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Sample records for boston area community

  1. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  2. Boston: Community Schools from the Grass Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, William F.

    1974-01-01

    In Boston, grass roots citizen pressure led to the formation of community schools to replace elementary schools. The community schools are operated by the Boston School Committee during the regular school day and by the Department of Public Facilities in the extended day and evening. (Author/DN)

  3. Racial ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes treatment patterns and glycaemic control in the Boston Area Community Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Numerous studies continue to report poorer glycaemic control, and a higher incidence of diabetes-related complications among African–Americans and Hispanic–Americans as compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. We examined racial/ethnic differences in receipt of hypoglycaemic medications and glycaemic control in a highly insured Massachusetts community sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Setting Community-based sample from Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Parti...

  4. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  5. Association of Acculturation and Health Literacy with Prevalent Dysglycemia and Diabetes Control Among Latinos in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Grant, Richard W.; Marceau, Lisa; Piccolo, Rebecca; McKinlay, John B.; Meigs, James B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of acculturation on type 2 diabetes and whether health literacy may mediate this association. The Boston Area Community Health cohort is a multi-stage stratified random sample of adults from Boston including 744 Latinos. We defined dysglycemia as a HbA1c ≥5.7 %. Multivariable analyses examined the associations between acculturation and health literacy adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Similar analyses were performed among participants with HbA1c ≥7.0 % to assess the association between acculturation and diabetes control. Among an insured primarily foreign born Spanish speaking Latino population, with a long residence period in the US and good healthcare utilization, higher levels of acculturation were not associated with dysglycemia. Lower levels of acculturation were associated with worse diabetes control. Health literacy level did not modify these associations. Elucidating the components of heterogeneity among Latinos will be essential for understanding the influence of acculturation on diabetes. PMID:26898955

  6. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  7. Boston Community Information System 1987-1988 Experimental Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    subdirectory. Right now, this is a major pain in the neck ." --1295 225 BOSTON COMMINS PRIMARY DATA FROM BCIS March 1988 Question # Text Responses Minimum...and businesses in the Boston area. Every month users were requested to answer questionaires that we devised. All of the questionaire data from...energy management based on local weather conditions). 38 PRIMARY DATA FROM BCIS BOSTON COMMINS -1201 mote sources of information also to do with finances

  8. Boston Community Energy Study - Zonal Analysis for Urban Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Hatziargyriou, H. Asano, R. Iravani, and C. Marnay, “Microgrids,” Power and Energy Magazine , IEEE 5(4), 78–94 (2007). [18] M. Stadler, “Effect of Heat and...markets. These microgrids typically exploit combined heat and power (CHP) systems to increase the overall energy efficiency, while increasing grid...simulation. The community energy simulation reflects certain policies of the City of Boston, including increasing affordability, increasing power grid

  9. Boston: An Urban Community. Boston and the American Revolution; The Leaders, the Issues and the Common Man. Boston's Architecture: From First Townhouse to New City Hall. Boston's Artisans of the Eighteenth Century. Annotated Reading Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C.; And Others

    These three annotated reading guides were developed for courses offered at the Boston Public Library under the National Endowment for the Humanities Library Learning Program. The first lists 32 selected recent works of major importance covering the areas of colonial society, political structure, and the American Revolution. The 27 titles cited in…

  10. Boston Community Information System 1986 Experimental Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    participants in the Boston CommnS. The questionnaire results showed a large interest in major corporations such as IBM, Digital Equipment, Data...DATA FROM THE FIS YEAR ’Computer, Electronic, Accounting’ - 1132 OIEEE Proceedings, Science, Communicatins of the ACM’ - 1137 ’American Political...higher if corporate . Since I moved it to the ofice to shape data with our [Oxfam Americal Press office and Ex. Dir. I have lez discretionary leisure

  11. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  12. 75 FR 6699 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ....m. to 8 p.m. at the Boston Public Library, 700 Boylston Street, Boston, MA. This will be the annual meeting of the Council. The agenda will include a presentation on citizen science activities on the... statement at the meeting or who want further information concerning the meeting may contact...

  13. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Chen, Lin H.; Jentes, Emily S.; Wilson, Mary E.; Han, Pauline V.; Benoit, Christine M.; MacLeod, William B.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2–4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for non adherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  14. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications.

  15. An Ongoing Observational Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Boston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Ono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and their relationship to atmospheric conditions in major cities are an important component of current efforts to understand the effects of urbanization on anthropogenic sources of GHGs. One-minute CO2 mixing ratio measurements in the city of Cambridge, MA have been determined from air samples collected from an intake mounted at on the roof of MIT's Green building (99.0 m) since July 3, 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations are governed by a diurnal cycle with July hourly average mixing ratios ranging from a minimum of 390.22 ± 9.22 ppm at 4:00PM to a maximum of 412.89 ± 16.78 ppm at 6:00AM. Occasional plume events, with mixing ratios exceeding 500 ppm, are seen in preliminary records especially in the morning hours (6:00AM-12:00PM). Small CO2 detectors also have been deployed at other locations on MIT's campus to determine CO2 mixing ratios to within 30 ppm at different elevations. These detectors provide a cost effective way to determine the spatial extent of plume events. To assess overall levels of GHGs in the Boston area, corresponding CO and N2O concentrations, obtained with a continuous wave, quantum cascade tunable infrared laser absorption spectrometer are used to determine source signatures during plume events. The potential exists to establish a baseline diurnal signal in the CO and N2O records similar to that of CO2 in the ongoing measurements. Further analyses will look to determine the existence and extent of an urban GHG dome over the city of Boston. Some unique source signatures are identified on the basis of their characteristic N2O-CO-CO2 ratios; this information will be used to evaluate the location of significant anthropogenic sources of GHGs in conjunction with wind direction and traffic flow data. Preliminary N2O/CO2 ratios, averaged over six hour periods, fall between (7.31 ± 0.31)*10-4 in the morning (6:00AM-12:00PM) and (8.34 ± 0.13)*10-4 in the evening (6:00PM - 12:00AM) are slightly

  16. A for-profit venture marketing research and analysis study conducted for Action for Boston Community Development. [Home repair services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-27

    This report is a look at our study to find a for-profit venture for Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD) to establish. Essentially, our study had two stages - find a product or service that appeared to be needed in the market place and that ABCD felt comfortable pursuing, then research and analyze the market for this product or service. The venture selected for complete market research and analysis was home repair services. Our research showed that both an advisory and minor home repair service should be established.

  17. Poverty, race, and medication use are correlates of asthma hospitalization rates. A small area analysis in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, D J; Beiser, A S; O'Connor, G T

    1995-07-01

    Hospitalization rates for asthma in New York City are highest in poor urban neighborhoods, although the reasons for this are unknown. We performed a small area analysis of asthma hospitalization rates in Boston, to determine whether this pattern of asthma hospitalization also obtained in a medium-sized city and to identify characteristics of neighborhoods with high hospitalization rates, including the relative use of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication. Zip codes were used to define 22 small areas within Boston. The number of asthma hospitalizations for residents of each area in 1992 was obtained from the Codman Research Group. Population and demographic characteristics of each area were obtained from the 1990 US Census. Estimates of inhaled asthma medications (beta-agonists, steroids, and cromolyn) dispensed in each area in 1992 were obtained from IMS America. Asthma hospitalization rates for each of the six areas with the highest rates (5.3 to 9.8 per 1,000 persons) were significantly greater than the city-wide average of 4.2 hospitalizations per thousand persons (p poverty rate and with the proportion of nonwhite residents and inversely correlated with income and educational attainment. Asthma hospitalization rate was inversely correlated with the ratio of inhaled anti-inflammatory to beta-agonist medication use (r = -0.55, p = 0.008). We conclude that asthma hospitalization rates in Boston are highest in poor inner city neighborhoods, and that these high rates affect both genders and all age groups. Underuse of inhaled anti-inflammatory medication may be one of the many factors that contributes to this excess hospitalization.

  18. 33 CFR 165.120 - Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. 165.120 Section 165.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.120 Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following area... downstream of the Chelsea Street Bridge on the Chelsea, MA side of the Chelsea River—hereafter referred to...

  19. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  20. Is Boston Burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of current and potential future problems facing efforts to desegregate Boston schools in which a number of suggestions are offered to facilitate the process of quality education for all by adequately preparing community, parent, and school personnel and nurturing student interracial initiatives. (EH)

  1. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... infrastructure within 1,000 meters of Neptune's STL buoys, and will prohibit vessels from commercial fishing or... regulation to safeguard vessels, harbors, ports, or waterfront facilities from destruction, loss, or injury.... The purpose of these regulated areas is to protect vessels and mariners from the potential...

  2. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  3. Boston, Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Boston, MA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given. The City of Boston and its Solar America Cities program, Solar Boston, are helping to debunk the myth that solar energy is only feasible in the southern latitudes. Boston has some of the highest energy prices in the country and will likely be one of the first locations where solar power achieves grid parity with conventional energy technologies. Solar Boston is facilitating the rapid development of solar energy projects and infrastructure in the short-term, and is preparing for the rapid market growth that is expected with the imminent arrival of grid parity over the long-term. Solar Boston developed the strategy for achieving Mayor Menino's goal of installing 25 MW of solar energy throughout Boston by 2015. Through Solar Boston, the city has developed a strategy for the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including mapping feasible locations, preparing a permitting guide, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city has also worked with local organizations to maximize Boston's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. The resulting accomplishments include the following: (1) Created an online map of current local renewable energy projects with a tool to allow building owners to calculate their rooftop solar potential. The map is currently live at http://gis.cityofboston.gov/solarboston/. (2) Supported the city's Green Affordable Housing Program (GAHP), in partnership with the Department of Neighborhood Development (DND). Under GAHP, the city is installing more than 150 kW of PV on 200 units of affordable housing. DND requires that all new city-funded affordable housing be LEED silver

  4. The Message from Boston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenfeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The election program entitled "A Strong Nation Respected in the World " came out in Boston at the July 26-29 Democratic National Convention along with the nomination of John Kerry and John Edwards as the presidential and vice presidential candidates of the party. What message do the Democrats want to convey from Boston?

  5. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  6. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  7. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  8. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  9. Cunard in Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The steamship Britannia arrived in Boston Harbor on a July evening in 1840. This concluded the inaugural voyage for the flagship of the newly established Cunard Line, which has since become one of the oldest and most distinguished travel companies in the world. To commemorate the occasion, Cunard will send its current flagship Queen Mary 2 along the same route – from Liverpool to Halifax to Boston – during July of 2015.

  10. Primary care clinicians’ experiences prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at a specialized community health centre in Boston: lessons from early adopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Krakower

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists. Methods: During January to February 2015, 35 primary care clinicians at a community health centre in Boston that specializes in the care of sexual and gender minorities completed anonymous surveys about their experiences and practices with PrEP provision. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results and discussion: Thirty-two clinicians (response rate=91% completed the surveys. Nearly all clinicians (97% had prescribed PrEP (median 20 patients, interquartile range 11–33. Most clinicians reported testing and risk-reduction counselling practices concordant with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for PrEP. Clinicians indicated that patients using PrEP experienced medication toxicities infrequently and generally reported high adherence. However, some clinicians’ practices differed from guideline recommendations, and some clinicians observed patients with increased risk behaviours. Most clinicians (79% rated PrEP provision as easy to accomplish, and 97% considered themselves likely to prescribe PrEP in the future. Conclusions: In a primary care clinic with specialized expertise in HIV prevention, clinicians perceived that PrEP provision to large numbers of patients was safe, feasible and potentially effective. Efforts to engage generalist primary care clinicians in PrEP provision could facilitate scale-up of this

  11. Primary care clinicians’ experiences prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at a specialized community health centre in Boston: lessons from early adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas S; Maloney, Kevin M; Grasso, Chris; Melbourne, Katherine; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists. Methods During January to February 2015, 35 primary care clinicians at a community health centre in Boston that specializes in the care of sexual and gender minorities completed anonymous surveys about their experiences and practices with PrEP provision. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results and discussion Thirty-two clinicians (response rate=91%) completed the surveys. Nearly all clinicians (97%) had prescribed PrEP (median 20 patients, interquartile range 11–33). Most clinicians reported testing and risk-reduction counselling practices concordant with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for PrEP. Clinicians indicated that patients using PrEP experienced medication toxicities infrequently and generally reported high adherence. However, some clinicians’ practices differed from guideline recommendations, and some clinicians observed patients with increased risk behaviours. Most clinicians (79%) rated PrEP provision as easy to accomplish, and 97% considered themselves likely to prescribe PrEP in the future. Conclusions In a primary care clinic with specialized expertise in HIV prevention, clinicians perceived that PrEP provision to large numbers of patients was safe, feasible and potentially effective. Efforts to engage generalist primary care clinicians in PrEP provision could facilitate scale-up of this efficacious

  12. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  13. Boston Washer Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    2002-08-06

    To help understand the relative performance gains of conventional and high-efficiency washers and to increase awareness of energy/water savings, the U.S. Department of Energy under its Emerging Technologies Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances conducted a field-evaluation of horizontal axis washers in a Boston, Massachusetts condo complex. Baseline washer and dryer performance and customer habits were established using 50 participants and their existing, instrumented washers and dryers for a 2 1/2-month period. After the baseline was established, the machines were replaced with high efficiency tumble action washers and moisture sensing dryers, and tested for the next 2 1/2 months. By information gathered, energy and water savings delivered by the h-axis washers as well as impacts on participants' washing habits and perceptions of cleaning performance were determined. Overall, participants saved 41% of the water and 50% of the energy that they would have used without a changeover to the new h-axis washer. The changeover also produced significant dryer energy savings due primarily to the high-speed final spin of the new washer. The Boston Washer Study report details the experiment including instrumentation, data collection and analysis procedures and discusses the impacts on energy, water and detergent consumption as well as customer satisfaction with the technology.

  14. Banco de Reserva Federal Boston - Massachusetts - EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbing, Hugh

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its being located in a heavily built-up downtown area of Boston, the new Federal Reserve Bank Building enjoys privileged surroundings, in the middle of ponds and landscaped areas with trees, etc. It was designed taking the maximum advantage of the particular conditions of the property, while reinforcing and increasing prestige attributes of this part of the city, called for, in the urban development plans, to be the centre of community and business activities. The project includes an office tower overlooking the harbour and a low building containing ail public banking functions. The design was based on specific research of the different aspects of banking activities, from the most minute details of furniture and fixtures, through the fenestration work, up to the highly sophisticated security systems.

    Pese a estar situado en un área céntrica de Boston, en una zona densamente urbanizada, el nuevo edificio del Banco Federal goza de un entorno privilegiado, circundado por estanques y jardines con árboles. Su arquitectura procura sacar partido de las particulares características de la parcela, fortaleciendo y elevando la categoría de esa parte de ciudad a la que los planes urbanísticos asignan el papel de centro de actividades comunitarias y comerciales. La construcción cuenta con una torre de oficinas, con amplias vistas sobre el puerto, y un bloque bajo dedicado a actividades bancarias públicas. Para su realización se utilizaron los resultados de investigaciones específicas sobre los diversos aspectos de la actividad bancaria, comprendiendo desde los más pequeños detalles del mobiliario y de la carpintería exterior, hasta los más modernos y complejos sistemas de seguridad.

  15. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  16. 33 CFR 165.T01-0542 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. 165.T01-0542 Section 165.T01-0542 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United States within a...

  17. Boston Edison and LG&E win 7th annual substation design contest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaty, W.

    1996-07-01

    Boston`s Edison`s Network Station 53 won First Place in the engineering/operations category of Electric Light & Power`s 7th annual substation design contest. Station 53 also took Second Place in the aesthetic design category. Boston Edison is no stranger to the contest, having won top honors in the aesthetic category in the very first contest in 1990. That same year, Boston took Second Place in engineering/operations design and Third Place in aesthetic design. Station 53 occupies a 12,074-square-foot site in the heart of the Boston financial district. It replaces an existing station where the land was required for Boston`s Central Artery project. Great care was taken to ensure that Station 53 would blend into the cityscape and be pleasing to the eye. The architectural treatment was designed by the Boston Anderson-Nichols & Company Inc., in cooperation with the Boston Redevelopment Authority. The latest in engineering technology was utilized to guarantee reliability, maintain the highest service quality and provide capacity for future load growth in the downtown area. Station 53 is supplied by two underground 115-kV pipe-type transmission cables. Unattended and remotely operated, Station 53 has the capability of sectionalizing the 115-kV power supply by remote control to isolate the faulted sections.

  18. School Treasures: Architecture of Historic Boston Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Doris

    This book contains photographs and descriptions of the Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts, explaining that the Boston Public Schools include about 129 buildings that were constructed in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century and noting that the first and oldest public school in the United States was founded in Boston in 1635.…

  19. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  20. Schooltaalwoorden en rubrics in Boston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Wietske; Wessum, Loes van

    2011-01-01

    Uit de Pisa cijfers blijkt dat het onderwijs in Amerika niet kan meekomen met sterke Aziatische en Europese landen als Nederland. Toch zijn er in Boston pareltjes van samenwerking te vinden tussen de Harvard Universiteit en een aantal scholen. Dat ondervond een Nederlandse groep taalexperts en lerar

  1. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... email Mr. Mark Cutter, Coast Guard Sector Boston Waterways Management Division, telephone 617-223-4000... representative may be on shore and will communicate with vessels via VHF-FM radio or loudhailer. In addition.... Coast Guard vessel by siren, radio, flashing light, or other means, the operator of a vessel...

  2. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  3. Crafting New Citizens: Art and Handicraft in New York and Boston Settlement Houses, 1900-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwold, Diana Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the creation and exhibition of immigrant-made art in American settlement houses in New York and Boston from 1900 to 1945. The lace, embroidery, and ceramics Southern and Eastern European immigrant artists created provide an important avenue to illustrate how European traditions survived, changed, or disappeared, and how Jewish and Italian communities in New York and Boston adapted to new circumstances while maintaining distinct identities. This dissertation proposes...

  4. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  5. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raciti, Steve M., E-mail: Steve.M.Raciti@Hofstra.edu [Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Gittleson Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549 (United States); Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hutyra, Lucy R.; Newell, Jared D. [Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha{sup −1}), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha{sup −1}) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R{sup 2} = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R{sup 2} = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic

  6. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM SOMESUL CALD CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Battes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.

  7. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects.

  8. Boston Community Information System User Manual,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    content to dazzle fashion editors and buyers with slick runway productions of ear-piercing Music and fast -walk.-ing models. U>flov 1, 1. 28 (3S lines...consistently by our information sources: arts News about the arts (AP) 60 minute gourmet What to do for dinner in one hour (NYT) bba American League Baseball...Column on skiing (NYT) sports briefs Brief stories about sports (AP) tabletalk Food column (NYT) technology Reports on new and interesting technologies

  9. Boston AcousticsA系列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    咨询电话:0512—88183399—3333网址:www.yuetaichina.comBostonAcoustics(波士顿声学)A系列产品将于近期在国内市场推出,包括A360和DA250落地箱、A25和DA26书架箱、A225C中置箱及A23卫星音箱,A23可作为一个环绕箱或书架箱使用。

  10. The Front Desks of Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oshins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of hotel front desks has not changed significantly in more than a century. The activities of welcoming guests upon arrival, assisting guests during their stay, and settling accounts upon departure are still the mainstay of the front desk. Although the function of the front desk has remained static, its form has evolved. Front desks now differ widely in terms of aesthetics and, in some cases, even operational patterns. This article offers photographs of numerous hotel front desks in Boston and provides brief commentaries that provide insight about the changing nature of front desk design.

  11. Paris in Boston: A Photo Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Dzamba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is intriguing how certain scenes of Boston resemble those of Paris. In fact, the architects of some of Boston’s most famous buildings of the nineteenth century studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The influence of Paris can be found everywhere in Boston, especially among the hotel images in this photo essay.

  12. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described.

  13. The air quality impacts of road closures associated with the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clougherty Jane E

    2006-05-01

    measurable influence of DNC-related road closures on air quality patterns in the Boston area, and that a low-cost monitoring study combining passive badges for spatial heterogeneity and continuous monitors for temporal heterogeneity can provide useful insight for community air quality assessments.

  14. Species-time-area and phylogenetic-time-area relationships in tropical tree communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Nathan G; Mi, Xiangcheng; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, María; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2013-05-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has proven to be one of the few strong generalities in ecology. The temporal analog of the SAR, the species-time relationship (STR), has received considerably less attention. Recent work primarily from the temperate zone has aimed to merge the SAR and the STR into a synthetic and unified species-time-area relationship (STAR) as originally envisioned by Preston (1960). Here we test this framework using two tropical tree communities and extend it by deriving a phylogenetic-time-area relationship (PTAR). The work finds some support for Preston's prediction that diversity-time relationships, both species and phylogenetic, are sensitive to the spatial scale of the sampling. Contrary to the Preston's predictions we find a decoupling of diversity-area and diversity-time relationships in both forests as the time period used to quantify the diversity-area relationship changes. In particular, diversity-area and diversity-time relationships are positively correlated using the initial census to quantify the diversity-area relationship, but weakly or even negatively correlated when using the most recent census. Thus, diversity-area relationships could forecast the temporal accumulation of biodiversity of the forests, but they failed to "back-cast" the temporal accumulation of biodiversity suggesting a decoupling of space and time.

  15. Infectious keratitis in patients undergoing Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro procedure: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Moraes do Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of two cases of infectious keratitis in patients after Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro implantation. The first case refers to a patient that had the device indicated due to limbal deficiency secondary to severe dry eye who presented a fungal infection by Aerobasidium pullulans that was successfully treated with amphotericin B eye drops. The second case reports a patient with Boston KPro implantation due to previous corneal transplant rejection showing bacterial keratitis in the fourth postoperative month. The etiologic agent was identified asStreptococcus sp and topical treatment with vancomycin was effective. The importance of postoperative surveillance in Boston KPro eyes is discussed.

  16. Racism and the Boston Schools Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Earl

    1975-01-01

    A documentation of racism in Boston and New England schools from colonial times to the present, coupled with a plea for black people to continue their struggle against white supremacy and for educational equality. (EH)

  17. Cloud Communities and Travel Diaries. Virtual Representations of Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Platania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective construction of descriptions can radically change the image of an area. This uncontrollable process is destined to become one of the main priority research areas also in tourism studies. The spread of Web sites in which telling stories and descriptions of territories has become a significant element in the network society, and the growing use of social networks and cloud communities, often in planning tourism, contributes to social description of touristic landscapes and influence the collective imaginary. In social space, territories are the result of the superposition of different layers, from the real one to the virtual, bound to a constant exchange of information. This phenomenon that could guide tourist attraction, begins to affect the choices of local institutions and residents.The aim of the paper is to give an interpretation on the construction of collective representation, which takes place, after the journey, through the on-line publication of a diary. The research is divided into two parts. In the first, we explain some theoretical aspects related to the representation of the travel, the sharing of information in virtual form and the construction of an imaginary touristic. Subsequently, are taken into account the results obtained in previous studies related to the analysis of the narratives of tourism experiences, shared within virtual spaces freely accessible on the net. These results will be used to develop a model of interpretation on the virtual representation of tourist areas.

  18. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  19. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nyantekyi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  20. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  1. 77 FR 19573 - Safety Zone; Wedding Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... in the vicinity of Anthony's Pier 4, Boston, MA for a wedding fireworks display. This...

  2. 不一般的波士顿%Boston Uncommon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA ARDEN-SMITH

    2004-01-01

    @@ There's much more to Boston than history and seafood. Boston is the student capital of the states and it's a city well-equipped to handle their needs. From a vast public transportation system to blocks of dance clubs to a beautiful river lined with running and rollerblading paths, Boston is heaven for the young and poor.

  3. Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is one of the focuses of the research on ecotourism. The research on community participative model is of great theoretical and practical significance. Based on the former experts' studies, this paper analyzes ecotourism demonstration areas in Diqing Shangri-La of Yunnan as a case study. It mainly expounds the relationship between ecotourism and community participation and puts forward such a community participative model of ecotourism in Shangri-La.

  4. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  5. Racial Discrimination in the Boston Housing Market. Discussion Paper D76-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert

    This paper analyzes three theories of racial discrimination by arguing that a dual housing market, a strong white taste for segregation, and pure racial price discrimination are all operative in the Boston urbanized area. Research dealing with discrimination and price differentials in housing for blacks is reviewed. It is pointed out that there…

  6. Boston Back in Top 10 of U.S. Cities with the Most Energy Star Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released its 2014 list of U.S. metropolitan areas with the most certified Energy Star buildings. Boston has returned to the top 10, & is recognized for its continuing commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions & save money through energy efficiency.

  7. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  8. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Northside Partnership "Healthy Community" Pilot Area Walkability Audit

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, David; Borscheid, Matthias; Reid, Odran; ni Lochlainn, Meadhbh

    2015-01-01

    Poor health has been identified as an issue for people who live in areas affected by structural disadvantage and social exclusion. One area in the North East of Dublin City has been identified for the development of a project addressing health inequality and promoting a “Healthy Community” by Northside Partnership, a local development company established in 1991 to address social exclusion. The Partnership has been assisted in the development of the programme by a wide range of statutory and ...

  10. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO B. PEREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications.

  11. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  12. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how communit

  13. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  14. 78 FR 67028 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Fireworks, the Boston Harbor Triathlon, and the Boston Harbor Sharkfest Swim. C. Discussion of Comments... CFR 165.118 as (6.5) Hull Youth Football Carnival Fireworks, (8.8) The Boston ] Triathlon, and (9.7... weekend of June each year. The Boston Triathlon safety zone will consist of all waters of Boston...

  15. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  16. Butterfly Community Conservation Through Ecological Landscape Design in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Borsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due urbanization and extension of agricultural areas most of the ecosystems are strongly affected. As a result, preservation of biodiversity becomes more and more important aiming to reestablish the lost habitats of different species (mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, etc.. Our research focuses on butterflies which constitute an extremely important group of ‘model’ organisms. We have identified 12 diurnal ‘flying beauties’ specific to Cluj area (threatened and unthreathened species and investigated their ecological requirements that have to be provided for in any landscapes. Furthermore, based on the data colleted we have illustrated the utility of our approach by applying it to a hypothetical urban landscape (private garden following the traditional environmental guidelines in our landscape design.

  17. Processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major urban centers of the United States including Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle—are on a coast (fig. 1.1). All of these cities discharge treated sewage effluent into adjacent waters. In 2000, 74 percent of the U.S. population lived within 200 kilometers (km) of the coast. Between 1980 and 2002, the population density in coastal communities increased approximately 4.5 times faster than in noncoastal areas of the U.S. (Perkins, 2004). More people generate larger volumes of wastes, increase the demands on wastewater treatment, expand the area of impervious land surfaces, and use more vehicles that contribute contaminants to street runoff. According to the National Coastal Condition Report II (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a), on the basis of coastal habitat, water and sediment quality, benthic index, and fish tissue, the overall national coastal condition is only poor to fair and the overall coastal condition in the highly populated Northeast is poor. Scientific information helps managers to prioritize and regulate coastal-ocean uses that include recreation, commercial fishing, transportation, waste disposal, and critical habitat for marine organisms. These uses are often in conflict with each other and with environmental concerns. Developing a strategy for managing competing uses while maintaining sustainability of coastal resources requires scientific understanding of how the coastal ocean system behaves and how it responds to anthropogenic influences. This report provides a summary of a multidisciplinary research program designed to improve our understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in Massachusetts coastal waters. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor have been a focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research because they provide a diverse geographic setting for developing a scientific understanding of the geology, geochemistry, and oceanography of

  18. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  19. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  20. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  1. 78 FR 48085 - Safety Zones; Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... times, vessels moored at the Sunoco Logistics facility downstream of the bridge on the East Boston side..., and does not require an assessment of potential costs and benefits under section 6(a)(3) of that Order... national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the...

  2. Family, School, Community Engagement, and Partnerships: An Area of Continued Inquiry and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Sarina C.

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to the theme issue by providing a glimpse of the historical and contemporary efforts in the area of developing school, family, and community partnerships, a long-standing area of need and inquiry in the literature. It reports on the collective learning from these articles where implications of the findings pointed to the…

  3. Signals of climate change in butterfly communities in a Mediterranean protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Zografou

    Full Text Available The European protected-area network will cease to be efficient for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the Mediterranean region, if species are driven out of protected areas by climate warming. Yet, no empirical evidence of how climate change influences ecological communities in Mediterranean nature reserves really exists. Here, we examine long-term (1998-2011/2012 and short-term (2011-2012 changes in the butterfly fauna of Dadia National Park (Greece by revisiting 21 and 18 transects in 2011 and 2012 respectively, that were initially surveyed in 1998. We evaluate the temperature trend for the study area for a 22-year-period (1990-2012 in which all three butterfly surveys are included. We also assess changes in community composition and species richness in butterfly communities using information on (a species' elevational distributions in Greece and (b Community Temperature Index (calculated from the average temperature of species' geographical ranges in Europe, weighted by species' abundance per transect and year. Despite the protected status of Dadia NP and the subsequent stability of land use regimes, we found a marked change in butterfly community composition over a 13 year period, concomitant with an increase of annual average temperature of 0.95°C. Our analysis gave no evidence of significant year-to-year (2011-2012 variability in butterfly community composition, suggesting that the community composition change we recorded is likely the consequence of long-term environmental change, such as climate warming. We observe an increased abundance of low-elevation species whereas species mainly occurring at higher elevations in the region declined. The Community Temperature Index was found to increase in all habitats except agricultural areas. If equivalent changes occur in other protected areas and taxonomic groups across Mediterranean Europe, new conservation options and approaches for increasing species' resilience may have to be

  4. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  5. Winsor, Dewey, and Putnam: The Boston Experience. Occasional Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; Carpenter, Kenneth E.; Wiegand, Wayne A.; Aikin, Jane

    This volume contains three papers about early library leaders with Boston (Massachusetts) connections. Donald G. Davis, Jr. provides an introduction to the papers. "Justin Winsor, Librarian and Scholar" (Kenneth E. Carpenter) discusses the life of Justin Winsor, who was director of the Boston Public Library (1868-76), president of the American…

  6. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... Cow Pasture in Dorchester; and southerly and easterly of the shoreline. (c) Dorchester Bay, in...°30′ from a point on the shore 2,600 feet easterly of the east side of the Wollaston Yacht...

  7. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Anchorage. Beginning at a point bearing 93°, 1,400 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 81°, 1,600 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 102°, 3,100 yards, from the aerial beacon...

  8. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  9. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area.

  10. Jobs For Youth-Boston, Madison Park Technical-Vocational H.S., Boston, Massachusetts. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    The Boston, Massachusetts, school district requires that its 9th grade students pass both the Boston Public Schools Math Benchmark Assessment (BPS Math) and the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) before entering 10th grade. At Madison Park Technical-Vocational High School in June 2000, 349 students failed either the mathematics or reading test or…

  11. Studies on the Ecology of Fouling Community in Daguanban Reclamation Area of Luoyuan Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周时强; 柯才焕; 林大鹏

    2001-01-01

    The test panels have been set for one year in the waters of Daguanban reclamation area of Luoyuan Bay to investigate the ecology of fouling community. 39 species of animals and 8 species of algae have been recorded during the investigation. The main period of settlement extends from May to October. The peak periods of biomass and covered area rate of the panels have been observed from Juneto September Balanus reticulatus, Bugula neritina, Molgula manhattensis, Tubularia mesembryanthemun and Enteromopha interstinalis are the dominant species in the fouling community. Species diversity index, species richness, species evenness and environmental factors are determined, the results of which indicate that water flow speed is the most important factor influencing the species and quantity composition of the fouling community.As to the mariculture production in the reclamation area, the main harmful period ranges from June to September.

  12. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  13. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  14. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.Methods:Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique.Results:Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years.Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  15. Characteristics, classification and ordination of riparian plant communities in the Three-Gorges areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen different vegetation types of grassland and shrubland were selected to study the component and diversity of plant species of riparian plant communities along main channel in the Three-Gorges areas. Species richness (s), Simpson index (D), and Shannon-Weiner index (H) were used to study the biodiversity and the hierarchical classification was carried out by the methods of TWINSPAN and DCA ordination. The results showed that the components of flora were complex and dominated by the temperate type in the riparian plant communities. Species diversity was not different between the communities, but Shannon-Weiner indexes of different layers in some grassland were significantly different. TWINSPAN and DCA indicated that riparian plant communities distributed along the gradient of moisture.

  16. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  17. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  18. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline rel

  19. 77 FR 43094 - Public Comment Period Extension for the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... following locations: Central Branch of the Boston Public Library, 700 Boylston Street, Boston, MA; South End Library, 685 Tremont Street, Boston, MA; Grove Hall Library, 42 Geneva Avenue; and Dudley Library, 65 Warren Street, Boston, MA. Dated: July 18, 2012. Ryan T. Bayha, Science Policy Analyst, Office of...

  20. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  1. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  2. In a sea of sticky molasses: The physics of the Boston Molasses Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Nicole; Kennedy, Jordan; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    On January 15th, 1919, shortly after 12:40 pm local time, a giant storage tank collapsed in Boston's crowded North End, releasing more than 8.7 million liters of molasses. Contemporary accounts estimated the initial wave was 7.6 meters tall and moved at more than 15 m/s. In moments, molasses engulfed the Commercial Street area, flattening buildings, damaging the elevated train, killing 21 people, and injuring 150 more. Molasses is a viscoelastic fluid 1.5 times as dense as water with a viscosity roughly 4000 times greater. This talk will explore the physics of the Boston Molasses Flood, including the effects of temperature fluctuations and molasses rheology on events leading up to the tank's collapse and their impact on subsequent rescue efforts.

  3. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  4. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities.

  5. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Jonas Imperiale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how community resilience can be effectively included and assessed in local development efforts. We argue that social impact assessment (SIA can and should play a key role in assessing regional development strategies and proposals and in building community resilience. We present the SIA Framework for Action as a tool to enhance policies, plans, programs, and projects and to assist in attaining appropriate social development outcomes, including community resilience. We demonstrate the value of the framework by discussing its application in a development project in rural Italy—the restoration of the Tratturo Magno, an ancient path used by shepherds and flocks for transhumance over centuries. The project, Vie e Civiltà della Transumanza, patrimonio dell'Umanità (Routes and Civilization of Transhumance World Heritage, inter alia, sought to promote rural tourism by restoring parts of the Tratturo Magno in the area damaged by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.

  6. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  7. Boston, the Booth Brothers, and the Parker House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Wilson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available April 14, 2015 was the 150th anniversary of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. This is the story of how that fateful day was linked to Boston, the Booth Brothers, and the Parker House.

  8. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...: September 11, 2013, 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. (Eastern). Location: Partnership Office, 15 State Street, 8th... recommendations to the Boston Harbor Islands Partnership with respect to the implementation of a management...

  9. Túnel bajo el puerto de Boston

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The new tunnel under Boston harbour has been constructed because of the insufficient capacity of a similar, earlier, tunnel to cope with the ever increasing road traffic. This tunnel is 1,550 ms long, and 9.50 ms in external diameter. There are two traffic lanes, each 3.20 ms wide. Inside it is faced with ceramic tiles, has fluorescent lighting, and ventilation is maintained by means of two ducts, one at each entrance, where the necessary compressor and other equipment has been situated. The most interesting feature of this important project is the excavation method adopted for its construction: the tunnel crosses a clay layer, which at certain places is sufficiently fluid to allow a pneumatic shield to be forced through it leaving hardly any debris behind. It will be readily appreciated that this procedure shows an obvious advantage over ordinary methods, in which it is necessary to cut out, and transport to the exterior all the excavated material. The metal sheathing was by the Commercial Shearing and Stamping Co., Youngstown, Ohio.Este nuevo túnel, bajo el puerto de Boston, es una consecuencia de la necesidad imperiosa que se hacía sentir dada la insuficiente capacidad del otro túnel similar antiguo y el aumento continuo del tráfico urbano y por carretera. Tiene 1.550 m de longitud, 9,50 m de diámetro exterior y una calzada con dos bandas de circulación de 3,20 m de anchura cada una. Está revestido ccn baldosa cerámica, iluminado con luz fluorescente, y el aire viciado se ventila y renueva por medio de dos torres de ventilación—una en cada portal—, en las que se han instalado el equipo mecánico adecuado de ventilación y compresores. La parte más interesante de esta importante obra estriba en los procedimientos empleados para llevar a cabo la excavación, pues atraviesa un banco de arcilla que, en ciertos tramos, es suficientemente fluida para permitir dejarse empujar y ceder paso a un escudo neumático que avanza sin apenas

  10. Precambrian age of the Boston Basin: New evidence from microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, C.; Strother, P.K.; Kaye, C.A.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    A Vendian (Late Proterozoic Z) age has been determined for the Boston Basin by comparison of a microflora from the Cambridge Argillite with other late Precambrian assemblages. The microfossils, which include Bavlinella cf. faveolata, are preserved as petrifactions in pyrite. This age designation for the sedimentary rocks of the Boston Basin should allow for the reinterpretation of the structure of the basin and its regional correlations. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  11. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies.

  12. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

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    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  13. 78 FR 34577 - Safety Zone; Ad Club's 100th Anniversary Gala Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Anniversary Gala celebration being held at The Institute Of Contemporary Art in conjunction with the fireworks... 100th Anniversary Gala celebration at The Institute of Contemporary Art. The COTP Boston has...

  14. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  15. Community leadership and the challenges of community development in Nigeria: The case of Boki local government area, Cross River State”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udensi, L.O.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the level and extent to which community leaders contribute towards successful community development projects in Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State. A total of 150 community leaders selected through multi-stage sampling technique participated in the study. Frequency counts, percentage, Group Arithmetic Mean and Mean Weight Value were utilized in realizing the objectives of the study. It was observed that leadership positions are not the exclusive preserve of a particular sex, age group, marital status or educational status; rather result indicated that the duration of residence of community leaders is a significant factor in the success of community development projects in the study area. The study concluded that knowledge on the level to which community leaders have participated in community development, and the challenges they face have serious implications for achieving sustainable community development projects. It was recommended among others that for sustainable community development to be achieved in the area, specific and deliberate strategies should be evolved to remedy some of the problems identified. The study suggests that more and dedicated community leaders should be identified and responsibilities aimed at improving the welfare of the people assigned to them.

  16. Boston ocular surface prosthesis: An Indian experience

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    Varsha Madanlal Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Boston ocular surface prosthesis (BOSP is a scleral contact lens used in the management of patients who are rigid gas permeable (RGP failures as with corneal ectasias such as keratoconus and in those patients who have ocular surface disease such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. Aim: To report utilization of BOSP in a tertiary eye care center in India. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 patients who received BOSP from July 2008 to May 2009. Indications for fitting these lenses, improvement in visual acuity (VA before and after lens fitting and relief of symptoms of pain and photophobia were noted. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Thirty-two patients (43 eyes received these lenses. These consisted of 23 eyes of 17 patients who failed RGP trials for irregular astigmatism and corneal ectasia such as keratoconus and post radial keratotomy and scar and 20 eyes of 15 patients with SJS. Mean age of RGP failures was 27.94 years. Pre- and post-BOSP wear mean LogMAR VA was 1.13 and 0.29, respectively, in RGP failures. The P value was statistically significant (P 2 lines in 7/20 eyes (35% with SJS, with improvement in symptoms. Conclusion: BOSP improves VA in patients who have irregular astigmatism as in ectasias and RGP failures and improves vision and symptoms in patients with SJS.

  17. Diversity and composition of bacterial community in soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengfei Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard. A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified by high throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chlorofiexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001, water content (p < 0.01, ammonium nitrogen (NH4--N, p < 0.01, silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, p < 0.01, nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, p < 0.05, organic carbon (p < 0.05, and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05 were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments.

  18. The Spatial Relationship of Child Homicides to Community Resources in a Large Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shenoi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between neighborhood sociodemographic factors, community resources, and homicides involving young children. We performed spatial analysis of children under age five murdered in Harris County, Texas, from 1997 to 2003. Data on county population, household, socioeconomic, and residential mobility characteristics were allocated to census block groups. Age-adjusted spatial clusters of the homicides were identified. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo negative binomial regression risk model tested the relationship of age-adjusted number of child homicides to block group characteristics and distance of victim’s residence to community resources. Child maltreatment accounted for 94% of 125 homicides. In all, 64% were concentrated in 12 age-adjusted spatial clusters involving 3% of county area. Predictors for number of homicides were a larger number of single-parent households (male and female and lower median household income. Distance to nearest community resources was not significant. Spatial clusters of child homicides were associated with low-income neighborhoods and single-parent (male and female households. No association between the spatial clusters of child homicides and their proximity to community resources was observed. A high percentage of child homicides were concentrated in a small area of the county, which offers the potential for targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  19. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi-experime......Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi...... in use of supportive housing make the effects of ACT on overall costs more ambiguous. At worst, however, overall costs did not increase. Given the generally acknowledged clinical benefits of ACT over standard outpatient care, the results support further dissemination of ACT in Denmark....

  20. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Skerritt, Louise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  1. “URBAN GOES, JESSICA COMES” OR SUPPORTING URBAN AREAS IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ágnes JUHÁSZ

    2010-01-01

    The European Community has noticed relatively early, that the regional policy could not only drift for reducing the economic disparities existing between certain regions, but should support some other important goals. One part of the financial instruments of the regional policy supported expansions in rural development, but the regeneration of urban areas and the sustainable urban development has gradually appeared as new objective. First of all I give a short summary on the background of sup...

  2. Community participation in AIDS activities in two pilot areas, Machinga district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangalawa, A S

    1995-09-01

    Students from the Department of Fine Art and Performing Arts of Chancellor College were subcontracted to spend one month in Nyambi and one month in Gawanani to facilitate participatory research and information gathering from the villages using focus group interviews. Nyambi is an Islamic-dominated area, while Gawanani is Christian-dominated. Music and drama were used to mobilize the communities. Performances were followed by discussion of how traditional practices potentially increasing the community risk of HIV infection could be altered. A drama presentation with proposed solutions was then presented to each community. Major risk factors identified were promiscuity and commercial sex, traditional male circumcision conducted with nonsterile equipment, female initiation requiring young women's participation in sexual intercourse, the sexual cleansing of young widows, tattooing by traditional healers, and misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. Furthermore, extramarital relationships lead to marital breakdown and the subsequent involvement of unsupervised children in exploratory sexual activities. The district AIDS coordinator facilitated meetings with community leaders to mobilize them to form local AIDS committees. The committees then identified volunteers within their areas who were trained in AIDS education and group discussion skills. 58 volunteers were trained in January 1995. Further plans include the additional training of the volunteers in counseling and home-based care skills, transformation of the volunteers groups into self-administered local nongovernmental organizations, the provision of income-generating activities skills, condom promotion, and the application of the project method in other areas in the district. The success of this project attests to how people, when given the opportunity and guidance, can respond positively to problems and tackle them in their own context.

  3. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  4. Characterizing scale-dependent community assembly using the functional-diversity--area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam B; Sandel, Brody; Kraft, Nathan J B; Carey, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Phenotypic traits mediate organisms' interactions with the environment and determine how they affect and are affected by their biotic and abiotic milieu. Thus, dispersion of trait values, or functional diversity (FD) of a community can offer insights into processes driving community assembly. For example, underdispersion of FD suggests that habitat "filtering" of species with unfavorable trait values restricts the species that can exist in a particular habitat, while even spacing of FD suggests that interspecific competition, or biotic "sorting," discourages the coexistence of species with similar trait values. Since assembly processes are expected to vary as a function of spatial scale, we should also expect patterns of FD to reflect scale dependence in filtering and biotic sorting. Here we present the concept of the functional-diversity-area relationship (FAR), which is similar to the species-area relationship but plots a measure of phenotypic trait diversity as a function of spatial scale. We develop a set of null model tests that discriminate between FARs generated predominantly by filtering or biotic sorting and indicate the scales at which these effects are pronounced. The utility of the FAR for addressing long-standing issues in ecology is illustrated with several examples. A multi-scale examination of FD and its pattern relative to null expectations provides an important tool for ecologists interested in understanding the scale dependence of community assembly processes.

  5. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  6. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  7. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  8. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  9. The species-area relationship and confounding variables in a threatened monkey community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew R; Jørgensbye, Helle I O; Rovero, Francesco; Platts, Philip J; White, Piran C L; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the species-area relationship (SAR) for forest monkeys in a biodiversity hotspot. The Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania are well-suited to investigate the SAR, with seven monkey species in a range of fragment sizes (0.06-526 km(2)). We test the relationship between species richness and forest fragment size, relative to human and environmental factors. We distinguish resident and transitory species because the latter have an "effective patch size" beyond the area of forest. Forest area was the strongest (log-linear) predictor of species richness. However, forest area, elevation range and annual moisture index were intercorrelated. Previous knowledge of the relationship between elevation and tree communities suggests that the SAR is largely a result of habitat heterogeneity. Isolation by farmland (matrix habitat) also had a significant negative effect on species richness, probably exacerbated by hunting in small forests. The effect of area and isolation was less for transitory species. The human influence on species' presence/absence was negatively related to the extent of occurrence. Weaker relationships with temperature and precipitation suggest underlying climatic influences, and give some support for the influence of productivity. A reduced area relationship for smaller forests suggests that fragment sizes below 12-40 km(2) may not be reliable for determining SAR in forest monkeys. Further practical implications are for management to encourage connectivity, and for future SAR research to consider residency, matrix classification and moisture besides precipitation.

  10. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  11. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  12. Plant community development within the F- and H-Area tree-kill zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline fed wetlands down-slope from the basins was observed in the late 1970`s, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts. Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area seepage basins. Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds. A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soils matrix. In 1988, the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins were closed and covered with a clay cap to reduce the rate of dispersion of the contaminants in the soil beneath the basins. Subsequent studies of the chemical composition of the tree-kill zone groundwater and toxicological characteristics of the seepline soil have shown a reduced contaminant flux. In 1993, an initial vegetation study was undertaken to determine the level of recovery by the plant communities in the tree-kill zones. This study repeats the initial vegetation investigation in order to further analyze and characterize the recovery of plant communities in the zones after an additional year of growth.

  13. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  14. Frederick Law Olmsted y el "Emerald Necklace" de Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Austrich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En 1879, Frederick Law Olmsted, el creador del Central Park en Nueva York, Prospect Park en Brooklyn, inventor de la profesión de paisajismo (Landscape Architecture en los EE.UU., arriba a Boston agotado y exhausto. Acaba de renunciar el cargo de paisajista de Central Park, sintiéndose defraudado por las intrigas políticas de la comisión de parques de Nueva York, viajaba a Boston a descansar y pasar un rato con sus amigos en las cercanías de Boston, en Cambridge y Brookline. Su gran amigo, Henry Hobson Richardson, el reconocido arquitecto de la época, vivía y trabajaba en Brookline, y sirve como su anfitrión, tanto como sus amigos en Cambridge.

  15. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  16. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  17. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  18. Des gentrifieurs mobilisés. Les associations de quartier du South End à Boston The mobilised gentrifiers. The neighbourhood associations of South End, Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Tissot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un processus de gentrification dans un quartier d’une grande agglomération des États-Unis, Boston. Il montre que ce processus n’a pas seulement résulté de l’évolution des forces du marché et du retour des capitaux dans les centres-villes, des politiques de rénovation urbaine et de transformations culturelles. La mobilisation collective des nouveaux propriétaires a eu un impact décisif, via les associations de quartier dans lesquelles ils se sont engagés depuis les années 1960.This article concerns the process of gentrification in a district of a large urban area in the United States, Boston. It shows that this process has resulted not only from the evolution of market forces and the return of wealth to the inner cities, urban renewal policies and cultural transformations. The collective mobilisation of new property owners has also had a decisive impact, via the neighbourhood associations in which they have been involved since the 1960s.

  19. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  20. Impact of Chronic Drought on Nutritional Status of the Community in Drought affected areas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communities affected by chronic drought conditions face a wide variety of challenges including an adverse effect on their nutritional status. The Government of India, during the year 2002-03, declared nine States viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Orissa as drought affected. Material and Methods: At the request of Department of Agriculture, Government of India, a rapid community based cross-sectional study was carried out adopting multistage random sampling procedure with the objective to assess the nutritional status of community in these nine chronic drought affected states in India. Results: In general, the intakes of all the nutrients were grossly deficit as against their RDAs. The nutrition intervention programmes initiated by the Government of India, in general, contributed to meet the daily requirement of staples like cereals & millets in most of the States. Conclusion: In drought-affected areas, where the level of famine impact is unknown, an early rapid assessment of the nutritional status and the health needs of the population are critical to estimate the degree of impact to plan timely and appropriate interventions.

  1. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  2. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  3. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  4. Leaf-litter microfungal community on poor fen plant debris in Torfy Lake area (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wilk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to initially evaluate the species diversity of microfungi growing on litter of 15 plant species occurring on the poor fen and neighbouring area of the Torfy Lake, Masovian voivodeship, Poland. The lake is located near the planned road investment (construction of the Warsaw southern express ring road S2. The place is biologically valuable as there are rare plant communities from Rhynchosporion albae alliance protected under the Habitats Directive adopted by the European Union. On the examined plant debris 73 taxa of fungi were recorded (3 basidiomycetes, 13 ascomycetes, 2 zygomycetes, 43 anamorphic ascomycetes, 12 unidentified. Two of them, Dicranidion sp. and Wentiomyces sp. are presented here as new to Poland. Among the plant species examined, the litter of Rhododendron tomentosum harbored the highest number of fungal taxa (16. The highest percents of substrate-specific microfungi (i.e. recorded only on one plant species was noted on R. tomentosum (81.3 %, and Pteridium aquilinum (75%. It is emphasized that the lake area should be protected not only because of rare plant community but also because of the uniqueness and diversity of mycobiota.

  5. [The cultural aspects of the practice of Community Health Agents in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Maristela Oliveira; Brito, Maria José Menezes; Rezende, Lilian Cristina

    2012-06-01

    The daily practice of Community Health Agents (CHAs) is permeated with educational interventions aimed at preventive care and health promotion. The sociocultural universe of these professionals can affect the dynamics of their practice within the community, particularly in rural areas, where there is evidence that the population expects to obtain information relative to their health and/or disease by means of cultural rites. Based on a case study, we sought to analyze the influence of the cultural practices of the agents working in a rural area in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais. The analysis revealed the presence of a strong connection between the culture and their activities. Religious beliefs and knowledge developed from the fusion of biomedical information and values based on family tradition regarding the health-disease process have a direct effect on their practices. It is emphasized that they have an important role as facilitators in the practice of health care, with a positive effect stemming from the similarity of their life experiences and inherited cultures with those of the clients, thus making it possible to develop effective interventions.

  6. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  7. Effect of rain enrichment on soil respiration of Nitraria sphaerocarpa community in a hyperarid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DianJun Liu; Bo Wu; YongHua Li; GuangHui Lin; ShiPing Chen; YaJuan Zhu; Qi Lu; Bin Yao

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of rain enrichment on soil respiration rate of a Nitraria sphaerocarpa community, we measured soil respiration rate in bare and vegetated areas in a hyperarid area (Dunhuang) during the growing season. Results show that rain enrichment can increase bare and vegetated soil respiration rates. The more rainfall enrichment, the greater the increment and the longer duration time effect for soil respiration rate. 200%(16 mm) and 300%(24 mm) of rain enrichment can significantly increase bare soil respiration rates by 90%and 106%(P<0.01), respectively. By contrast, areas with 100%(8 mm), 200%(16 mm) and 300% (24 mm) of rain enrichment can significantly increase shrub area respiration rates by 68%, 157%and 205%(P<0.01), respectively. The response time of bare and vegetated soil respiration to rainfall enrichment is asynchronous. Response variable of soil respiration in vegetated soil is higher (118%) than in bare soil. There was significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil water content during the growing season (P<0.01). For every 1 mm increment of precipitation, soil respiration rate increased by 0.01 and 0.04μmol/(m2·s), respectively in vegetated and bare soils.

  8. Epiphytic bacterial communities of the alga Fucus vesiculosus in oil-contaminated water areas of the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugovkin, D V; Liaimer, A; Jensen, J B

    2016-11-01

    Taxonomic compositions of epiphytic bacterial communities in water areas differing in levels of oil pollution were revealed. In total, 82 bacterial genera belonging to 16 classes and 11 phyla were detected. All detected representatives of epiphytic bacterial communities belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria and candidate division TM7. The ratio of the phyla in the communities varied depending on the levels of oil pollution. New data on taxonomic composition of uncultivated epiphytic bacterial communities of Fucus vesiculosus were obtained.

  9. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  10. Charter, Private, and Public Schools Work Together in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  11. 78 FR 37455 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... regulation was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35756) under the same name and docket number. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA...

  12. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander,...

  13. The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lisa; Snow, Pamela

    In 1870, Boston, Massachusetts, was an overcrowded, noisy, and dirty city. Concerned with the health and happiness of Bostonians restricted to these unhealthy surroundings, the city hired Frederick Law Olmsted to design a park system. The series of parks he designed over the next several years is known as the Emerald Necklace. From lovely…

  14. Racial Equity and Opportunity in Metro Boston Job Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    People of color make up a vital and growing part of Metro Boston's workforce, yet they face substantial challenges in obtaining employment (especially in faster-growing and higher-paying sectors), in reaching locations of rapid job growth, and in earning a livable income. Latinos and blacks face the greatest hurdles, yet certain Asian populations…

  15. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  16. Soil amplification with a strong impedance contrast: Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baise, Laurie G.; Kaklamanos, James; Berry, Bradford M; Thompson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effect of strong sediment/bedrock impedance contrasts on soil amplification in Boston, Massachusetts, for typical sites along the Charles and Mystic Rivers. These sites can be characterized by artificial fill overlying marine sediments overlying glacial till and bedrock, where the depth to bedrock ranges from 20 to 80 m. The marine sediments generally consist of organic silts, sand, and Boston Blue Clay. We chose these sites because they represent typical foundation conditions in the city of Boston, and the soil conditions are similar to other high impedance contrast environments. The sediment/bedrock interface in this region results in an impedance ratio on the order of ten, which in turn results in a significant amplification of the ground motion. Using stratigraphic information derived from numerous boreholes across the region paired with geologic and geomorphologic constraints, we develop a depth-to-bedrock model for the greater Boston region. Using shear-wave velocity profiles from 30 locations, we develop average velocity profiles for sites mapped as artificial fill, glaciofluvial deposits, and bedrock. By pairing the depth-to-bedrock model with the surficial geology and the average shear-wave velocity profiles, we can predict soil amplification in Boston. We compare linear and equivalent-linear site response predictions for a soil layer of varying thickness over bedrock, and assess the effects of varying the bedrock shear-wave velocity (VSb) and quality factor (Q). In a moderate seismicity region like Boston, many earthquakes will result in ground motions that can be modeled with linear site response methods. We also assess the effect of bedrock depth on soil amplification for a generic soil profile in artificial fill, using both linear and equivalent-linear site response models. Finally, we assess the accuracy of the model results by comparing the predicted (linear site response) and observed site response at the Northeastern

  17. Hispanic Youth in Boston: In Search of Opportunities and Accountability. A Report by the Boston Latino Youth Policy Analysis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Office of Planning and Evaluation, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This report discusses the school-to-work transition process of Hispanic youth in Boston. The report was prepared in response to the high rates of unemployment and participation in low-paying service sector jobs by Hispanics and was funded by a grant from the Hispanic Policy Development Project as part of a national effort to identify key public…

  18. Identification of multi-attribute functional urban areas under a perspective of community detection: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jiao, Pengfei; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Identifying functional urban areas is a significant research of considerable interest in many important fields such as city planning and facility location problem. Traditionally, we identify the function of urban areas from the macro-level perspective. With the availability of human digital footprints, investigation of functional urban areas from a micro-level perspective becomes possible. In this paper, we identified the functional urban areas of a metropolitan city in China by some metrics of community detection based on the social network of mobile phone users. The result shows that there are close relations between urban area and individual communication network, which can help us identify the function of areas more conveniently.

  19. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  20. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  1. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  2. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  3. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAND S. BISHT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisht AS, Sharma KD. 2014. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 15: 92-98. Garhwal Himalaya possesses luxuriant a varied vegetation with in the Himalaya region. Almost every plant has economic value in the form of shelter, food, water, medicine, fuel and industrial products and fodder. Surveys were conducted in entire Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India in order to get information on traditional uses of plants by local inhabitants. A total of 169 plants were collected of which 40 species of vegetables, 19 species of forest and agroforestry, 24 species of ornamental flower, 71 species of less known medicinal plants and 15 species of agricultural crops were found economically important as they are used by the people frequently for various purposes.

  4. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis.

  5. Linking environmental forcing and trophic supply to benthic communities in the Vercelli Seamount area (Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Covazzi Harriague

    Full Text Available Seamounts and their influence on the surrounding environment are currently being extensively debated but, surprisingly, scant information is available for the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, although the deep Tyrrhenian Sea is characterised by a complex bottom morphology and peculiar hydrodynamic features, which would suggest a variable influence on the benthic domain, few studies have been carried out there, especially for soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages. In order to fill this gap, the structure of the meio-and macrofaunal assemblages of the Vercelli Seamount and the surrounding deep area (northern Tyrrhenian Sea - western Mediterranean were studied in relation to environmental features. Sediment was collected with a box-corer from the seamount summit and flanks and at two far-field sites in spring 2009, in order to analyse the metazoan communities, the sediment texture and the sedimentary organic matter. At the summit station, the heterogeneity of the habitat, the shallowness of the site and the higher trophic supply (water column phytopigments and macroalgal detritus, for instance supported a very rich macrofaunal community, with high abundance, biomass and diversity. In fact, its trophic features resembled those observed in coastal environments next to seagrass meadows. At the flank and far-field stations, sediment heterogeneity and depth especially influenced the meiofaunal distribution. From a trophic point of view, the low content of the valuable sedimentary proteins that was found confirmed the general oligotrophy of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and exerted a limiting influence on the abundance and biomass of the assemblages. In this scenario, the rather refractory sedimentary carbohydrates became a food source for metazoans, which increased their abundance and biomass at the stations where the hydrolytic-enzyme-mediated turnover of carbohydrates was faster, highlighting high lability.

  6. INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERSONAL PM2.5 FOR A PANEL OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE OR COPD LIVING IN BOSTON, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated personal, home indoor, home outdoor, and ambient particulate and gaseous pollutant levels were characterized for individuals with cardiovascular disease or COPD and their partners living in the Boston area. Health status was determined by self-reported history of myoc...

  7. Cost effectiveness and budgetary impact of the Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for societal participation in people with severe mental illness : a randomised controlled trial protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, Sarita A.; Swildens, Wilma E.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Stant, A. Dennis; Feenstra, Talitha L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) frequently experience problems with regard to societal participation (i.e. work, education and daily activities outside the home), and require professional support in this area. The Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) is

  8. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  9. Microbial communities and biogeochemistry in an area of Engraulis encrasicolus spawning in the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2014-06-01

    The rates of production, hydrolysis and degradation activities were quite low, in agreement with the general oligotrophy of the area and in agreement with this findings, picophytoplankton contribution to total production amounted to over than 65%. In terms of metabolic activities, different spatial distributions were observed between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components. In particular, heterotrophic metabolism showed high values in the layer located below the thermocline and above the DCM. Concerning the enzymatic activities, total leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the highest rates, followed by alkaline phosphatase and beta-Glucosidase (Caruso et al., 2014. Distribution of the dissolved enzymatic activities acting on proteins varied widely along the column, accounting for 5 to 90% of the total enzymatic activity and always prevailed on dissolved b-GLU. Total enzymatic activity rates were comparable to those obtained in the oligotrophic zones of Ionian and Mediterranean Sea (Zaccone et al., 2012, while the analysis of the dissolved fraction was the first report for the Mediterranean. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary scientific approach used in this study depicted a complex picture of the study area evidencing a high heterogeneity and dynamism of plankton communities, probably associated to peculiar hydrology of this ecosystem. On the whole, the study area appeared to be characterized by a relatively efficient microbial food web. However, low trophic conditions were stressed by all the biological and biochemical patterns, suggesting an important role of heterotrophic processes in this area in the examined summer period. Consequently, how and how much the microbial web sustains fish reproduction and larval survival need a more comprehensive analysis and will be focused in further research.

  10. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  11. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  12. Sense of Community among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area: Findings from the PINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sense of community is a concept that has significant implications cross multiple disciplines, particularly in public health practice. However, there exists a knowledge gap in utilizing the sense of community in investigating the health of older immigrant populations. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perception of the sense of community among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. We administered the Sense of Community Index to measure the levels of sense of community. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Results: Our results suggest that Chinese older adults in this study sample reported a strong sense of community. In total, 86.7% of the participants reported satisfaction with the current neighborhood, and 78.4% expressed their desire to continue living in the community as long as possible. In addition, older age (r =0.11, having higher levels of income (r =0.08, being female (r =0.08, being unmarried (r =-0.06, living with fewer people (r =-0.22, having more children (r =0.11, having been in the U.S. for more years (r =0.12, longer residency in the community (r =0.15, higher overall health status (r =0.18, better quality of life (r =0.23, and improved health status in the past year (r =0.11 were significantly correlated with the higher levels of the sense of the community. Conclusions: The study investigation provided the basis for generating empirical knowledge for understanding the sense of community among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms underlying sense of community and health in the increasingly diverse aging population.

  13. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  14. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Manel

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon. We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  15. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  16. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine L. Bradbury; Burke, Mary A.; Robert K. Triest

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  17. 36 CFR 228.64 - Community sites and common-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community sites and common... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.64 Community sites and... (§ 228.56) for the efficient removal of the material and for appropriate reclamation of community...

  18. Expanding access to gerontological education via distance learning: the Management of Aging Services Masters Program at UMass Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan; Porell, Frank W; Birchander, Ellen; Glickman, Lillian; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.

  19. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  20. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.

    2013-01-14

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. © 2013 Noble et al.

  1. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae M Noble

    Full Text Available Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP. Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  2. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mae M; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L; Fulton, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  3. Impact of Community Forestry Policy on Farmers in Rinjani Protected Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryke Nandini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know: (1 the economic conditions of the community forestry (HKm farmersseen from the income and the poverty level; (2 the social conditions of the HKm farmersseen from the education level and the behavior changes; and (3 the change of social economic conditions of the HKm farmers in 2008-2015. This researchis conducted from April to July in 2015 and located in four HKm groups of Rinjani protected forest area (RTK I. The data collection is conducted by the interviews with questionnaireto 102 HKm farmers using the Slovin’s formula with 10% of significant degree.This is implemented in descriptive analysis. The research result shows that: (1 the average income of the HKm farmers is Rp1,739,677 per month/ha and 59.8% of farmers are above the poverty line; (2 the farmers are increasingly aware of education (there are only 5.9% members of farmer’s family who are uneducated and the lack offirewood utilization (there are only 23.5% farmers who are still using the firewood; and (3 in the period of 2008 to 2015 the average income of the farmers per month increases at 52,03%; the poverty level decreases at 46.5%, and there is a behavior change in whichthe dependence on the forest resources in the form of firewood decreases

  4. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C.; Santos, Vilma M.; da Silva, Danielle Karla A.; Fernandes, Marcelo F.; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  5. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  6. The emergence of the area of Science and Mathematics Teaching like a scientific community: a documentary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clériston Ribeiro Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the changes in the area of teaching of Science and Mathematics, were raised by the documents from CAPES between the years 2000 and 2013 more discussions were aggregated from scientific societies on the subject. To support this study, relationships were drawn to the theory of Thomas Kuhn, for paradigms, scientific community, and other related. We make a timeline for the area, it was revealed that emerged from practices that have occurred since the 60s, while having its own area boundary only in 2000, when it moved from the area of Education and was restructured in 2011 to the area of teaching. It is believed that the area will consolidate, because with the increased quantity and quality of graduate programs, most committed researchers will contribute to the identity of the area of teaching of Science and Mathematic in Brazil.

  7. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  8. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  9. 75 FR 57051 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Sunset Terrace public housing community and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area...; environmental justice; historic/cultural resources; housing; land use; noise; parks and recreation; plants...

  10. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  11. Effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detrivore communities in a contaminated floodplain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Hobbelen, J.F.; Gestel, van C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heavy metal pollution on the structure and functioning of detritivore soil communities that consist of isopods, millipedes and earthworms, in 15 heavily polluted flood plain soils, located in the delta area of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, in the N

  12. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in a...

  13. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó B Tóth

    Full Text Available The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896-1950 to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950-2013. Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied

  14. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  15. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  16. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  17. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  18. NDVI statistical distribution of pasture areas at different times in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem. However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed (Niemeyer 2008). 'Biomass index' based on satellite image derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used in countries like United States of America, Canada and Spain for pasture and forage crops for some years (Rao, 2010). This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' (IBI). IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield (or revenue) losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values (historical data) that is correlated with farm-level losses (Xiaohui Deng et al., 2008). Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid (Spain) has been delimited. Then, NDVI historical data was reconstructed based on remote sensing imaging MODIS, with 500x500m2 resolution. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. The results show that the normal distribution is not the optimal representation when IBI is available; the implications in the context of crop insurance are discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Kolli N Rao. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial

  19. Effects of community succession dynamics on forest biodiversity in eastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Plant, insect and forest structures of 25 forest communities were investigated in Mao'ershan Experimental Forest Farm and Liangshui Experimental Forest Farm during 1994-1995. The paper used continuum index (Ci) as a parameter, to quantitatively describe forest community succession stage. Relationships between the biodiversity and continuum index of forest community were studied. The annual species and family diversities in forest plant community showed nonlinear correlation with continuum index, and the largest diversities were during the middle stage of succession. The diversities of total insect community and herbivorous insect group were negatively related with Ci, that of spide group and parasitic insect group was positively related. The pattern diversity and coverage weight diversity index foliage height increased with continuum index.

  20. Dynamics in cyanobacterial communities from a relatively stable environment in an urbanised area (ambient springs in Central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    Ambient springs are often cited as an example of an ecosystem with stable environmental conditions. A static biotope fosters the development of constant communities with a stable qualitative and relatively stable quantitative structure. Two years of studying cyanobacteria in different microhabitats of the rheocrenic and limnocrenic ambient springs located in urban areas showed that there is a high degree of cyanobacterial diversity and spatial and seasonal dynamics in communities. Spatial heterogeneity in relation to the type of spring and the type of microhabitat is reflected not only by a change in the quantitative structure (the number of species and their biomass), but also by a change in the composition of species. Seasonal changes depended on the type of spring and the type of microhabitat, where weather conditions influenced the communities by different degrees. Cyanobacterial communities of limnocrenes were more diverse in terms of composition and biomass, but they revealed a low seasonal dynamic in contrast to the communities of rheocrenes. The classification of springs based on their environmental conditions revealed that some springs were similar. The resemblance stemmed from the origin of human impact, which was reflected to a high degree in changes in the natural hydrochemical conditions of the springs. For the purpose of understanding which environmental factors had the greatest influence on cyanobacterial communities, a BIO-ENV procedure was performed. The procedure revealed that of most importance was a group of ions not related to the nature of the spring environment - NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(3-). The presence of these ions in groundwater was a result of direct and indirect human activity in the area of aquifers. The dynamics in communities in the studied springs were accelerated by human impact and weather conditions.

  1. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from

  2. Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian; Martinez, Alexis; Edlin, Brian R; Kral, Alex H

    2007-09-01

    Community characteristics have been associated with racial and ethnic health disparities for a wide range of ailments and conditions. Previous research has found that rates of AIDS cases among injection drug users (IDUs) vary by community characteristics. However, few studies have examined whether community characteristics are associated with HIV risk behaviors among IDUs. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the associations between census-tract-level community characteristics and injection-related and sex-related HIV risk behaviors among IDUs in the San Francisco Bay Area. Individual HIV risk behaviors were collected from 4,956 IDUs between 1998 and 2002. Using 2000 US census data, we constructed four census-level community measures: percent African American, percent male unemployment, percent of households that receive public assistance, and median household income. All community variables were measured continuously. Multilevel modeling was used to determine if community characteristics were associated with recent (in the last 6 months) receptive and distributive syringe sharing, multiple sex partners, and unprotected sex risk while controlling for potential individual-level confounders. In bivariate analysis, most of the census-tract-level community characteristics were significantly associated with injection-related HIV risk, while no community characteristics were associated with sex-related risk. However, results from multivariate multilevel models indicate that only percent African American in a census tract was associated with receptive [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89, 0.99] and distributive syringe sharing (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.92, 0.99), net of individual-level characteristics. Accounting for individual-level factors in the multivariate model in the sex-related risk models revealed a significant inverse relationship between percent African American and propensity to engage in unprotected sex (AOR = 0

  3. Completing the Results of the 2013 Boston Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches. PMID:24727904

  4. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  5. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Hammerling

    Full Text Available The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA, and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish. The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method, though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  6. Community involvement in the development of an environmental education programme: the Tswaing meteorite crater conservation area as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Swanepoel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the relevance of applied research in education is its actual impact on society. A case study was undertaken to determine how research insights could be implemented by involving a local community in the design and implementation of environmental education programmes in their environment. The Tswaing Meteorite Crater conservation area project was undertaken with the active participation of teachers, learners and education officers from the communities living around Tswaing, as well as subject specialists. Issues which should be considered in the development of similar programmes were also highlighted.

  7. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  8. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites.

  9. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton Bray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.

  10. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  11. Diatom community biodiversity in an Alpine protected area: a study in the Maritime Alps Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca BONA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventories" (ATBIs coordinated by the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy (EDIT, we analysed diatom communities colonizing different habitats of the Valasco Valley (Maritime Alps Natural Park. The aim of this research was to shed light on the diatom richness in an Alpine context through i the collection of data concerning diatom communities inhabiting an unexplored watershed of the Maritime Alps Natural Park, including all of the most important aquatic habitats (comparison among river, springs and peat bogs and assemblages (epilithic and epiphytic diatom communities; ii analysis of the main environmental factors driving the development of diatom communities in different habitats. We completed a list of 174 diatom taxa. In general, river samples were poorer in terms of species richness than spring and peat bog ones, probably due to the selective role of the fast flow, while springs sheltered the highest biodiversity of the Valasco Valley. Peat bog communities were mainly composed of acidophilous taxa, sometimes planktonic and forming colonies. Epilithic and epiphytic samples did not show significant differences in terms of composition and biodiversity, even though it was statistically possible to identify indicator species for each assemblage. The study also highlighted the presence of several taxa included in the German Red List as endangered or decreasing, especially in the epiphytic samples. Since the water nutrient level and substrate geology were similar among habitats, the main environmental factors shaping Valasco diatom communities were water velocity and pH.

  12. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  13. Boston Shifts Learning into High Gear: Certificate Program Accelerates Student Learning by Building Teacher Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Miller, Lesley Ryan; Souvanna, Phomdaen

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the past two decades, Boston Public Schools has seen strong, steady improvement, recently demonstrated through student gains on NAEP's Trial Urban District Assessment in math and recognized through the award of the 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education. Teacher leaders have played an important role in Boston's improvement. As team…

  14. 76 FR 35013 - Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park..., pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Boston National Historical Park is modified to include... without cost by enactment of Chapter 37 of the Laws of 2009, on July 23, 2009, subject to the...

  15. The Study of Project Exodus: A School Racial Integration Project in Boston, Massachusetts. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teele, James E.

    This voluntary school integration project uses the open enrollment plan of the Boston School Department in transporting Negro children from predominantly Negro schools in the black district to more racially balanced schools in other parts of Boston. It has involved private financing, intra-city bussing, and the initiative and participation of…

  16. 75 FR 77693 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps for Manchester-Boston Regional... Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-193) and 14 CFR part 150, are in...

  17. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  18. 78 FR 23667 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8958--Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston... April 16, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts By the President of...

  19. 77 FR 40147 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Boston and Maine Corporation (B&M) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152....\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 01440. \\1\\ On June 20, 2012, the...

  20. Forward: Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ethology of Fishes Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria E.ABATE; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Current Zoology concerning the behavior, ecology, and evolution of fishes is comprised of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ecology of Fishes Biennial Conference that was held June 29-July 3 at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

  1. 33 CFR 165.113 - Security Zone: Dignitary arrival/departure Logan International Airport, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../departure Logan International Airport, Boston, MA 165.113 Section 165.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.113 Security Zone: Dignitary arrival/departure Logan International Airport, Boston... governments arriving at, or departing from, Logan International Airport and as determined by the transit...

  2. 78 FR 35790 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... safety zones; (6.5) Hull Youth Football Carnival Fireworks, (8.8) The Boston Triathlon, and (9.7) Boston...' N, 070 48.4' W (NAD 83). 6.4 Cohasset Triathlon Event Type: Swim. Sponsor: Bill Burnett. Date: A one...). 8.3 Gloucester Fisherman Triathlon..... Event Type: Swim. Sponsor: Gloucester Fisherman...

  3. Does arsenic play an important role in the soil microbial community around a typical arsenic mining area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As) can cause serious hazards to human health, especially in mining areas. Soil bacterial communities, which are critical parts of the soil ecosystem, were analyzed directly for soil environmental factors. As a consequence, it is of great significance to understand the ecological risk of arsenic contamination on bacteria, especially at the local scale. In this study, 33 pairs of soil and grain samples were collected from the corn and paddy fields around an arsenic mining area in Shimen County in Hunan Province, China. Significant differences were found between the soil nitrogen, As concentrations, and bacteria activities among these two types of land use. According to the structural equation model (SEM) analysis, compared with other environmental factors, soil As was not the key factor affecting the bacterial community, even when grain As was beyond the threshold of the national food hygiene standards of China. In the corn field, soil pH was the main factor dominating the bacterial richness, composition and grain As. Meanwhile, in the paddy field the soil total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were the main factors impacting the bacterial richness, and the bacterial community composition was mainly affected by pH. The interactions between grain As and soil As were weak in the corn field. The bacterial communities played important roles in the food chain risk of As. The local policy of transforming paddy soil to dry land could greatly reduce the health risk of As through the food chain.

  4. The vegetation of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province. 1. The plant communities of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J Mcdonald

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fynbos shrublands and forests of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area, southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa, is presented. Data were collected at 119 sites in mature fynbos vegetation (>10 years old and at five sites in patches of Afromontane Forest. Emphasis was placed on the fynbos shrublands and sample sites were subjectively located along a transect from south to north across the Langeberg range in the study area. This south to north orientation follows a complex gradient of changes in aspect, slope, geology, soil form and climate. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet procedures. One forest subassociation and 12 fynbos communities were identified and described. A proposed hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is presented.

  5. An analysis of topic areas and topic trends in the Community Mental Health Journal from 1965 through 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, J W; Roisum, K G; Pokorny, L; Sills, A; Meissen, G J

    1979-01-01

    A content analysis of all (N = 604) published articles in the Community Mental Health Journal from 1965 through 1977 was performed (a) to provide a cross-sectional view of the community mental health field, and (b) to identify topic trends over time. Sixty-one content categories were used to classify topic areas. Results revealed major and growing emphases on organizing for the delivery and measuring of the effects of mental health service systems. Topics found to be increasing in relative frequency over time included training, measurement and research methodology, and intervention; those decreasing included planning and needs assessment, therapy, and suicide. Topic areas were compared with key characteristics of the field. Topic trends were interpreted in terms of open systems theory.

  6. Benthic community response to habitat variation: A case of study from a natural protected area, the Celestun coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Daniel; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis; Hernández-Guevara, Norma A.

    2007-12-01

    Little information currently exists on spatial and temporal benthic community variations in tropical coastal lagoons. Here, the benthic community response to habitat variation in the Celestun coastal lagoon, northwest Yucatan peninsula, was seasonally examined during the 1994-1995 climatic cycle into a grid of 12 sampling sites distributed along the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Habitat variation was assessed through physical factors associated both to the water column (e.g. salinity) and the bottom sediment (e.g. sand, silt and clay fractions). The benthic community response was assessed through species diversity measures and abundance. Under the influence of climatic seasonality, variations in habitat conditions followed by changes in the benthic community characteristics were expected. Results from two-way ANOVAs showed that for the period of study, Celestun lagoon was more heterogeneous along the spatial axis of variability than along the temporal one. Multiple regression analysis showed that salinity was spatially the main factor influencing the benthic community characteristics. Temporally, the sediment characteristics were observed to exert significant effects on the species diversity characteristics but not on abundance. Other variables assessed (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and water column transparency) exhibited no significant covariance with species diversity and abundance. Since generated from historical data, these results have the potential to be useful as a benchmark to the establishment of monitoring programs in the light of the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the natural resources of the lagoon and surrounding coastal area.

  7. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  8. Mental health and illness in Boston's children and adolescents: one city's experience and its implications for mental health policy makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, K.; Drainoni, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the Boston Public Heath Commission used data from a variety of sources to explore the level of mental health disturbance in Boston's children and adolescents. Data for 1997 from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that about 20% of Boston public high school students had ever experienced suicidal ideation, while approximately 10% had actually attempted suicide. About one in five teenage respondents to the Boston Youth Survey said they were frequently depressed. While females were mo...

  9. Alveolar-membrane diffusing capacity limits performance in Boston marathon qualifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleen M Lavin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: (1 to examine the relation between pulmonary diffusing capacity and marathon finishing time, and (2, to evaluate the accuracy of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO in predicting marathon finishing time relative to that of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO. METHODS: 28 runners [18 males, age = 37 (SD 9 years, body mass = 70 (13 kg, height = 173 (9 cm, percent body fat = 17 (7 %] completed a test battery consisting of measurement of DLNO and DLCO at rest, and a graded exercise test to determine running economy and aerobic capacity prior to the 2011 Steamtown Marathon (Scranton, PA. One to three weeks later, all runners completed the marathon (range: 2:22:38 to 4:48:55. Linear regressions determined the relation between finishing time and a variety of anthropometric characteristics, resting lung function variables, and exercise parameters. RESULTS: In runners meeting Boston Marathon qualification standards, 74% of the variance in marathon finishing time was accounted for by differences in DLNO relative to body surface area (BSA (SEE = 11.8 min, p<0.01; however, the relation between DLNO or DLCO to finishing time was non-significant in the non-qualifiers (p = 0.14 to 0.46. Whereas both DLCO and DLNO were predictive of finishing time for all finishers, DLNO showed a stronger relation (r(2 = 0.30, SEE = 33.4 min, p<0.01 compared to DLCO when considering BSA. CONCLUSION: DLNO is a performance-limiting factor in only Boston qualifiers. This suggests that alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is a limitation to performance in faster marathoners. Additionally, DLNO/BSA predicts marathon finishing time and aerobic capacity more accurately than DLCO.

  10. Footwear and Falls in the Home Among Older Individuals in the MOBILIZE Boston Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jennifer L; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D T; Li, Wenjun; Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian T

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether certain types of footwear, such as slippers, socks without shoes, and going barefoot, increase the risk for falls among the elderly is uncertain. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between footwear and falls within the home in MOBILIZE Boston, a prospective cohort study of falls etiology among non-institutionalized women and men, mainly aged 70 years and older, from the Boston MA, USA area. METHODS: The 765 participants were from households randomly selected from town lists. They were followed for a median of 27.5 months. At baseline, participants were administered a questionnaire that included questions on footwear usually worn, and were given a comprehensive examination that included measurement of many risk factors for falls. During follow-up participants were asked to record each day whether they had fallen; those reporting falls were asked about their footwear when they fell. RESULTS: At the time of in-home falls, 51.9% of people were barefoot, wearing socks without shoes, or wearing slippers; 10.1% of people reported that their usual footwear was one of these types. Among those who fell in their own home, the adjusted odds ratio for a serious injury among those who were shoeless or wearing slippers compared to those who were wearing other shoes at the time of the fall was 2.27 (95% confidence interval 1.21-4.24). CONCLUSIONS: It may be advisable for older individuals to wear shoes in their home whenever possible to minimize the risk of falling. Further research is needed to identify optimal footwear for falls prevention.

  11. Community-Based Education Support Programs in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Susan; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    Although community-based education support organizations are second only to public schools in the number of young people they serve each year, there has been little substantive research on these organizations and the education support they provide. With funding from the Walter S. Johnson Foundation, a 10-month study of neighborhood-based…

  12. Mosquito Vector Biting and Community Protection in a Malarious Area, Siahoo District, Hormozgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Shahandeh

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Study subjects were aware of an association between mosquito bite and malaria transmission. Health work­ers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about self-protection to help community members to be involved more in malaria control.

  13. Predicting Performance in a Community College Content-Area Course from Academic Skill Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Miriam T.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Binary logistic regression analyses were performed on institutional data from a large urban community college in order to identify predictors of performance in a content course (psychology) that had high literacy demands. It was found that students who completed college English were more likely to pass the content course than students with…

  14. Flooding forested groundwater recharge areas modifies microbial communities from top soil to groundwater table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Kirsten; Nagel, Peter; Vetter, Walter; Kandeler, Ellen; Ruess, Liliane

    2009-01-01

    Subsurface microorganisms are crucial for contaminant degradation and maintenance of groundwater quality. This study investigates the microbial biomass and community composition [by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)], as well as physical and chemical soil characteristics at woodland flooding sites of an artificial groundwater recharge system used for drinking water production. Vertical soil profiles to c. 4 m at two watered and one nonwatered site were analyzed. The microbial biomass was equal in watered and nonwatered sites, and considerable fractions (25-42%) were located in 40-340 cm depth. The microbial community structure differed significantly between watered and nonwatered sites, predominantly below 100 cm depth. Proportions of the bacterial PLFAs 16:1omega5, 16:1omega7, cy17:0 and 18:1omega9t, and the long-chained PLFAs 22:1omega9 and 24:1omega9 were more prominent at the watered sites, whereas branched, saturated PLFAs (iso/anteiso) dominated at the nonwatered site. PLFA community indices indicated stress response (trans/cis ratio), higher nutrient availability (unsaturation index) and changes in membrane fluidity (iso/anteiso ratio) due to flooding. In conclusion, water recharge processes led to nutrient input and altered environmental conditions, which resulted in a highly active and adapted microbial community residing in the vadose zone that effectively degraded organic compounds.

  15. Local Area Network: Community Involvement, Social Capital, and Glocalization at NetU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevett-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic and interview data from a long-term study of "NetU," a wired community and college, are used to investigate the effects of computer-mediated communication on social relationships. During the course of this research "LAN" residents of NetU are compared with a similar group of non-LAN residents who lived in the same neighborhood, but…

  16. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries.

  17. [Seasonal variations of community structures phytoplankton in groundwater discharge areas along the Northern Yucatán Peninsula coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia Catalina; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The highly touristic Yucatán Peninsula is principally constituted with coastal marine environments. Like other coastal areas, this has been affected by the increase of waste water discharge, hydrological modifications and land use changes in the area. The phytoplankton community structure is one of the main components of coastal ecosystems and the most affected in hydrological processes. In order to follow the seasonal variations, the phytoplankton was characterized to follow the hydrological variability in two sites (Dzilam and Progreso) of the Northern Yucatán Peninsula. For this, cruises were carried out monthly during one year, from April 2004 to March 2005, with two samplings per season (dry, rainy and "nortes"). Hydrological variability was associated with seasonality and directly linked to groundwater discharges in the Dzilam area, and waste water discharges in the Progreso area. The highest nutrient concentrations occurred mainly during the rainy season. The phytoplankton community changes observed throughout the year suggested that the hydrological and chemical variability associated with seasonality and anthropogenic impacts have a strong influence. The substitution of diatoms by dinoflagellates as the dominant group in Progreso was the result of seasonal variability itself, but also could have been caused by eutrophic processes; while in Dzilam, the major presence of diatoms could have been favored by groundwater discharges. The results of this study can be used to understand the linkages between stressors from the anthropogenic activities and coastal water quality and changes.

  18. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Zhu, Xianlei; Fan, Zhi-hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile) sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson). Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene) were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (psources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%), solvents uses (19%), industrial emissions (16%), mobile+stationery sources (12%), small shop emissions (11%), and others (22%). Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in Paterson. The study demonstrated the community-scale monitoring approach can capture spatial variation of VOCs in an urban community with mixed VOC sources. It also provided robust data to identify major sources of concern in the community.

  19. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  20. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  1. Community knowledge,attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello,Gamo Gofa Zone,South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia.Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software.Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results.Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225(57.4%) of the participants were males and 167(42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265(67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127(32.4%) responded that they did not know CL.Based on the scoring results, 265(67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215(54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL.Approximately, 215(54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net.Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized community awareness creation through various means.

  2. EFFECTS OF LAND USE TRANFORMATION ON MIRCOARTHROPOD COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Santorufo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Human activities frequently lead to the conversion of natural habitats into human mediated ones. Land use transformation is an important form of global pressure as affects biodiversity, and gradually causes soil functionality loss. Therefore, soil biodiversity loss may cause significant alteration of regulatory services of terrestrial ecosystems. The analysis of taxonomical and functional structure of microarthropod communities is revealing to be an useful tool to understand changes in soil f...

  3. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant communities of International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill had low number of plant species as related to control area. Importance value index of all the species were determined. Senna holosericea (Fresen. Greuter, Corchorus depressus (L. Stocks and Amaranthus viridis L. were found in all the communities whereas, Corchorus trilocularis L. and Abutilon indicum (L. Sweet were present in industrial areas. A relationship between soil characteristics and plant communities of the industries of Landhi and control site were conducted. Industrial plant communities have low level of water holding capacity and organic matter and high concentrations of total soluble salts and available sulfate as relative to soil of plant community of control area. The research demonstrated that the plant species were retarded in numbers due to soil pollution as compared to control area of Karachi University Campus due to industrial existing contamination and pollution in soil in the area

  4. The macrofaunal communities in the shallow subtidal areas for the first 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Kim, Moonkoo; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-05-15

    In order to detect the early impact of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the shallow subtidal macrozoobenthic communities, macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally for 3 years. The alkylated PAHs concentrations within sediments near Mallipo beach remained as high as 129 ng g(-)(1) DW one month after the oil spill, but the concentration decreased below the background level thereafter. The number of species and density decreased in 4 months compared to those before the oil spill. An opportunistic polychaete, Prionospio paradisea, occurred as a dominant species at subtidal area near Mallipo beach in 10 months after the oil spill. Any mass mortality of amphipods and any clear dominance of opportunistic species were not detected except for the stations near Mallipo and Hagampo beaches. The macrobenthic communities at the shallow subtidal stations seemed to have a relatively stable faunal composition, even not fully recovered, in 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

  5. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J.

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, ...

  6. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  7. Current and Emerging Threats of Homegrown Terrorism: The Case of the Boston Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 15, 2013, two coordinated Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs exploded near the finish line of the famous Boston Marathon. The fatalities were low but the symbolism was high: more than a decade after 9/11, the United States is still not safe from militant jihadist terrorist attacks. The bombers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had planned on killing and dying in the name of the global jihad after their second set of attacks on New York’s Time Square. They were stopped before getting to New York where the fatalities could have been much greater. The two brothers were self-radicalised homegrown terrorists. At this moment of writing, existing evidence points to the fact that, while inspired by militant jihadism and in loose contact with terrorists in Dagestan, they operated alone. This is an analysis of the radicalisation process that led those two young men to adopt violent jihad, and the failures of U.S. counterterrorism efforts that enabled them to kill three people and injuring some 250 others. This analysis shows that much still needs to be done in international inter-agency collaboration and in community engagement to prevent further attacks of this sort from happening on U.S. soil.

  8. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA, while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA. Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3% were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708 individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00 and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis (p = 0.03 but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and

  9. Identifying the Correlation between Professional Learning Communities and Collective Teacher Efficacy for Math Data Teams in Kaua'i Complex Area Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Cheryl Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities and teacher efficacy are at the core of many of the current educational reform models. The intention of this dissertation was to identify the correlation between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy for math data teams in the six Kaua'i Complex Area secondary schools, as measured by…

  10. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  11. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  12. Impacts of Community Forest Management and Strictly Protected Areas on Deforestation and Human Well-Being in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala

    -dimensional nature of human well-being. In this thesis, I aim to investigate the impacts of different conservation interventions on environmental and human well-being outcomes while addressing the challenges to conservation impact evaluation discussed above. My case studies are CFM and strict protection......Protected areas and Community Forest Management (CFM) are among the most widespread interventions to conserve forests in tropical countries. In addition to their impacts on forests and the biodiversity they contain, these interventions also affect human well-being, particularly that of the local...... they contain) and human well-being. However, while scientifically rigorous impact evaluation of programs is well advanced in fields such as development, health and education, it is rare in nature conservation. The rare existing studies focus mostly on protected areas and other interventions, such as CFM...

  13. Commuter networks and community detection: a method for planning sub regional areas

    CERN Document Server

    De Montis, Andrea; Chessa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    A major issue for policy makers and planners is the definition of the "ideal" regional partition, i.e. the delimitation of sub-regional domains showing a sufficient level of homogeneity with respect to some specific territorial features. In Sardinia, the second major island in the Mediterranean sea, politicians and analysts have been involved in a 50 year process of identification of the correct pattern for the province, an intermediate administrative body in between the Regional and the municipal administration. In this paper, we compare some intermediate body partitions of Sardinia with the patterns of the communities of workers and students, by applying grouping methodologies based on the characterization of Sardinian commuters' system as a complex weighted network. We adopt an algorithm based on the maximization of the weighted modularity of this network to detect productive basins composed by municipalities showing a certain degree of cohesiveness in terms of commuter flows. The results obtained lead to ...

  14. THE HEALTH STATUS OF A RURAL IRANIAN COMMUNITY IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AREA IN 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A.Alemi

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The health status of the rural community under the study is measured in terms of vital statistics, and living conditions in relation to demographic data. The findings reveal that this rural population can be considered a very unhealthy one. For instance, the infant mortality rate is 98.4 per 1000 live births, and 80.0 per cent of the total population were found to be infected by one or more parasitic diseases. Allocation of resources has been recommended to raise the standard of living, in order to bring about a better hygienic environment. Accessibility of health services through expansion of primary health care, and in this sphere the use of health auxiliaries should yet again receive special consideration.

  15. “To live with the sea” Development of the Velondriake community - Managed protected area network, Southwest Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Harris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s southwest coast supports some of the largest coral reef systems in the western Indian Ocean. These reefs not only provide critical habitat to thousands of marine species but also are essential to the survival of the indigenous Vezo people who rely on healthy marine resources for food, transport, cultural identity and income. However, coastal populations are growing rapidly and international fisheries companies have begun exploiting the region’s waters through a sophisticated collection network to supply an expanding export market. In recent years local fishers have begun reporting declines in the size and number of their catches. Building on the success of a pilot marine no take zone launched three years ago in the remote fishing village of Andavadoaka, Blue Ventures Conservation (BV, Madagascar’s Institute of Marine Sciences (Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines – IHSM and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS are now working with 21 neighbouring villages, and fisheries collection and export companies to develop a network of community - run marine and coastal protected areas that will span more than 800 km2, aiming to benefit more than 10,000 people and protect coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds and other threatened habitats along Madagascar’s southwest coast. The villages, grouped into three constituent geographic regions, have established a management committee which serves as a liaison between conservation scientists and community members, providing input and insight into all phases of conservation planning, from research activities to implementation of management plans. The management committee also selected a unifying name for the network: Velondriake, which means “to live with the Sea.” Along with protecting biodiversity and livelihoods, the network is working to increase environmental awareness among communities, expand local and national capacity for biodiversity conservation and serve as a model

  16. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  17. Defined Map Units of the seafloor of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BOTTOMTYPE, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is a qualitatively-derived interpretative polygon shapefile defining the bottom types of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches,...

  18. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  19. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  20. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  1. 75 FR 21367 - Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative Determination on Remand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative... Department of Labor (Department) for further investigation Former Employees of Advanced Electronics, Inc. v... Adjustment Assistance (ATAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Advanced Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. Impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies in severely affected areas of New York City: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.

  3. High-resolution spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography in type 1 boston keratoprosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of imaging using high-resolution, Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to evaluate patients with a type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative study of patients in whom we implanted the Boston KPro. A total of 26 eyes of 23 patients from the Cornea Service at the University of California Davis Eye Center were included. Subjects were evaluated with the Spectralis AS-OCT (Heidelberg Engi...

  4. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  5. Interactions between urban vegetation and surface urban heat islands: a case study in the Boston metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, Eli K.; Wang, Jonathan A.; Miller, David L.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston’s SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston’s urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18-22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston’s urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  6. Thinking outside the lines: parks and the quality of life in area communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.G.; Burkardt, N.; Caughlan, L.; Lamb, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Many national parks, national forests, and other public land units exist in highly changeable regional environments. Often the parks and forests themselves serve as important catalysts of change in the levels of tourism, outdoor recreation participation, and contribution of traveling publics to local and regional economies. Resource managers are called upon to protect lands in their jurisdictions while juggling a variety of inputs and expectations. In each agency, resource decisions are bound by law and agency policy. In this context, the decision space of the national park manager is quite different from that of those in multiple-use land management agencies. Management actions must stand up, not only to law and policy and to scientific scrutiny, but they must also be sensitive to the needs of residents in surrounding communities, to county and state governing bodies, and to visitors from across the nation and around the world. Balancing these needs while protecting resources in an ongoing challenge made more difficult as the mix of stakeholders growsa?|

  7. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  8. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  9. Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

  10. Growth and production of the copepod community in the southern area of the Humboldt Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Escribano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton production is a critical issue for understanding marine ecosystem structure and dynamics, however, its time-space variations are mostly unknown in most systems. In this study, estimates of copepod growth and production (CP in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (∼35–37° S were obtained from annual cycles during a 3 year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006 at a fixed shelf station and from spring–summer surveys during the same years. C-specific growth rates (g varied extensively among species and under variable environmental conditions; however, g values were not correlated to either near surface temperature or copepod size. Copepod biomass (CB and CP were higher within the coastal upwelling zone (−2 year−1 with a~mean annual P/B ratio of 2.7. We estimated that CP could consume up to 60% of the annual primary production (PP in the upwelling zone but most of the time is around 8%. Interannual changes in CB and CP values were associated with changes in the copepod community structure, the dominance of large-sized forms replaced by small-sized species from 2004 to 2006. This change was accompanied by more persistent and time extended upwelling during the same seasonal period. Extended upwelling may have caused large losses of CB from the upwelling zone due to an increase in offshore advection of coastal plankton. On a larger scale, these results suggest that climate-related impacts of increasing wind-driven upwelling in coastal upwelling systems may generate a negative trend in zooplankton biomass.

  11. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes

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    J. Elster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves, micro-fungi (hyphae and spores, bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters, yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area, Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia, Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie, and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie. Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation. Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and

  12. 论美国波士顿大学群落的经济贡献%Study on the Economic Contribution of Boston University Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶

    2012-01-01

    美国大波士顿地区集聚着创建于不同时期的八所研究型大学,显示着这个地区高等教育的发展水平,共同组成特色鲜明、服务面向明确、办学定位准确的大学生态群落。八所大学组成的大学群落,为波士顿地区的经济发展和社会进步做出了重要贡献。%In the Greater Boston Area of the United States,there are 8 research universities founded in different times.They represent the level of the development of regional higher education there.The 8 universities gather together to form the Boston University Cluster,which has a distinctive feature,a clear social service idea and a precise university orientation.The university cluster has had an important contribution to theBoston region's economic development and social progress.

  13. Governance and Community Responses to Floods in Poor Peri-urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline

    poor are simply passive victims of climate change, or that collective services and interventions relative to flood management are inexistent or ungoverned. Instead, the ability to respond to floods is to a large extent formed outside the realm of the state and is maintained through a set of complex......In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly severe and frequent problem for the poor in many West African urban centres. In diverse metropoles of the region, including Lagos, Cotonou, Accra, Abidjan and Dakar, low-income populations who typically live undesirable flood-prone areas...... see their already considerable vulnerability increased for every flooding event. In the long term, climate change is expected to make matters worse for these already tried populations, due to an increase in storm frequency and intensity, and with them in the risk of floods. However, climate change...

  14. Healthy communities: the challenge of social capital in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The debate about social environment, sustainability and health has been highlighted by the interest in social capital. It has been suggested that social capital varies from place to place and that such variations are relevant for explaining variations in health. This paper explores the association between neighbourhood social capital (making a distinction between linking, bonding and bridging social capital) and self-rated health. The study has involved 4,577 residents in 143 neighbourhoods of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between social capital and self-rated health. The results show that social capital was strongly associated with self-rated health, even after an adjustment for individual attributes. It is not possible to divorce health planning from urban planning and from the promotion of social capital. A sense of place, identity and belonging needs to be at the core of all healthy planning interventions.

  15. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

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    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  16. Personality Traits among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

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    E-Shien Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Personality traits are important indicators of health and well-being. Neuroticism and conscientiousness in particular, are closely associated with morbidity and mortality in old age. However, little is known regarding the levels of these two key personality traits among U.S. Chinese older adults. This report aimed to examine the levels of personality traits among this population. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 and above. We measured neuroticism and conscientiousness using modified NEO personality inventory. Results: Of the 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 58.9% were female, and mean age was 72.8 years. Compared to neuroticism, conscientiousness trait was endorsed higher among Chinese older adults in our sample. Each conscientiousness item had at least 67.8% of participant endorsement, in comparison to the lowest endorsement rate of 14.3% in the neuroticism measure. Younger age (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.14 and fewer children (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.06 were correlated with both traits. Female gender (r = 0.11, poorer health status (r = -0.26, poorer quality of life (r = -0.23 and worsened health over the past year (r = -0.15 were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism. In contrast, male gender (r = -0.05, better health status (r = 0.20, higher quality of life (r = 0.17 and improved health over the past year (r = 0.07 were correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness. Education level (r = 0.15 was positively correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness, but not with neuroticism; whereas income level (r = -0.04 was negatively correlated with neuroticism but not with conscientiousness. Conclusion: U.S. Chinese older adults generally possess higher agreement level on conscientiousness traits than neuroticism. Future analysis should be conducted to explore the complex associations between

  17. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

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    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  18. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  19. Relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Jormfeldt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence on staffs’ competence,” “Responsibility for user involvement,” and “The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers.” The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

  20. Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

  1. Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Jormfeldt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

  2. Relatives' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives' experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives' experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme "To meet the clients' needs" consisting of three categories: "Dependence on staffs' competence," "Responsibility for user involvement," and "The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers." The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients' needs related to outcome of care. Relatives' perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives' role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

  3. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence of chemical products usage, causing and irreversible damage to environment and producers and consumers life quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. under Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston as phosphate rock solubilizing bacteria. The study took place in the Research Centre Tibaitatá-Corpoica, located in Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Results demonstrated that the strains have an intrinsic capacity to solubilize low solubility phosphorus sources as phosphate rock. Inoculants application based on: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 and Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 strains displayed the best results. The strains Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 and K35, are capable of producing indoles and siderophores. The green house experiment showd that strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 of phosphate rocks represents a viable economic and ecological alternative in sustainable agriculture systems.

  4. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  5. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Breves-Ramos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments. Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments. Species composition and relative abundance were evaluated monthly between September and December, 2000. A total of 26 species was found at Urca and 13 at Catalão. The percent cover of the most abundant organisms was not similar between treatments at Urca after four months, while in Catalão, the similarity was 72% in the second month. The faster community development and recovery at the most polluted area was probably related to the existence of simple and resilient communities in more impacted areas.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar a sucessão das comunidades bentônicas da região entre-marés, em duas áreas na Baía de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil: Urca, uma área sujeita a moderado nível de poluição orgânica, e Catalão, uma área extremamente poluída. Em cada área, três transectos verticais foram raspados um mês antes do início do estudo, para se avaliar o recrutamento dos organismos (tratamento Recrutamento, enquanto três outros transectos foram monitorados sem manipulação (tratamento Monitoramento. A porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos foi avaliada pelo método de interseção. A composição específica e a abundância relativa dos organismos foram avaliadas mensalmente entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2000. Um total de 26 espécies foi encontrado na Urca, enquanto 13 foram encontradas no Catalão. Após quatro meses, a composição específica observada no recrutamento na Urca foi muito similar (76% a observada no monitoramento. No Catalão, três meses

  6. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

  7. The Sponge Community of a Subtidal Area with Hydrothermal Vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2000-11-01

    Sponges were sampled by SCUBA diving at six subtidal rocky sites, three of which were close to hydrothermal vents, a common feature on the sea-floor off the south-east coast of Milos. Twenty-five species (2 Calcarea and 23 Demospongiae) were found, few compared with the 589 recorded for the Mediterranean, but an important addition to the scant information on the sponge fauna of the Aegean Sea. The number of species found at vent sites was consistently higher than that found at non-vent sites, but no vent-obligate species could be identified. However, Geodia cydonium and three species of Cliona ( C. copiosa, C. nigricans and C. rhodensis) showed a tendency to colonize vent areas. The former might take advantage of increased silica availability, the latter of the enhanced deposition of carbonates near vents. Substratum cover by sponges (estimated from wire-framed photographs of 0·7 m 2), varied greatly both among and within sites, mostly according to slope. Most sponge species preferred vertical to overhanging, shaded substrata. Proximity to vents seemed to have little or no influence on sponge cover, notwithstanding a primary effect on species diversity.

  8. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure.

  9. Unintentional Injuries in Rural Area - A Community Based Study in Rural Bhopal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Bansal, Sushil Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional injuries within the home environment have not so far been recognized to the same extent as traffic and work-related injuries in India, largely because they have not been effectively counted. This study took place in the area under PHC Ratua of district Bhopal, India aiming to determine the profile of unintentional injuries. Methods: All the inhabitants of 11 villages within 5 kms. from the centre formed the study population (13,587. One family member preferably the head was interviewed about their experience of injury in the preceding three months by trained personnel. Results: 487 persons had a total of 543 new injuries during three months prior to the interview. Only 292/543 (53.7% of the rec-orded injuries received medical care at health facilities. Home and road traffic injuries constituted the most common injuries with incidence rates of 27 and 24, respectively. Home injuries were most common among young children and the elderly. Majority of the injuries were attributed to ‘‘cutting and crushing’’. Falls were the leading cause among the young (<15 years and the old (above 60 years. Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater attention needs to be directed toward the prevention of injuries occurring in the home. A larger study in terms of size as well as duration (at least one year is needed to characterize the patterns of unintentional injuries in more detail, including any seasonal variation.

  10. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  11. Alternatives to the conflict between environmental authorities and communities of protected areas in Colombian Páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country biologically and culturally megadiverse. Presented inside the largest expanse of páramos of the world, which are considered the planet's water plants and habitats of high biological diversity. However, human occupation of the Colombian Páramos has generated conflict between environmental regulations and productive land uses. This article analyzes the alternative proposed solutions to the conflict between environmental authorities of protected areas and inhabitants of the Páramos in Colombia. Previously there were two types of alternatives: The first suggested granting ecotourism services in parks and land purchases by mixed companies. The second proposed the abandonment of the production activities of farmers, mediated by educational processes and in compliance with environmental standards on pain of facing punitive action by the state. We propose a third alternative, that involves community management plans with time and institutional funding, and implementation of agroecological models, biocultural rescue memory and changes in agrarian structure

  12. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Yu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson. Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (p<0.01. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene measured at the commercial site were significantly higher than the industrial/mobile sites (p<0.01. Seven VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, and p-dichlorobenzene were significantly different by season (p<0.05, that is, higher in cold seasons than in warm seasons. In addition, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene were significantly higher on weekdays than weekend days (p<0.05. These results are consistent with literature data, indicating the impact of anthropogenic VOC sources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%, solvents uses (19%, industrial emissions (16%, mobile+stationery sources (12%, small shop emissions (11%, and others (22%. Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in

  13. Characteristics and distribution of trulli constructions in the area of the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The agro-forestry territory in the Region of Apulia, southern Italy, is characterised by a widespread and diversified presence of dry stone constructions, including trulli, rural buildings with a characteristic a conical shape. The trulli are mainly to be found in the central and eastern part of the region, called Murgia of Trulli. Trulli are perfectly integrated with the agro-environment specificity of the area, creating a unique landscape and establishing themselves as a testimony of tradition and rural culture. In fact, in this area, from the 17th until the mid-20th century, the trulli accompanied the development of agricultural activities. According to the number of cones they had, they were used as temporary shelters, places of support for primary production, or comfortable houses for the rural population. In recent decades, for several social and economic reasons, this heritage of rural buildings has been affected by abandonment and degradation phenomena. Interventions aimed at recovery and re-use have not always respected the origin of the buildings, their design characteristics or the landscape in which they had been built. In order to reduce the impact that this situation has had on environmental and territorial quality it is, therefore, necessary to develop initiatives to protect and valorise the trulli while respecting the identity of place, the architectural elements, and the agricultural and environmental characteristics of the territory. For this purpose, we need to analyse and characterise the heritage of the existing trulli and its relationship with the local reality. The present paper analyses the typology and distribution of the trulli located on the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli, a protected area with high environmental value in the central-eastern area of the Region of Apulia. Specifically, we analysed the relationship between the trulli buildings and the agro-environment context to acquire a basic

  14. Oral health among residents of publicly supported housing in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Shah, Snehal; Dooley, Daniel; Henshaw, Michelle; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    Tooth loss in adults diminishes quality of daily life, affecting eating, speaking, appearance, and social interactions. Tooth loss is linked to severe periodontitis and caries; and to risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and dementia. At the national (USA) level, poverty and African-American race have been linked to lower utilization of dental services, suggesting that the 7.5 million residents of publicly supported housing may be at risk of tooth loss and poor overall oral health. We assessed whether residence in publicly supported housing in Boston was associated with four oral health-related indicators. Compared to residents of nonpublicly supported housing, after adjusting for covariates residents of both public housing developments (PHDs) and rental assistance units (RAUs) had significantly lower odds of having had a dental cleaning in the past year (PHD, OR = 0.64 (95 % CI, 0.44-0.93); RAU, OR = 0.67 (95 % CI, 0.45-0.99))-despite parity in having had a past year dental visit. Further, residents of RAUs had double the odds of having had six or more teeth removed (OR = 2.20 (95 % CI, 1.39-3.50)). Associations of race/ethnicity and housing type with dental insurance were interrelated. Unadjusted results document a deficit in oral health-related indicators among public housing residents, taken as a group, giving a clear picture of an oral health care gap and identifying a defined real-world population that could benefit from services. Existing public housing infrastructure could provide both a venue and a foundation for interventions to reduce oral health disparities on a broad scale.

  15. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community.

  16. Relationship between diversity of forest plant and community dynamics in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-gui; XING Ya-juan; ZHOU Xiao-feng; HAN Shi-jie

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity was studied in 26 communities with different structures in Maoershan National Park and Liangshui Natural Reserve of Northeast Forestry University in Heilongjiang Province, China. Composition index (CI) was taken as a parameter to quantify the community dynamics, which can nicely describe forest community dynamics, meanwhile, the relationship between diversity and community dynamics were also investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the total number species of community, richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were obviously different in every community. The richness decreased with the increasing CI of every community, which means richness was in inverse proportion to community dynamics. The Shannon-Wiener index of every community increased from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession, and then decreased in the climax stage. The coverage weighted foliage-height diversity index increased along with the increase of CI, which was similar as the pattern diversity.

  17. In search of the Boston Strangler: genetic evidence from the exhumation of Mary Sullivan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, David R; Starrs, James E

    2004-01-01

    The Boston Strangler was one of the United States' most notorious serial killers, raping and strangling with decorative ligatures thirteen woman in Boston during the early 1960s. Albert DeSalvo, never a suspect in the slayings, confessed in prison (where he was later murdered) to being the Boston Strangler, and the investigation largely ended. Mary Sullivan was the last victim of the Boston Strangler, found sexually assaulted and strangled in her Boston apartment in 1964. Recently, a team of forensic scientists undertook the exhumation and subsequent scientific analysis of Mary Sullivan's remains, in hope of finding consistencies or inconsistencies between DeSalvo's confessed description of the murder and any evidence left behind. Included in these analyses was extensive DNA testing of all UV fluorescent material associated with the body. The large majority of results were negative, however, fluorescent material located on the underwear and entwined in her pubic hair generated two human mitochondrial DNA sequences. Neither of these matched the victim nor members of the forensic team who worked on the evidence. Most importantly, neither DNA sequence could have originated from Albert DeSalvo.

  18. Dynamics of Community Participation, Student Achievement and School Management: The Case of Primary Schools in a Rural Area of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…

  19. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  20. From Forced Tolerance to Forced Busing: Wartime Intercultural Education and the Rise of Black Educational Activism in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Zoe Burkholder explores the historical interplay of the emergence of tolerance education in the United States and the rise of black educational activism in Boston. By uncovering a pointed lack of tolerance education in Boston and a widespread promotion of tolerance education in other cities in the early half of the twentieth…

  1. 75 FR 42814 - Boston & Maine Corporation―Abandonment Exemption―in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston & Maine Corporation Abandonment Exemption in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... Counties, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02149, 02151, 02148, 01905,...

  2. An Integrated Model of Care: A Visit to The SPARK Center, a Program of Boston Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This article features The SPARK Center, a program of Boston Medical Center, located in Mattapan, Massachusetts. The Center has pioneered a whole-child approach to address the multi-dimensional needs of Boston's most at-risk children, recognizing that vulnerable children need more than educational supports to flourish. The Center's integrated model…

  3. Restructuring the organizational culture of medical institutions: a study on a community hospital in the I-Lan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2008-09-01

    Launched in 1995, the National Health Insurance Program has imposed tremendous pressure on hospitals across Taiwan. As a result, most hospitals, especially those of small and medium scale, have gone to great lengths to restructure their organizations in order to continue operating under the new medical setting. Using a community hospital in I-Lan area as its focus, this study attempts to identify the process of organizational culture restructuring in medical institutions. This process includes the two phases of (1) analyzing difficulties faced, with particular emphasis on three problems associated with the existing organizational culture and (2) restructuring the organizational culture and evaluating the restructuring process, with emphasis on four strategies geared to modify the organizational culture and a pre-and-post quasi-experimental study to evaluate outcomes. This study uses a triangulated data collection approach comprising four qualitative data collection techniques that include semi-structured interviews, focus groups, reflective participant observation, and critical review of relevant organizational materials. The evaluation reveals a significant level of difference between employee perspectives on organizational culture before and after restructuring. In short, employees expressed that, after the restructuring, they feel more respected and recognized than before. Research results, based on an organization's cultural restructuring process, show the process by which a hospital successfully restructured its organizational culture. Empirical data derived from the restructuring process may serve as reference for other hospitals contemplating restructuring.

  4. Reef communities in the Dry Tortugas (Florida, USA): Baseline surveys for the new no-take area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To understand the current community structure on reefs in the Dry Tortugas, we conducted specieslevel surveys of macroalgae, coral diversity, herbivorous and game fishes, urchins, and substratum composition (e.g., rugosity) in shallow (3- to 5-m depth) low-relief reef and hardbottom habitats in October 2007. We had particular interest in the ecological process of herbivory inside and outside of the “no-take” Research Natural Area (RNA) designated by the U.S. National Park Service in 2007, and establishing a baseline to assess future changes to trophic functioning. Diadema antillarum and herbivorous fish abundance, percent cover of macroalgae, and species richness of corals and gorgonians at the 18 randomly selected survey sites were not significantly different inside vs. outside of the RNA. Mean densities of D. antillarum ranged from 0.01 to 0.54 individuals m-2, with 11 of the 18 sites having densities above 0.10 individuals m-2. Both D. antillarum density and coral species richness were positively correlated to rugosity of the substratum. Diadema antillarum density was also positively related to percentage of the substratum composed of Acropora cervicornis rubble. Improved trophic functioning and increases in D. antillarum can improve reef condition in the Dry Tortugas, and the RNA is an important management tool to achieve increases in reef resilience to global-scale stressors.

  5. Participatory Democracy, Community Organizing and the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Reisner, Ellin; Campbell, Maria; Brugge, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Background: Conflicting interests, power imbalance and relationships characterized by distrust are just a few of the many challenges community–academic research partnerships face. In addition, the time it takes to build relationships is often overlooked, which further complicates matters and can leave well-intentioned individuals re-creating oppressive conditions through inauthentic partnerships. This paper presents a novel approach of using meeting minutes to explore partnership dynamics. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) partnership is used as an illustrative case study to identify how community academic partnerships overcome the challenges associated with community-based participatory research (CBPR). CAFEH is a study of ultrafine particle exposure (UFP) near highways in the Boston, MA area. Methods: Qualitative analysis was applied to meeting minutes and process evaluation reports from the first three years of the CAFEH study (n = 73 files). In addition, a group meeting was held with project partners in order to contextualize the findings from the document analysis. Results: The three most commonly referenced challenges included language barriers, the overall project structure and budgetary constraints. Meanwhile, a heavy emphasis on process and an approach steeped in participatory democracy facilitated CAFEH’s ability to overcome these challenges, as well as sustain and augment strong partnership ties. Conclusions: This experience suggests that leadership that incorporates an organizing approach and a transformational style facilitates CBPR processes and helps teams surmount challenges. PMID:28165418

  6. Bladder Retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  7. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  8. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  9. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  10. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  11. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  12. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  13. Hunner's Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  14. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  15. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  16. [Distribution and abundance of fish community in the littoral area of "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve, Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Sandra; Ayala-Pérez, Luis Amado; Sosa-López, Atahualpa; Villalobos-Zapata, Guillermo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve (RBLP) is a critical habitat for many aquatic and terrestrial species. It has the biggest and better conserved seagrass beds, and it represents an important habitat for food, protection and breeding of aquatic organisms, and a temporal refuge for migratory species. The objective of this study was to describe the ichthyofauna diversity in the littoral coastal area of the RBLP, to identify the ecological dominant species, and to analyze the abundance of the fish community and its temporal and spatial changes, and their relationship with some environmental variables. Monthly fish samples were obtained with the aid of trawl nets, from 24 samplings sites distributed along the reserve, between May 2009 and April 2010. The trawl net was operated 288 times and 21 795 individuals with 279.5kg of weight were collected. A total of 46 fish species grouped in 34 genera and 23 families were identified. In a spatial scale, the abundance showed the next ranges: 0.018-0.094ind./m2; 0.249-1.072 g/m2 and 9.75-19.32g/ind.; the diversity indexes obtained were: H'n=1.46-2.15, J'=0.45-0.71 and D'=2.08-3.92. In a temporal scale, the abundance and diversity ranged between: 0.026-0.066ind./m2; 0.342-0.764g/m2 and 6.49-22.98g/ind.; H'n=1.76-2.08; J'=0.52-0.64 and D'=3.07-4.18. Eleven dominant species were identified with a representation of the 94.39% in number of individuals, and 89.66% in weight of the total catch. From the total, eight species had economic or commercial importance, especially Lagodon rhomboides and Haemulon plumierii. The cluster analyses identified four fish associations; these results are discussed in order to identify relationships between habitat-species. Finally, the canonical correspondence analysis evidenced an association between H. plumierii with salinity and dissolved solids. The RBLP has high habitat diversity and its fish community has developed strategies to use all the spatial and temporal conditions and to satisfy the needs

  17. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  18. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras Menor, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Santos, dos Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S.; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P.; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of s

  19. Development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers Desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers, and to investigate the effects of age, education and gender on both the original and the adapted Boston Naming Test in respect of Brazilian Portuguese speakers. METHOD: Eighty items, including the 60 original ones and 20 adapted items were administered to 739 healthy Brazilian subjects aged between 6 and 77 years who received 0 to 17 years of education. RESULTS: The coefficients of the General Linear Model estimation suggested that both age and education were statistically significant to predict total scores. In addition, score variances, justified by such predictors, were 41.20% in the original Boston Naming Test against 25.84% in the adapted Boston Naming Test. These results suggest that the scores from the original BNT are more dependent on age and education than those from the adapted Boston Naming Test. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated the suitability of the adapted Boston Naming Test version for the Brazilian population and described provisional norms for the original and adapted Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers.OBJETIVO: Apresentar o desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa e investigar os efeitos da idade, escolaridade e gênero nas versões original e adaptada do Boston Naming Test. MÉTODO: 80 itens foram administrados incluindo os 60 originais e 20 itens adaptados em 739 brasileiros saudáveis com idades entre 6 e 77 anos e escolaridade entre 0 e 17 anos. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de estimação do Modelo Linear Geral sugeriram que a idade e escolaridade eram preditores significativos do resultado total. Além disto, as variâncias dos resultados explicadas por estes preditores no Boston Naming Test original era de 41,20%, enquanto que no adaptado era de 25,84%. Estes achados sugerem que os resultados do Boston Naming Test original são mais dependentes de

  20. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  1. 78 FR 110 - Supplemental Record of Decision; Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Assessment for the Boston University National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories Responsible Official... (NIH), has decided, after completion of a Final Supplementary Risk Assessment and a thorough consideration of public comments on the Draft and Final Supplementary Risk Assessment, to implement the...

  2. 77 FR 11140 - Availability of the Draft Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University (BU) National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Availability of the Draft Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University (BU) National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL); Public Hearing... Supplementary Risk Assessment for the NEIDL, which is intended to respond to the concerns of the local...

  3. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  4. The Lowells of Boston and the Founding of University Extension at Harvard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author uses the occasion of the centennial of University Extension at Harvard to document how this unique educational institution came into being and why it became associated with Harvard University. He traces the prominent role played by the Lowell family in establishing the Lowell Institute of Boston in the late 1830s and…

  5. A Serotype VIII Strain among Colonizing Group B Streptococcal Isolates in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, Leanne J.; Bradford, Jessica; Paoletti, Lawrence C.

    1999-01-01

    Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a risk factor for neonatal GBS disease. Whereas serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are prevalent in the United States, types VI and VIII predominate in Japan. Recently, a serotype VIII strain was detected among 114 clinical GBS isolates from a Boston, Mass., hospital.

  6. The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    Dr. David Morens reads excerpts from his essay about Cotton Mather’s diary, which details the experience and tragedy of the measles outbreak in Boston, Massachusetts in 1713.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  7. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  8. 77 FR 34797 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 56115 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 78 FR 11747 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY:...

  11. 76 FR 4817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  12. Turfs in Turmoil: Boston's Troubles Go Back a Long, Long Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Boston has a history of racial, religious, and ethnic discrimination, despite its role in abolition and political revolution. Since the seventeeth century, various immigrant groups have vied for political and economic power. Present-day racist violence between Blacks and Whites is simply the latest of a series of conflicts. (GC)

  13. Distance Learning at Boston University [and] Comments on McNamara, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    McNamara and others describe Boston University's off-campus graduate program in rehabilitation counseling, which uses distance learning methods such as videotapes and electronic bulletin boards. The intensive individualized advising and monitoring system is serving as a model for on-campus students. Comments by Ulicny and Rubin follow the article.…

  14. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  15. Re-thinking community health work in rural areas: Lessons from existing informal helping frameworks in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turinawe, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    Government of Uganda has introduced many changes in the healthcare delivery in the last two decades. One such change has been the implementation of the decentralized healthcare delivery through community health volunteers (CHWs), known as village health teams (VHTs) in a bid to increase community in

  16. 76 FR 18573 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... services. The Sunset Terrace public housing community units, facilities, and infrastructure are antiquated... properties with mixed-income, mixed-use residential and commercial space and public amenities. The... such as a community center, senior center, and/or public library space; a new park/open space;...

  17. Effective control of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a Ghanaian community following installation of a water recreation area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C Kosinski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium was endemic in Adasawase, Ghana in 2007. Transmission was reported to be primarily through recreational water contact. METHODS: We designed a water recreation area (WRA to prevent transmission to school-aged children. The WRA features a concrete pool supplied by a borehole well and a gravity-driven rainwater collection system; it is 30 m(2 and is split into shallow and deep sections to accommodate a variety of age groups. The WRA opened in 2009 and children were encouraged to use it for recreation as opposed to the local river. We screened children annually for S. haematobium eggs in their urine in 2008, 2009, and 2010 and established differences in infection rates before (2008-09 and after (2009-10 installation of the WRA. After each annual screening, children were treated with praziquantel and rescreened to confirm parasite clearance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initial baseline testing in 2008 established that 105 of 247 (42.5% children were egg-positive. In 2009, with drug treatment alone, the pre-WRA annual cumulative incidence of infection was 29 of 216 (13.4%. In 2010, this incidence rate fell significantly (p<0.001, chi-squared to 9 of 245 (3.7% children after installation of the WRA. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine correlates of infection among the variables age, sex, distance between home and river, minutes observed at the river, low height-for-age, low weight-for-age, low Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age, and previous infection status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The installation and use of a WRA is a feasible and highly effective means to reduce the incidence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in a rural Ghanaian community. In conjunction with drug treatment and education, such an intervention can represent a significant step towards the control of schistosomiasis. The WRA should be tested in other water-rich endemic areas to determine whether

  18. The bilingual effect on Boston Naming Test performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Montoya, Rosa I;

    2007-01-01

    ) in a community-based sample of elderly subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 976 subjects born in 1914, APOE genotype was determined and MRI examinations were carried out in 75 subjects. WMH were rated using a standard semi-quantitative method. ANOVA and regression analyses were conducted to explore...

  19. Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  20. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. A preliminary... zones for Neptune consist of circular zones, each with a 500-meter radius and centered on each...

  1. Benthic-invertebrate, fish-community, and streambed-sediment-chemistry data for streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic-biology and sediment-chemistry data were collected at seven sites on the White River and at six tributary sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area of Indiana during the period 2009 through 2012. Data collected included benthic-invertebrate and fish-community information and concentrations of metals, insecticides, herbicides, and semivolatile organic compounds adsorbed to streambed sediments. A total of 120 benthic-invertebrate samples were collected, of which 16 were replicate samples. A total of 26 fish-community samples were collected in 2010 and 2012. Thirty streambed-sediment chemistry samples were collected in 2009 and 2011, of which four were concurrent duplicate samples

  2. Preliminary assessment of microbial communities and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in wetlands at Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.

  3. The Means Analysis of Common Areas of Community%社区公共空间管理的Means分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀; 王卫红; 杨少飞

    2005-01-01

    Means Process provided by SPSS can provide the mean of every group mean, the degree of the material difference between groups, the degree of association between dependent variable and indepencent variable etc.. Now the management of the community public space is a hot social topic. Aim to the management system of the community public space, by an investigation, the writer did Means analysises to 49 questions of the questionnaire, and got the topics about which there is a great difference between different type , age and education level groups and an association with type, age and education, to guide the community management practice better.

  4. Patients’ perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merks P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0% and 33 men (32.0%, aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents. Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents, primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33. Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas.

  5. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  6. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  7. Composition and structure of the epilithic diatom communities from Izbucul Cernei, Cernişoara and the confluence area (Gorj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sinitean

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained after determining and processing some relativelyquantitative samples used to characterize the epilithic diatom communities installed in the biggest carsticspring from Romania, Izbucul Cernei, into Cernişoara brook, as well as in the upstream of Cerna river,formed from the two mentioned streams. Recent articles (Wynn et al 2010; Onac et al 2011 approachunique hydro-geological and geo-chemical aspects present in the upstream area of Cerna Valley, but adiatom community characterization, an especially important algal group (Vanormelingen et al 2008 forthis upstream area has not been done yet. Samples were harvested seasonally, from several samplingpoints; 121 specific and intra-specific taxa were identified as part of the epilithic diatom communities,dominating, both quantitatively and qualitatively, Achnanthes minutissima Kützing. Some structuralparameters of the epilithic diatom communities were determined (floristic similarity through Sørensenindex and specific diversity using Shannon index. Comparing the obtained results we conclude that inthese streams, where the anthropic impact is minimal and the chemistry of water does not differsignificantly, the determinant factors of the composition and structure of the epilithic diatomcommunities are those related to the morphology of the streams and the physical parameters of water.

  8. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyan Wu

    Full Text Available Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12 and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand

  9. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeyan; Haack, Stacey Elizabeth; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12) and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand ages of P

  10. A comparative study of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers working in tsunami-affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Kamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe and compare the level of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers (CHVs working in the tsunami affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia.Method: 144 CHVs from six districts in Aceh were studied during November 2011 to January 2012 to evaluate their level knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between CHVs working in tsunami-affected 6-areas and non-tsunami-affected areas. The knowledge was assessed using the Community Health Volunteers’ Knowledge Regarding Emergency Care Questionnaire (CHVK-ECQ with 30 true/false statements. The composite scores of each area and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation.Results: Overall, the CHVs’ knowledge in emergency care during disaster in Aceh was at a high level in both groups. However, subjects in non-affected areas had significantly higher mean rank of the overall knowledge than those in the affected areas (p = .02. In the tsunami area, the highest mean score of knowledge was in the disaster triage dimension (M= 80.62%, and the lowest mean score was in the first aid (60.48 %. In contrast, CHVs’ knowledge in the non-tsunami areas had the highest mean score in the first aid (84.52 % and had the lowest mean score in the disaster triage (64. 38 %.Conclusion: Although both groups had high levels of overall knowledge, an education program for improved knowledge in the areas of first aid, team organization, and disaster triage should be emphasized to refresh the CHVs’ knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  11. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  12. Climate Change Impacts in Agricultural Communities in Rural Areas of Coastal Bangladesh: A Tale of Many Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Huq

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses climate change impacts, their cascading consequences and the livelihood implications of these impacts on smallholder agricultural communities of coastal Bangladesh. Six physically and socio-economically vulnerable communities of south-western coastal regions were studied. Primary data was collected through focus group discussions, a seasonal calendar, and historical transect analysis. Three orders of impacts of climate change on smallholder farmers are identified and described. The first order impacts involve increasing erosion of the capacity of local communities to mitigate vulnerability to climate change impacts. This situation led to the second order impacts, which significantly transformed the agricultural landscape and production patterns. The cumulative effects of the first and second order impacts sparked the third order impacts in the form of worsening community livelihood assets and conditions. The findings of this paper can contribute to the formulation of sustainable adaptation policies and programs to manage the vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts in the country effectively.

  13. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Community Growth Options: Vacant, Developed, and Constrained Areas; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2007); [developable

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS raster data set illustrates vacant, developed, and constrained areas for the 35 parishes in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan South Louisiana study area....

  14. Low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yoshito; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. [Subjects] The subjects were community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area of Japan. [Methods] One group (n = 50) performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. Another group (n = 37) performed group exercise only. Low-frequency group exercise (warm-up, exercises for motor functions, and cool-down) was performed in seven 40 to 70-minute sessions over 9 weeks by both groups. Five items of motor functions were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant interactions were observed between groups and assessment times for all motor functions. Improvements in motor functions were significantly greater in the group that performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring than in the group that performed group exercise only. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences in 3 items of motor functions. No significant improvements were observed in motor functions in the group that performed group exercise only. [Conclusions] Group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring improved motor functions in the setting of low-frequency group exercise for community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area. PMID:27065520

  15. The Customer is Always Right, Right?A Look at How Yelp Has Taken Hold of the Boston Restaurant Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel DeSimone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and mobile availability has changed the restaurant review game. Local Boston chefs and restaurant managers reflect on the pros and cons of such outlets, like Yelp, on their businesses and menus.

  16. bh_1mBS.tif: Backscatter Imagery from Sidescan Sonar 1 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km²...

  17. bh_1mBS.tif: Backscatter Imagery from Sidescan Sonar 1 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km²...

  18. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  19. School Turnaround: Cristo Rey Boston High School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The mandates of the federal No Child Left Behind Law, including the threat of closing a school for underperformance, have led to multiple public school turnaround attempts. Because turnaround is a relatively new area of focus in education, there is limited research on what does and does not work, and even the definition of turnaround is a work in…

  20. Structure of hemoglobin M Boston, a variant with a five-coordinated ferric heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsinelli, P D; Perutz, M F; Nagel, R L

    1973-12-01

    X-ray analysis of the natural valency hybrid alpha(2) (+M Boston)beta(2) (deoxy) shows that the ferric iron atoms in the abnormal alpha subunits are bonded to the phenolate side chains of the tyrosines that have replaced the distal histidines; the iron atoms are displaced to the distal side of the porphyrin ring and are not bonded to the proximal histidines. The resulting changes in tertiary structure of the alpha subunits stabilize the hemoglobin tetramer in the quaternary deoxy structure, which lowers the oxygen affinity of the normal beta subunits and causes cyanosis. The strength of the bond from the ferric iron to the phenolate oxygen appears to be the main factor responsible for the many abnormal properties of hemoglobin M Boston.

  1. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods: The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of th...

  2. Outcomes with the Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis at Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular IMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, Jose L.; Arcos, Edilio; Gris, Oscar; Aristizabal, Diego; Pacheco, Miguel; Sanchez, Claudia L.; Manero, Felicidad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcomes on the Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis at our institution. Design Retrospective analysis case series. Participants We analyzed 54 eyes of 53 patients who previously underwent Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis surgery at our institution from July 2006 to March 2011. Methods Preoperative and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and keratoprosthesis stability. Results Common preoperative diagnoses were penetrating keratoplasty failure in 49 eyes (90.7%), chronic keratitis in 2 eyes (3.7%), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid in 1 eye (1.85%), Stevens Johnson syndrome in 1 eye (1.85%) and corneal vascularization in 1 eye (1.85%). Additionally, 40 eyes (74%) had preoperative glaucoma, and an Ahmed valve was implanted in 55% of them. Preoperative BCVA ranged from 20/200 to light perception. At an average follow-up of 20.15 months ± 12.7 (range, 1–56), postoperative vision improved to ⩾20/200 in 18 eyes (33.3%) and ⩾20/50 in 4 eyes (7.4%). The graft retention was 96%. Conclusions The Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis is a valid option for high-risk patients. The design improvements in the Boston keratoprosthesis, as well as the daily implementation of the therapeutic methods, have notably diminished occurrence of the most serious complications, such as corneal necrosis and endophthalmitis. As such, glaucoma and its subsequent complications now stand as the most prevalent prognostic factor in the long term. PMID:23960937

  3. A Waterborne Seismic Reflection Survey of Three Tributaries in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    PositoninglInformation RESERVED CHANNEL, BOSTON HARBOR, MA WES Survey Line RP18 Direction: West Elevation File# Eastlng Northinx (ft. MLW) 013 731243...40CheCkrd by. Reviewed bys (Z) Approved by’ D7 7 Fn--93--D2 RP10 Mellon RP12 L.X.- RP14 FD-93-D Z" 󈧈~ RP16 no ~ RP18 CASTL- ISLAND Reserved Channel

  4. Small Drones for Community-Based Forest Monitoring: An Assessment of Their Feasibility and Potential in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered through community-based forest monitoring (CBFM programs may be as accurate as those gathered by professional scientists, but acquired at a much lower cost and capable of providing more detailed data about the occurrence, extent and drivers of forest loss, degradation and regrowth at the community scale. In addition, CBFM enables greater survey repeatability. Therefore, CBFM should be a fundamental component of national forest monitoring systems and programs to measure, report and verify (MRV REDD+ activities. To contribute to the development of more effective approaches to CBFM, in this paper we assess: (1 the feasibility of using small, low-cost drones (i.e., remotely piloted aerial vehicles in CBFM programs; (2 their potential advantages and disadvantages for communities, partner organizations and forest data end-users; and (3 to what extent their utilization, coupled with ground surveys and local ecological knowledge, would improve tropical forest monitoring. To do so, we reviewed the existing literature regarding environmental applications of drones, including forest monitoring, and drew on our own firsthand experience flying small drones to map and monitor tropical forests and training people to operate them. We believe that the utilization of small drones can enhance CBFM and that this approach is feasible in many locations throughout the tropics if some degree of external assistance and funding is provided to communities. We suggest that the use of small drones can help tropical communities to better manage and conserve their forests whilst benefiting partner organizations, governments and forest data end-users, particularly those engaged in forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation projects such as REDD+.

  5. Discussion on Community Participation of Tourist Scenic Areas --Taking Participation of Community Residents of Lingqu Scenic Area for an Example%旅游景区社区参与探析——以灵渠景区社区居民参与为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文慧

    2012-01-01

    Community residents are important interest groups. Community participation is also called com- munity tourism or community participation in tourism development. Now, community residents participating in tourism development have become an indispensable link in the development of the world tourism. Analysis is made of the pattern, importance, influence factors of community participation and participation of community residents in Lingqu area, aiming to seek the optimal measures of improving community participation.%社区居民是旅游地重要利益群体,社区参与又称社区旅游或者社区参与式旅游发展。现今,社区居民参与旅游发展成为世界旅游业发展过程中不可缺少的一个环节。通过对社区参与模式、重要性、影响因素以及以灵渠景区社区居民参与的探讨,寻求社区参与的完善措施。

  6. Geospatial clustering in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Boston youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kosuke; Duncan, Dustin T; Athens, Jessica K; Bragg, Marie A; Rienti, Michael; Aldstadt, Jared; Scott, Marc A; Elbel, Brian

    2017-01-17

    The objective was to detect geospatial clustering of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in Boston adolescents (age = 16.3 ± 1.3 years [range: 13-19]; female = 56.1%; White = 10.4%, Black = 42.6%, Hispanics = 32.4%, and others = 14.6%) using spatial scan statistics. We used data on self-reported SSB intake from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (n = 1292). Two binary variables were created: consumption of SSB (never versus any) on (1) soda and (2) other sugary drinks (e.g., lemonade). A Bernoulli spatial scan statistic was used to identify geospatial clusters of soda and other sugary drinks in unadjusted models and models adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. There was no statistically significant clustering of soda consumption in the unadjusted model. In contrast, a cluster of non-soda SSB consumption emerged in the middle of Boston (relative risk = 1.20, p = .005), indicating that adolescents within the cluster had a 20% higher probability of reporting non-soda SSB intake than outside the cluster. The cluster was no longer significant in the adjusted model, suggesting spatial variation in non-soda SSB drink intake correlates with the geographic distribution of students by race/ethnicity, age, and gender.

  7. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  8. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  9. Cumulative impacts of aggregate extraction on seabed macro-invertebrate communities in an area off the east coast of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith; Boyd, Siân; Aldridge, John; Rees, Hubert

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates whether there is any evidence of a large-scale cumulative impact on benthic macro-invertebrate communities as a result of the multiple sites of aggregate extraction located off Great Yarmouth in the southern North Sea. Forty 0.1 m 2 Hamon grab samples were collected from across the region, both within and beyond the extraction area, and analysed for macrofauna and sediment particle size distribution in order to produce a regional description of the status of the seabed environment. In addition, the data were analysed in relation to the area of seabed impacted by dredging over the period 1993-1998. Areas subject to 'direct' impacts were determined through reference to annual electronic records of dredging activity and this information was then used to model the likely extent of areas potentially subject to 'indirect' ecological and geophysical impact. Results showed the study area to be characterised by sands in the northern half of the survey area, and sandy gravels in the south. The low diversity communities found across much of the survey area were typical of mobile sandy sediments. However, stations located in the southern half and northern extreme of the survey area tended to support higher numbers of species and individuals. This may be due to marginally enhanced stability arising from the higher proportion of gravel found in samples to the south of the extraction licenses and to the presence of Sabellaria spinulosa reef in the north. Analysis of data in relation to areas of predicted dredging impact revealed proportionally less gravel and more sand within the 'direct' impact zone, compared to the 'indirect' impact zone. Whilst multivariate analyses of macrofaunal data did not clearly discriminate between dredging impact zones, a comparison of univariate measures revealed significantly lower numbers of species and individuals in areas which have been subject to 'direct' dredging impacts in comparison with 'reference' areas. This

  10. Domestic Violence Against Married Women in Rural Area of Wardha District: a Community Based Cross Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi P Khapre , Sonali G Chaudhary , Raviprakash D Meshram , Abhay B Mudey , Smrutiranjan C Nayak, Vasant V Wagh

    2014-01-01

    "Background: Domestic violence against females is a serious public health concern in every community and culture. However, its actual extent is difficult to measure and may be much higher than reported. Long standing domestic violence not only affects the women physically but also has the long term impact on mental health. Domestic violence has the intergenerational cycle. As the rural women are more susceptible to domestic violence, present study would estimate the prevalence, associate...

  11. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  12. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  13. Research on the Harmonious Development of New Rural Communities under the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of offering a definition of New Rural Communities (NRCs), the paper analyzes the values of New Rural Communities and argues that the construction of NRCs is able to contribute to the enhancement of the comprehensive agricultural production capability as well as the development of social productivity. Meanwhile the incomes of the rural residents can be boosted, which denotes the realization of a harmonious society where the achievements of China’s reform and development are shared by each citizen. Moreover, the construction of NRCs facilitates the economization of land use and thus improves the overall living standard of the residents, while helping to cut the administrative cost and promote democracy at the primary level. This paper also points out various problems arising during the construction of NRCS in China: blindly following suit in accordance with the modes of the urban communities; lack of funds, which leads to the absence of the supporting mechanisms of NRCs; vague positioning and the ensuing shortage of impetus for continued development. Finally, the paper raises the corresponding measures and suggestions: first, based on reality, make overall planning and scientific arrangement; second, the government should play the dominant role while respecting the principal position of the rural residents and introducing the market mechanism; third, increase science and technology input and attach equal importance to economic and social benefits; fourth, broaden fund-raising channels while completing the supervision mechanism.

  14. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Pelletier, P.; Dorsen, J.; Douglas, E. M.; Pringle, M. S.; Karp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Inquiry-based, hands-on, graduate content courses have been developed specifically for Boston Public School middle school teachers of Earth Science. Earth Science I: Weather and Water and Earth Science II: The Solid Earth--Earth History and Planetary Systems have been taught a total of seven times to over 120 teachers. Several key attributes to these successful courses have been identified, including co-instruction by a university professor and a high school and a middle school teacher that are familiar with the Boston curriculum, use of hands-on activities that are closed related to those used in the Boston curriculum, pre- and post-course local field trips, and identification of key learning objectives for each day. This model of professional development was developed over several years in all disciplines (Earth Science, Physics, Biology, Chemistry) by the Boston Science Partnership (BSP), an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. One of the core strategies of the BSP is these Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), graduate level, lab-based courses taught at either UMass Boston or Northeastern University during summer intensive or semester formats. Two of the eleven courses developed under the grant are Earth Science I & II. This presentation shares the model of the CCC, the impact on teacher participants, the value of these courses for the professor, and lessons learned for successful professional development. Findings about the courses’ impact and effectiveness come from our external evaluation by the Program Evaluation Research Group (PERG). The combination of content and modeling good instructional practices have many positive outcomes for teachers, including increased self-efficacy in science understanding and teaching, positive impacts on student achievement, and teacher shifts from more traditional, more lecture-based instructional models to more inquiry approaches. STEM faculty members become involved in science education and learn and practice new

  15. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of the Microbial Community Structure of Pastoruri Glacier Area (Huascarán National Park, Perú), a Natural Extreme Acidic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, Elena; Santofimia, Esther; Blanco, Yolanda; López-Pamo, Enrique; Gómez, Manuel J; Bobadilla, Miguel; Cruz, Rolando; Palomino, Edwin Julio; Aguilera, Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The exposure of fresh sulfide-rich lithologies by the retracement of the Nevado Pastoruri glacier (Central Andes, Perú) is increasing the presence of heavy metals in the water as well as decreasing the pH, producing an acid rock drainage (ARD) process in the area. We describe the microbial communities of an extreme ARD site in Huascarán National Park as well as their correlation with the water physicochemistry. Microbial biodiversity was analyzed by FLX 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The suggested geomicrobiological model of the area distinguishes three different zones. The proglacial zone is located in the upper part of the valley, where the ARD process is not evident yet. Most of the OTUs detected in this area were related to sequences associated with cold environments (i.e., psychrotolerant species of Cyanobacteria or Bacteroidetes). After the proglacial area, an ARD-influenced zone appeared, characterized by the presence of phylotypes related to acidophiles (Acidiphilium) as well as other species related to acidic and cold environments (i.e., acidophilic species of Chloroflexi, Clostridium and Verrumicrobia). Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) were also identified. The post-ARD area was characterized by the presence of OTUs related to microorganisms detected in soils, permafrost, high mountain environments, and deglaciation areas (Sphingomonadales, Caulobacter or Comamonadaceae).

  16. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  17. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Stuart J Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected...

  18. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health.

  19. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  20. STRUCTURES AND COMPOSITION OF COMMUNITIES BIRDS IN NATURAL AREAS OF Pinus caribaea Morelet, OF THE EFI “MINAS DE MATAHAMBRE”

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando R. Hernández Martínez; Yatsunaris Alonso Torrens; Rogelio Sotolongo Sospedra; Yarián Sánchez Oliva

    2008-01-01

    The investigation was carried out in the months understood between January and April of 2007, in a natural pinegrove of Pinus tropicalis Morelet 192 located in the Tibisí, which belongs to the lot 15 of the Unit Silvícola Santa Lucía of the Integral Forest Company "Mines of Matahambre"; with the objective of determining the structure and composition of the communities of birds associated to natural areas of Pinus tropicalis Morelet. For the census of birds the recount method was used in point...

  1. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  2. [ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDavid, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

  3. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  4. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  5. Deepening the economic integration in the Eastern Partnership: from a Free Trade Area to a Neighbourhood Economic Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DRĂGAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of cooperation and regional integration, implying specific institutional agreements and instruments, have been developed in the last decades in the EU neighbourhood. The offer provided by the Eastern Partnership (EaP, which includes both economic and political objectives, has not proven attractive enough for the Eastern Neighbourhood. The region is currently divided between two global powers (EU and Russia and two competing regional integration areas, the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and the Eurasian Single Economic Space. The paper focuses on the main limits of the economic tools included in the EU’s current offer and proposes several directions for EaP’s reform.

  6. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  7. The MOBILIZE Boston Study: Design and methods of a prospective cohort study of novel risk factors for falls in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Marian T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are the sixth leading cause of death in elderly people in the U.S. Despite progress in understanding risk factors for falls, many suspected risk factors have not been adequately studied. Putative risk factors for falls such as pain, reductions in cerebral blood flow, somatosensory deficits, and foot disorders are poorly understood, in part because they pose measurement challenges, particularly for large observational studies. Methods The MOBILIZE Boston Study (MBS, an NIA-funded Program Project, is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. Using a door-to-door population-based recruitment, we have enrolled 765 persons aged 70 and older. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2 segments: a 3-hour home interview followed within 4 weeks by a 3-hour clinic examination. Measures included pain, cerebral hemodynamics, and foot disorders as well as established fall risk factors. For the falls follow-up, participants return fall calendar postcards to the research center at the end of each month. Reports of falls are followed-up with a telephone interview to assess circumstances and consequences of each fall. A second assessment is performed 18 months following baseline. Results Of the 2382 who met all eligibility criteria at the door, 1616 (67.8% agreed to participate and were referred to the research center for further screening. The primary reason for ineligibility was inability to communicate in English. Results from the first 600 participants showed that participants are largely representative of seniors in the Boston area in terms of age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The average age of study participants was 77.9 years (s.d. 5.5 and nearly two-thirds were women. The study cohort was 78% white and 17% black. Many participants (39% reported having fallen at least once in the year before baseline. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting

  8. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  9. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  10. Higher prevalence of mental disorders in socioeconomically deprived urban areas in the Netherlands : Community or personal disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Schene, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Major mental disorders occur more frequently in deprived urban areas. This study examines whether this occurs for all mental disorders, including less serious ones. It further assesses whether such a concentration can be explained by the socioeconomic status (SES) of the residents concern

  11. A comprehensive smoking cessation program for the San Francisco Bay Area Latino community: Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Stable, E J; Marín, B V; Marín, G

    1993-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Latinos compared to whites is higher among men (30.9% versus 27.9%), but lower among women (16.3% versus 23.5%). More acculturated Latina women, however, smoke more. Compared to other smokers, Latinos report consuming about half the average number of cigarettes per day. Up to a quarter of Latino smokers of less than 10 cigarettes per day may be underreporting consumption. The association between smoking and depression has also been found in Latinos. Program Goals. The Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar (Programa) goals are: 1) to evaluate attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural differences between Latino and white smokers; 2) to integrate these findings into a comprehensive, culturally-appropriate smoking cessation intervention; and 3) to implement the intervention in a defined community in order to decrease cigarette smoking prevalence, increase behaviors that may lead smokers to quit, and promote a nonsmoking environment. Program Components. Heightened concern about health effects of smoking, the importance of social smoking, and the influence of the family on behavior are integrated in the Programa components: 1) the promotion of a full-color, Spanish-language, self-help, smoking cessation guide (Guia), distributed at no charge; 2) an anti-smoking, Spanish-language, electronic media campaign; 3) community involvement; 4) quit smoking contests; 5) smoking cessation, individual, telephone consultations (consultas); and 6) collaboration with health care personnel. Results. Effectiveness of the Programa is being evaluated by annual, cross-sectional, random digit dialing telephone surveys compared to two baseline surveys. After 19 months of intervention, the proportion who had heard of the Programa increased from 18.5% to 44.0%, and over one third of less acculturated smokers had the Guia. Future directions will emphasize smoking prevention among youth, prevention of relapse among quitters, and depression prevention.

  12. Nutritional status of adolescent girls residing in rural area: A community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana S Baliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Nutritional requirements during this period increase tremendously compared to preceding years of growth. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. The present study was aimed to assess the current nutritional status of the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This one-year community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken at a village Peeranwadi of District Belgaum, Karnataka among 400 adolescent girls of 10 to 19 years. Information on socio-demographic variables was collected by an interview using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. A 24-hour recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. The nutrient intake was calculated using tables of nutritive value of Indian foods. For the comparison of anthropometric data, National Center for Health Statistics and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards were used. Results: The mean age among the study population was 12.9 ± 2.06 years. Majorities (73.5% of them were Hindus, 98.5% were literate, and 90% were currently studying. Adolescent girls between 10 and 14 years were more stunted (63.82% as compared to 15 to 19 years (40.84% (P = 0.0003 and thin (60.79% vs. 39.43%; P = 0.0009. Overall, the mean calorie intake was observed to be 1272.20 ± 133.28 kcal/day, protein intake was 40.99 ± 3.32 gm, and iron intake was 14.42 ± 2.58 mg. Conclusion: Overall, majority of girls were having dietary intake less than 50% of RDA, and almost three fourth of girls were anemic.

  13. Natural Communities and Rare Vascular Plants of West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge; Mapping, Description, and Ecological Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to apply a landscape-scale approach to management of the lands, natural communities of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin...

  14. Sea floor maps showing topography, sun-illuminated topography, and backscatter intensity of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.; Middleton, T.J.; Fuller, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains the sea floor topographic contours, sun-illuminated topographic imagery, and backscatter intensity generated from a multibeam sonar survey of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts, an area of approximately 1100 square nautical miles. The Stellwagen Bank NMS Mapping Project is designed to provide detailed maps of the Stellwagen Bank region's environments and habitats and the first complete multibeam topographic and sea floor characterization maps of a significant region of the shallow EEZ. Data were collected on four cruises over a two year period from the fall of 1994 to the fall of 1996. The surveys were conducted aboard the Candian Hydrographic Service vessel Frederick G. Creed, a SWATH (Small Waterplane Twin Hull) ship that surveys at speeds of 16 knots. The multibeam data were collected utilizing a Simrad Subsea EM 1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder (95 kHz) that is permanently installed in the hull of the Creed.

  15. 果洛地区冻土细菌群落的多样性分析%Diversity of bacterial community in permafrost at Guoluo area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩睿; 朱德锐; 陈来生; 封希媛; 刘静; 孙琦龙

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial community in permafrost at Guoluo area was investigated with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( PCR-DGGE) technology. The results showed that the diversity of bacteria in permafrost was rich, and the difference of bacterial community was obvious in permafrost samples. The bacterial communities in four samples belong to two phyla,namely Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. At genus level,there were six communities,in-cluding Chitinophagaceae bacterium, Asticcacaulis, Afipia, Hyphomicrobium, Pedomicrobium and Sphingomonas. The dominant groups were Chitinophagaceae bacterium and Sphingomonas. Chiti-nophagaceae bacterium has important significance for accelerating the C and N cycle in permafrost of Guoluo area. Character of Sphingomonas with tolerance is adaptive to extreme oligotrophic conditions so that it could survive and become the dominant species in Guoluo area. This study can provide a scientific reference for development and utilization of microbial resources in permafrost.%为研究冻土中细菌群落的多样性,采用变性梯度凝胶电泳( DGGE )分析技术,对青海果洛地区的冻土样品进行了研究。结果表明:冻土中含有丰富的细菌类群,且样品间细菌群落结构存在差异。4个冻土样品中,细菌分属于2个门,即拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )和变形菌门( Proteobacteria)。在属分类水平属于6个细菌类群,噬几丁质杆菌属( Chitinophagaceae bacteri-um)、不粘柄菌属( Asticcacaulis)、阿菲波菌属( Afipia)、生丝微菌属( Hyphomicrobium)、土微菌属( Pedomicrobium)和鞘氨醇单胞菌属( Sphingomonas),其中Chitinophagaceae bacterium和Sphin-gomonas为优势类群。 Chitinophagaceae bacterium对于加速果洛地区冻土中的C,N循环具有重要意义。 Sphingomonas具有耐受极端贫营养条件的特性使其在果洛地区冻土这种特殊环境中能够生存并成为优势类群。

  16. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  17. Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  18. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Dos Santos, Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-08-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored.

  19. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies.

  20. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  1. Short-term visual outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis type I in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Arfaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes, complications and retention of threadless type I Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of four eyes of four patients (one female and three males; age range: 48 to 72 years who underwent Boston type I threadless KPro implantation between January and December 2009. Results: In the median follow-up of 11 months (range 6 to 14 months, visual outcomes were satisfactory. Preoperative diagnosis included two patients of post-trachoma dense vascularized corneal scarring, one patient of corneal alkali burn and one patient of repeated failed corneal grafts. All patients demonstrated significant improvement in vision; with pre-operative visual acuity of hand movements (HM, counting fingers and HM improved to best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/200, 20/60, 20/50 and 20/30 on their last follow-up visits respectively. None of the patients developed glaucoma as a result of the procedure. No retro-prosthetic membrane developed till the last follow-up visit. One of the four patients had a corneal melt (due to severe dryness associated with trachoma 6 months after the KPro implantation and underwent a successful KPro revision. Despite the relatively poor prognosis expected in alkali burn eye, the patient attained the maximum BCVA (20/30 of the four eye series on the last follow-up visit at six months. Conclusion: In consistent with the earlier reports from other parts of the world, all the 4 eyes had a significant increase in vision after Boston type I KPro implantation. However, patients require close lifelong follow-up to manage any complications.

  2. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  3. Mission-Area Guide to Lead-Exposure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Dentistry needs an elastic impression material that takes accurate, one-piece impressions of undercut areas (for inlay and crown preparations). Types of...Management and Budget. 1987. Stannard, Jan G., Materials in Dentistry , Denali Publishing. Boston, MA, 1986. Sullivan, Jim, Headquarters, Army...Lead-Exposure Control March 1996 63 DOD Memorandum, SUBJECT: Modification of Pediatric Blood Lead Screening Program, June 26, 1995. Universal

  4. Exposure Characterization and Prediction of Ambient Particulate Matter: From Boston to the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chapter one of this manuscript identifies the sources, composition, and temporal variability of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles. A Harvard Impactor was used to collect daily particle samples from 2002-2010 at a single site in Boston, MA. Filters were analyzed for elements, black carbon (BC), and total PM mass. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) identified BC, S, Pb, V, and Ni to be associated mostly with the fine particle mode, and Ca, Mn (road dust), and Cl (sea salt) mostly wi...

  5. A Tenor Analysis of Barack Obama's Speech on Boston Marathon Bombing Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骥

    2013-01-01

    Systemic-Functional Grammar is a sociologically oriented functional linguistic approach developed by M. A. K. Halli-day. One of the focuses of SFG is register, which is composed of field, tenor and mode. Halliday particularly developed these three main parameters, which are useful for characterizing the nature of the social transaction of the participants. In this essay, the method of tenor is used for analyzing Barack Obama's speech on Boston Marathon bombing event to explore how Obama trans-fers his ideas to audience in order to achieve his goals.

  6. Parkways und Freeways in der Bestimmung der Landschaft der Amerikanischen Grossstaedte. Der Fall Boston.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Maria Brignoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Die Tradition der amerikanischen Landschaftarchitektur hatt aus Boston ein Planungsexperiment gemacht. Das Emerald Necklace, eine echte Ikone der Landschaftsarchitektur, bezeugt immer noch wirkungsvoll, wie die Landschaftsplanung die Struktur moderner Grossstaedte mit Raum zum wohnen staerken kann. Heute muss die Stadt mit ihren von der Central Artery hervorgerufenen Wunden fertigwerden, mit Risultaten, die wahrscheinlich nicht der Groesse ihrer Geschichte entsprechen. Der teilweise Erfolg der Rose Kennedy Greenway macht die Notwendigkeit klar, die Regelung fuer die Planung der offenen Gebiete neu zu bestimmen.

  7. Protected Area Safeguard Tree and Shrub Communities from Degradation and Invasion: A Case Study in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Carter Ingram, J.; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Razafindrazaka, Rova; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina

    2009-07-01

    Despite their prevalence in both developed and developing countries, there have been surprisingly few field assessments of the ecological effectiveness of protected areas. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a key protected area in eastern Madagascar, Ranomafana National Park (RNP). We established paired 100 × 4-m vegetation transects (400 m2) within RNP and in remnant forests in the park’s peripheral zone. In each 400-m2 plot, all woody stems >1.5 cm in diameter at breast height were measured and identified to species. All species were also identified as native or non-native. We identified utilitarian species within all transects and they were sorted into use category. We calculated plot-level taxonomic biodiversity and functional diversity of utilitarian species; the latter was calculated by clustering the multivariate distances between species based on their utilitarian traits, and all metrics were tested using paired t-tests. Our results showed that there was significantly higher biodiversity inside RNP than in remnant forests and this pattern was consistent across all diversity metrics examined. Forests not located within the park’s boundary had significantly higher non-native species than within RNP. There was no statistically significant difference in functional diversity of utilitarian species inside RNP vs. remnant forests; however, the overall trend was toward higher diversity inside park boundaries. These findings suggested that RNP has been effective at maintaining taxonomic diversity relative to surrounding unprotected areas and restricting the spread of non-native plants. The results also suggested that low functional redundancy of forests outside of RNP might be of concern, because residents in surrounding villages may have few other substitutes for the services provided by species that are of critical importance to their livelihoods. This study highlights the challenges of trying to reconcile biodiversity conservation with human use

  8. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  9. Baseline determination in social, health, and genetic areas in communities affected by glyphosate aerial spraying on the northeastern Ecuadorian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Muñoz, María José; Maldonado, Adolfo; Valladares, Carolina; Cumbal, Nadia; Herrera, Catalina; Robles, Paulo; Sánchez, María Eugenia; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Ecuadorian border has undergone aerial spraying with an herbicide mix that contains surfactants and adjuvants, executed by the Colombian Government. The purpose of this study was to diagnose social, health, and genetic aspects of the people affected by glyphosate. For this objective to be achieved, 144 people were interviewed, and 521 medical diagnoses and 182 peripheral blood samples were obtained. Genotyping of GSTP1 Ile105Val, GPX-1 Pro198Leu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were analyzed, using PCR-RFLP technique. The assessment of chromosomal aberrations was performed, obtaining 182 karyotypes. Malnutrition in children was 3%. Of the total population, 7.7% had children with malformations, and the percentage of abortions was 12.7%. Concerning genotyping, individuals with GSTP1 Val/Val obtained an odds ratio of 4.88 (p < 0.001), and Ile/Val individuals, together with Val/Val individuals, had an odds ratio of 2.6 (p < 0.05). In addition, GPX-1 Leu/Leu individuals presented an odds ratio (OR) of 8.5 (p < 0.05). Regarding karyotyping, the 182 individuals had normal karyotypes. In conclusion, the study population did not present significant chromosomal and DNA alterations. The most important social impact was fear. We recommend future prospective studies to assess the communities.

  10. Plant Community Development within the F- and H-Area Tree-Kill Zones - Changes form 1994 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-12-15

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline-fed wetlands downslope from the basins was observed in the late 1970's, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts (Loehle and Gladden, 1988; Mackey, 1988; Haselow et al., 1990; LeBlanc and Loehle, 1990; Greenwood et al., 1990). Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (Killian et al., 1987a, 1987b). Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds (Looney et al, 1988). A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soil matrix.

  11. Object-Based Classification of Ikonos Imagery for Mapping Large-Scale Vegetation Communities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert k. Chong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective assessment of biodiversity in cities requires detailed vegetation maps.To date, most remote sensing of urban vegetation has focused on thematically coarse landcover products. Detailed habitat maps are created by manual interpretation of aerialphotographs, but this is time consuming and costly at large scale. To address this issue, wetested the effectiveness of object-based classifications that use automated imagesegmentation to extract meaningful ground features from imagery. We applied thesetechniques to very high resolution multispectral Ikonos images to produce vegetationcommunity maps in Dunedin City, New Zealand. An Ikonos image was orthorectified and amulti-scale segmentation algorithm used to produce a hierarchical network of image objects.The upper level included four coarse strata: industrial/commercial (commercial buildings,residential (houses and backyard private gardens, vegetation (vegetation patches larger than0.8/1ha, and water. We focused on the vegetation stratum that was segmented at moredetailed level to extract and classify fifteen classes of vegetation communities. The firstclassification yielded a moderate overall classification accuracy (64%, κ = 0.52, which ledus to consider a simplified classification with ten vegetation classes. The overallclassification accuracy from the simplified classification was 77% with a κ value close tothe excellent range (κ = 0.74. These results compared favourably with similar studies inother environments. We conclude that this approach does not provide maps as detailed as those produced by manually interpreting aerial photographs, but it can still extract ecologically significant classes. It is an efficient way to generate accurate and detailed maps in significantly shorter time. The final map accuracy could be improved by integrating segmentation, automated and manual classification in the mapping process, especially when considering important vegetation

  12. COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS ON FAMILY PLANNING AMONG ELIGIBLE COUPLES IN AN URBAN SLUM OF HATTA AREA OF IMPHAL EAST DISTRICT, MANIPUR

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    Taranga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Lower level of community perceptions on family planning still exist in many parts of India. Further there is dearth of state level information for the same. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning among eligible couples. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Hatta, Imphal east, Manipur. Duration: Sept.2007 to August 2008. Participants: Eligible couples. Results: 825 eligible couples participated in the study with a response rate of 99.28%. Mean age at marriage of wives and husbands were 19.12 and 24.14 years (SD±7.179 and 8.491 respectively. Majority of husbands (85.8% and wives (84.6% knew of family planning and media was the main source of information. 54.42% of husbands disapproved family planning (p=0.000 and only 16.73% of the couples were using family planning methods. Main reasons for not adopting family planning methods were family disharmony (19.5%, religious prohibition (17.8% and adverse effects (8.0%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that one year increase in age of wives there was likelihood of having 4% increases in adopting family planning methods. Similarly, occupations of wives other than housewife had 27% and from illiterate to literate 3% more chance of adopting family planning methods. CONCLUSION: Adopting low family planning methods among the eligible couples was mainly due to husband’s disapproval thinking that it may cause family disharmony, religion prohibition and fear of adverse effects. And also other important associated factors were their attitude, education and occupation

  13. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  14. Methane emissions from natural gas infrastructure and use in the urban region of Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, Kathryn; Down, Adrian; Raciti, Steve M; Budney, John; Hutyra, Lucy R; Floerchinger, Cody; Herndon, Scott C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Zahniser, Mark S; Jackson, Robert B; Phillips, Nathan; Wofsy, Steven C

    2015-02-17

    Methane emissions from natural gas delivery and end use must be quantified to evaluate the environmental impacts of natural gas and to develop and assess the efficacy of emission reduction strategies. We report natural gas emission rates for 1 y in the urban region of Boston, using a comprehensive atmospheric measurement and modeling framework. Continuous methane observations from four stations are combined with a high-resolution transport model to quantify the regional average emission flux, 18.5 ± 3.7 (95% confidence interval) g CH4 ⋅ m(-2) ⋅ y(-1). Simultaneous observations of atmospheric ethane, compared with the ethane-to-methane ratio in the pipeline gas delivered to the region, demonstrate that natural gas accounted for ∼ 60-100% of methane emissions, depending on season. Using government statistics and geospatial data on natural gas use, we find the average fractional loss rate to the atmosphere from all downstream components of the natural gas system, including transmission, distribution, and end use, was 2.7 ± 0.6% in the Boston urban region, with little seasonal variability. This fraction is notably higher than the 1.1% implied by the most closely comparable emission inventory.

  15. Environmental permit tracking and compliance: Central Artery/Tunnel Project, Boston, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbush, L. (BSC Group, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project in Boston, Massachusetts involves the replacement of the existing I-93 interstate highway (Central Artery) and the extension of I-90 (Massachusetts Turnpike) to Logan International Airport. To date, approximately 95 environmental and related permits have been obtained for the CA/T Project. At least 200 permits from federal, state and local regulatory agencies will be acquired for the entire Project. The proposed action includes construction activities and permanent structures related to the crossing of three bodies of water: Charles River, Fort Point Channel, and Boston Inner Harbor. The Project also includes work in Massachusetts filled tidelands, relocation or construction of outfalls, disposition of construction dewatering and tunnel drainage fluids, and capping of an abandoned landfill. The number of permits, interrelationships between permits and interfaces with design and construction schedules have necessitated the development and implementation of a permit tracking system. The system tracks permit applications from preparation through public and agency review to permit issuance. The issues are discussed in detail: Phased development of the tracking system; Utilization of Project standard scheduling system software, Primavera Project Planner; How the information generated by the tracking system is used at the Project; Report format and production; Construction phase services and the multidiscipline, integrated Project schedule.

  16. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  17. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  18. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  19. Treating childhood pneumonia in hard-to-reach areas: A model-based comparison of mobile clinics and community-based care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Where hard-to-access populations (such as those living in insecure areas lack access to basic health services, relief agencies, donors, and ministries of health face a dilemma in selecting the most effective intervention strategy. This paper uses a decision mathematical model to estimate the relative effectiveness of two alternative strategies, mobile clinics and fixed community-based health services, for antibiotic treatment of childhood pneumonia, the world's leading cause of child mortality. Methods A "Markov cycle tree" cohort model was developed in Excel with Visual Basic to compare the number of deaths from pneumonia in children aged 1 to 59 months expected under three scenarios: 1 No curative services available, 2 Curative services provided by a highly-skilled but intermittent mobile clinic, and 3 Curative services provided by a low-skilled community health post. Parameter values were informed by literature and expert interviews. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted for several plausible scenarios. Results We estimated median pneumonia-specific under-5 mortality rates of 0.51 (95% credible interval: 0.49 to 0.541 deaths per 10,000 child-days without treatment, 0.45 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.48 with weekly mobile clinics, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.32 with CHWs in fixed health posts. Sensitivity analyses found the fixed strategy superior, except when mobile clinics visited communities daily, where rates of care-seeking were substantially higher at mobile clinics than fixed posts, or where several variables simultaneously differed substantially from our baseline assumptions. Conclusions Current evidence does not support the hypothesis that mobile clinics are more effective than CHWs. A CHW strategy therefore warrants consideration in high-mortality, hard-to-access areas. Uncertainty remains, and parameter values may vary across contexts, but the model allows preliminary findings to be updated as new or context

  20. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

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    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  1. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  2. The Boston Safe Shops Project--preliminary findings of a case study in applying the 10 essential services of public health to building environmental health capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Paul A; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Shea, John; Bethune, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Boston's more than 500 automotive shops, located primarily in low-income communities of color, are a source both of well-paying jobs and of potential hazardous exposures to employees and residents. The Safe Shops Project works to reduce occupational and environmental health hazards without having to close these businesses. Combining inspections, in-shop trainings, outreach, and technical/financial assistance, it brings shops into compliance with laws and promotes use of safer practices and alternative products. After 18 months, 254 workers at 61 of 124 participating shops had received training. Surveys showed improved worker knowledge: Pre-training, 24.2 percent of the worker survey respondents stated that they knew what an MSDS was, and post-training, 75 percent stated that they knew. The surveys also found improvement in work practices: Pre-training, 48 percent of workers indicated that they used safety goggles in their work, while post-training, 70 percent indicated proper use of safety goggles. The results also showed shops investing in capital improvements such as replacement of PCE-based brake cleaners with aqueous cleaners. The Safe Shops Project has a successfully modeled application of the 10-essential-services framework to the building of public health capacity and community collaboration, and this model can be adapted to other locations and industries.

  3. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  4. Upwelling and anthropogenic forcing on phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the Zhejiang coastal area over the last 100 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanshan; XING Lei; ZHANG Hailong; FENG Xuwen; YANG Haili; ZHAO Meixun

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton productivity and community structure in marginal seas have been altered significantly dur-ing the past three decades, but it is still a challenge to distinguish the forcing mechanisms between climate change and anthropogenic activities. High time-resolution biomarker records of two 210Pb-dated sediment cores (#34:28.5°N, 122.272°E;CJ12-1269:28.861 9°N, 122.515 3°E) from the Min-Zhe coastal mud area were compared to reveal changes of phytoplankton productivity and community structure over the past 100 years. Phytoplankton productivity started to increase gradually from the 1970s and increased rapidly after the late 1990s at Site #34;and it started to increase gradually from the middle 1960s and increased rapidly after the late 1980s at Site CJ12-1269. Productivity of Core CJ12-1269 was higher than that of Core #34. Phy-toplankton community structure variations displayed opposite patterns in the two cores. The decreasing D/B (dinosterol/brassicasterol) ratio of Core #34 since the 1960s revealed increased diatom contribution to total productivity. In contrast, the increasing D/B ratio of Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950s indicated in-creased dinoflagellate contribution to total productivity. Both the productivity increase and the increased dinoflagellate contribution in Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950-1960s were mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, as the location was closer to the Changjiang River Estuary with higher nutrient concentration and decreasing Si/N ratios. However, increased diatom contribution in Core #34 is proposed to be caused by increased coastal upwelling, with higher nutrient concentration and higher Si/N ratios.

  5. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  6. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with identifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  7. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresloff, Cynthia J.; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (fc) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, fc and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high fc and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S.

  8. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  9. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  10. Barriers to Repatriation of Afghan Refugees (A Case Study of Afghan Community at Shah and Khusar Colony Board Area Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the barriers to the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The data were collected from board area Peshawar from 76 respondents selected through simple random sampling technique and were interviewed. The study shows that Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan mainly due to Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in year 1979. Despite having stay of almost three decades in Pakistan they have to repatriate to Afghanistan, but a large majority of the respondents had no intentions to repatriate while small number of respondents reported intention to repatriate mainly due to strict policies of Pakistan government. Those had no intention pointed out the political reasons such as lack of peace and stability in Afghanistan and bad law and order situation, they had no property/ land in Afghanistan, supplemented by lack of job opportunities while they have livelihood sources and better socioeconomic conditions in Pakistan. Socially in Afghanistan a new culture has been developed mostly favoring those like war. Social services are completely destroyed and many refugees called the new culture as alien for them especially to the new generation of Afghan refugees who have been grown in Pakistan. Many of them especially women and children enjoyed a life style that did not exist even before 1979 in Afghanistan. Refugees consider themselves more the part of Pakistani culture and hesitate to go back home. The overall impact shows that those people who had intention to repatriate mainly due to the use of force by government, destruction of houses and shops in camps. Study recommends that the repatriation process can be enhanced if peace and stability in Afghanistan is improved along with the availability of social services and job opportunities.

  11. Sero-Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficency Virus, Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women in Rural Communities of Abaji Area Council, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection continues to be a major public health problem worldwide and most especially in sub Saharan Africa .It has been reported that the highest burden of HIV is located in this region. HIV is particularly significant in their ability of transferred from mother to their newborn. Hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV is recently been recognized also as a cause of mortality and morbidity in pregnant women in many obstetric centers worldwide. In view of the deleterious nature of these infections and paucity of reports on their prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural settings in Nigeria, This study thus aimed to evaluate using serological techniques, the prevalence of HIV, HBV and anti-HCV antibodies among pregnant women attending the General Hospital, Abaji from various rural communities of Abaji local Area Council, of the federal capital city, Nigeria. METHOD: The study was a hospital based cross-sectional survey including 395 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the General Hospital, Abaji, from 1st April 2010- 30th March 2011. Questionnaires administered by a nursing staff were used to gather information on bio-data, socio-economic and demographic status. Rapid diagnostic test kits were used to screen for HIV, HBV and anti-HCV antibodies. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS software version 16. RESULTS: 23(5.8%, 45 (11.4% and 12 (3.0% out of 395 pregnant women included in the study were found to be positive for Serum antibodies to HIV, HBV and HCV respectively. The age group 22-26 was the most infected and showed highest seropositivity to all serological markers. History of sexually transmitted diseases (STI (p<0.001 and multiple sexual partners (p=0.01 were significant factor in the acquisition of HIV. While Tattooing and multiple sexual partners proved statistically to play a role in seropositivity to HBV (p=0.01, p<0.001. None of the studied risk

  12. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  13. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  14. Effectively working on rehabilitation goals : 24-month outcome of a randomized controlled trial of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, W.; van Busschbach, J.T.; Michon, H.; Kroon, H.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (PR) Approach on attainment of personal rehabilitation goals, social functioning, empowerment, needs for care, and quality of life in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in the Netherlands. Method: A 24-month, multicen

  15. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  16. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  17. Effectively Working on Rehabilitation Goals: 24-Month Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trial of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Swildens; J.T. van Busschbach; H. Michon; H. Kroon; M.W.J. Koeter; D. Wiersma; J. van Os

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (PR) Approach on attainment of personal rehabilitation goals, social functioning, empowerment, needs for care, and quality of life in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in the Netherlands. Method: A 24-month, multicen

  18. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  19. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  20. The Sociology of the Deceased Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Many graduates of the Harvard Medical Unit (HMU) at Boston City Hospital, in either the clinical training/residency program or the research program at the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, contributed in major ways to the HMU and constantly relived their HMU experiences. The HMU staff physicians, descending from founder and mentor physicians Francis W. Peabody, Soma Weiss, and George R. Minot, were dedicated to the teaching, development, and leadership of its clinical and research trainees, whose confidence and dedication to patient care as a result of their mentorship led many to lifelong achievements as clinicians, teachers, and mentors. Their experience also led to a lifelong love of the HMU (despite its loss), camaraderie, happiness, and intense friendships with their associates.

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae Endophthalmitis in Boston Keratoprosthesis in a Patient with Steven–Johnson Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Humoud M.; Talea, Mohammed; Kirat, Omar; Stone, Donald U.; May, William N.; Kozak, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old Syrian male with a previous episode of Stevens-Johnson syndrome with bilateral corneal cicatrization previously underwent surgery for Type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (K-Pro). Sixteen months after the K-Pro surgery, the patient presented with decreased vision to hand motion and microbial keratitis of the graft around the K-Pro with purulent discharge. Corneal scrapings were nonrevealing. B-scan in 3 days showed increased debris in the vitreous cavity and thickened retinochoroidal layer. Intravitreal tap and injections of vancomycin and ceftazidime were performed. The vitreous culture revealed β-hemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae; fungal cultures were negative. Repeat B-scan 3 days later demonstrated decreased vitreous opacity, and the patient felt more comfortable and was without pain. His visual acuity improved to 20/70, ocular findings have been stable for 9 months, and the patient continues to be monitored. PMID:27994401

  2. Neighborhood social cohesion and smoking among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrants in metropolitan Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Marcelli, Enrico A

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco smoking is estimated to be the largest preventable cause of mortality in the USA, but little is known about the relationship between neighborhood social environment and current smoking behavior or how this may differ by population and geography. We investigate how neighborhood social cohesion and disorder are associated with smoking behavior among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrant adults using data from the 2007 Harvard-UMASS Boston Metropolitan Immigrant Health and Legal Status Survey (BM-IHLSS), a probabilistic household survey of adult Brazilian migrants. We employ logistic regression to estimate associations between neighborhood social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and current smoking. We find that neighborhood-level social cohesion is associated with lower likelihood of being a current smoker (O.R. = .836; p social cohesion may be protective against smoking. Alternatively, neighborhood disorder does not appear to be related to current smoking among Brazilian migrants.

  3. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  4. Researches regarding the Morton ether inhaler at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Rajesh P; Mifflin, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    The Morton ether inhaler in the possession of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, was traced back to 1906 when the earliest known photograph of it was published. The authors believe that the inhaler was given by William T. G. Morton, MD, to J. Mason Warren, MD, in January 1847. The inhaler was acquired by the Warren Anatomical Museum at an unknown date, loaned to Massachusetts General Hospital in October 1946, and placed on permanent loan to Massachusetts General Hospital in April 1948. Many documents relating to the inhaler have disappeared, and it was only identified in 2009 as the inhaler that probably belonged to J. Mason Warren, MD. The inhaler is not believed to be the one that Morton used on October 16, 1846, at Massachusetts General Hospital. It is the only known example of a Morton ether inhaler with valves (excluding replicas or reproduction inhalers) and is probably of similar design to the inhaler that Morton used on October 16, 1846.

  5. Quaternary geologic map of the Boston 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Thompson, W.B.; Chapman, W.F.; Black, R.F.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Grant, D.R.; Fullerton, David S.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Boston 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  6. Low-Cost and Readily Available Tissue Carriers for the Boston Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cruzat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro, currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.

  7. EFISIENSI PERSAINGAN BANK UMUM SYARIAH: PENDEKATAN DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA DAN BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizqon Halal Syah Aji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking industry in Indonesia has begun dynamic. Product availability and standardization of Islamic banking products, the level of understanding by the public of products of Islamic banks and human resources. Market share of Islamic Banking in Indonesia to lock everything. Recent data Directorate of Islamic Banking in 2011 reached Rp 127,19 T, assets of BPRS amounting to Rp 3.35 T, can be calculated total Islamic banking assets as of October 2011 reached Rp 130,5 T. Financing very important factor, Data Envelopment Analisys (DEA is a measuring instrument of financing. Map of the Bank's performance in the competition between banks can be analyzed by matrix BCG (Boston Consulting Group. This matrix is used to describe the difference between the position of the relative market share of the Bank.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v3i1.2059

  8. Low-cost and readily available tissue carriers for the Boston keratoprosthesis: a review of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Andrea; Tauber, Allyson; Shukla, Anita; Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Pineda, Roberto; Dohlman, Claes H

    2013-01-01

    The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.

  9. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy.

  10. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  11. Discussion on Establishing Urban Safe Community in Large -scale Estate Residential Area%大型楼盘居住区建设城市安全社区的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 陈文涛

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale estate residential area is a new type of community .Through researching and studying ,it is pointed out the large-scale estate residential area has the conditions and feasibility for establishing urban safe community . In this paper the conditions and paths of establishing urban safe community in the large -scale estate residential area are an-alyzed and suggested .%大型楼盘居住区是一类新型社区,经过调研和实地考察,指出大型楼盘居住区具有建设安全社区的条件和可行性,对大型楼盘居住区开展建设的条件、路径等进行了分析,并针对性地提出了建议。

  12. Seasonal characteristics of size-fractionated phytoplankton community and fate of photosynthesized carbon in a sub-Antarctic area (Straits of Magellan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Franco; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Mangoni, Olga

    2014-08-01

    Phytoplankton community size drives the rates of biogenic carbon and the overall structure and dynamics of the marine pelagic food web. The Straits of Magellan, an inland passage between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, can be separated into three main sub-basins: the western-Pacific, the V-shaped central zone, and the eastern-Atlantic. To provide insights into the food structure of the phytoplankton community, size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentration and primary production rates were measured across the three sectors of the Magellan Straits in four periods between 1989 and 1995 in the Straits. Phytoplanktonic biomass and production ratios provided ecological insights into the food web structure, including the relevance of grazing in its largest fraction. The micro-phytoplanktonic fraction (> 10 μm) in the Pacific sub-basin is significantly less abundant than in the Central and Atlantic ones. Conversely, the lowest abundance of the pico-fraction (partially spilling out into the Atlantic sector. The most active grazing activities occur in the Central sub-basin during the spring bloom and appear even stronger in summer. Our results pinpoint also that the basic levels of the planktonic food web rely on the nanophytoplankton (10-2 μm) fraction, which is the main contributor to the continuum multivorous food web. When external energy (e.g. nutrient pulses from land freshwater and water mixing) enters the system, the structure of the plankton in the Straits shifts towards the herbivorous food web and is characterized by the presence of large-size diatoms. This dynamics keeps the system in a persistent mesotrophic state, featuring a lower trophic status than the Antarctic ones but much higher than that of oligotrophic temperate areas.

  13. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  14. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  15. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  16. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in a Populus euphratica Community in the Ebinur Lake Area, a Desert Ecosystem of Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin He

    Full Text Available One of the primary limiting factors for biological activities in desert ecosystems is nitrogen (N. This study therefore examined the effects of N and investigated the responses of an arid ecosystem to global change. We selected the typical desert plant Populus euphratica in a desert ecosystem in the Ebinur Lake area to evaluate the effects of N deposition on desert soil respiration. Three levels of N deposition (0, 37.5 and 112.5 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1 were randomly artificially provided to simulate natural N deposition. Changes in the soil respiration rates were measured from July to September in both 2010 and 2013, after N deposition in April 2010. The different levels of N deposition affected the total soil N, soil organic matter, soil C/N ratio, microorganism number, and microbial community structure and function. However, variable effects were observed over time in relation to changes in the magnitude of N deposition. Simulated high N deposition significantly reduced the soil respiration rate by approximately 23.6±2.5% (P<0.05, whereas low N deposition significantly increased the soil respiration rate by approximately 66.7±2.7% (P<0.05. These differences were clearer in the final growth stage (September. The different levels of N deposition had little effect on soil moisture, whereas N deposition significantly increased the soil temperature in the 0-5 cm layer (P<0.05. These results suggest that in the desert ecosystem of the Ebinur Lake area, N deposition indirectly changes the soil respiration rate by altering soil properties.

  17. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  18. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  19. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in a Populus euphratica Community in the Ebinur Lake Area, a Desert Ecosystem of Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemin; Lv, Guanghui; Qin, Lu; Chang, Shunli; Yang, Min; Yang, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary limiting factors for biological activities in desert ecosystems is nitrogen (N). This study therefore examined the effects of N and investigated the responses of an arid ecosystem to global change. We selected the typical desert plant Populus euphratica in a desert ecosystem in the Ebinur Lake area to evaluate the effects of N deposition on desert soil respiration. Three levels of N deposition (0, 37.5 and 112.5 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1) were randomly artificially provided to simulate natural N deposition. Changes in the soil respiration rates were measured from July to September in both 2010 and 2013, after N deposition in April 2010. The different levels of N deposition affected the total soil N, soil organic matter, soil C/N ratio, microorganism number, and microbial community structure and function. However, variable effects were observed over time in relation to changes in the magnitude of N deposition. Simulated high N deposition significantly reduced the soil respiration rate by approximately 23.6±2.5% (Psoil respiration rate by approximately 66.7±2.7% (Psoil moisture, whereas N deposition significantly increased the soil temperature in the 0-5 cm layer (Psoil respiration rate by altering soil properties.

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P animal farms (P > 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease.

  1. Non-suppurative cellulitis: risk factors and its association with Staphylococcus aureus colonization in an area of endemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, S J; Chira, S; David, C G; Craft, N; Miller, L G

    2011-04-01

    Suppurative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are common and associated with MRSA colonization, but little is known about non-suppurative cellulitis and its relationship with MRSA colonization in areas endemic for community-associated MRSA. We prospectively enrolled patients hospitalized for non-suppurative cellulitis (n=50) and matched controls (n=100) and found S. aureus colonization was similar in cases and controls (30% vs. 25%, P=0·95). MRSA was uncommon in cases (6%) and controls (3%) (P=0·39). All MRSA isolates were USA300 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Independent risk factors for non-suppurative cellulitis were diabetes (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·4-8·9, P=0·01) and homelessness in the previous year (OR 6·4, 95% CI 1·9-20·9, P=0·002). These findings suggest that MRSA may only rarely be causative of non-suppurative cellulitis.

  2. Causative Factors of Social Inequality and its Impact on Community Health: a Neighbourhood Level Study in Midnapore Municipal Area, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U.

    2016-10-01

    Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of `urban penalty'. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  3. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  4. Hibbing Community College's Community Computer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper reports on the development of the Community Computer Center (CCC) at Hibbing Community College (HCC) in Minnesota. HCC is located in the largest U.S. iron mining area in the United States. Closures of steel-producing plants are affecting the Hibbing area. Outmigration, particularly of younger workers and their families, has been…

  5. Location of bottom photographs from the Mini-SeaBOSS sampling system from Boston Harbor and Approaches (USGS Field Activity 04019) (BOTTOMPHOTOS, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the locations and hotlinks to photographs of the seafloor in Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. The photos were taken...

  6. ArcInfo Grid of the 30 meter pixel Composite Bathymetry of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_30MBATH, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km square of...

  7. 1 meter resolution GeoTIFF image of the sidescan sonar backscatter imagery of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_1MBS.TIF, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km...

  8. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice Masks Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice (LOCI) files provide land classification masks derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product...

  9. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  10. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact: Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    using an adaptive-management process that integrates new findings and a developing understanding of human impacts on natural systems into future...benefit of integration or overall natural resources planning. In addition, data on important natural resources of the station would not be collected, and...FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire The U.S. Air

  12. Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Introduction The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to

  13. Health education through analogies: preparation of a community for clinical trials of a vaccine against hookworm in an endemic area of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flavia Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining informed consent for clinical trials is especially challenging when working in rural, resource-limited areas, where there are often high levels of illiteracy and lack of experience with clinical research. Such an area, a remote field site in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is currently being prepared for clinical trials of experimental hookworm vaccines. This study was conducted to assess whether special educational tools can be developed to increase the knowledge and comprehension of potential clinical trial participants and thereby enable them to make truly informed decisions to participate in such research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An informational video was produced to explain the work of the research team and the first planned hookworm vaccine trial, using a pedagogical method based on analogies. Seventy-two adults living in a rural community of Minas Gerais were administered a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of hookworm, of research and of the planned hookworm vaccine trial, as well as their attitudes and perceptions about the researchers and participation in future vaccine trials. The questionnaire was administered before being shown the educational video and two months after and the results compared. After viewing the video, significant improvements in knowledge related to hookworm infection and its health impact were observed: using a composite score combining related questions for which correct answers were assigned a value of 1 and incorrect answers a value of 0, participants had a mean score of 0.76 post-video compared to 0.68 pre-video (p = 0.0001. Similar improvements were seen in understanding the purpose of vaccination and the possible adverse effects of an experimental vaccine. Although 100% of participants expressed a positive opinion of the researchers even before viewing the film and over 90% said that they would participate in a hookworm vaccine

  14. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  15. Policing Fish at Boston's Museum of Science: Studying Audiovisual Interaction in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Hannah; Sun, Yile; Hickey, Timothy J; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Boston's Museum of Science supports researchers whose projects advance science and provide educational opportunities to the Museum's visitors. For our project, 60 visitors to the Museum played "Fish Police!!," a video game that examines audiovisual integration, including the ability to ignore irrelevant sensory information. Players, who ranged in age from 6 to 82 years, made speeded responses to computer-generated fish that swam rapidly across a tablet display. Responses were to be based solely on the rate (6 or 8 Hz) at which a fish's size modulated, sinusoidally growing and shrinking. Accompanying each fish was a task-irrelevant broadband sound, amplitude modulated at either 6 or 8 Hz. The rates of visual and auditory modulation were either Congruent (both 6 Hz or 8 Hz) or Incongruent (6 and 8 or 8 and 6 Hz). Despite being instructed to ignore the sound, players of all ages responded more accurately and faster when a fish's auditory and visual signatures were Congruent. In a controlled laboratory setting, a related task produced comparable results, demonstrating the robustness of the audiovisual interaction reported here. Some suggestions are made for conducting research in public settings.

  16. Adsorption studies of Cu(II) on Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata Schott cv. Bostoniensis) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rifaqat Ali Khan; Khan, Umra

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption studies were done on Boston fern leaves for the effective removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. It has been tested for the first time for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous solution. This promising material has shown remarkable adsorption capacity towards Cu(II) ions which confirm its novelty, ease of availability, non-toxic nature, cheapness, etc., and give the main innovation to the present study. The adsorbent was analyzed by FT-IR, SEM and EDS. The effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on the adsorption was investigated using batch process to optimize conditions for maximum adsorption. The adsorption of Cu(II) was maximum (96 %) at pH 4. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms. The kinetic studies of Cu(II)were carried out at room temperature (30 °C) in the concentration range 10-100 mg L-1. The data obtained fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity (q m) obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be 27.027 mg g-1 at 30 °C. The process was found to be exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 12.5 and 37.5 mg g-1, respectively. Desorption studies showed that 93.3 % Cu(II) could be desorbed with 0.1 M HCl by continuous mode.

  17. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Among Boston Trainee Doctors in Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Clark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As indoor workers, trainee doctors may be at risk for inadequate vitamin D. All trainee doctors (residents in a Boston pediatric training program (residency were invited to complete a survey, and undergo testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD], PTH, and calcium during a 3-week period in March 2010. We examined the association between resident characteristics and serum 25(OHD using Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Of the 119 residents, 102 (86% participated. Although the mean serum 25(OHD level was 67 nmol/L (±26, 25 (25% had a level < 50 nmol/L and 3 (3% residents had levels < 25 nmol/L. In the multivariable model, factors associated with 25(OHD levels were: female sex (β 12.7, 95% CI 3.6, 21.7, white race (β 21.7, 95% CI 11.7, 31.7, travel to more equatorial latitudes during the past 3 months (β 6.3, 95% CI 2.0, 10.5 and higher daily intake of vitamin D (β 1.1, 95% CI 0.04, 2.1. Although one in four residents in our study had a serum 25(OHD < 50 nmol/L, all of them would have been missed using current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS screening guidelines. The use of traditional risk factors appears insufficient to identify low vitamin D in indoor workers at northern latitudes.

  18. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries.

  19. Assessing Community Informatics: A Review of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Community Networks and Community Technology Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Dara

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the emerging community informatics evaluation literature to develop an understanding of the indicators used to gauge project impacts in community networks and community technology centers. The study finds that community networks and community technology center assessments fall into five key areas: strong democracy; social capital;…

  20. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  1. Pedestal-type understructure and an electric heat recovery system make Boston office building high achiever in land use and energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Land use and energy conservation goals are responsible for the unusual pedestal base of Boston's new Fiduciary Trust Building, located in one of the city's oldest sections. The area surrounding South Station and designated for renewal is plagued with a complex traffic situation on the surface and an underground maze of utility lines and conduits and subway tunnels, all of which combined to make innovative construction necessary. Caissons that by-pass underground obstructions support vertical steelwork through a flaring three-story pedestal. Cantilevered trusses provide a platform for the tower floors and allow versatile use of space with esthetically pleasing lines. An original glass-face plan was replaced with 35 percent tinted glass, 20 percent insulation-backed glass, and 45 percent precast concrete in order to conserve energy. Individualized lighting control was accomplished by installing 1000 wall switches to control the 3000 fixtures. Standardized 35-watt four-foot fluorescent tubes and a High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) air system allow further energy savings. A stringent new building code is credited with inspiring many of the conservation features. Details of the construction and heat recovery systems include a design summary of the building's construction specifications. (DCK)

  2. Community-based processes behind species richness gradients: contrasting abundance–extinction dynamics and sampling effects in areas of low and high productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer, Jofre; Brotons, Lluís; Sol, Daniel; Jordano, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Aim To consider the role of local colonization and extinction rates in explaining the generation and maintenance of species richness gradients at the regional scale. Location A Mediterranean biome (oak forests, deciduous forests, shrublands, pinewoods, firwoods, alpine heathlands, crops) in Catalonia, Spain. Methods We analysed the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of community size in explaining species richness gradients. Direct sampling effects of community ...

  3. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  4. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  5. 33 CFR 165.114 - Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels-Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast... Long Island to Moon Head. (b) Escorted vessel definition. For the purposes of this section,...

  6. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  7. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  8. Medium-to-high prevalence of screening-detected parkinsonism in the urban area of Tehran, Iran: data from a community-based door-to-door study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtehnejad SM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad,1,2 Mahdiyeh Shafieesabet,3 Arash Rahmani,4 Ahmad Delbari,1,5 Johan Lökk1,6 1Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Firoozgar Clinical Research Development Center (FCRDC, Firoozgar Hospital, 3Medical Student Research Committee (MSRC, Faculty of Medicine, 4Mental Health Research Center, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Parkinsonism occurs in all ethnic groups worldwide; however, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates reported from different countries, even for neighboring regions. The huge socioeconomic burden of parkinsonism necessitates the need for prevalence studies in each country. So far, there is neither data registry nor prevalence information on parkinsonism in the Iranian population. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence rate of probable parkinsonism in a huge urban area in Iran, Tehran using a community-based door-to-door survey.Materials and methods: We used a random multistage sampling of the households within the network of health centers consisting of 374 subunits in all 22 districts throughout the entire urban area of Tehran. Overall, 20,621 individuals answered the baseline checklist and screening questionnaire and data from 19,500 persons aged ≥30 years were entered in the final analysis. Health care professionals used a new six-item screening questionnaire for parkinsonism, which has been previously shown to have a high validity and diagnostic value in the same population.Results: A total of 157 cases were screened for parkinsonism using the validated six-item questionnaire. After

  9. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  10. The Boston Marathon Bombers: the Lethal Cocktail that Turned Troubled Youth to Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tsarnaev brothers came from the war-torn Chechen diaspora and found asylum in the United States. The elder brother,Tamerlan, carried actual memories of fleeing from the 1994-96 Chechen war. He also lived in Dagestan for a year at the time when the Chechen warlord Basayev was engaging in a campaign of more than thirty suicide attacks, including mass hostage takings. When Tamerlan made it to the United States, he tried to assimilate but failed to make it. The family struggled hard to make a living in the U.S.; but in the end the parents divorced and the father returned to Dagestan. Dzhokhar, the younger brother, made it into an American university but Tamerlan did not succeed in higher education, trying to pursue a boxing career instead. When his immigration status precluded a boxing career, he became disillusioned. Meanwhile his mother, concerned about his descent into smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol, arranged an Islamic tutor for him. The ingredients for the lethal cocktail of terrorism came together when Tamerlan's individual vulnerabilities made him seek online contacts via the Internet and brought him in touch with offline mentors, militants and extremists who glorified Al-Qaeda’s global jihad. Through these channels he became receptive to the terrorist ideology, found a jihadist group with global reach to align with, received technical instructions from the Inspire magazine and found enough support for executing the Boston marathon attack, pulling his younger brother along and dying in the process as he had expected.

  11. Soil-transmitted helminthiases and health behaviors among schoolchildren and community members in a west-central border area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Maipanich, Wanna; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somchit

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infections and health behaviors related to infections in schoolchildren and villagers of a community (4 hamlets) was studied in Hauy Kayeng subdistrict, Thong Pha Phum district, in the north of Kanchanaburi Province. The intestinal helminth infection rate of the schoolchildren was 15.6%. Hookworm infection was the most prominent (9.8%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.2%). The community showed higher prevalence rates and was infected with more types of intestinal helminths than the schoolchildren. Thirty-five point two percent (35.2%) of the residents were infected with soil-transmitted helminths, 30.5% with hookworm, 3.4% with A. lumbricoides and 2.2% with T. trichiura. Almost all hookworm cases (94.3%) were light intensity infections, while only 1.3% were heavy infections. Moreover, the hookworm infection rate in the community was found to be much higher when a stool culture method was used (39.1%). With this technique, 2.3% Strongyloides stercoralis infections were detected in the community population. Examination of the health behavior of the study samples showed that approximately 75% always defecated in a toilet. Schoolchildren who always wore shoes comprised 67%, which was lower than the community, at 85%.

  12. Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang En Wee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES and rental flats (low SES in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909. Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397 of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161 of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

  13. 农村新型社区教育促进农村新型社区建设探究%Research of New-type Community Education Promoting the New-type Community Construction in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯龙真; 何爱霞

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the new-type rural community sticks to people-oriented and sustainable development principles, so the construction of rural community needs to be improved, and the problems of the relatively outdated concepts of the community residents, the low level of cul-tural quality and the employability skills of community labors, as well as the poor environment in ru-ral community, needs to be solved.The new-type rural community education is a significant meas-ure to deal with the current situation, which includes the follows:to update the concepts of residents to construct a learning-mode community; to carry out employment training for the rural transfor-ming labors to improve their employability skills, and to develop environmental education to achieve sustainable development of new-type rural community.%农村新型社区建设坚持以人为本、可持续发展的理念,该理念为我国农村社区建设提出了新的要求。一直以来,我国农村社区建设面临着社区居民观念相对陈旧,社区劳动力文化素质、就业技能普遍较低,农村社区环境问题突出等问题。鉴于此,开展农村新型社区教育是解决当前问题的重要途径。农村新型社区教育要做到:更新社区居民观念,构建学习型农村社区;开展农村转移劳动力就业培训,提高其就业技能;开展社区环保教育,实现社区的可持续发展。

  14. Community Public Space Planning Guided by Sustainable Development:A Case Study on Wei’an Nanli Residential Area of Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The public space of community is not only significant to ensure the quality of residents’ daily life but also the important means to realize urban sustainability.It is necessary to bridge the gap between the physical and social development of city in order to build a harmonious and livable city.The sustainable development indicators are very useful tools.The design of the indicators involves the site investigation,and selection and modification of indicators.It can provide guidance to related plans by making scientific decision on the core target of the public space development of community.

  15. MRSA carriage in community outpatients: a cross-sectional prevalence study in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three mon

  16. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E. G. W.; Smit, L. A. M.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Heederik, D.; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  17. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E. G .W.; Smit, L. A. M.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  18. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  19. Srategi The Boston Consulting Group Untuk Memastikan Kesinambungan Produk PT Gudang Garam Tbk Kediri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poniran Poniran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lingkungan bisnis saat ini meningkat secara kompetitif, setiap perusahaan dituntut untuk memiliki kekuatan untuk bersaing di perdagangan global. PT Gudang Garam sebagai pasar dalam industri tembakau, untuk mempertahankan kondisi ini harus pandai dalam menentukan kebijakan manajemen . Alternatifnya adalah dengan menggunakan Strategi Analisis The Boston Consulting Group, sebuah analisis untuk mengukur pertumbuhan dan  pasar untuk produk SBU. Dengan analisis ini akan diketahui strategi apa yang harus dilakukan untuk mencapai keunggulan biaya serta bagaimana menentukan investasi yang tepat. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari analisis posisi kekuatan dan daya tarik perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif. Penelitian ini fokus untuk mempelajari (a Produksi (b penjualan (c daya tarik industri (d posisi kompetitif (e atribut produk perusahaan (fpajak/cukai. Penelitian ini dilakukan di perusahaan rokok PT Gudang Garam Tbk . Kediri alamat dengan : Jl . Semampir II / I Semampir Kediri - Indonesia Tel : 0354-682091-7 , fax: 0354-681555. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PT. Gudang Garam adalah pimpinan pasar di posisi pangsa pasar tinggi BCG, GE - Mc. Kinsey, menang / kuat pada SKM dan SKT, SKL pada Mean Business, posisi PLC yang menurun untuk SKM, SKT dan SKL sekarang ini. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, penulis memberikan saran untuk perlunya perusahaan melakukan kegiatan yang spesifik, meliputi: (1 memastikan kesetimbangan portofolio melalui peluncuran produk baru yang menarik dan diharapkan mempunyai prospek bagus dalam jangka panjang, mengingat pada umumnya mengalami pengurangan produksi, dan peningkatan pajak, (2 berdasar portofolio produk PT Gudang Garam Tbk sebagian besar mempunyai posisi yang kuat, hal ini menunjukkan keberhasilan iklan produk dalam pandangan konsumen. Meskipun demikian PT Gudang Garam Tbk harus melakukan riset pasar untuk menentukan perubahan yang terjadi di pasar, (3 memaksimalkan pangsa pasar secara keseluruhan produk

  20. On Developing Community Welfare and Reducing Poverty in Rural Areas%论发展社区福利与农村减贫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛刚强

    2016-01-01

    The development of rural community welfare is an important field of the on-going Chi-nese poverty reduction as well as a crucial strategy for the construction of a relatively fair urban and rural public service system. The foundation of community welfare is vil-lage unity and cooperation,whose prerequisite is community self-rule through a re-form of grass-roots administration. In this process the subjectivity of village as a com-munity should be established,village management should be improved,and a mecha-nism for substantial and effective rural community ’s participation should be formula-ted . The precise poverty alleviation places social objectives over economic development ones ,for which a fundamental approach to community welfare is the improvement of ru-ral capability and the use of state resources as a lever for the capacity and vigor of rural social development.%发展农村社区福利,是当下中国减贫工作中的重要领域,也是构建相对公平的城乡公共服务体系的重要策略。社区福利的基础在于村庄团结与村庄合作,其基本前提是以农村基层行政改革促进社区自治,村庄作为社区的主体性得以确立、村庄治理得以完善,农村社区实质参与和有效参与机制得以建立。精准扶贫需要将社会目标优先于经济发展目标,社区福利实现的根本路径在于乡村能力得到提升,在于国家资源作为杠杆撬动农村社会发展的能力和活力。通过农村社区福利建设,构建中国福利社会的农村行动基础,是中国社会政策发展的重要面向,也是脱贫攻坚推进社会建设的基础工程。