in the meso-eutrophic Rimov reservoir. To study changes in bacterial community composition (BCC), water samples from the P-rich riverine area of the reservoir were size-fractionated (< 0.8 μm, < 5 μm, and unfiltered treatment) and then incubated in the riverine area and transplanted and incubated in identical fashion in the P-limited dam area. After transplanting the samples in the dam area, ver y few significant changes in bacterial community composition (BCC) occurred between samples incubated in the riverine and the dam area. Nutrient availability (especially phosphorus) was found to be the most important factor controlling the BCC. (authors)

  15. Very high resolution Earth observation features for monitoring plant and animal community structure across multiple spatial scales in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco; Tarantino, Cristina; Lucas, Richard M.; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the status and future trends in biodiversity can be prohibitively expensive using ground-based surveys. Consequently, significant effort is being invested in the use of satellite remote sensing to represent aspects of the proximate mechanisms (e.g., resource availability) that can be related to biodiversity surrogates (BS) such as species community descriptors. We explored the potential of very high resolution (VHR) satellite Earth observation (EO) features as proxies for habitat structural attributes that influence spatial variation in habitat quality and biodiversity change. In a semi-natural grassland mosaic of conservation concern in southern Italy, we employed a hierarchical nested sampling strategy to collect field and VHR-EO data across three spatial extent levels (landscape, patch and plot). Species incidence and abundance data were collected at the plot level for plant, insect and bird functional groups. Spectral and textural VHR-EO image features were derived from a Worldview-2 image. Three window sizes (grains) were tested for analysis and computation of textural features, guided by the perception limits of different organisms. The modelled relationships between VHR-EO features and BS responses differed across scales, suggesting that landscape, patch and plot levels are respectively most appropriate when dealing with birds, plants and insects. This research demonstrates the potential of VHR-EO for biodiversity mapping and habitat modelling, and highlights the importance of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis for specific taxonomic groups of interest. Further, textural features are important in the modelling of functional group-specific indices which represent BS in high conservation value habitat types, and provide a more direct link to species interaction networks and ecosystem functioning, than provided by traditional taxonomic diversity indices.

  16. COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS ON FAMILY PLANNING AMONG ELIGIBLE COUPLES IN AN URBAN SLUM OF HATTA AREA OF IMPHAL EAST DISTRICT, MANIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Lower level of community perceptions on family planning still exist in many parts of India. Further there is dearth of state level information for the same. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning among eligible couples. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Hatta, Imphal east, Manipur. Duration: Sept.2007 to August 2008. Participants: Eligible couples. Results: 825 eligible couples participated in the study with a response rate of 99.28%. Mean age at marriage of wives and husbands were 19.12 and 24.14 years (SD±7.179 and 8.491 respectively. Majority of husbands (85.8% and wives (84.6% knew of family planning and media was the main source of information. 54.42% of husbands disapproved family planning (p=0.000 and only 16.73% of the couples were using family planning methods. Main reasons for not adopting family planning methods were family disharmony (19.5%, religious prohibition (17.8% and adverse effects (8.0%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that one year increase in age of wives there was likelihood of having 4% increases in adopting family planning methods. Similarly, occupations of wives other than housewife had 27% and from illiterate to literate 3% more chance of adopting family planning methods. CONCLUSION: Adopting low family planning methods among the eligible couples was mainly due to husband’s disapproval thinking that it may cause family disharmony, religion prohibition and fear of adverse effects. And also other important associated factors were their attitude, education and occupation

  17. Plant Community Development within the F- and H-Area Tree-Kill Zones - Changes form 1994 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-12-15

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline-fed wetlands downslope from the basins was observed in the late 1970's, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts (Loehle and Gladden, 1988; Mackey, 1988; Haselow et al., 1990; LeBlanc and Loehle, 1990; Greenwood et al., 1990). Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (Killian et al., 1987a, 1987b). Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds (Looney et al, 1988). A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soil matrix.

  18. Treating childhood pneumonia in hard-to-reach areas: A model-based comparison of mobile clinics and community-based care

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    Pitt Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Where hard-to-access populations (such as those living in insecure areas lack access to basic health services, relief agencies, donors, and ministries of health face a dilemma in selecting the most effective intervention strategy. This paper uses a decision mathematical model to estimate the relative effectiveness of two alternative strategies, mobile clinics and fixed community-based health services, for antibiotic treatment of childhood pneumonia, the world's leading cause of child mortality. Methods A "Markov cycle tree" cohort model was developed in Excel with Visual Basic to compare the number of deaths from pneumonia in children aged 1 to 59 months expected under three scenarios: 1 No curative services available, 2 Curative services provided by a highly-skilled but intermittent mobile clinic, and 3 Curative services provided by a low-skilled community health post. Parameter values were informed by literature and expert interviews. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted for several plausible scenarios. Results We estimated median pneumonia-specific under-5 mortality rates of 0.51 (95% credible interval: 0.49 to 0.541 deaths per 10,000 child-days without treatment, 0.45 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.48 with weekly mobile clinics, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.32 with CHWs in fixed health posts. Sensitivity analyses found the fixed strategy superior, except when mobile clinics visited communities daily, where rates of care-seeking were substantially higher at mobile clinics than fixed posts, or where several variables simultaneously differed substantially from our baseline assumptions. Conclusions Current evidence does not support the hypothesis that mobile clinics are more effective than CHWs. A CHW strategy therefore warrants consideration in high-mortality, hard-to-access areas. Uncertainty remains, and parameter values may vary across contexts, but the model allows preliminary findings to be updated as new or context

  19. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

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    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  20. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from Mnoise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground motion from simulation of actual earthquake rupture. Finally, the source of the earthquakes was the actual source for the conventional PSHA. While, we assumed random fractures for the physics-based approach. From all this, we consider the calculation of the conventional approach, based on actual data, to validate the physics-based approach used.

  1. Effectiveness and feasibility of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation to adolescent girls and boys through peer educators at community level in the tribal area of Gujarat

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    Shobha P Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000 Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level.

  2. Upwelling and anthropogenic forcing on phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the Zhejiang coastal area over the last 100 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanshan; XING Lei; ZHANG Hailong; FENG Xuwen; YANG Haili; ZHAO Meixun

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton productivity and community structure in marginal seas have been altered significantly dur-ing the past three decades, but it is still a challenge to distinguish the forcing mechanisms between climate change and anthropogenic activities. High time-resolution biomarker records of two 210Pb-dated sediment cores (#34:28.5°N, 122.272°E;CJ12-1269:28.861 9°N, 122.515 3°E) from the Min-Zhe coastal mud area were compared to reveal changes of phytoplankton productivity and community structure over the past 100 years. Phytoplankton productivity started to increase gradually from the 1970s and increased rapidly after the late 1990s at Site #34;and it started to increase gradually from the middle 1960s and increased rapidly after the late 1980s at Site CJ12-1269. Productivity of Core CJ12-1269 was higher than that of Core #34. Phy-toplankton community structure variations displayed opposite patterns in the two cores. The decreasing D/B (dinosterol/brassicasterol) ratio of Core #34 since the 1960s revealed increased diatom contribution to total productivity. In contrast, the increasing D/B ratio of Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950s indicated in-creased dinoflagellate contribution to total productivity. Both the productivity increase and the increased dinoflagellate contribution in Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950-1960s were mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, as the location was closer to the Changjiang River Estuary with higher nutrient concentration and decreasing Si/N ratios. However, increased diatom contribution in Core #34 is proposed to be caused by increased coastal upwelling, with higher nutrient concentration and higher Si/N ratios.

  3. Community perceptions on diarrheal diseases: a case study in swampy lowland area of south Sumatra, Indonesia. The Diarrheal Diseases Research and Training Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R; Aulia, H; Susanto, T A; Roisuddin; Hamzah, M

    1991-01-01

    Four investigators conducted participative observation at 4 hamlets, representing 4 typical topography in the area, wet or dry near the river and wet or dry far from the river, in District Rambutan, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia from July 1988 up until February 1989 to study the community perception and practices on diarrheal diseases (DD). The observation was supported by focus group discussions and informal interviews. It was found that the causes of DD can be grouped into: dirty water; wrong (cold, hot, sting) food; part of the growth process; physical condition (extreme heat, cold wind and inner abnormality, inner heat, muscle strain), and supernatural. The type of DD can be grouped into: mild without vomiting named ngadi, negenteng-ngentengi, nambah kepacakan, etc which was linked to the growth process; more severe diarrhea, might be with fever (mising-mising, murus, mencret, etc); more severe diarrhea with severe vomiting (muntager, kolera); bloody/mucoid stool (disentri, mising tai angin, mising umbal). The community had also the concept of prolonged diarrhea named as menerus (literally meaning prolonged) Muntaber was more associated with bad water while the prolonged one was more associated with inner abnormality. The danger of diarrhea perceived was susut = shrinkage, lisut = emaciation. Pale and red hair with lisut were recognized as the dangers of prolonged diarrhea. The community did not associate these conditions with fluid loss. The management started by self medication using tapel (pasta of herb applied) to the stomach), decoct (daun jambu, akar teratai etc), solid oral preparation (cassava with raw sugar, rast rice, etc).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1852467

  4. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  5. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  6. Imaging of abdominal and pelvic injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Sodickson, Aaron; Abujudeh, Hani

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the imaging findings of abdominal and pelvic injuries in victims of the Boston Marathon bombing. A retrospective review of 87 patients following the Boston Marathon bombing was performed to evaluate for abdominal and pelvic injuries on plain radiography or CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis. Imaging exams were evaluated for shrapnel, soft tissue injury, visceral damage, vascular disruption, and fractures. The injuries were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries. Eleven of the 87 patients had positive findings in the abdomen or pelvis (M:F = 7:4, average age 34.6 years). There were 22 ball bearings, two nails, one screw, and two irregular metal fragments in the 11 patients with secondary blast (shrapnel) injuries. There was no peritoneal penetration or visceral injury seen in any of the patients. One patient had multiple transverse process fractures, representing tertiary blast injury. All but one patient had superficial penetrating abdominal or pelvic injuries secondary to shrapnel. There were no cases of bowel or solid visceral organ injuries due to the lack of peritoneal violation from the relatively low-powered explosions. Absence of peritoneal penetration by shrapnel indicates no need for laparotomy following low-powered explosions. PMID:26445949

  7. The energy efficiency partnership - Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past twenty years, inordinate shifts in the supply and demand of energy have forced both electric utility companies and their customers to investigate new and innovative ways to satisfy the ever increasing demand for electricity. The Energy Efficiency Partnership, developed between Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company, presents an exemplary study of how two corporate giants creatively solved the problem of uncontrolled energy costs and its positive effect on the overall operations of Kraft General Foods, Framingham. But the Energy Efficiency Partnership did more than reduce energy costs, it provided benefits to all parties on the playing field. To understand its significance, a review of the partnership's history is paramount. The first official announcement of the Energy Efficiency Partnership was made on April 9, 1990. Framingham, MA, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Kraft General Foods Framingham, and Boston Edison Company have joined forces in a $3.6 million dollar energy partnership that will help keep 250 industrial jobs in Massachusetts and could lead to the future expansion of the international food company's Framingham facility

  8. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  9. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  10. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresloff, Cynthia J.; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (fc) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, fc and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high fc and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S.

  11. Extension for Community Health Outcomes-hepatitis C: Small steps carve big footprints in the allocation of scarce resources for hepatitis C virus treatment to remote developing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Veysel; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Kahveci, Ali M; Mutrux, Rachel; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2016-04-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major health problem throughout the world. HCV patients living in rural areas are less fortunate than their counterparts residing in populous urbanized regions. The lack of medical resources and properly trained medical personnel in rural regions make it especially burdensome for HCV patients seeking treatment. Dr. Sanjeev Arora at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center took initiative to resolve the issue at hand by developing a model named Project Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO). ECHO connects primary care providers (PCPs), usually family medicine physicians, in local communities with specialists. ECHO providers test the efficacy of treatment given using the ECHO model vs that at academic medical centers. The ECHO model has produced promising results such that the sustained virologic response rates for both types of sites were near-equivalent. Show Me ECHO was adapted from Project ECHO to train PCPs in Missouri and equip them with the tools and skills to properly treat and diagnose HCV in a timely manner. This healthcare model can be implemented for treating other common infections and chronic diseases. Telemedicine is the direction healthcare is headed for the next several decades. It has potential to be applied in developing countries to alleviate agony and despair resulting from limited resources and lack of access to expert medical care. PMID:27099651

  12. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  13. Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests. PMID:18284739

  14. Evolution in microbiological results in food samples in a health area in the Community of Madrid, Spain (1999-2002

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    Nerea Fernández de Larrea Baz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the context of the increasing relevance of food security in the field of the Public Health, the present article try to evaluate the degree of microbiological contamination in foodstuffs, and to search improvement measures.Methods: Retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the samples of foodstuffs from industries and restauration establishements in the district 1 of the Area V of Madrid Autonomous Region between 1999 and 2002.To check the official minutes of inspections of social restauration establishements.Descriptive analysis of the data obtained.Results: The parameters in 116 of the 383 analysed samples (30 ́3% were higher than permitted by law. The percentage of correct samples in the collective lunchrooms went up from 62% in 1999 to 89 ́9% in 2001 (p<0 ́05.The 32 ́8% of the altered samples were caused by the presence of patogens.The foodsttufs with higher percentage of alteration were the dairy products, followed by the sausages. In the cooked foods, the percentage of alteration was higher in those of group A.The primary deficiences in the social restauration establishements were the absence of non-manual accion tap, the lack of bleach suitable for alimentary use and the inadequate protection of foods.Conclusions: In collective lunchrooms we can observe an improvement in the microbiological results; however, there are still structural and process deficiencies. The results of the other industries cannot be easily assessed due to scarcity of samples.To use bleach suitable for alimentary use in a routine way, can be a measure to reduce the high percentage of group A contaminated foodstuffs.

  15. Barriers to Repatriation of Afghan Refugees (A Case Study of Afghan Community at Shah and Khusar Colony Board Area Peshawar

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    Anwar Alam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the barriers to the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The data were collected from board area Peshawar from 76 respondents selected through simple random sampling technique and were interviewed. The study shows that Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan mainly due to Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in year 1979. Despite having stay of almost three decades in Pakistan they have to repatriate to Afghanistan, but a large majority of the respondents had no intentions to repatriate while small number of respondents reported intention to repatriate mainly due to strict policies of Pakistan government. Those had no intention pointed out the political reasons such as lack of peace and stability in Afghanistan and bad law and order situation, they had no property/ land in Afghanistan, supplemented by lack of job opportunities while they have livelihood sources and better socioeconomic conditions in Pakistan. Socially in Afghanistan a new culture has been developed mostly favoring those like war. Social services are completely destroyed and many refugees called the new culture as alien for them especially to the new generation of Afghan refugees who have been grown in Pakistan. Many of them especially women and children enjoyed a life style that did not exist even before 1979 in Afghanistan. Refugees consider themselves more the part of Pakistani culture and hesitate to go back home. The overall impact shows that those people who had intention to repatriate mainly due to the use of force by government, destruction of houses and shops in camps. Study recommends that the repatriation process can be enhanced if peace and stability in Afghanistan is improved along with the availability of social services and job opportunities.

  16. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting

  17. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  18. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  19. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  20. The Impact of Cultural Environment on the Participation of Eco-immigrant Communities in Ecotourism in the Three Rivers’ Source Area. A Case Study of Mani Stone Project in Kunlun Eco-immigrant Village (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wen; Lan, Xu

    2016-01-01

    With participation in ecotourism, eco-immigrant communities in the Three Rivers’ Source area attempt to use abundant cultural resources in Tibetan region to make their own development path. As an example, the villagers of Kunlun eco-immigrant has attempted to develop tourism by producing and selling Mani stone (a Tibetan stone engraved of sacred Buddhist formulae). However, this practice is queried by some Tibetan intellectuals, community members, and relevant scholars. Besides, the complexit...

  1. Real Apprenticeships: Creating a Revolution in English Skills. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian; Jones, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This research by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) for Sutton Trust examined the English education system and its apprenticeship programs. BCG reported that the UK is failing nearly half its young people by providing inadequate vocational opportunities. BSG presents key findings that include: (1) more than four in ten people have only low level…

  2. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  3. 75 FR 38411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA, Event-Road Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Boston, MA, Event--Road Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Chelsea River Revel 5K Road Race. DATES: This deviation is effective from 8 a.m. through 5 p.m. on July 24... Race. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on July 24, 2010....

  4. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  5. Expanding What It Means to Make Evidence-Based Claims: Online Comments and the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that exploration of media coverage of a story like the Boston Marathon bombings, including online comments posted by readers, can support youth in reflecting on and thinking critically about a tragedy while offering opportunities for literacy pedagogy consistent with the goals of the Common Core State Standards for English…

  6. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  7. Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    This book recounts the author's experience of teaching in a predominantly Negro elementary school in Boston as part of a program to upgrade segregated schools. He describes specific incidents to convey the bigoted attitudes of the teachers and other authorities, which he feels were manifest in their behavior and in the curriculum and activities of…

  8. 75 FR 47215 - Special Local Regulation; Marine Events Within the Captain of the Port Sector Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... will inform the public about the details of each swim and high speed race covered by these special..., Boston, MA. (i) Location. All waters of the Charles River, from surface to bottom, between the Longfellow...) Location. All waters of the Merrimack River, from surface to bottom, within a 400 yard radius of...

  9. Race and the Metropolitan Origins of Postsecondary Access to Four Year Colleges: The Case of Greater Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Smith, Suzanne M.; Coelen, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The inequities of residential segregation and their impact on educational opportunity are a national problem, but greater metropolitan Boston has a particularly problematic history in terms of the extent to which racial segregation has deeply divided the city into separate and unequal systems of opportunity. Despite decades of policy efforts to…

  10. Angst vor dem Satan - die fundamentalistische Sekte "Boston Church of Christ" : Themenschwerpunkt Religion, Spiritualität und Psychokulte

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhausen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Vorgestellt wird eine derzeit sehr einflußreiche religiöse Sekte, die "Boston Church of Christ". Auf der Grundlage von Erfahrungsberichten ehemaliger Angehöriger werden die wichtigsten Methoden und "Psychotechniken" - etwa Taufrituale und Strafsysteme - vorgestellt, mit denen Mitglieder geworben und in die Organisation eingebunden werden.

  11. Aligning Competencies to Rigorous Standards for Off-Track Youth: A Case Study of Boston Day and Evening Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    For over 17 years, Boston Day and Evening Academy has served a population of young people often left behind: those who are off track to high school graduation or who have dropped out altogether. Through its competency-based approach, BDEA has tackled one of the toughest education conundrums of our time: how to recover low-skilled students two or…

  12. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  13. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of tertiary care hospital in Mumbai for one year. All study participants social demographic profile, diet history was collected. Findings of clinical examination, height and weight was recorded. Blood and stools samples were collected after obtaining verbal consent from their parents. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 11.5 version. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 78.3%. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 64.2%, 36.2% and 0.6% respectively. Study participants with BMI <18.5 Kg/M 2 had significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. 88.9% had no knowledge regarding anaemia. In logistic regression analysis body mass index, per capita income and intestinal parasites in stool were the variables independently associated with anaemia. Conclusions: The high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls indicates need for additional nutritional support, iron folic acid supplementation including prevention and control of worm infestation in urban communities. It would be desirable that action for improvement is initiated right at the adolescent stage, thereby ensuring adequate body stores of iron even before they marry and become pregnant.

  14. 芬兰与浦东新区社区卫生服务的比较%Comparison of community health services in Finland and Pudong New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伟; 张韬

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the overview,internal collaboration and personnel training of primary health care in Finland and Pudong New Area and compared their important parameters. It put forward two points which could be learned from Finland. Firstly,optimizing and integrating the functions of general practitioners,community nurses, and public health personnel to work in collaboration. Secondly,using multi-channel and multilateral collaboration to educate and train the general practitioners in order to guarantee,develop and improve the general practitioner's quality and ability,and enhance their enthusiasm and responsibility to serve the people with good community health care.%对芬兰与上海浦东新区两地社区卫生保健体系的基本情况、内部协作与人才培养进行介绍和阐述,并抽取其中的重要参数进行比较,经分析提出可在两点上借鉴芬兰简便高效的运作模式:(1)医、护、防职能分工优化整合,紧密协作;(2)全科医师培养和进修多管齐下,多方协作,以充分保障全科医师的素质与能力,发展与提升,充分激发其职业热忱和为民服务的高度责任心,做好社区卫生保健工作。

  15. Boston Column Network: Compact Solar-Tracking Spectrometers and Differential Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Samra, J.; Gottlieb, E.; Budney, J.; Daube, C.; Daube, B. C.; Hase, F.; Gerbig, C.; Chance, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    In urban environments, the surface concentration is influenced by both the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and by emissions. Path-integrated measurements that integrate through the entire mixed layer are valuable complements to surface data, compatible with the scale of the atmospheric models and therefore help reduce the representation errors in data assimilation studies of surface emission rates. Here we present a ground-based column sensor network in metro Boston. The network extends the existing surface sensor network to the vertical dimension in order to help quantify the concentration gradients across a city using a differential strategy: by measuring the "total column" of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, H2O etc.) and pollutants (NO2, O3, CH2O etc.) simultaneously inside and upwind of the urban core. Each stationary network site has a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker, EM27Sun), a UV-visible grating spectrometer (Pandora) and a LIDAR (Sigma Space, Mini MPL) to provide PBL height. Two EM27Sun Fourier transform spectrometers at fixed locations are complemented by our self-developed solar-tracking Fourier transform spectrometer (Nicolet) to be used as a mobile unit to acquire cross-sectional slices of total column burdens across the urban dome. In additional to O2, CO2, CH4, H2O measurements, this system is also capable of measuring CO and N2O. This compact, inexpensive instrument uses a diffuser as a part of the tracking optics, which results in a rugged and simplified system. A novel camera-based active tracking schema is developed: the sun image on the diffuser is always regulated to the same position to ensure an accurate tracking. In this paper we will show comparisons between the self-developed solar-tracking system and the commercial Bruker EM27Sun. In addition, initial data for the retrieved column concentrations in and outside of the Boston urban dome will be presented.

  16. Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265 in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n=242 with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P=0.009, waist circumference (P=0.002, hip (P=0.002, and weight (P=0.03 than GA or AA carriers (n=94. They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI≥25 relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P=0.043. Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3 : n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n=595 with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P=0.009, hip (P=0.029, and weight (P=0.027 than GA or AA carriers (n=216. Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P=0.024. In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

  17. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  18. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  19. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  20. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in a Populus euphratica Community in the Ebinur Lake Area, a Desert Ecosystem of Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin He

    Full Text Available One of the primary limiting factors for biological activities in desert ecosystems is nitrogen (N. This study therefore examined the effects of N and investigated the responses of an arid ecosystem to global change. We selected the typical desert plant Populus euphratica in a desert ecosystem in the Ebinur Lake area to evaluate the effects of N deposition on desert soil respiration. Three levels of N deposition (0, 37.5 and 112.5 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1 were randomly artificially provided to simulate natural N deposition. Changes in the soil respiration rates were measured from July to September in both 2010 and 2013, after N deposition in April 2010. The different levels of N deposition affected the total soil N, soil organic matter, soil C/N ratio, microorganism number, and microbial community structure and function. However, variable effects were observed over time in relation to changes in the magnitude of N deposition. Simulated high N deposition significantly reduced the soil respiration rate by approximately 23.6±2.5% (P<0.05, whereas low N deposition significantly increased the soil respiration rate by approximately 66.7±2.7% (P<0.05. These differences were clearer in the final growth stage (September. The different levels of N deposition had little effect on soil moisture, whereas N deposition significantly increased the soil temperature in the 0-5 cm layer (P<0.05. These results suggest that in the desert ecosystem of the Ebinur Lake area, N deposition indirectly changes the soil respiration rate by altering soil properties.

  1. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  2. Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Community Secondary Schools in Rural Areas of Central Tanzania: A Case of Bahi District in Dodoma Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Zakayo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the study area between July to August, 2010 with the aim of determining sexual behaviours among adolescents enrolled to community secondary schools. Quantitative data for the study were collected through interviews with 202 students using a pre-tested semi- structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight (8 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with students and in-depth interview with some key informants were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Findings from the study revealed that despite majority of adolescents were aware of some issues related to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH, however, levels of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours among them were unacceptably high. Sixty three percent of sampled adolescents had ever experienced sex, with age at first sex by half of them (51.2% being 15 years and below. Furthermore, of the respondents who had ever experienced sexual intercourse, 22% had multiple sexual partners, 21% had ever had sex with casual partner, and 36% didn’t use condom in their last sexual encounter Main factors for prevalence of sexual activity among adolescents in the study population included failure by adolescents to control their sexual emotions, peer pressure, financial/material gain, cultural practices, and living arrangement. Based on these findings, recommendations to improve the situation have been indicated.

  3. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  4. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  5. Hydrogeological Importance of Bedrock Sediments to the Community and Growth of Sugar Cane in Fadama Rake Area of Madagali, Northeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiya Stephen

    2014-04-01

    bedrock highs. The contributions of the overburden to sourcing groundwater probably attracted Madagali community to the area and promote the growth of sugar cane in the fadama.

  6. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas

  7. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  8. Role of Community Policing Forums (CPFs) in effective crime prevention in the Merafong Local Municipality Area : a critical analysis / Khompane Edward Salomane

    OpenAIRE

    Salomane, Khompane Edward

    2010-01-01

    This research is concerned with the role of a Community Policing Forum (CPF) in fighting crime in communities. The National Crime and Prevention Strategy (NCPS) indicates that, in order to fight crime effectively, communities and the SAPS should work collaboratively and in partnership with each other. Apart from the aim of fighting crime, as stated in the NCPS, the South African Police Act 68 of 1995 mandates each police station to establish a CPF. The current research uses ...

  9. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice Masks Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice (LOCI) files provide land classification masks derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product...

  10. 1 meter resolution GeoTIFF image of the sidescan sonar backscatter imagery of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_1MBS.TIF, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km...

  11. ArcInfo Grid of the 30 meter pixel Composite Bathymetry of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_30MBATH, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km square of...

  12. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  13. Reflexões a partir da mobilidade: O consumo de alimentos e a formação de mercados brasileiros em Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Viviane Kraieski de

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo, eu utilizo minha etnografia das práticas alimentares de imigrantes brasileiros na Grande Boston, que realizei em 2009, para pensar a mobilidade. Proponho que a mobilidade é um conceito-chave para analisar como os imigrantes experienciam o processo migratório e a forma em que se inserem na(s) cidade(s), como também a formação de mercados étnicos e consumo de alimentos brasileiros em Boston.

  14. Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Introduction The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to

  15. Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia. Hazard ratios of HCC development were estimated for HBV and HCV co-infected subjects among a community-based prospective cohort. HCV genotype was determined in HCV RNA-positive samples. Incident HCC cases were identified through linkage to the cancer registry. HCC incidence was 79 per 100,000 person-years in the study population (50 incident cases among 6,694 individuals within 63,170 person-years with an average of 9.4 years of follow-up); seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 5.2% and 5.6%. Adjusted hazard ratios of HCC by HBsAg positivity and anti-HCV positivity were 13.3 (CI: 7.3-24.4) and 6.7 (CI: 3.6-12.6). HRs of HBV and HCV monoinfection, and HBV/HCV coinfection were 17.1 (CI: 8.4-34.8), 10.4 (CI: 4.9-22.1) and 115.0 (CI: 32.5-407.3). Multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk was also observed (synergy index: 4.5, CI: 1.3-15.5). Infection with HCV genotype 1 (HR: 29.7, CI: 13.6-46.8) and mixed infection with genotype 1 and 2 (HR: 68.7, CI: 16.4-288.4) significantly elevated HCC risk, much higher than HBV infection. The effect of differences in HCV genotype and the multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk shown in the present study underline the need for comprehensive identification of hepatitis infection status in order to prevent and control HCC in this HBV endemic area

  16. Epithelial growth over the optic surface of the type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis: histopathology and implications for biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf M Khalifa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Yousuf M Khalifa, Don Davis, Nick Mamalis, Majid MoshirfarMoran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: We report the histopathology of epithelial overgrowth in the Boston type I keratoprosthesis. The epithelium shows an inconsistent number of layers and basement membrane and goblet cells are absent. Epithelialization of the keratoprosthesis optic would have multiple advantages, but the limitation of vision makes tolerating the overgrowth difficult.Keywords: keratoprosthesis, cornea, corneal transplant, biocompatibility, biointegration epithelium

  17. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  18. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  19. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  20. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems. PMID:26642175