WorldWideScience

Sample records for boston area community

  1. Association between Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Erectile Dysfunction: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupelian, Varant; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Although previous studies report an association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and smoking, few have examined the impact of passive smoke exposure on ED. This analysis examines the association of active and passive smoking and ED and investigates a dose-response effect of smoking. Methods The Boston Area Community Heath (BACH) survey is a study of urologic symptoms in a racially and ethnically diverse population. BACH used a multistage stratified random sample to recruit 2301 men, aged 30–79 yr, from the city of Boston. ED was assessed using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function. Smoking and passive smoking were assessed by self-report. Analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and important chronic illnesses. Results An association between smoking and ED was observed with a significant trend in increased risk of ED with cumulative pack-years of smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03, 2.30 for ≥ 20 pack-years). Compared to never smokers not exposed to passive smoking, men who never smoked but were exposed to passive smoking had a moderate, statistically nonsignificant, increase in risk of ED (adjusted OR = 1.33; 95%CI: 0.69, 2.55) comparable to the OR observed for a cumulative exposure of 10–19 pack-years of active smoking (adjusted OR = 1.25; 95%CI, 0.68, 2.30). Conclusions Results indicate a dose-response association between smoking and ED with a statistically significant effect observed with ≥ 20 pack-years of exposure. Passive smoking is associated with a small, statistically nonsignificant increase in risk of ED comparable to approximately 10–19 pack-years of active smoking. PMID:17383811

  2. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  3. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  4. 75 FR 52023 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ..., at 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at the Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room, Boston, MA. The..., at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room, Boston, MA. FOR FURTHER... Council was appointed by the Director of National Park Service pursuant to Public Law 104-333. The...

  5. Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevale...

  6. Boston: An Urban Community. Boston and the American Revolution; The Leaders, the Issues and the Common Man. Boston's Architecture: From First Townhouse to New City Hall. Boston's Artisans of the Eighteenth Century. Annotated Reading Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C.; And Others

    These three annotated reading guides were developed for courses offered at the Boston Public Library under the National Endowment for the Humanities Library Learning Program. The first lists 32 selected recent works of major importance covering the areas of colonial society, political structure, and the American Revolution. The 27 titles cited in…

  7. 76 FR 36311 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... race area: All waters of Boston Harbor near Boston, MA, surface to bottom, encompassed by an area... participating in the Extreme Sailing Series event from entering the designated race area. DATES: This rule is... Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR 20595)....

  8. Boston's Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaff, A L

    1991-01-01

    The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion is a program designed to promote changes in individual behavior and community relationships to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the many problems affecting poor, minority communities in the United States. Problems of particular concern to be addressed by the program include violence, injuries, substance abuse, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infant mortality, child abuse and neglect, and cardiovascular d...

  9. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. PMID:26914093

  10. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  11. Boston in the 1970s: is there a lesbian community? And if there is, who is in it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This excerpt from Amy Hoffman's memoir, An Army of Ex-Lovers: My Life at the Gay Community News (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007), describes some of the alternative community institutions serving lesbian feminists in Boston in the late 1970s. Hoffman, in her twenties at the time and fairly newly out, is an enthusiastic patron of these institutions. However, after a while, she begins to wonder about them. Boston in the 1970s was racially segregated and tense; a judicial order to desegregate the schools led to racist riots. The women's community was, sadly, no more diverse than the city's neighborhoods, and the alternative institutions, Hoffman realizes, are organized by and cater mostly to young, white, middle-class women like her. They fail to appeal to the needs and interests of poor women of color-although of course some do participate, and others become active in service organizations such as battered women's shelters. PMID:24641074

  12. 75 FR 6699 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ....m. to 8 p.m. at the Boston Public Library, 700 Boylston Street, Boston, MA. This will be the annual meeting of the Council. The agenda will include a presentation on citizen science activities on the... statement at the meeting or who want further information concerning the meeting may contact...

  13. Awareness and use of hepatitis B vaccine among homosexual male clients of a Boston community health center.

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, J; Hill, E. M.; Mayer, K H

    1990-01-01

    Factors associated with awareness and acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine were identified among 150 homosexual male clients of a Boston community health center. Five percent of the subjects were unaware of hepatitis B and 25 percent had a history of hepatitis. Among the remaining 106 men, 68 percent were aware of the vaccine, and 25 percent of these had been vaccinated. Awareness of vaccine was associated with education beyond the baccalaureate level. Factors associated with vaccination include...

  14. School- and Classroom-Based Supports for Children Following the 2013 Boston Marathon Attack and Manhunt

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Holt, Melissa K.; Kwong, Lana; Reid, Gerald; Xuan, Ziming; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    School staff provide key mental health services following mass crisis events and teachers, in particular, can provide important supports within their classrooms. This study examines Boston-area teachers’ perception of classroom-wide psychiatric distress and the types of supports that schools and teachers provided following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. Boston-area K-12 teachers (N = 147) in communities with varying levels of exposure to the bombing and manhunt compl...

  15. Aviation Emissions Impact Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations in the Greater Boston Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, N; Simon, M C; Zamore, W; Brugge, D; Durant, J L

    2016-08-16

    Ultrafine particles are emitted at high rates by jet aircraft. To determine the possible impacts of aviation activities on ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNCs), we analyzed PNCs measured from 3 months to 3.67 years at three sites within 7.3 km of Logan International Airport (Boston, MA). At sites 4.0 and 7.3 km from the airport, average PNCs were 2- and 1.33-fold higher, respectively, when winds were from the direction of the airport compared to other directions, indicating that aviation impacts on PNC extend many kilometers downwind of Logan airport. Furthermore, PNCs were positively correlated with flight activity after taking meteorology, time of day and week, and traffic volume into account. Also, when winds were from the direction of the airport, PNCs increased with increasing wind speed, suggesting that buoyant aircraft exhaust plumes were the likely source. Concentrations of other pollutants [CO, black carbon (BC), NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] decreased with increasing wind speed when winds were from the direction of the airport, indicating a different dominant source (likely roadway traffic emissions). Except for oxides of nitrogen, other pollutants were not correlated with flight activity. Our findings point to the need for PNC exposure assessment studies to take aircraft emissions into consideration, particularly in populated areas near airports. PMID:27490267

  16. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications.

  17. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  18. A for-profit venture marketing research and analysis study conducted for Action for Boston Community Development. [Home repair services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-27

    This report is a look at our study to find a for-profit venture for Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD) to establish. Essentially, our study had two stages - find a product or service that appeared to be needed in the market place and that ABCD felt comfortable pursuing, then research and analyze the market for this product or service. The venture selected for complete market research and analysis was home repair services. Our research showed that both an advisory and minor home repair service should be established.

  19. 33 CFR 165.120 - Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. 165.120 Section 165.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.120 Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following area... downstream of the Chelsea Street Bridge on the Chelsea, MA side of the Chelsea River—hereafter referred to...

  20. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  1. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  2. Is Boston Burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of current and potential future problems facing efforts to desegregate Boston schools in which a number of suggestions are offered to facilitate the process of quality education for all by adequately preparing community, parent, and school personnel and nurturing student interracial initiatives. (EH)

  3. 76 FR 53941 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Advisory Council will be held on Wednesday, September 14, 2011, at 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at Independence Wharf.... DATES: September 14, 2011, at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: Independence Wharf, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Community Room... INFORMATION: The Advisory Council was appointed by the Director of National Park Service pursuant to...

  4. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... infrastructure within 1,000 meters of Neptune's STL buoys, and will prohibit vessels from commercial fishing or... regulation to safeguard vessels, harbors, ports, or waterfront facilities from destruction, loss, or injury.... The purpose of these regulated areas is to protect vessels and mariners from the potential...

  5. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas (LNG... handling oil or natural gas, RNAs and safety or security zones established by the District Commander may... deepwater port operations, and protect liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGCs) and deepwater...

  6. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  7. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  8. Boston, Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Boston, MA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given. The City of Boston and its Solar America Cities program, Solar Boston, are helping to debunk the myth that solar energy is only feasible in the southern latitudes. Boston has some of the highest energy prices in the country and will likely be one of the first locations where solar power achieves grid parity with conventional energy technologies. Solar Boston is facilitating the rapid development of solar energy projects and infrastructure in the short-term, and is preparing for the rapid market growth that is expected with the imminent arrival of grid parity over the long-term. Solar Boston developed the strategy for achieving Mayor Menino's goal of installing 25 MW of solar energy throughout Boston by 2015. Through Solar Boston, the city has developed a strategy for the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including mapping feasible locations, preparing a permitting guide, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city has also worked with local organizations to maximize Boston's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. The resulting accomplishments include the following: (1) Created an online map of current local renewable energy projects with a tool to allow building owners to calculate their rooftop solar potential. The map is currently live at http://gis.cityofboston.gov/solarboston/. (2) Supported the city's Green Affordable Housing Program (GAHP), in partnership with the Department of Neighborhood Development (DND). Under GAHP, the city is installing more than 150 kW of PV on 200 units of affordable housing. DND requires that all new city-funded affordable housing be LEED silver

  9. CHED Events: Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    These CHED committee meetings are planned for the Fall 2007 ACS Meeting in Boston. They will take place in the Seaport District: the Boston Convention and Exposition Center (BCEC), the Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel, or the Seaport Hotel. CHED members are invited to attend these open meetings. When you are on your way to a committee meeting, it is always prudent to check in the lobby or foyer for the inevitable last-minute room changes that may be posted there.

  10. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. (a) General. A...

  11. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  12. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  13. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  14. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  15. Primary care clinicians’ experiences prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at a specialized community health centre in Boston: lessons from early adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas S; Maloney, Kevin M; Grasso, Chris; Melbourne, Katherine; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists. Methods During January to February 2015, 35 primary care clinicians at a community health centre in Boston that specializes in the care of sexual and gender minorities completed anonymous surveys about their experiences and practices with PrEP provision. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results and discussion Thirty-two clinicians (response rate=91%) completed the surveys. Nearly all clinicians (97%) had prescribed PrEP (median 20 patients, interquartile range 11–33). Most clinicians reported testing and risk-reduction counselling practices concordant with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for PrEP. Clinicians indicated that patients using PrEP experienced medication toxicities infrequently and generally reported high adherence. However, some clinicians’ practices differed from guideline recommendations, and some clinicians observed patients with increased risk behaviours. Most clinicians (79%) rated PrEP provision as easy to accomplish, and 97% considered themselves likely to prescribe PrEP in the future. Conclusions In a primary care clinic with specialized expertise in HIV prevention, clinicians perceived that PrEP provision to large numbers of patients was safe, feasible and potentially effective. Efforts to engage generalist primary care clinicians in PrEP provision could facilitate scale-up of this efficacious

  16. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  17. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  18. High levels of concomitant behavioral health disorders among patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3% were men who have sex with men, and 40.0% had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4%), anxiety (21.9%), attention deficit disorder (7.8%), p...

  19. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ..., Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from the..., Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United...

  20. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  1. Public-private partnership from theory to practice: Walgreens and the Boston Public Health Commission supporting each other before and after the Boston bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Atyia; Williams, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the public health and medical services continuity of operations, response and recovery efforts in the aftermath of the Boston bombings. Countless public and private organisations and agencies came together to support the community and the survivors. The efforts of these organisations define what it means to be Boston Strong. PMID:24578022

  2. Boston Washer Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    2002-08-06

    To help understand the relative performance gains of conventional and high-efficiency washers and to increase awareness of energy/water savings, the U.S. Department of Energy under its Emerging Technologies Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances conducted a field-evaluation of horizontal axis washers in a Boston, Massachusetts condo complex. Baseline washer and dryer performance and customer habits were established using 50 participants and their existing, instrumented washers and dryers for a 2 1/2-month period. After the baseline was established, the machines were replaced with high efficiency tumble action washers and moisture sensing dryers, and tested for the next 2 1/2 months. By information gathered, energy and water savings delivered by the h-axis washers as well as impacts on participants' washing habits and perceptions of cleaning performance were determined. Overall, participants saved 41% of the water and 50% of the energy that they would have used without a changeover to the new h-axis washer. The changeover also produced significant dryer energy savings due primarily to the high-speed final spin of the new washer. The Boston Washer Study report details the experiment including instrumentation, data collection and analysis procedures and discusses the impacts on energy, water and detergent consumption as well as customer satisfaction with the technology.

  3. Banco de Reserva Federal Boston - Massachusetts - EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbing, Hugh

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its being located in a heavily built-up downtown area of Boston, the new Federal Reserve Bank Building enjoys privileged surroundings, in the middle of ponds and landscaped areas with trees, etc. It was designed taking the maximum advantage of the particular conditions of the property, while reinforcing and increasing prestige attributes of this part of the city, called for, in the urban development plans, to be the centre of community and business activities. The project includes an office tower overlooking the harbour and a low building containing ail public banking functions. The design was based on specific research of the different aspects of banking activities, from the most minute details of furniture and fixtures, through the fenestration work, up to the highly sophisticated security systems.

    Pese a estar situado en un área céntrica de Boston, en una zona densamente urbanizada, el nuevo edificio del Banco Federal goza de un entorno privilegiado, circundado por estanques y jardines con árboles. Su arquitectura procura sacar partido de las particulares características de la parcela, fortaleciendo y elevando la categoría de esa parte de ciudad a la que los planes urbanísticos asignan el papel de centro de actividades comunitarias y comerciales. La construcción cuenta con una torre de oficinas, con amplias vistas sobre el puerto, y un bloque bajo dedicado a actividades bancarias públicas. Para su realización se utilizaron los resultados de investigaciones específicas sobre los diversos aspectos de la actividad bancaria, comprendiendo desde los más pequeños detalles del mobiliario y de la carpintería exterior, hasta los más modernos y complejos sistemas de seguridad.

  4. 33 CFR 165.T01-0542 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. 165.T01-0542 Section 165.T01-0542 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United States within a...

  5. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  6. Boston Edison and LG&E win 7th annual substation design contest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaty, W.

    1996-07-01

    Boston`s Edison`s Network Station 53 won First Place in the engineering/operations category of Electric Light & Power`s 7th annual substation design contest. Station 53 also took Second Place in the aesthetic design category. Boston Edison is no stranger to the contest, having won top honors in the aesthetic category in the very first contest in 1990. That same year, Boston took Second Place in engineering/operations design and Third Place in aesthetic design. Station 53 occupies a 12,074-square-foot site in the heart of the Boston financial district. It replaces an existing station where the land was required for Boston`s Central Artery project. Great care was taken to ensure that Station 53 would blend into the cityscape and be pleasing to the eye. The architectural treatment was designed by the Boston Anderson-Nichols & Company Inc., in cooperation with the Boston Redevelopment Authority. The latest in engineering technology was utilized to guarantee reliability, maintain the highest service quality and provide capacity for future load growth in the downtown area. Station 53 is supplied by two underground 115-kV pipe-type transmission cables. Unattended and remotely operated, Station 53 has the capability of sectionalizing the 115-kV power supply by remote control to isolate the faulted sections.

  7. School Treasures: Architecture of Historic Boston Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Doris

    This book contains photographs and descriptions of the Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts, explaining that the Boston Public Schools include about 129 buildings that were constructed in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century and noting that the first and oldest public school in the United States was founded in Boston in 1635.…

  8. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  9. High Levels of Concomitant Behavioral Health Disorders Among Patients Presenting for HIV Non-occupational Post-exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center Between 1997 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3 % were men who have sex with men, and 40.0 % had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4 %), anxiety (21.9 %), attention deficit disorder (7.8 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3 %), and psychotic disorders (3.3 %). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9 %) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4 %) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disorders (aOR = 4.86; 95 %CI:1.76-13.5) and substance use disorders (aOR = 1.89; 95 %CI:1.28-2.80). Substance use at the time of exposure was associated with: depression (aOR = 1.95; 95 %CI:1.36-2.80), anxiety (aOR = 2.22; 95 %CI:1.51-3.25), attention deficit disorder (aOR = 1.96; 95 %CI:1.18-3.27), and substance use disorder (aOR = 4.78; 95 %CI:3.30-6.93). Mental illness should be screened for and addressed at nPEP visits to optimize HIV risk-reduction. PMID:25689892

  10. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  11. Structure of an Anuran community in a Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Richter Boix, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    [eng] The thesis research concerned evolutionary ecology and community ecology of amphibians in two different areas of a Mediterranean region. The goal of the research was to test how anuran species coexist along a lentic freshwater gradient from ephemeral to permanent ponds. The community structure across the gradient has been explained by different ecological models, based on different trade-offs and inherent properties of the species. To test the different models he used four-year field su...

  12. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha−1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha−1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha−1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha−1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2 = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3

  13. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  14. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  15. The Rebirth of Education in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1980-01-01

    In 1974, the federal court in Boston ordered busing and a massive effort to accelerate the pace of academic progress in the Boston schools. Included in the order was the creation of twenty-two magnet schools and an unprecedented level of parent participation with the vehicles to make it possible. (JOW)

  16. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM SOMESUL CALD CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Battes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.

  17. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects.

  18. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  19. The air quality impacts of road closures associated with the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clougherty Jane E

    2006-05-01

    measurable influence of DNC-related road closures on air quality patterns in the Boston area, and that a low-cost monitoring study combining passive badges for spatial heterogeneity and continuous monitors for temporal heterogeneity can provide useful insight for community air quality assessments.

  20. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, R. W.; Marc T. Hockings; Joanna C. Axford

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs) in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes “success” is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way “outsiders” perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involveme...

  1. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described.

  2. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  3. Boston solar retrofits: Studies of solar access and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M.; Doyle, S.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area.

  4. Processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major urban centers of the United States including Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle—are on a coast (fig. 1.1). All of these cities discharge treated sewage effluent into adjacent waters. In 2000, 74 percent of the U.S. population lived within 200 kilometers (km) of the coast. Between 1980 and 2002, the population density in coastal communities increased approximately 4.5 times faster than in noncoastal areas of the U.S. (Perkins, 2004). More people generate larger volumes of wastes, increase the demands on wastewater treatment, expand the area of impervious land surfaces, and use more vehicles that contribute contaminants to street runoff. According to the National Coastal Condition Report II (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a), on the basis of coastal habitat, water and sediment quality, benthic index, and fish tissue, the overall national coastal condition is only poor to fair and the overall coastal condition in the highly populated Northeast is poor. Scientific information helps managers to prioritize and regulate coastal-ocean uses that include recreation, commercial fishing, transportation, waste disposal, and critical habitat for marine organisms. These uses are often in conflict with each other and with environmental concerns. Developing a strategy for managing competing uses while maintaining sustainability of coastal resources requires scientific understanding of how the coastal ocean system behaves and how it responds to anthropogenic influences. This report provides a summary of a multidisciplinary research program designed to improve our understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in Massachusetts coastal waters. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor have been a focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research because they provide a diverse geographic setting for developing a scientific understanding of the geology, geochemistry, and oceanography of

  5. Infectious keratitis in patients undergoing Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro procedure: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Moraes do Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of two cases of infectious keratitis in patients after Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston KPro implantation. The first case refers to a patient that had the device indicated due to limbal deficiency secondary to severe dry eye who presented a fungal infection by Aerobasidium pullulans that was successfully treated with amphotericin B eye drops. The second case reports a patient with Boston KPro implantation due to previous corneal transplant rejection showing bacterial keratitis in the fourth postoperative month. The etiologic agent was identified asStreptococcus sp and topical treatment with vancomycin was effective. The importance of postoperative surveillance in Boston KPro eyes is discussed.

  6. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  7. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf... areas closed are: (1) Boston Foul Ground. The waste disposal site known as the “Boston Foul Ground”...

  8. 77 FR 19573 - Safety Zone; Wedding Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... in the vicinity of Anthony's Pier 4, Boston, MA for a wedding fireworks display. This...

  9. Cloud Communities and Travel Diaries. Virtual Representations of Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Platania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective construction of descriptions can radically change the image of an area. This uncontrollable process is destined to become one of the main priority research areas also in tourism studies. The spread of Web sites in which telling stories and descriptions of territories has become a significant element in the network society, and the growing use of social networks and cloud communities, often in planning tourism, contributes to social description of touristic landscapes and influence the collective imaginary. In social space, territories are the result of the superposition of different layers, from the real one to the virtual, bound to a constant exchange of information. This phenomenon that could guide tourist attraction, begins to affect the choices of local institutions and residents.The aim of the paper is to give an interpretation on the construction of collective representation, which takes place, after the journey, through the on-line publication of a diary. The research is divided into two parts. In the first, we explain some theoretical aspects related to the representation of the travel, the sharing of information in virtual form and the construction of an imaginary touristic. Subsequently, are taken into account the results obtained in previous studies related to the analysis of the narratives of tourism experiences, shared within virtual spaces freely accessible on the net. These results will be used to develop a model of interpretation on the virtual representation of tourist areas.

  10. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people’s territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  11. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R W. (Bill. Carter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes “success” is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way “outsiders” perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involvement; and sustainability. Multivariate analysis distinguished two groups, a Big picture group and a Locally focused group. These differ in how they define success, as well as their organizational alignment. The Big picture group, largely from funder agencies and international NGOs, were focused on the broad issues of success, especially the sustainability of CCAs. The Locally focused group was concerned with the practical workings and needs of successful CCAs in the Pacific; many in this group were based with Pacific island governments and NGOs or CCAs. The study concludes that success in CCAs should not be defined solely on project objectives, especially when these have been developed by an external entity or under their guidance. If they are, high rates of failure are to be expected.

  12. The Boston Rehabilitation Program, An Independent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Langley C., Jr.

    BURP, The Boston Rehabilitation Program, is described and analyzed in this monograph published by the Joint Center for Urban Studies. Its purpose is to provide an independent analysis of BURP as a political, economic, and social event. Examination is given to the nation's first effort to carry out large-scale residential rehabilitation in blighted…

  13. Dewey in Boston: 1876-1883.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    Between 1876 and 1883, Melvil Dewey worked as a Boston entrepreneur promoting a variety of educational schemes that addressed the nation's library, metric, and spelling reform interests. During that time he started and lost one business and started another within weeks. In addition, he used his reform zeal to develop credibility with a number of…

  14. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  15. Segregation in Neighborhoods and Schools: Impacts on Minority Children in the Boston Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Oakley, Deirdre; Stowell, Jacob

    This study used data about neighborhoods from the 1990 and 2000 Census and corresponding data on public elementary schools gathered by the National Center for Education Statistics to examine segregation in neighborhoods and schools in a seven-county area around Boston, Massachusetts. Data analysis indicated that black and Hispanic children were…

  16. Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is one of the focuses of the research on ecotourism. The research on community participative model is of great theoretical and practical significance. Based on the former experts' studies, this paper analyzes ecotourism demonstration areas in Diqing Shangri-La of Yunnan as a case study. It mainly expounds the relationship between ecotourism and community participation and puts forward such a community participative model of ecotourism in Shangri-La.

  17. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro; Susan Moore

    2014-01-01

    As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community m...

  18. A community-based disability programme for rural areas / Lizél Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Lizél

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Heuningvlei community in the Kgalagadi District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province. This study was part of the "Tshwaragano Project" with the general aim of empowering the disadvantaged communities in rural areas. The aim of this research was to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based disability programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province. To achieve this aim, the following...

  19. Outcomes of the Boston keratoprosthesis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam A Shihadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the indications, outcomes, and complications of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro from the first Jordanian study on the subject. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 20 eyes of 19 consecutive patients who had Boston type I KPro implantation at King Abdullah University Hospital. Surgeries were performed by the same surgeon (WS from November 2007 to March 2010. Data collected included age, sex, primary indication, number of previous grafts, preoperative comorbidities, visual acuity before and after surgery, and complications. Results: The mean age of the participants was 51.7±19.9 years (range: 10-80 years. The mean follow-up was 18.1±9.5 months (range: 3-6 months. The most common primary corneal pathology was vascularized corneal opacity (40%. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly in 85% of eyes; 65% had a BCVA of 20/200 or better and 25% had a BCVA of 20/50 or better. The most frequent complication was retroprosthesis membrane (RPM formation, which occurred in 45% of eyes. Two eyes (10% had implant extrusion and required further surgery. Conclusion: Boston Kpro offers a reasonably safe and effective solution for patients with corneal blindness in whom the prognosis for natural corneal grafting is poor.

  20. SOUTHCOM Deputy engages NPS Foreign Area Officer community

    OpenAIRE

    Ammon, Grant P.

    2011-01-01

    Army Lt. Gen. P.K. Keen meets with a small group of NPS students before delivering a lecture at the Joint Foreign Area Officer Skill Sustainment Pilot Program (JFSSPP). Keen spoke for nearly an hour to more than 35 students participating in the in-residence course for Latin America Foreign Area Officers (FAO)

  1. Processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major urban centers of the United States including Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle—are on a coast (fig. 1.1). All of these cities discharge treated sewage effluent into adjacent waters. In 2000, 74 percent of the U.S. population lived within 200 kilometers (km) of the coast. Between 1980 and 2002, the population density in coastal communities increased approximately 4.5 times faster than in noncoastal areas of the U.S. (Perkins, 2004). More people generate larger volumes of wastes, increase the demands on wastewater treatment, expand the area of impervious land surfaces, and use more vehicles that contribute contaminants to street runoff. According to the National Coastal Condition Report II (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a), on the basis of coastal habitat, water and sediment quality, benthic index, and fish tissue, the overall national coastal condition is only poor to fair and the overall coastal condition in the highly populated Northeast is poor. Scientific information helps managers to prioritize and regulate coastal-ocean uses that include recreation, commercial fishing, transportation, waste disposal, and critical habitat for marine organisms. These uses are often in conflict with each other and with environmental concerns. Developing a strategy for managing competing uses while maintaining sustainability of coastal resources requires scientific understanding of how the coastal ocean system behaves and how it responds to anthropogenic influences. This report provides a summary of a multidisciplinary research program designed to improve our understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in Massachusetts coastal waters. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor have been a focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research because they provide a diverse geographic setting for developing a scientific understanding of the geology, geochemistry, and oceanography of

  2. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Northside Partnership "Healthy Community" Pilot Area Walkability Audit

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, David; Borscheid, Matthias; Reid, Odran; ni Lochlainn, Meadhbh

    2015-01-01

    Poor health has been identified as an issue for people who live in areas affected by structural disadvantage and social exclusion. One area in the North East of Dublin City has been identified for the development of a project addressing health inequality and promoting a “Healthy Community” by Northside Partnership, a local development company established in 1991 to address social exclusion. The Partnership has been assisted in the development of the programme by a wide range of statutory and ...

  4. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  5. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084

  6. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  7. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  8. Learning from disaster: Community-based marine protected areas in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines whether and how experiencing climate-related disasters can improve the rural poor fs adaptation to climate change through community-based resource management. Original household survey data in Fiji capture the unique sequence of a tropical cyclone and the establishment of community-based marine protected areas as a natural experiment. The analysis reveals that household disaster victimization increases its support for establishing marine protected areas for fut...

  9. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Velazquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  10. Winsor, Dewey, and Putnam: The Boston Experience. Occasional Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; Carpenter, Kenneth E.; Wiegand, Wayne A.; Aikin, Jane

    This volume contains three papers about early library leaders with Boston (Massachusetts) connections. Donald G. Davis, Jr. provides an introduction to the papers. "Justin Winsor, Librarian and Scholar" (Kenneth E. Carpenter) discusses the life of Justin Winsor, who was director of the Boston Public Library (1868-76), president of the American…

  11. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Anchorage. Beginning at a point bearing 93°, 1,400 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 81°, 1,600 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 102°, 3,100 yards, from the aerial beacon...

  12. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  13. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  14. We Don’t Feel Welcome Here: African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics report persistent discrimination in the workplace, in seeking housing, and in their day-to-day encounters with other metro area residents. Also...

  15. Diurnal variation of phytoplankton community in a high frequency area of HABs: Daya Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Song, Xingyu; Huang, Liangmin; Zhong, Yu; Shen, Pingping; Qin, Geng

    2011-07-01

    Phytoplankton community was investigated in the cage culture area of Daya Bay during a diurnal cycle. Two rainfalls occurred during the course of the experiment and decreased the surface seawater salinity in the aquaculture area. A total of 38 species were identified, of which the dominant species included Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Skeletonema costatum. Water stratification obstructed the vertical migration of dinoflagellates. Statistical analysis indicated that Synechococcus showed negative relationship with silicate and ammonia, which indicated that Synechococcus adapted to grow at oligotrophic environment. Phytoplankton community structure implied the risk of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in the aquaculture area of Daya Bay.

  16. Signals of climate change in butterfly communities in a Mediterranean protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Zografou

    Full Text Available The European protected-area network will cease to be efficient for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the Mediterranean region, if species are driven out of protected areas by climate warming. Yet, no empirical evidence of how climate change influences ecological communities in Mediterranean nature reserves really exists. Here, we examine long-term (1998-2011/2012 and short-term (2011-2012 changes in the butterfly fauna of Dadia National Park (Greece by revisiting 21 and 18 transects in 2011 and 2012 respectively, that were initially surveyed in 1998. We evaluate the temperature trend for the study area for a 22-year-period (1990-2012 in which all three butterfly surveys are included. We also assess changes in community composition and species richness in butterfly communities using information on (a species' elevational distributions in Greece and (b Community Temperature Index (calculated from the average temperature of species' geographical ranges in Europe, weighted by species' abundance per transect and year. Despite the protected status of Dadia NP and the subsequent stability of land use regimes, we found a marked change in butterfly community composition over a 13 year period, concomitant with an increase of annual average temperature of 0.95°C. Our analysis gave no evidence of significant year-to-year (2011-2012 variability in butterfly community composition, suggesting that the community composition change we recorded is likely the consequence of long-term environmental change, such as climate warming. We observe an increased abundance of low-elevation species whereas species mainly occurring at higher elevations in the region declined. The Community Temperature Index was found to increase in all habitats except agricultural areas. If equivalent changes occur in other protected areas and taxonomic groups across Mediterranean Europe, new conservation options and approaches for increasing species' resilience may have to be

  17. Species area relationships in mediterranean-climate plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  18. 77 FR 43094 - Public Comment Period Extension for the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... following locations: Central Branch of the Boston Public Library, 700 Boylston Street, Boston, MA; South End Library, 685 Tremont Street, Boston, MA; Grove Hall Library, 42 Geneva Avenue; and Dudley Library, 65 Warren Street, Boston, MA. Dated: July 18, 2012. Ryan T. Bayha, Science Policy Analyst, Office of...

  19. Food For Thought: The Social Impact of Community Gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area

    OpenAIRE

    Flachs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    While the benefits of healthy eating and greenspace development have been well documented, the social impact of urban and community gardens remain less studied. This paper explores the social and cultural effects of urban gardening in the greater Cleveland area. Gardening is shown to have a multitude of motivating factors, including economic, environmental, political, social, and nutritional. While analyzing the impact that gardens have on community building, identity, and food security, s...

  20. Household livelihoods and conflict with wildlife in community-based conservation areas across northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, J; Borgerhoff Mulder, M; Grote, MN; Ghiselli, M; Packer, C

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2015 Conservation strategies to protect biodiversity and support household livelihoods face numerous challenges. Across the tropics, efforts focus on balancing trade-offs in local communities near the borders of protected areas. Devolving rights and control over certain resources to communities is increasingly considered necessary, but decades of attempts have yielded limited success and few lessons on how such interventions could be successful in impro...

  1. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical commun...

  2. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area.

  3. Studies on the Ecology of Fouling Community in Daguanban Reclamation Area of Luoyuan Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周时强; 柯才焕; 林大鹏

    2001-01-01

    The test panels have been set for one year in the waters of Daguanban reclamation area of Luoyuan Bay to investigate the ecology of fouling community. 39 species of animals and 8 species of algae have been recorded during the investigation. The main period of settlement extends from May to October. The peak periods of biomass and covered area rate of the panels have been observed from Juneto September Balanus reticulatus, Bugula neritina, Molgula manhattensis, Tubularia mesembryanthemun and Enteromopha interstinalis are the dominant species in the fouling community. Species diversity index, species richness, species evenness and environmental factors are determined, the results of which indicate that water flow speed is the most important factor influencing the species and quantity composition of the fouling community.As to the mariculture production in the reclamation area, the main harmful period ranges from June to September.

  4. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  5. Sediments of Boston Harbor acquired in 1968 (MENCHER shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A study was made of the composition, grain-size distribution, and organic content of grab samples collected from Boston Harbor. In general, the coarsest mean sizes...

  6. Precambrian age of the Boston Basin: New evidence from microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, C.; Strother, P.K.; Kaye, C.A.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    A Vendian (Late Proterozoic Z) age has been determined for the Boston Basin by comparison of a microflora from the Cambridge Argillite with other late Precambrian assemblages. The microfossils, which include Bavlinella cf. faveolata, are preserved as petrifactions in pyrite. This age designation for the sedimentary rocks of the Boston Basin should allow for the reinterpretation of the structure of the basin and its regional correlations. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  7. Túnel bajo el puerto de Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The new tunnel under Boston harbour has been constructed because of the insufficient capacity of a similar, earlier, tunnel to cope with the ever increasing road traffic. This tunnel is 1,550 ms long, and 9.50 ms in external diameter. There are two traffic lanes, each 3.20 ms wide. Inside it is faced with ceramic tiles, has fluorescent lighting, and ventilation is maintained by means of two ducts, one at each entrance, where the necessary compressor and other equipment has been situated. The most interesting feature of this important project is the excavation method adopted for its construction: the tunnel crosses a clay layer, which at certain places is sufficiently fluid to allow a pneumatic shield to be forced through it leaving hardly any debris behind. It will be readily appreciated that this procedure shows an obvious advantage over ordinary methods, in which it is necessary to cut out, and transport to the exterior all the excavated material. The metal sheathing was by the Commercial Shearing and Stamping Co., Youngstown, Ohio.Este nuevo túnel, bajo el puerto de Boston, es una consecuencia de la necesidad imperiosa que se hacía sentir dada la insuficiente capacidad del otro túnel similar antiguo y el aumento continuo del tráfico urbano y por carretera. Tiene 1.550 m de longitud, 9,50 m de diámetro exterior y una calzada con dos bandas de circulación de 3,20 m de anchura cada una. Está revestido ccn baldosa cerámica, iluminado con luz fluorescente, y el aire viciado se ventila y renueva por medio de dos torres de ventilación—una en cada portal—, en las que se han instalado el equipo mecánico adecuado de ventilación y compresores. La parte más interesante de esta importante obra estriba en los procedimientos empleados para llevar a cabo la excavación, pues atraviesa un banco de arcilla que, en ciertos tramos, es suficientemente fluida para permitir dejarse empujar y ceder paso a un escudo neumático que avanza sin apenas

  8. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  9. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.Methods:Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique.Results:Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years.Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  10. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  11. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Rhodes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  12. Scanning the Front Range Environment: A Statistical Snapshot of the Front Range Community College Service Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report from Front Range Community College (FRCC) in Colorado examines trends in population, demographics, income, and education in the college's service area. The report begins with Kathleen Cain's essay, "Environmental Scanning," indicating that the four major objectives of environmental scanning are to detect…

  13. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline rel

  14. Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L

    1992-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work. PMID:1575858

  15. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., Territorial, or Tribal government; the State government and political subdivisions of the State; local public safety, crisis management, and emergency response agencies; law enforcement and security...

  16. 78 FR 42101 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ..., Territorial, or Tribal government; the State government and political subdivisions of the State; local public safety, crisis management, and emergency response agencies; law enforcement and security...

  17. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  18. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. PMID:20945775

  19. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  20. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  1. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  2. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  3. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  4. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  5. Community leadership and the challenges of community development in Nigeria: The case of Boki local government area, Cross River State”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udensi, L.O.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the level and extent to which community leaders contribute towards successful community development projects in Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State. A total of 150 community leaders selected through multi-stage sampling technique participated in the study. Frequency counts, percentage, Group Arithmetic Mean and Mean Weight Value were utilized in realizing the objectives of the study. It was observed that leadership positions are not the exclusive preserve of a particular sex, age group, marital status or educational status; rather result indicated that the duration of residence of community leaders is a significant factor in the success of community development projects in the study area. The study concluded that knowledge on the level to which community leaders have participated in community development, and the challenges they face have serious implications for achieving sustainable community development projects. It was recommended among others that for sustainable community development to be achieved in the area, specific and deliberate strategies should be evolved to remedy some of the problems identified. The study suggests that more and dedicated community leaders should be identified and responsibilities aimed at improving the welfare of the people assigned to them.

  6. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Skerritt, Louise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  7. Mutual Gains and Distributive Ideologies in South Africa: Theorizing Negotiations between Communities and Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Derick A

    2008-01-01

    With the rise of joint management of protected areas, community representatives are increasingly involved in formal negotiations with state officials, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other actors. Policy recommendations have commonly idealized “win-win” scenarios. Theoretical work on negotiation from psychology and management studies, however, points to identifiable circumstances under which the goal of a mutually beneficial “win-win” situation may limit the strategies, and ultimatel...

  8. Macrofaunal community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation, NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2013-06-01

    Spatial distribution and patchiness of deep sea macrofaunal communities were studied from samples collected in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In June 2011, two areas, located outside and within the Darwin Mound Special Area of Conservation (SAC), were sampled. Three megacores were deployed in each area at approximately 900 m depth. The two areas, ~ 18 km apart, did not differ in terms of sediment organic matter and percentage of mud content, but small significant differences were found in sediment median grain size and depth. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. Deep-water trawling regularly take place outside the Darwin Mounds SAC whilst the area inside the SAC has been closed to bottom trawling since 2004, and the above distribution patterns are discussed in the context of both environmental and anthropogenic causes.

  9. Frederick Law Olmsted y el "Emerald Necklace" de Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Austrich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En 1879, Frederick Law Olmsted, el creador del Central Park en Nueva York, Prospect Park en Brooklyn, inventor de la profesión de paisajismo (Landscape Architecture en los EE.UU., arriba a Boston agotado y exhausto. Acaba de renunciar el cargo de paisajista de Central Park, sintiéndose defraudado por las intrigas políticas de la comisión de parques de Nueva York, viajaba a Boston a descansar y pasar un rato con sus amigos en las cercanías de Boston, en Cambridge y Brookline. Su gran amigo, Henry Hobson Richardson, el reconocido arquitecto de la época, vivía y trabajaba en Brookline, y sirve como su anfitrión, tanto como sus amigos en Cambridge.

  10. Houston-Area Community Colleges Reap Rewards of Cooperative Television Campaign. Presentation to the National Council of Community Relations National Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Joyce; Lestarjette, Steve

    In response to a statewide economic crisis resulting in a 9% funding cut for Texas community colleges, the presidents of nine Houston area community colleges formed a consortium to pool their resources and aggressively market the colleges. Since 1986, the Gulf Coast Consortium has mounted late-summer television and radio advertising campaigns to…

  11. 78 FR 717 - ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National Consumer Law Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National...; Northeast Utilities Service Company; The United Illuminating Company; Unitil Energy Systems, Inc.; Fitchburg..., ENE (Environment Northeast), Greater Boston Real Estate Board, National Consumer Law Center,...

  12. Des gentrifieurs mobilisés. Les associations de quartier du South End à Boston The mobilised gentrifiers. The neighbourhood associations of South End, Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Tissot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un processus de gentrification dans un quartier d’une grande agglomération des États-Unis, Boston. Il montre que ce processus n’a pas seulement résulté de l’évolution des forces du marché et du retour des capitaux dans les centres-villes, des politiques de rénovation urbaine et de transformations culturelles. La mobilisation collective des nouveaux propriétaires a eu un impact décisif, via les associations de quartier dans lesquelles ils se sont engagés depuis les années 1960.This article concerns the process of gentrification in a district of a large urban area in the United States, Boston. It shows that this process has resulted not only from the evolution of market forces and the return of wealth to the inner cities, urban renewal policies and cultural transformations. The collective mobilisation of new property owners has also had a decisive impact, via the neighbourhood associations in which they have been involved since the 1960s.

  13. Community participation in AIDS activities in two pilot areas, Machinga district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangalawa, A S

    1995-09-01

    Students from the Department of Fine Art and Performing Arts of Chancellor College were subcontracted to spend one month in Nyambi and one month in Gawanani to facilitate participatory research and information gathering from the villages using focus group interviews. Nyambi is an Islamic-dominated area, while Gawanani is Christian-dominated. Music and drama were used to mobilize the communities. Performances were followed by discussion of how traditional practices potentially increasing the community risk of HIV infection could be altered. A drama presentation with proposed solutions was then presented to each community. Major risk factors identified were promiscuity and commercial sex, traditional male circumcision conducted with nonsterile equipment, female initiation requiring young women's participation in sexual intercourse, the sexual cleansing of young widows, tattooing by traditional healers, and misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. Furthermore, extramarital relationships lead to marital breakdown and the subsequent involvement of unsupervised children in exploratory sexual activities. The district AIDS coordinator facilitated meetings with community leaders to mobilize them to form local AIDS committees. The committees then identified volunteers within their areas who were trained in AIDS education and group discussion skills. 58 volunteers were trained in January 1995. Further plans include the additional training of the volunteers in counseling and home-based care skills, transformation of the volunteers groups into self-administered local nongovernmental organizations, the provision of income-generating activities skills, condom promotion, and the application of the project method in other areas in the district. The success of this project attests to how people, when given the opportunity and guidance, can respond positively to problems and tackle them in their own context.

  14. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  15. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  16. Dung beetle communities in coal mining areas in the process of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Zamprônio Bett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetles that are sensitive to environmental alterations may be used as indicator species to mark the recovery of degraded areas. This work aimed at registering and comparing the communities of Scarabaeinae located in areas with different periods of environmental recovery after being used for coal mining. This study was developed in Lauro Müller, Santa Catarina, and consisted of two areas in the process of recovery, one for one year and one for five years. Fifteen pitfall traps baited with human feces were placed in each area in order to attract the dung beetles. The counting, identification and measurement of body size and biomass of the specimens captured were carried out in the laboratory. Sampling sufficiency was verified and variables from both areas were compared using a t test. The recorded species were Canthon aff. chalybaeus, Canthon angularis, Canthon rutilans cyanescens, Deltochilum multicolor, Dichotomius sericeus, Eurysternus parallelus and Ontherus sulcator. A total of 35 individuals were captured, three in the one-year recovery area and 32 in the area under recovery for five years, C. rutilans cyanescens being the most abundant species (40.6%. All species collected were found in the five-years recovery area, whereas only C. aff. chalybaeus and D. multicolor were found in the one-year recovery area. Individuals sampled in the area with one year of recovery had an average size of 11.03 mm and average biomass of 0.051 g, whereas in the five-years recovery area the average size and the biomass of the dung beetles sampled was 12.25 mm and 0.093 g, respectively.

  17. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  18. [Yearly Changes of Phytoplankton Community in the Ecology-monitoring Area of Changli, Hebei in Summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-lin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Han, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Jian-da; Gao, Wei-ming

    2015-04-01

    Based on the investigation of phytoplankton and water body nutrient concentration in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in summer from 2005 to 2013, the phytoplankton community structure was analyzed. The result showed that in recent 9 years, 3 phyla including 23 families, 39 genera and 105 species of phytoplankton were identified, in which 85.7% were diatoms and 13.3% were dinoflagellate. Only one species was found belonging to golden algae. There was great difference in dominant species among different years. According to the value of dominance, there were Coscinodiscus radiatus, Coscinodiscus debilis, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Cerataulina bergoni, Coscinodiscus wailesii, Thalassiosira sp., Ceratium tripos, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Skeletonema costatum. The cell abundance was decreased yearly. The Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton community ranged from 0.015 to 3.889, and the evenness index ranged from 0.009 to 1, which showed little yearly change. And phytoplankton species were unevenly distributed among the 19 sites, there were relatively low amount of dominant species, but the dominance was relatively high. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results of the phytoplankton community and its environmental factors showed that the environmental factors influencing the change of phytoplankton community structure in summer included water temperature, nutrients (TP, TN and NO3(-) -N, NH4(+)-N) and salinity, and the structural change was the result of the interactions of different environmental factors. PMID:26164906

  19. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments.

  20. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  1. A novel nutrition medicine education model: the Boston University experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Carine; Gorman, Kathy; Milch, Hannah; Decker, Ashley; Harvey, Nanette; Stanfield, Lorraine; Lim-Miller, Aimee; Salge-Blake, Joan; Judd, Laura; Levine, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Most deaths in the United States are preventable and related to nutrition. Although physicians are expected to counsel their patients about nutrition-related health conditions, a recent survey reported minimal improvements in nutrition medicine education in US medical schools in the past decade. Starting in 2006, we have developed an educational plan using a novel student-centered model of nutrition medicine education at Boston University School of Medicine that focuses on medical student-mentored extracurricular activities to develop, evaluate, and sustain nutrition medicine education. The medical school uses a team-based approach focusing on case-based learning in the classroom, practice-based learning in the clinical setting, extracurricular activities, and a virtual curriculum to improve medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice skills across their 4-y period of training. We have been using objectives from the NIH National Academy Awards guide and tools from the Association of American Medical Colleges to detect new areas of nutrition medicine taught at the medical school. Although we were only able to identify 20.5 h of teaching in the preclerkship years, we observed that most preclerkship nutrition medicine objectives were covered during the course of the 4-y teaching period, and extracurricular activities provided new opportunities for student leadership and partnership with other health professionals. These observations are very encouraging as new assessment tools are being developed. Future plans include further evaluation and dissemination of lessons learned using this model to improve public health wellness with support from academia, government, industry, and foundations. PMID:23319117

  2. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  3. Seasonal Co-Variation in Surface Properties and the Urban Heat Island in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.; Friedl, M. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the drivers behind the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of elevated temperatures in urban areas - is an important goal in urban climatology, particularly in the context of an increasingly urbanized and warming planet. Remote sensing offers a useful source of information for UHI studies by providing spatially explicit measures of both temperature and surface properties over time. However, key questions remain, particularly regarding what controls spatio-temporal dynamics in the UHI in and around cities. The objective of this study is to characterize seasonality in the daytime and nighttime UHI over Boston for the period 2001-2010, paying special attention to the roles of (1) green leaf phenology and (2) urban land use and shading in urban canyons as explanatory variables. We use 1 km 8-day land surface temperature (LST) data from MODIS to characterize temperature variability. Initial results are consistent with previously described UHI characteristics, with the highest daytime urban-rural temperature difference occurring during the summer. However, seasonal hysteresis for Boston is apparent in an enhanced UHI signature in the spring versus the fall, even when rural temperatures are equivalent during the two time periods. To characterize how surface cover variations control surface temperatures over the course of the year, we use spectral mixture analysis (SMA) applied to 30 m multi-temporal Landsat data. SMA is particularly well suited for studies of spatially heterogeneous urban areas because unlike classification methods or traditional vegetation indices, SMA takes explicit advantage of sub-pixel compositional variability. Preliminary results for 2010 suggest that spatio-temporal patterns in surface properties, and by extension land surface temperatures, in and around Boston are well explained as combinations of (a) green vegetation, (b) substrate/soil, (c) urban impervious, and (d) shade derived from SMA of multi-temporal Landsat data.

  4. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  5. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  6. 78 FR 37455 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... regulation was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35756) under the same name and docket number. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA...

  7. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander,...

  8. Information Graphics at the "Boston Globe": From Concept to Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Sean

    1998-01-01

    Shows how the "Boston Globe" brings words, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs together in evocative information packages. Traces the process of discussion and decision making among reporters, editors, art directors, and graphic artists as the team chooses concepts the graphics will illustrate, and produces the graphics themselves. (SR)

  9. The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lisa; Snow, Pamela

    In 1870, Boston, Massachusetts, was an overcrowded, noisy, and dirty city. Concerned with the health and happiness of Bostonians restricted to these unhealthy surroundings, the city hired Frederick Law Olmsted to design a park system. The series of parks he designed over the next several years is known as the Emerald Necklace. From lovely…

  10. Charter, Private, and Public Schools Work Together in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  11. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  12. Plant community development within the F- and H-Area tree-kill zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline fed wetlands down-slope from the basins was observed in the late 1970`s, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts. Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area seepage basins. Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds. A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soils matrix. In 1988, the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins were closed and covered with a clay cap to reduce the rate of dispersion of the contaminants in the soil beneath the basins. Subsequent studies of the chemical composition of the tree-kill zone groundwater and toxicological characteristics of the seepline soil have shown a reduced contaminant flux. In 1993, an initial vegetation study was undertaken to determine the level of recovery by the plant communities in the tree-kill zones. This study repeats the initial vegetation investigation in order to further analyze and characterize the recovery of plant communities in the zones after an additional year of growth.

  13. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  14. Soil amplification with a strong impedance contrast: Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baise, Laurie G.; Kaklamanos, James; Berry, Bradford M; Thompson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effect of strong sediment/bedrock impedance contrasts on soil amplification in Boston, Massachusetts, for typical sites along the Charles and Mystic Rivers. These sites can be characterized by artificial fill overlying marine sediments overlying glacial till and bedrock, where the depth to bedrock ranges from 20 to 80 m. The marine sediments generally consist of organic silts, sand, and Boston Blue Clay. We chose these sites because they represent typical foundation conditions in the city of Boston, and the soil conditions are similar to other high impedance contrast environments. The sediment/bedrock interface in this region results in an impedance ratio on the order of ten, which in turn results in a significant amplification of the ground motion. Using stratigraphic information derived from numerous boreholes across the region paired with geologic and geomorphologic constraints, we develop a depth-to-bedrock model for the greater Boston region. Using shear-wave velocity profiles from 30 locations, we develop average velocity profiles for sites mapped as artificial fill, glaciofluvial deposits, and bedrock. By pairing the depth-to-bedrock model with the surficial geology and the average shear-wave velocity profiles, we can predict soil amplification in Boston. We compare linear and equivalent-linear site response predictions for a soil layer of varying thickness over bedrock, and assess the effects of varying the bedrock shear-wave velocity (VSb) and quality factor (Q). In a moderate seismicity region like Boston, many earthquakes will result in ground motions that can be modeled with linear site response methods. We also assess the effect of bedrock depth on soil amplification for a generic soil profile in artificial fill, using both linear and equivalent-linear site response models. Finally, we assess the accuracy of the model results by comparing the predicted (linear site response) and observed site response at the Northeastern

  15. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  16. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  17. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  18. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    David Barton Bray; Elvira Duran; Oscar Molina

    2012-01-01

    Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs) in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the im...

  19. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Snyman

    2014-01-01

    In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...

  20. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@falw.vu.nl; Koolhaas, Josee E. [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo [Institute of Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinecke, Sophie A. [Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes.

  1. Hispanic Youth in Boston: In Search of Opportunities and Accountability. A Report by the Boston Latino Youth Policy Analysis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Office of Planning and Evaluation, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This report discusses the school-to-work transition process of Hispanic youth in Boston. The report was prepared in response to the high rates of unemployment and participation in low-paying service sector jobs by Hispanics and was funded by a grant from the Hispanic Policy Development Project as part of a national effort to identify key public…

  2. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  3. Impact of Chronic Drought on Nutritional Status of the Community in Drought affected areas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communities affected by chronic drought conditions face a wide variety of challenges including an adverse effect on their nutritional status. The Government of India, during the year 2002-03, declared nine States viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Orissa as drought affected. Material and Methods: At the request of Department of Agriculture, Government of India, a rapid community based cross-sectional study was carried out adopting multistage random sampling procedure with the objective to assess the nutritional status of community in these nine chronic drought affected states in India. Results: In general, the intakes of all the nutrients were grossly deficit as against their RDAs. The nutrition intervention programmes initiated by the Government of India, in general, contributed to meet the daily requirement of staples like cereals & millets in most of the States. Conclusion: In drought-affected areas, where the level of famine impact is unknown, an early rapid assessment of the nutritional status and the health needs of the population are critical to estimate the degree of impact to plan timely and appropriate interventions.

  4. Engaging the recreational angling community to implement and manage aquatic protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-06-01

    Recreational angling is a popular leisure activity, the quality of which is greatly dependent on fish abundance and well-functioning aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) are used to help maintain and even restore aquatic systems and their associated biota, including fish species that are popular with recreational anglers. Paradoxically, the use of APAs has been a source of much contention and conflict between members of the recreational angling community and those interested in or mandated to protect aquatic resources on the basis of the interests of multiple stakeholder groups. The angling community is concerned about the loss of fishing opportunities and effectiveness of APAs. Although it is still unclear whether establishment of APAs alone can effectively protect aquatic resources, actively including the recreational angling community in the design, implementation, and management of APAs will help ensure the values of this rather substantial user group are incorporated into aquatic conservation strategies. Conversely, the probability of increasing the sustainability of recreational angling and related economies will be greatest if recreational angler groups remain open minded to both short-term and long-term goals of fisheries conservation strategies, including the use of APAs. PMID:21175844

  5. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  6. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  7. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    community productivity. The experimental defoliation exerted a pronounced effect on plant productivity and modified the nature of interaction between annual grasses and other growth forms. These mechanisms may explain the ability of Avena and Hordeum species to form persistent annual climax grasslands in semi-arid rangelands. These findings may suggest that Avena and Hordeum species may be used in revegetating degraded arid areas

  8. Quality Assessment of Shallow Groundwater in Some Selected Agrarian Communities in Patigi Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study was conducted to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in agrarian communities. An in-situ membrane filtration test kit was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from protected shallow wells during wet and dry seasons of the year 2012 to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of the analysis show that Gapkan had the least value of pH of 6.7 while Lade had the highest value of 8.4. ANOVA (P<0.05 showed pH to be statistically higher during the wet season than in the dry season. The conductivity during the wet season was observed to range between 1210 µS/cm and 1678 µS/cm for Kpada and Gakpan communities respectively. Turbidity values during the wet season ranged between 4 and 7 NTU while dry season analysis ranged between 2 and 3 NTU. Sulphate concentration was the lowest at 431 mg/L in Fey and highest of 532 mg/L at Duro and Rifun Woro during the wet season. Chloride content within the wet season varied between 260 and 269 mg/L while that of the dry season varied between 124 and 130 mg/L. Highest and lowest concentrations of nitrate recorded during wet season was 0.42 and 0.23 mg/L for Kusogi and Fey respectively. The colour observed during the wet season ranged between 17 TCU and 19TCU while that of the dry season ranged between 10 and 13 TCU. Current status of the water in the study areas are fit as source of drinking water for the community, though plans should be put in place for mini treatment plants that can serve these communities to enhance good drinking water delivery..

  9. [Metabolic characteristics of air microbial communities from sandstorm source areas of the Taklamakan desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei-Wei; Lou, Kai; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Rong; Shi, Ying-Wu; He, Qing; Liu, Xin-Chun; Sun, Jian; Chao, Qun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to compare the characteristics and the differences in carbon catabolic diversity of air samples collected from five locations that around the edge of Taklamakan desert. The characteristics and the differences of carbon metabolic profiles were detected by using the BIOLOG micro plate (BIOLOG EcoPlate). The results showed that the average well color development (AWCD) curve of all five samples did not reach clear saturation during the incubation time (10 days), but differences among them were significant. The highest AWCD value appeared in Shache and the lowest was in Hotan, which were 0.24 and 0.1, respectively. Carbon utilization showed that all samples exhibited high level of polymer, carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acid; however, amine and the phenol compound were the lowest. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated that twenty categories of carbon significantly related to PC1 and twelve categories for PC2. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed these five areas could be divided into 2 clusters: (1) Hotan, Pishan, (2) Shache, Luntai, Ulugqat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that those community functional diversities were highly affected by some environmental factors, such as wind speed, altitude, humidity. Further investigation by correlation analysis revealed that the microbial communities using single carbon source were significantly affected by abiotic factors, such as the utilization of beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-galacturonic acid and putrescine had significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05) with latitude; 2-hydroxy benzoic acid and alpha-D-lactose significantly related to wind speed (P < 0.05); and D-glucosaminic acid was positive with air pressure, but it negatively correlated with altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion,the carbon sources provided by BIOLOG EcoPlate were utilized slowly by air microbial communities; and the characteristics of the air community carbon catabolic along the edge of the Taklamakan desert

  10. Vertical distribution of airborne bacterial communities in an Asian-dust downwind area, Noto Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Hara, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kakikawa, Makiko; Matsuki, Atsushi; Chen, Bin; Shi, Guangyu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial populations transported from ground environments to the atmosphere get dispersed throughout downwind areas and can influence ecosystem dynamics, human health, and climate change. However, the vertical bacterial distribution in the free troposphere was rarely investigated in detail. We collected aerosols at altitudes of 3000 m, 1000 m, and 10 m over the Noto Peninsula, Japan, where the westerly winds carry aerosols from continental and marine areas. During the sampling period on March 10, 2012, the air mass at 3000 m was transported from the Chinese desert region by the westerly winds, and a boundary layer was formed below 2000 m. Pyrosequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that the bacterial community at 3000 m was predominantly composed of terrestrial bacteria, such as Bacillus and Actinobacterium species. In contrast, those at 1000 m and 10 m included marine bacteria belonging to the classes Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. The entire 16S rDNA sequences in the clone libraries were identical to those of the terrestrial and marine bacterial species, which originated from the Chinese desert region and the Sea of Japan, respectively. The origins of air masses and meteorological conditions contribute to vertical variations in the bacterial communities in downwind atmosphere.

  11. INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERSONAL PM2.5 FOR A PANEL OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE OR COPD LIVING IN BOSTON, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated personal, home indoor, home outdoor, and ambient particulate and gaseous pollutant levels were characterized for individuals with cardiovascular disease or COPD and their partners living in the Boston area. Health status was determined by self-reported history of myoc...

  12. Cost effectiveness and budgetary impact of the Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for societal participation in people with severe mental illness : a randomised controlled trial protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, Sarita A.; Swildens, Wilma E.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Stant, A. Dennis; Feenstra, Talitha L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) frequently experience problems with regard to societal participation (i.e. work, education and daily activities outside the home), and require professional support in this area. The Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) is

  13. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Olsson

    Full Text Available The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  14. From directly observed therapy to accompagnateurs: enhancing AIDS treatment outcomes in Haiti and in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behforouz, H L; Farmer, P E; Mukherjee, J S

    2004-06-01

    Like tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with poverty and social inequalities, conditions that hamper the delivery of care. Like tuberculosis, treatment of HIV infection requires multidrug regimens, and the causative agent acquires drug resistance, which can be transmitted to others. A pilot project in rural Haiti introduced DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the care of patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A similar DOT-HAART effort was launched in Boston for patients with drug-resistant HIV disease who had experienced failure of unsupervised therapy. In both settings, community health promoters or accompagnateurs provide more than DOT: they offer psychosocial support and link patients to clinical staff and available resources. DOT-HAART in these 2 settings presents both challenges and opportunities. These models of care can be applied to other poverty-stricken populations in resource-poor settings.

  15. Acute retinal necrosis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Amri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 68-year-old male who developed acute retinal necrosis (ARN after Boston type I keratoprosthesis is presented. The procedure was performed for multiple graft failure secondary to herpetic keratitis. Clinical data including visual acuity, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, laboratory tests findings, and management are presented. After exclusion of other causes by laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed with ARN most likely secondary to herpetic infection. Intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone were administered to the patient resulting in marked improvement in visual acuity and regression in the size of the retinitis. The patient eventually developed a soft eye and choroidal detachment with light perception vision. In patients with a history of herpetic keratitis or keratouveitis, it is highly advisable to maintain prophylactic systemic antiviral treatment before and after any ocular procedure such as the Boston keratoprosthesis.

  16. Species-area relationships in coral communities: evaluating mechanisms for a commonly observed pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, B. E.; Lirman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Landscape-scale attributes of patch size, spatial isolation, and topographic complexity are known to influence diversity and abundance in terrestrial and marine systems, but remain collectively untested for reef-building corals. To investigate the relationship between the coral assemblage and seascape variation in reef habitats, we took advantage of the distinct boundaries, spatial configurations, and topographic complexities among artificial reef patches to overcome the difficulties of manipulating natural reefs. Reef size (m2) was found to be the foremost predictor of coral richness in accordance with species-area relationship predictions. Larger reefs were also found to support significantly higher colony densities, enabling us to reject the null hypothesis of random placement (a sampling artifact) in favor of target area predictions that suggest greater rates of immigration on larger reefs. Unlike the pattern previously documented for reef fishes, topographic complexity was not a significant predictor of any coral assemblage response variable, despite the range of complexity values sampled. Lastly, coral colony density was best explained by both increasing reef size and decreasing reef spatial isolation, a pattern found exclusively among brooding species with shorter larval dispersal distances. We conclude that seascape attributes of reef size and spatial configuration within the seascape can influence the species richness and abundance of the coral community at relatively small spatial scales (island biogeography mechanisms to drive species-area relationships in reef-building corals. Based on the patterns documented in artificial reefs, habitat degradation that results in smaller, more isolated natural reefs may compromise coral diversity.

  17. Zooplankton community occurrence in an area influenced by uranium mine, Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM), situated on the Pocos de Caldas - MG Plateau, is Brazil's first venture in uranium ore mining and chemical treatment and it belongs to Brazilian Nuclear Industries today. At UTM, radioactive effluents are generated due to the mine's acid drainage processes (MAD). Thus, due to the lack of scientific information with emphasis on Zooplankton Communities in areas impacted by uranium mine and MAD, the current study aimed to evaluate parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, uranium, thorium, manganese, zinc and aluminum, as well as richness and density of the zooplankton organism's, all in samples from the Pit Mine. The electrical conductivity values observed were elevated (1976 to 2760 μS cm-1), while the pH values remained acidic (3.6 to 4.1). In respect to the SO4-2, elevated concentrations were observed (366.6 - 1832.0 mg L-1), as well as for F- (33.4 to 75.1 mg L-1). The U presented highest and lowest concentrations in Oct/08 and July/09, that is, 4.25 mg L-1 and 0.12 mg L-1, respectively. The Th concentrations remained constant (0.10 - 0.30 mg L-1). In respect to the Zooplankton Community low species richness and density were observed throughout the whole period. The low richness and density values of the zooplankton species can be related to the adverse environmental conditions, which are unfavorable to the development of this community: elevated values of electrical conductivity and acidic pH, both associated to the chemical composition of the effluent in natura. (author)

  18. Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is the largest source of anthropogenic emissions of methane (CH4) in the United States. To assess pipeline emissions across a major city, we mapped CH4 leaks across all 785 road miles in the city of Boston using a cavity-ring-down mobile CH4 analyzer. We identified 3356 CH4 leaks with concentrations exceeding up to 15 times the global background level. Separately, we measured δ13CH4 isotopic signatures from a subset of these leaks. The δ13CH4 signatures (mean = −42.8‰ ± 1.3‰ s.e.; n = 32) strongly indicate a fossil fuel source rather than a biogenic source for most of the leaks; natural gas sampled across the city had average δ13CH4 values of −36.8‰ (±0.7‰ s.e., n = 10), whereas CH4 collected from landfill sites, wetlands, and sewer systems had δ13CH4 signatures ∼20‰ lighter (μ = −57.8‰, ±1.6‰ s.e., n = 8). Repairing leaky natural gas distribution systems will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase consumer health and safety, and save money. Highlights: ► We mapped 3356 methane leaks in Boston. ► Methane leaks in Boston carry an isotopic signature of pipeline natural gas. ► Replacing failing gas pipelines will provide safety, environmental, and economic benefits. - We identified 3356 methane leaks in Boston, with isotopic characteristics consistent with pipeline natural gas.

  19. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine L. Bradbury; Burke, Mary A.; Robert K. Triest

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  20. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  1. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  2. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  3. Diversity and Species Composition of Subaerial Algal Communities in Forested Areas of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kharkongor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with a comparative study on diversity and species composition of subaerial algal communities from tree barks of closed undisturbed sacred grove, mixed plantation, and open disturbed forest. A total of 85 taxa had been recorded, 30 cyanobacteria and 55 algal species belonging to six classes of algae. Sacred grove harboured the highest subaerial algal diversity compared to those of plantation and open disturbed forest. There was a strong significant difference in species composition among the three different sampling areas. High number of diatoms with 14 species was recorded in sacred grove. Cyanobacteria with 22 species were the frequent group in disturbed forest whereas Trentepohliales dominated in plantation. Canonical correspondence analysis confirmed that high photon irradiance favored the growth of cyanobacteria in disturbed forest. The abundance of Trentepohliales members correlated to high rainfall and photon irradiance. High diversity and presence of many diatom species in undisturbed Mawphlang sacred grove were associated with low photon irradiance and high relative humidity and could also be due to a presence of suitable substrata formed by the growth of mosses. Sunlight, relative humidity, and rainfall were the important factors which played a major role in determining the diversity and distribution of subaerial algal communities.

  4. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi......-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years...... only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline...

  5. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAND S. BISHT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisht AS, Sharma KD. 2014. Plants utilization by the communities of Bharsar and adjoining area of Pauri Garhwal District, Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 15: 92-98. Garhwal Himalaya possesses luxuriant a varied vegetation with in the Himalaya region. Almost every plant has economic value in the form of shelter, food, water, medicine, fuel and industrial products and fodder. Surveys were conducted in entire Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India in order to get information on traditional uses of plants by local inhabitants. A total of 169 plants were collected of which 40 species of vegetables, 19 species of forest and agroforestry, 24 species of ornamental flower, 71 species of less known medicinal plants and 15 species of agricultural crops were found economically important as they are used by the people frequently for various purposes.

  6. Linking environmental forcing and trophic supply to benthic communities in the Vercelli Seamount area (Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Covazzi Harriague

    Full Text Available Seamounts and their influence on the surrounding environment are currently being extensively debated but, surprisingly, scant information is available for the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, although the deep Tyrrhenian Sea is characterised by a complex bottom morphology and peculiar hydrodynamic features, which would suggest a variable influence on the benthic domain, few studies have been carried out there, especially for soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages. In order to fill this gap, the structure of the meio-and macrofaunal assemblages of the Vercelli Seamount and the surrounding deep area (northern Tyrrhenian Sea - western Mediterranean were studied in relation to environmental features. Sediment was collected with a box-corer from the seamount summit and flanks and at two far-field sites in spring 2009, in order to analyse the metazoan communities, the sediment texture and the sedimentary organic matter. At the summit station, the heterogeneity of the habitat, the shallowness of the site and the higher trophic supply (water column phytopigments and macroalgal detritus, for instance supported a very rich macrofaunal community, with high abundance, biomass and diversity. In fact, its trophic features resembled those observed in coastal environments next to seagrass meadows. At the flank and far-field stations, sediment heterogeneity and depth especially influenced the meiofaunal distribution. From a trophic point of view, the low content of the valuable sedimentary proteins that was found confirmed the general oligotrophy of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and exerted a limiting influence on the abundance and biomass of the assemblages. In this scenario, the rather refractory sedimentary carbohydrates became a food source for metazoans, which increased their abundance and biomass at the stations where the hydrolytic-enzyme-mediated turnover of carbohydrates was faster, highlighting high lability.

  7. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis. PMID:19999976

  8. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  9. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  10. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  11. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

    2014-07-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms

  12. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

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    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  13. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  14. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga. PMID:26881432

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-441-1765, New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the Industrial Commission of Ohio, worker complaints of skin disease at the New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio were investigated. The request was based on seven reports of dermatitis thought to be associated with steam exposure during coke quenching. Quench water had a pH of 8.85 and contained phenol, ammonia, calcium-oxide, and suspended particulates (82% organic compounds); no irritant threshold levels were found for these compounds. Skin tests in rabbits showed a minimal irritant capacity for quench water. Medical records did not reveal the origin of dermatitis. Active skin lesions were characterized as nummular eczema or atopic dermatitis, which were not thought to be of occupational origin. The author concludes that coke-quenching steam does not pose a skin hazard, but certain work activities may aggravate existing skin conditions. Recommendations include elimination of abrasive cleansing agents, use of skin moisturizers after washing, and prompt medical evaluation of skin complaints.

  16. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area: comparison between lecture and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area. PMID:24705761

  17. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors. PMID:26031097

  18. Evaluating the performance of urban management in community sustainable: Case Study in area of Narmak - Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban development that was coincided with the Industrial Revolution, make living in a city faced with new problems that were completely antithetical to sustainable development. To solve this problem, administrators, planners, and urban management in general, have prepared plans for development. Because of their unresponsive to urban neighborhoods, development plans and because of their upward to downward processes, these development projects were incapable of solving problems, and many of them have failed. On the other hand, for better urban governance, participation of all actors in both public and private sector and civil society were essential. In addition, on this level of cooperation, leading to ready all actors for culture governance of democratic were realized. This study investigated the role of community-based management in achieving sustainable urban development deals and has analyzed social stability in four dimensions including cultural, economic, physical and environmental. Study area, was a neighborhood of Tehran, in the area of eight, Narmak. The research was a descriptive - analytical study and collecting information and data were performed in the form of documents and survey. The results suggest that the effects of urban management on stabilizing neighborhoods, in physical and environmental aspects, are quite tangible. However, with regard to social and economic dimensions, this effect was more diminished. Certainly, the role and power of urban management in social and economic dimensions could be obtained more sustainability for Narmak neighborhood.

  19. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  20. Sense of Community among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area: Findings from the PINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sense of community is a concept that has significant implications cross multiple disciplines, particularly in public health practice. However, there exists a knowledge gap in utilizing the sense of community in investigating the health of older immigrant populations. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perception of the sense of community among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. We administered the Sense of Community Index to measure the levels of sense of community. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Results: Our results suggest that Chinese older adults in this study sample reported a strong sense of community. In total, 86.7% of the participants reported satisfaction with the current neighborhood, and 78.4% expressed their desire to continue living in the community as long as possible. In addition, older age (r =0.11, having higher levels of income (r =0.08, being female (r =0.08, being unmarried (r =-0.06, living with fewer people (r =-0.22, having more children (r =0.11, having been in the U.S. for more years (r =0.12, longer residency in the community (r =0.15, higher overall health status (r =0.18, better quality of life (r =0.23, and improved health status in the past year (r =0.11 were significantly correlated with the higher levels of the sense of the community. Conclusions: The study investigation provided the basis for generating empirical knowledge for understanding the sense of community among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms underlying sense of community and health in the increasingly diverse aging population.

  1. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area : comparison between lecture and practice

    OpenAIRE

    TANI, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students’ attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sens...

  2. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  3. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  4. Spatial distribution and diversity of bird community in an urban area of Southeast Brazil

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    Marco Antônio Manhães

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the campus of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has different landscapes, it turns up to be a useful ecological model to evaluate the influence of habitat heterogeneity on bird communities. Our research goals were to know the local avifauna and compare its composition and bird diversity within the different landscapes. Species were identified in point counts without distance estimation, in four habitats: secondary woodlot, lake and surroundings, scrub/abandoned grazing areas and urban areas. One hundred and twenty-one species were identified, but no difference in diversity among the habitats was found. However, analyses indicated the existence of greater similarities among the sampling points belonging to the same kind of habitat. Results suggests that small and isolated forest fragments in urban areas fail to sustain a greater diversity than the adjacent areas, even though the environment's heterogeneous aspect favours local bird richness.O Campus da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora possui diferentes paisagens e pode representar um modelo ecológico útil para avaliar a influência da heterogeneidade de hábitats sobre a diversidade de aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a avifauna local e comparar a composição e diversidade de aves nas distintas paisagens existentes. As espécies foram identificadas em pontos de contagem, em quatro hábitats: mata secundária, lago e arredores, capoeira/pastagem abandonada e urbanizada/jardinada. Foram identificadas 121 espécies, mas não houve diferença de diversidade entre os hábitats. Entretanto, as análises indicaram a existência de maiores similaridades entre os pontos amostrais pertencentes ao mesmo tipo de hábitat. Os resultados sugerem que pequenos fragmentos de mata fortemente isolados em áreas urbanas não sustentam uma diversidade maior do que as áreas adjacentes mas o aspecto heterogêneo do ambiente pode favorecer a riqueza de aves

  5. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  6. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  7. Community-level effects in edaphic fauna from an abandoned mining area: integration with chemical and toxicological lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara C; Castro, Bruno B; Moreira, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    As a part of the Ecological Risk Assessment of a deactivated uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa), the aim of this study was to assess the drivers of litter arthropod community (ecological line of evidence) inhabiting soils with different degrees of contamination. Litter arthropods were collected in the mining area using a total of 70 pitfall traps, in the spring and autumn of 2004. Unlike information previously collected in the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we found no clear evidence of impacts of soil contamination on the edaphic arthropod assemblage. Multivariate analyses were unable to extract relevant environmental gradients related to contamination, as most of the sites shared the same taxa overall. Given the consistency of the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we must conclude that the litter arthropod assemblage underestimated the impacts of contamination in this abandoned mining area. In part, this could be due to the uncertainty caused by confounding factors that affect the litter arthropod community in the area. Nevertheless, despite the overall lack of responsiveness of the epigeic arthropod community data, a few taxa were negatively correlated with metal concentrations (Clubionidae and Staphylinidae), while Pseudoscorpionida were associated with the toxicological profile of the sites. These evidences suggest that community-level approaches with other animal and plant assemblages are necessary to reduce uncertainty relatively to the assessment of risks in higher evaluation tiers in the Cunha Baixa mine area. PMID:23174268

  8. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5% of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0% parishes and 32/212 (15.1% villages (clusters, were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54 and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14. Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community

  9. Completing the Results of the 2013 Boston Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches. PMID:24727904

  10. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Hammerling

    Full Text Available The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA, and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish. The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method, though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  11. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  12. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by

  13. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001-2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change. PMID:24349135

  14. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Fraschetti

    Full Text Available Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001-2009 inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change.

  15. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.

    2013-01-14

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. © 2013 Noble et al.

  16. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae M Noble

    Full Text Available Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP. Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  17. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  18. Community Supported Agriculture in the urban fringe: empirical evidence for project potentiality in the metropolitan area of Naples (Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cicia, G.; Colantuoni, F.; Giudice, Del T.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationship

  19. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  20. 75 FR 77693 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps for Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, as submitted by the City of Manchester, New Hampshire, under the provisions of Title I of...

  1. From Vision to Action: Solving Problems through Inquiry at Boston Day and Evening Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    On a mid-week day in mid-December 2008, Boston Day and Evening Academy's room 209, usually used for board meetings, student assessments, awards dinners, and other occasions requiring an intimate atmosphere, smelled like Chinese food. These second-trimester students at Boston Day and Evening Academy (BDEA) were having a reunion after just a few…

  2. 33 CFR 165.113 - Security Zone: Dignitary arrival/departure Logan International Airport, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../departure Logan International Airport, Boston, MA 165.113 Section 165.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.113 Security Zone: Dignitary arrival/departure Logan International Airport, Boston... President or Vice President of the United States, as well as visiting heads of foreign states or...

  3. 78 FR 23667 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8958--Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston... April 16, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts By the President of...

  4. 77 FR 40147 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Boston and Maine Corporation (B&M) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152....\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 01440. \\1\\ On June 20, 2012, the...

  5. 76 FR 35013 - Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park..., pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Boston National Historical Park is modified to include... without cost by enactment of Chapter 37 of the Laws of 2009, on July 23, 2009, subject to the...

  6. The Boston Compact: A Model for Interagency Collaboration and School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equity and Choice, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The Boston Compact is a five-year effort to foster collaboration among the Boston Public Schools, private industry, and 25 postsecondary education institutions. The program's goals focus on improving educational preparedness and employability of and opportunities for urban students. (GC)

  7. Forward: Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ethology of Fishes Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria E.ABATE; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Current Zoology concerning the behavior, ecology, and evolution of fishes is comprised of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 2008 Ecological and Evolutionary Ecology of Fishes Biennial Conference that was held June 29-July 3 at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

  8. Transcription of Gail Jefferson, Boston University Conference on Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, 9 June 1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    This is a CLAN transcription of the film recording of a conference talk by Gail Jefferson in Boston in 1977. The film recording was generously made available by George Psathas, Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Boston University. Prof Doug Maynard (University of Wisconsin) arranged for the origi...

  9. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó B Tóth

    Full Text Available The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896-1950 to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950-2013. Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied

  10. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  11. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  12. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  13. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  14. NDVI statistical distribution of pasture areas at different times in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem. However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed (Niemeyer 2008). 'Biomass index' based on satellite image derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used in countries like United States of America, Canada and Spain for pasture and forage crops for some years (Rao, 2010). This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' (IBI). IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield (or revenue) losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values (historical data) that is correlated with farm-level losses (Xiaohui Deng et al., 2008). Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid (Spain) has been delimited. Then, NDVI historical data was reconstructed based on remote sensing imaging MODIS, with 500x500m2 resolution. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. The results show that the normal distribution is not the optimal representation when IBI is available; the implications in the context of crop insurance are discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Kolli N Rao. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial

  15. Effects of community succession dynamics on forest biodiversity in eastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Plant, insect and forest structures of 25 forest communities were investigated in Mao'ershan Experimental Forest Farm and Liangshui Experimental Forest Farm during 1994-1995. The paper used continuum index (Ci) as a parameter, to quantitatively describe forest community succession stage. Relationships between the biodiversity and continuum index of forest community were studied. The annual species and family diversities in forest plant community showed nonlinear correlation with continuum index, and the largest diversities were during the middle stage of succession. The diversities of total insect community and herbivorous insect group were negatively related with Ci, that of spide group and parasitic insect group was positively related. The pattern diversity and coverage weight diversity index foliage height increased with continuum index.

  16. Mental health and illness in Boston's children and adolescents: one city's experience and its implications for mental health policy makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, K.; Drainoni, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the Boston Public Heath Commission used data from a variety of sources to explore the level of mental health disturbance in Boston's children and adolescents. Data for 1997 from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that about 20% of Boston public high school students had ever experienced suicidal ideation, while approximately 10% had actually attempted suicide. About one in five teenage respondents to the Boston Youth Survey said they were frequently depressed. While females were mo...

  17. Alveolar-membrane diffusing capacity limits performance in Boston marathon qualifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleen M Lavin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: (1 to examine the relation between pulmonary diffusing capacity and marathon finishing time, and (2, to evaluate the accuracy of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO in predicting marathon finishing time relative to that of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO. METHODS: 28 runners [18 males, age = 37 (SD 9 years, body mass = 70 (13 kg, height = 173 (9 cm, percent body fat = 17 (7 %] completed a test battery consisting of measurement of DLNO and DLCO at rest, and a graded exercise test to determine running economy and aerobic capacity prior to the 2011 Steamtown Marathon (Scranton, PA. One to three weeks later, all runners completed the marathon (range: 2:22:38 to 4:48:55. Linear regressions determined the relation between finishing time and a variety of anthropometric characteristics, resting lung function variables, and exercise parameters. RESULTS: In runners meeting Boston Marathon qualification standards, 74% of the variance in marathon finishing time was accounted for by differences in DLNO relative to body surface area (BSA (SEE = 11.8 min, p<0.01; however, the relation between DLNO or DLCO to finishing time was non-significant in the non-qualifiers (p = 0.14 to 0.46. Whereas both DLCO and DLNO were predictive of finishing time for all finishers, DLNO showed a stronger relation (r(2 = 0.30, SEE = 33.4 min, p<0.01 compared to DLCO when considering BSA. CONCLUSION: DLNO is a performance-limiting factor in only Boston qualifiers. This suggests that alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is a limitation to performance in faster marathoners. Additionally, DLNO/BSA predicts marathon finishing time and aerobic capacity more accurately than DLCO.

  18. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  19. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from

  20. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Boston zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-10, two miles... listed in 33 CFR 150.490 and falling within the waters of the Boston COTP Zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section...

  1. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  2. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton Bray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites. PMID:25592734

  4. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  5. Seasonal Abundance of Benthic Communities in Coral Areas of Karah Island, Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim*(1), Sakri; Hussin(1), Wan Mohd Rauhan Wan; Kassim(1), Zaleha; Joni(1), Zuliatini Mohamad; Zakaria(1), Mohamad Zaidi; Hajisamae, Sukree

    2006-01-01

    Benthic communities are important to marine ecosystem and form important food source for most marine organisms especially fish. Study of this biota is important as it could be an indicator to overall aquatic productivity. Benthic communities in Karah Island, Terengganu, Malaysia were studied to find their relationship with different monsoon seasons and types of substrate. Surveys were conducted 4 times; two times each during pre-monsoon phase (September - October) and post-monsoon phase (Apri...

  6. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  7. Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system. I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communa...

  8. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  9. Effectiveness of a San Francisco Bay area community education program on reducing home energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ellen M.

    In order to promote the adoption of home energy reduction practices and mitigate the climate impact of the collective greenhouse gas emissions generated by consumers, it is critical to identify an effective educational approach. A community-based educational intervention model that employs norms, information, commitment, feedback, and face-to-face communication strategies was examined for its ability to motivate changes in everyday energy-use behavior in two communities compared to a control group. A follow up study was also conducted to evaluate whether behaviors adopted as a result of the intervention were long lasting, and whether the community-focused features of the intervention were motivating to participants. Results showed that a greater number of individuals participated in the intervention over its five-month duration, reported significantly higher numbers of adopted behaviors, and maintained more adopted behaviors post-intervention than did people in the control group. In addition, intervention participants reported that some of the community-based features of the intervention motivated their behavior changes. These findings lend support to a number of social and community psychology theories about how to design effective interventions by leveraging social awareness and support.

  10. Changing Faces: How the Demographic Revolution Plays out in New England's Largest Metro Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mary Huff; Bluestone, Barry

    2002-01-01

    At the end of World War II, Greater Boston was one of the least diverse metropolitan areas in the United States. In 1950, the "minority" population of only one of its 154 towns and cities exceeded 5 percent and that was the city of Boston, at only 5.3 percent. In the second half of the century, the region rapidly became multiracial and…

  11. Local Area Network: Community Involvement, Social Capital, and Glocalization at NetU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevett-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic and interview data from a long-term study of "NetU," a wired community and college, are used to investigate the effects of computer-mediated communication on social relationships. During the course of this research "LAN" residents of NetU are compared with a similar group of non-LAN residents who lived in the same neighborhood, but…

  12. Building Strong Communities: An Evaluation of a Neighborhood Leadership Program in a Diverse Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate an intervention used to train neighborhood leaders about community organizing and to enhance leadership skills. A mixed-method design was used which included (a) a pre- and posttest assessment of 83 participants, and (b) qualitative descriptive interviews of 33 participants. Over half of the…

  13. Mosquito Vector Biting and Community Protection in a Malarious Area, Siahoo District, Hormozgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Shahandeh

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Study subjects were aware of an association between mosquito bite and malaria transmission. Health work­ers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about self-protection to help community members to be involved more in malaria control.

  14. Current and Emerging Threats of Homegrown Terrorism: The Case of the Boston Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 15, 2013, two coordinated Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs exploded near the finish line of the famous Boston Marathon. The fatalities were low but the symbolism was high: more than a decade after 9/11, the United States is still not safe from militant jihadist terrorist attacks. The bombers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had planned on killing and dying in the name of the global jihad after their second set of attacks on New York’s Time Square. They were stopped before getting to New York where the fatalities could have been much greater. The two brothers were self-radicalised homegrown terrorists. At this moment of writing, existing evidence points to the fact that, while inspired by militant jihadism and in loose contact with terrorists in Dagestan, they operated alone. This is an analysis of the radicalisation process that led those two young men to adopt violent jihad, and the failures of U.S. counterterrorism efforts that enabled them to kill three people and injuring some 250 others. This analysis shows that much still needs to be done in international inter-agency collaboration and in community engagement to prevent further attacks of this sort from happening on U.S. soil.

  15. Response of benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling to reductions in wastewater loading to Boston Harbor, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jane; Giblin, Anne E.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Kelsey, Samuel W.; Howes, Brian L.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the long-term response of benthic metabolism in depositional sediments of Boston Harbor, MA, to large reductions in organic matter and nutrient loading. Although Boston Harbor received very high loadings of nutrients and solids it differs from many eutrophic estuaries in that severe hypoxia was prevented by strong tidal flushing. Our study was conducted for 9 years during which a series of improvements to sewage treatment were implemented, followed by 10 years after the culminating step in the clean-up, which was to divert all wastewater effluent offshore. Counter to expectations, sediment oxygen demand and nutrient effluxes initially increased at some stations, reaching some of the highest rates recorded in the literature, and were spatially and temporally quite variable. Early increases were attributed to macrofaunal effects, as sediments at some sites were rapidly colonized by tube-building amphipods, Ampelisca spp., which dominated a dense macrofaunal mat community. As reductions in loading progressed, however, mean rates in oxygen uptake and release of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate all decreased. At the point of outfall diversion, rates and variability had already decreased substantially. By the end of the study, average oxygen uptake had decreased from 74 to 41 mmol m-2 d-1 and spatial and temporal variability had decreased. Similarly, nutrient fluxes were less than half the rates measured at the start of the project and also less variable. Other evidence of improved conditions included a decrease in the carbon content of sediments at most stations and higher Eh values at all stations, illustrating less reducing conditions. Denitrification also showed an overall decrease from the beginning to the end of the 19-year study, but was highest during the intermediate phases of the cleanup, reaching 9 mmol N m-2 d-1. At the end of the study denitrification averaged for all sites was 2.2 mmol N m-2 d-1, but when compared to current loadings, had become

  16. Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Apis Melifera Carpatica Honey Bee Workers, Depending on Season and Area

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marina Mot; Emil Tirziu; Ileana Margareta Nichita

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know that the intestinal flora of most organisms play a decisive role in nutrient assimilation or diseases defending action and honeybees are not an exception. The importance and composition of the intestinal micro-flora define the health and growth of honeybees. For this study were been collected as far as 10 honeybee workers from each area, from three different areas: Brasov county, near Perşani mountains, Timiş county, from plane area and Arad county. from hillside area,...

  17. A study of power availability in Oleh community in Isoko South local Government area of Delta state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Otuagoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the availability of electric power supply in the Oleh community of Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out. The methods employed in achieving this include the use of Hour – Meter to register the number of hours supply was available for a period of three months, Multimeter and Ammeter were used to measure the supply voltage and current at any given time. The load shedding method adopted in the community by the Benin Electricity Distribution Company, BEDC, was also investigated. The results showed that power availability in the community for the three months under review was very bad. The average percentage of power available for the three months was 11.8%, meaning 88.2% of the time, power was unavailable. The power reliability index for each month of the study was negative; -5.94, -7.82 and -5.94 for June, July and August, 2015 respectively against a recommended value of high reliability of 0.989. This poor power availability accounts for the underdevelopment of the community.

  18. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  19. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  20. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  1. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Groenigen, J. W.; Jeffery, S; Mommer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a fi...

  2. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  3. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  4. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims. PMID:26289501

  5. Defined Map Units of the seafloor of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BOTTOMTYPE, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is a qualitatively-derived interpretative polygon shapefile defining the bottom types of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches,...

  6. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  7. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  8. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant communities of International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill had low number of plant species as related to control area. Importance value index of all the species were determined. Senna holosericea (Fresen. Greuter, Corchorus depressus (L. Stocks and Amaranthus viridis L. were found in all the communities whereas, Corchorus trilocularis L. and Abutilon indicum (L. Sweet were present in industrial areas. A relationship between soil characteristics and plant communities of the industries of Landhi and control site were conducted. Industrial plant communities have low level of water holding capacity and organic matter and high concentrations of total soluble salts and available sulfate as relative to soil of plant community of control area. The research demonstrated that the plant species were retarded in numbers due to soil pollution as compared to control area of Karachi University Campus due to industrial existing contamination and pollution in soil in the area

  9. A Nonstationary Negative Binomial Time Series with Time-Dependent Covariates: Enterococcus Counts in Boston Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    E. Andres Houseman; Brent Coull; James Shine

    2004-01-01

    Boston Harbor has had a history of poor water quality, including by enteric pathogens. We conduct a statistical analysis of data collected by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) between 1996 and 2002 to evaluate the effects of court-mandated improvements in sewage treatment. We propose a negative binomial model for time series of Enterococcus counts in Boston Harbor, where nonstationarity and autocorrelation are modeled using a nonparametric smooth function of time in the predi...

  10. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  11. Interactions between urban vegetation and surface urban heat islands: a case study in the Boston metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, Eli K.; Wang, Jonathan A.; Miller, David L.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston’s SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston’s urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18–22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston’s urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  12. Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area and its influence on the communities in its Botswana borders

    OpenAIRE

    Ziobro, Weronika

    2014-01-01

    This thesis attempts to examine the influence of a nature conservation area, also called a ‘peace park,’ on the lives of the people living and working within its borders. The particular focus of this study is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA). The objectives of this peace park, located in southern Africa, include improvements in quality of life for the local people through development mainly instigated by tourism increased due to enhanced nature protection. Anoth...

  13. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome

    OpenAIRE

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes; Elisa Caldeira Pires Catão; Renata Henrique Santana; Anderson de Souza Cabral; Rodolfo Paranhos; Thiago Pessanha Rangel; Carlos Eduardo Rezende; Edwards, Robert A.; Thompson, Cristiane C; Fabiano L. Thompson; Ricardo Henrique Kruger

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of sili...

  14. Pollution-induced community tolerance as an ecological risk assessment tool for diffuse heavy metal contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, M.; Wouterse, M.; Boivin, M.-E.; Greve, G.; Breure, T. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands). Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment

    2003-07-01

    In the Netherlands, large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, at concentrations in the range of the environmental quality criteria set for protecting the environment. Yet, it is difficult to demonstrate adverse effects of these metals in the field on ecosystem structure and functioning. Emerging techniques like determination of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) with nematodes and bacteria, and community structure analysis of organisms in the soil food web might be sensitive and promising tools for risk assessment in such ecosystems. As part of the Simulation Program on System-oriented Ecotoxicological Research (SSEO) of the Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research (NWO), we set out field investigations in a contaminated peat area in the central western part of the Netherlands. From about the 14{sup th} to the 20{sup th} century, this area has been contaminated with heavy metals due to a specific agricultural practice called 'Toemaken', the application of sand and sediment together with domestic wastes from the towns to improve soil quality. In this way about 500 km{sup 2} have been contaminated, mostly with lead, copper and zinc. Since the majority of the soil is moderately contaminated, and gradients are relatively small, special emphasis is given to the sampling technique for finding significant gradients of pollution including reliable references in a patchy environment. The goal of the project is: 1. to demonstrate relationships between PICT and more 'classical' ecological observations, like abundancies, community structure and functioning, and 2 to demonstrate field effects at multiple trophic levels, i.e. bacteria and nematodes. (orig.)

  15. ASIC design and data communications for the Boston retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Douglas B; Ellersick, William; Kelly, Shawn K; Doyle, Patrick; Priplata, Attila; Drohan, William; Mendoza, Oscar; Gingerich, Marcus; McKee, Bruce; Wyatt, John L; Rizzo, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design and testing of a custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been developed as a key component of the Boston retinal prosthesis. This device has been designed for patients who are blind due to age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. Key safety and communication features of the low-power ASIC are described, as are the highly configurable neural stimulation current waveforms that are delivered to its greater than 256 output electrodes. The ASIC was created using an 0.18 micron Si fabrication process utilizing standard 1.8 volt CMOS transistors as well as 20 volt lightly doped drain FETs. The communication system receives frequency-shift keyed inputs at 6.78 MHz from an implanted secondary coil, and transmits data back to the control unit through a lower-bandwidth channel that employs load-shift keying. The design's safety is ensured by on-board electrode voltage monitoring, stimulus charge limits, error checking of data transmitted to the implant, and comprehensive self-test and performance monitoring features. Each stimulus cycle is initiated by a transmitted word with a full 32-bit error check code. Taken together, these features allow researchers to safely and wirelessly tailor retinal stimulation and vision recovery for each patient. PMID:23365888

  16. 论美国波士顿大学群落的经济贡献%Study on the Economic Contribution of Boston University Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶

    2012-01-01

    美国大波士顿地区集聚着创建于不同时期的八所研究型大学,显示着这个地区高等教育的发展水平,共同组成特色鲜明、服务面向明确、办学定位准确的大学生态群落。八所大学组成的大学群落,为波士顿地区的经济发展和社会进步做出了重要贡献。%In the Greater Boston Area of the United States,there are 8 research universities founded in different times.They represent the level of the development of regional higher education there.The 8 universities gather together to form the Boston University Cluster,which has a distinctive feature,a clear social service idea and a precise university orientation.The university cluster has had an important contribution to theBoston region's economic development and social progress.

  17. [Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in Xiaojiang backwater area during the preliminary operation stage of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-song; Sheng, Jin-ping; Li, Zhe; Gao, Xu; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Hong

    2010-07-01

    According to one year's continuous observation on algae in the Xiaojiang backwater area in Three Gorges Reservoir, our group analyzed algae community and its succession in the Xiaojiang backwater area at the beginning of the function of the reservoir. The algae cell density and biomass are the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The maximal value of cell density is 421.64 x 10(3) cells x L(-1), and the minimal value is 2.06 x 10(5) cells x L(-1); and maximal value of biomass is 39,231.84 microg x L(-1), and the minimal value is 226.17 microg x L(-1). From May 2007 to May 2008, there are 7 phylum, 101 category, 262 genus appeared in the Xiaojiang backwater area, in which 51 categories are Chlorophyta accounting for 50.5%, 22 categories are Bacillariophyta accounting for 21.8%, 18 categories are Cyanophyta accounting for 17.8%, and 4 categories are Dinophyta, 2 categories are Cryptophyta, 3 categories are Euglenophyta, 1 category is Xanthophyta and others. Cryptomonas, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Oocystis, Chlamydomonas, Schroederia, Aulacoseira, Stephanodiscus and Fragilaria are familiar categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. Asterionnella, Aulacoseira, Coelastrunm, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Aclinastnrum, Dictyosphaerium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Merismopedia, Ceratium, Peridinium and Cryptomonas are the preponderant categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20825015

  18. [Psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Desirée Pereira de; Viñas, Ferran; Casas, Ferran; Montserrat, Carme; González-Carrasco, Mònica; Alcantara, Stefania Carneiro de

    2016-01-01

    The study's overall objective was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in urban and rural schoolchildren in Northeast Brazil, focusing on differences according to territorial context. The sample consisted of 757 participants, 495 from urban schools and 262 from rural schools, enrolled in the 6th and 7th grades (9 to 18 years of age) in 21 municipal and state public schools, of which 13 urban and 8 rural, in 7 municipalities (counties) in Ceará State, Brazil. The study instruments were inventory of stressful events, scale of life satisfaction for students, index of sense of community, and satisfaction indices by life domains (family, material goods, relations, neighborhood/zone, health, time, school, and personal). The results indicate that socioeconomically underprivileged public schoolchildren from urban areas are more exposed to daily stress and score lower on satisfaction in specific domains of life and on sense of community. This latter is an important indicator for evaluating wellbeing in this young population. PMID:27653200

  19. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  20. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  1. THE HEALTH STATUS OF A RURAL IRANIAN COMMUNITY IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AREA IN 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A.Alemi

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The health status of the rural community under the study is measured in terms of vital statistics, and living conditions in relation to demographic data. The findings reveal that this rural population can be considered a very unhealthy one. For instance, the infant mortality rate is 98.4 per 1000 live births, and 80.0 per cent of the total population were found to be infected by one or more parasitic diseases. Allocation of resources has been recommended to raise the standard of living, in order to bring about a better hygienic environment. Accessibility of health services through expansion of primary health care, and in this sphere the use of health auxiliaries should yet again receive special consideration.

  2. Commuter networks and community detection: a method for planning sub regional areas

    CERN Document Server

    De Montis, Andrea; Chessa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    A major issue for policy makers and planners is the definition of the "ideal" regional partition, i.e. the delimitation of sub-regional domains showing a sufficient level of homogeneity with respect to some specific territorial features. In Sardinia, the second major island in the Mediterranean sea, politicians and analysts have been involved in a 50 year process of identification of the correct pattern for the province, an intermediate administrative body in between the Regional and the municipal administration. In this paper, we compare some intermediate body partitions of Sardinia with the patterns of the communities of workers and students, by applying grouping methodologies based on the characterization of Sardinian commuters' system as a complex weighted network. We adopt an algorithm based on the maximization of the weighted modularity of this network to detect productive basins composed by municipalities showing a certain degree of cohesiveness in terms of commuter flows. The results obtained lead to ...

  3. Establishment and Management of Community Sanitary Complexes in Rural Areas : A Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Ministry of Rural Development; World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Indian remains one of the countries wherein a lot of efforts are still required to eliminate the practice of open defecation. In rural areas, open defecation though reduced in scale continues to be a socially and culturally accepted traditional behavior largely. Low awareness of the potential health and economic benefits of better sanitation and hygiene practices, perception of high costs ...

  4. Governance and Community Responses to Floods in Poor Peri-urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline

    In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly severe and frequent problem for the poor in many West African urban centres. In diverse metropoles of the region, including Lagos, Cotonou, Accra, Abidjan and Dakar, low-income populations who typically live undesirable flood-prone areas...

  5. [Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from microbial communities of Goryachinsk Thermal Spring (Baikal Area, Russia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, A M; Gaĭsin, V A; Sukhacheva, M V; Namsaraeva, B B; Panteleeva, A N; Nuianzina-Boldareva, E N; Kuznetsov, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Species composition of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats of the Goryachinsk thermal spring was investigated along the temperature gradient. The spring belonging to nitrogenous alkaline hydrotherms is located at the shore of Lake Baikal 188 km north-east from Ulan-Ude. The water is of the sulfate-sodium type, contains trace amounts of sulfide, salinity does not exceed 0.64 g/L, pH 9.5. The temperature at the outlet of the spring may reach 54 degrees C. The cultures of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, nonsulfur and sulfur purple bacteria, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were identified using the pufLM molecular marker. The fmoA marker was used for identification of green sulfur bacteria. Filamentous cyanobacteria predominated in the mats, with anoxygenic phototrophs comprising a minor component of the phototrophic communities. Thermophilic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus were detected irn the samples from both the thermophilic and mesophilic mats. Cultures ofnonsulfur purple bacteria similar to Blastochloris sulfoviridis and Rhodomicrobium vannielii were isolatd from the mats developing at high (50.6-49.4 degrees C) and low temperatures (45-20 degrees C). Purple sulfur bacteria Allochromatium sp. and Thiocapsa sp., as well as green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium sp., were revealedin low-temperature mats. Truly thermophilic purple and gree sulfur bacteria were not found in the spring. Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria found in the spring were typical of the sulfuret communities, for which the sulfur cycle is mandatory. The presence of aerobic bacteriochlorophylla-containing bacteria identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) tumifaciens in the mesophilic (20 degrees C) mat is of interest.

  6. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence of chemical products usage, causing and irreversible damage to environment and producers and consumers life quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. under Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston as phosphate rock solubilizing bacteria. The study took place in the Research Centre Tibaitatá-Corpoica, located in Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Results demonstrated that the strains have an intrinsic capacity to solubilize low solubility phosphorus sources as phosphate rock. Inoculants application based on: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 and Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 strains displayed the best results. The strains Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 and K35, are capable of producing indoles and siderophores. The green house experiment showd that strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 of phosphate rocks represents a viable economic and ecological alternative in sustainable agriculture systems.

  7. Relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Jormfeldt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence on staffs’ competence,” “Responsibility for user involvement,” and “The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers.” The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

  8. Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Jormfeldt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

  9. “To live with the sea” Development of the Velondriake community - Managed protected area network, Southwest Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Harris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s southwest coast supports some of the largest coral reef systems in the western Indian Ocean. These reefs not only provide critical habitat to thousands of marine species but also are essential to the survival of the indigenous Vezo people who rely on healthy marine resources for food, transport, cultural identity and income. However, coastal populations are growing rapidly and international fisheries companies have begun exploiting the region’s waters through a sophisticated collection network to supply an expanding export market. In recent years local fishers have begun reporting declines in the size and number of their catches. Building on the success of a pilot marine no take zone launched three years ago in the remote fishing village of Andavadoaka, Blue Ventures Conservation (BV, Madagascar’s Institute of Marine Sciences (Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines – IHSM and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS are now working with 21 neighbouring villages, and fisheries collection and export companies to develop a network of community - run marine and coastal protected areas that will span more than 800 km2, aiming to benefit more than 10,000 people and protect coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds and other threatened habitats along Madagascar’s southwest coast. The villages, grouped into three constituent geographic regions, have established a management committee which serves as a liaison between conservation scientists and community members, providing input and insight into all phases of conservation planning, from research activities to implementation of management plans. The management committee also selected a unifying name for the network: Velondriake, which means “to live with the Sea.” Along with protecting biodiversity and livelihoods, the network is working to increase environmental awareness among communities, expand local and national capacity for biodiversity conservation and serve as a model

  10. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

  11. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  12. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  13. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  14. Growth and production of the copepod community in the southern area of the Humboldt Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Escribano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton production is a critical issue for understanding marine ecosystem structure and dynamics, however, its time-space variations are mostly unknown in most systems. In this study, estimates of copepod growth and production (CP in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (∼35–37° S were obtained from annual cycles during a 3 year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006 at a fixed shelf station and from spring–summer surveys during the same years. C-specific growth rates (g varied extensively among species and under variable environmental conditions; however, g values were not correlated to either near surface temperature or copepod size. Copepod biomass (CB and CP were higher within the coastal upwelling zone (−2 year−1 with a~mean annual P/B ratio of 2.7. We estimated that CP could consume up to 60% of the annual primary production (PP in the upwelling zone but most of the time is around 8%. Interannual changes in CB and CP values were associated with changes in the copepod community structure, the dominance of large-sized forms replaced by small-sized species from 2004 to 2006. This change was accompanied by more persistent and time extended upwelling during the same seasonal period. Extended upwelling may have caused large losses of CB from the upwelling zone due to an increase in offshore advection of coastal plankton. On a larger scale, these results suggest that climate-related impacts of increasing wind-driven upwelling in coastal upwelling systems may generate a negative trend in zooplankton biomass.

  15. Master Agreement between Board of Directors of Iowa Valley Community College District (Merged Area VI) and Iowa Valley Community College Education Association/ISEA, 1987-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Valley Community Coll. District, Marshalltown, IA.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Directors of the Iowa Valley Community College District and the Iowa Valley Community College Education Association outlines the terms of employment for all faculty, librarians, and counselors and certain other professional staff at Marshalltown and Ellsworth Community Colleges. The 13…

  16. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Elster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves, micro-fungi (hyphae and spores, bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters, yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area, Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia, Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie, and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie. Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation. Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and

  17. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  18. In search of the Boston Strangler: genetic evidence from the exhumation of Mary Sullivan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, David R; Starrs, James E

    2004-01-01

    The Boston Strangler was one of the United States' most notorious serial killers, raping and strangling with decorative ligatures thirteen woman in Boston during the early 1960s. Albert DeSalvo, never a suspect in the slayings, confessed in prison (where he was later murdered) to being the Boston Strangler, and the investigation largely ended. Mary Sullivan was the last victim of the Boston Strangler, found sexually assaulted and strangled in her Boston apartment in 1964. Recently, a team of forensic scientists undertook the exhumation and subsequent scientific analysis of Mary Sullivan's remains, in hope of finding consistencies or inconsistencies between DeSalvo's confessed description of the murder and any evidence left behind. Included in these analyses was extensive DNA testing of all UV fluorescent material associated with the body. The large majority of results were negative, however, fluorescent material located on the underwear and entwined in her pubic hair generated two human mitochondrial DNA sequences. Neither of these matched the victim nor members of the forensic team who worked on the evidence. Most importantly, neither DNA sequence could have originated from Albert DeSalvo.

  19. Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat

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    Anwar Alam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study. The researcher used questionnaire for educated respondents and interview schedule for illiterate respondents. The study indicates that Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA is one of the most appropriate approaches for the identification of community problems and for understanding the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the community. The beneficiaries were well aware about participatory rural appraisal (PRA and its use because of the proper introduction and implementation in area by Barani Area Development Project (BADP. Due to PRA, the output of agriculture, livestock and forestry has risen, which has ultimately raised the socio-economic conditions of the community. The PRA training in agriculture is with special emphasis on land cultivation, preparations, fertilizer and pesticides usage has risen and helpful in producing more yields. In livestock sector they gave training on breed improvement in area and as a result livestock breed and milk products have improved in the area. In forestry sector they gave training on nursery raising and bee keeping etc to generate various ways for income. Thus through the PRA trainings and usage the community has a chance to earn more livelihoods and to satisfy their needs easily. Thus BADP used PRA approach in the area to empower the community through self-help and self-decision for

  20. Healthy communities: the challenge of social capital in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The debate about social environment, sustainability and health has been highlighted by the interest in social capital. It has been suggested that social capital varies from place to place and that such variations are relevant for explaining variations in health. This paper explores the association between neighbourhood social capital (making a distinction between linking, bonding and bridging social capital) and self-rated health. The study has involved 4,577 residents in 143 neighbourhoods of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between social capital and self-rated health. The results show that social capital was strongly associated with self-rated health, even after an adjustment for individual attributes. It is not possible to divorce health planning from urban planning and from the promotion of social capital. A sense of place, identity and belonging needs to be at the core of all healthy planning interventions.

  1. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  2. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

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    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  3. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

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    Tveit Ingvar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped based on address of residence, and attack rates and relative risks were calculated for each water supply zone. A case control study was conducted among people living in the central area of Bergen using age- and sex matched controls randomly selected from the population register. Results The outbreak investigation showed that the outbreak started in late August and peaked in early October. A total of 1300 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database gave an estimate of 2500 cases treated for giardiasis probably linked to the outbreak. There was a predominance of women aged 20–29 years, with few children or elderly. The risk of infection for persons receiving water from the water supply serving Bergen city centre was significantly higher than for those receiving water from other supplies. Leaking sewage pipes combined with insufficient water treatment was the likely cause of the outbreak. Conclusion Late detection contributed to the large public health impact of this outbreak. Passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases is not sufficient for timely detection of outbreaks with non-endemic infections.

  4. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  5. Agentes de saúde em comunidades urbanas Community-based health workers in urban areas

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    João Cláudio L. Fernandes

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agentes comunitários nos programas de atenção primária à saúde é uma experiência amplamente difundida, principalmente nos países do Terceiro Mundo. É importante, entretanto, discriminar o perfil de atuação destes agentes em função da área onde atuam, principalmente no que diz respeito às diferenças entre o meio rural e o urbano. A simples substituição de profissionais de medicina, odontologia, psicologia etc, por agentes comunitários pode significar uma abordagem limitada do conceito de atenção primária, levando ao desenvolvimento de modelos assistenciais distintos, determinados em função da classe social a que se dirigem. Neste artigo, é apontada a necessidade de formação de recursos humanos de nível superior para a atenção primária à saúde, buscando-se também identificar o lugar dos agentes comunitários nesta área, sua especificidade técnica, bem como alguns obstáculos percebidos neste campo profissional.The employment of community-based health workers (CHWs in primary health care projects is a widespread experience, mainly in Third World countries. However, it is important to differentiate between the rural and urban profiles of these professionals. The replacement of medical/odontological/psychological professionals by CHWs alone may represent a limited approach to primary health care problems, leading to the development of different health care patterns, depending on the social class they are addressed. This paper points to need for the qualification of high-level health personnel also trying to identify the location of CHWs in this field, their technical specificity, as well as some difficulties observed in this practice.

  6. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

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    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  7. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  8. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure.

  9. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. PMID:25807991

  10. Alternatives to the conflict between environmental authorities and communities of protected areas in Colombian Páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country biologically and culturally megadiverse. Presented inside the largest expanse of páramos of the world, which are considered the planet's water plants and habitats of high biological diversity. However, human occupation of the Colombian Páramos has generated conflict between environmental regulations and productive land uses. This article analyzes the alternative proposed solutions to the conflict between environmental authorities of protected areas and inhabitants of the Páramos in Colombia. Previously there were two types of alternatives: The first suggested granting ecotourism services in parks and land purchases by mixed companies. The second proposed the abandonment of the production activities of farmers, mediated by educational processes and in compliance with environmental standards on pain of facing punitive action by the state. We propose a third alternative, that involves community management plans with time and institutional funding, and implementation of agroecological models, biocultural rescue memory and changes in agrarian structure

  11. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community.

  12. Characteristics and distribution of trulli constructions in the area of the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli

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    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The agro-forestry territory in the Region of Apulia, southern Italy, is characterised by a widespread and diversified presence of dry stone constructions, including trulli, rural buildings with a characteristic a conical shape. The trulli are mainly to be found in the central and eastern part of the region, called Murgia of Trulli. Trulli are perfectly integrated with the agro-environment specificity of the area, creating a unique landscape and establishing themselves as a testimony of tradition and rural culture. In fact, in this area, from the 17th until the mid-20th century, the trulli accompanied the development of agricultural activities. According to the number of cones they had, they were used as temporary shelters, places of support for primary production, or comfortable houses for the rural population. In recent decades, for several social and economic reasons, this heritage of rural buildings has been affected by abandonment and degradation phenomena. Interventions aimed at recovery and re-use have not always respected the origin of the buildings, their design characteristics or the landscape in which they had been built. In order to reduce the impact that this situation has had on environmental and territorial quality it is, therefore, necessary to develop initiatives to protect and valorise the trulli while respecting the identity of place, the architectural elements, and the agricultural and environmental characteristics of the territory. For this purpose, we need to analyse and characterise the heritage of the existing trulli and its relationship with the local reality. The present paper analyses the typology and distribution of the trulli located on the site of community importance Murgia of Trulli, a protected area with high environmental value in the central-eastern area of the Region of Apulia. Specifically, we analysed the relationship between the trulli buildings and the agro-environment context to acquire a basic

  13. Patient’s expectation on communication performances community of Dental Health Services providers located in urban and rural area

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    Taufan Bramantoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of dentist’s communication skills is considered as one of important aspects on the quality of dental health services assessment. During the initial interview conducted at Ketabang, Dupak, and Kepadangan community dental health services at Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia, it appeared that eighty percent of initial respondents were not satisfied with the communication aspect. Community Dental Health Services (CDHS need to assess the communication performances based on community characteristics in effort to promote the quality and effectiveness of the denta health services. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze patient’s expectation values priorities on dentists' communication performances in CDHS that located in urban and rural area. Methods: The study was conducted in Ketabang Surabaya, Dupak Surabaya and Kepadangan Sidoarjo CDHSs. The participants were 400 patients above 18 years old. Participants were assessed their expectation value using the communication performances of dental health services questionnaire. Results: Patients in urban CDHS appeared that there were two priority aspects which had high values, namely the clarity of instructions and the dentist’s ability of active listening to the patient, while patients in rural CDHS revealed that the clarity of instructions and dentist-patient relationship were the aspects with high values. Conclusion: Patients in CDHS that located in rural area expect more dentist-patient interpersonal relationship performance than patients in CDHS located in urban area. This finding becomes a valuable information for CDHS to develop communication strategies based on community characteristics.Latar belakang: Kualitas komunikasi dari dokter gigi merupakan salah satu aspek penting dalam penilaian kualitas layanan suatu sarana pelayanan kesehatan. Pada wawancara pendahuluan yang dilaksanakan di puskesmas Ketabang, Dupak dan Kepadangan di Surabaya dan Sidoarjo

  14. 78 FR 8686 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Manchester-Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), notice is being given that the FAA is considering a request from Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH to waive the surplus property requirements for approximately 19 acres of airport...

  15. 75 FR 42814 - Boston & Maine Corporation―Abandonment Exemption―in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston & Maine Corporation Abandonment Exemption in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... Counties, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02149, 02151, 02148, 01905,...

  16. An Integrated Model of Care: A Visit to The SPARK Center, a Program of Boston Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This article features The SPARK Center, a program of Boston Medical Center, located in Mattapan, Massachusetts. The Center has pioneered a whole-child approach to address the multi-dimensional needs of Boston's most at-risk children, recognizing that vulnerable children need more than educational supports to flourish. The Center's integrated model…

  17. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en lactuca sativa cultivar white boston

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López; Ana María García Hoyos; Felipe Andrés Romero Perdomo; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonTítulo en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonResumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos...

  18. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  19. Relationship between diversity of forest plant and community dynamics in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-gui; XING Ya-juan; ZHOU Xiao-feng; HAN Shi-jie

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity was studied in 26 communities with different structures in Maoershan National Park and Liangshui Natural Reserve of Northeast Forestry University in Heilongjiang Province, China. Composition index (CI) was taken as a parameter to quantify the community dynamics, which can nicely describe forest community dynamics, meanwhile, the relationship between diversity and community dynamics were also investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the total number species of community, richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were obviously different in every community. The richness decreased with the increasing CI of every community, which means richness was in inverse proportion to community dynamics. The Shannon-Wiener index of every community increased from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession, and then decreased in the climax stage. The coverage weighted foliage-height diversity index increased along with the increase of CI, which was similar as the pattern diversity.

  20. Differences in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Composition in Soils of Three Land Use Types in Subtropical Hilly Area of Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Caihuan; Gu, Zhenhong; Cui, Hang; Zhu, Honghui; Fu, Shenlei; Yao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Land use type is key factor in restoring the degraded soils due to its impact on soil chemical properties and microbial community. In this study, the influences of land use type on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community and soil chemical properties were assessed in a long-run experimental station in subtropical hilly area of southern China. Soil samples were collected from forest land, orchard and vegetable field. Soil chemical properties were analyzed, and PCR-DGGE was performed to ex...

  1. The effect of education and training in rehabilitation of inmates and its probable curbing of recidivism : a case of community reintegration at Rooigrond Management Area / Kgosietsile Christopher Rantsome

    OpenAIRE

    Rantsome, Kgosietsile Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education and training in the rehabilitation of inmates and its probable curbing of recidivism at Rooigrond Management Area. The study determined the impact the community and other stakeholders has in placing back law abiding citizens into the community. Due to the complexity of the research two methods were adopted, viz. qualitative and quantitative methods. The research comprised of two types of respondents, sixty i...

  2. Longitudinal associations with changes in outdoor recreation area use for physical activity during a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Forthofer, Melinda; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent; Child, Stephanie T; Hughey, S Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Outdoor recreation areas (ORA) are important resources for physical activity (PA) and health promotion. While past research has identified correlates of ORA use, few studies have examined predictors of longitudinal changes in park- and trail-based PA in community settings. Using data from a 6-month community-based walking intervention study, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of PA in ORAs. Data were collected from baseline and 6-month assessments from participants (n=295) in a group walking intervention in South Carolina; participants enrolled from January 2012-May 2013. A decomposition scheme was used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of average group ORA use for PA, including social support, self-efficacy for PA, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and accelerometer-based PA, adjusting for gender. On average, participants were 49.4+13.3years old, 66.1% were Black, and the majority were women. There was a mean increase in group ORA use of 2.1+0.4days/month from baseline to 6months. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of the percentage of time in MVPA, self-efficacy, and social support were associated with greater group-average ORA use. Longitudinally, increased social support from friends and rating of lighter motorized traffic were associated with increased group ORA use. Additionally, longitudinal increases in percentage of MVPA and more favorable rating of the neighborhood as a place to walk were both associated with decreased group ORA use. Better understanding how social and physical environmental characteristics impact ORA use for PA can lead to more effective intervention strategies and warrants greater attention in future research and public health promotion efforts. PMID:26096192

  3. Sterols and fatty acid biomarkers as indicators of changes in soil microbial communities in a uranium mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maria J; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Kátia; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Duarte, Armando C; Freitas, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Included in the 2nd tier of a site specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa uranium mine, Central Portugal), fatty acids biomarkers and sterols were analyzed to assess the impact of soil contamination with metals and radionuclides in the structure of the microbial community in seven sampling sites located at different distances from the mine. Surface soil samples were collected in those sampling sites in the four different seasons of the year. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on fatty acid biomarkers and sterols. Subsequently PCA scores obtained for both components were used to test the effect of sites and seasons, on soil samples collected in the Cunha Baixa uranium mine, through bi-factorial ANOVAs. Through PCA analysis, two distinct groups were set apart along the first two components. One group included sites at a great distance from the mine which were negatively correlated with higher contents of iC15:0 and iC17:0, both indicators of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as with ergosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol. The second group, in turn, was composed of the sampling sites most impacted by ore exploration, in situ leaching of poor ore, and spread of sludge from the effluent treatment pond. These sites were positively correlated with higher levels of iC16:0 (Gram-positive bacteria indicator), cyC17:0 (generally common in gram negative bacteria) and C18:0 and C17:0 biomarkers of non-specific bacteria. The profile of fatty acids obtained in the sampling sites revealed variable predominance of groups of bacteria which are a clear indication of differences in the soil microbial communities that are directly related to the environmental conditions prevailing in the uranium mine area. PMID:21547821

  4. Development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers Desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the development of an adapted version of the Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers, and to investigate the effects of age, education and gender on both the original and the adapted Boston Naming Test in respect of Brazilian Portuguese speakers. METHOD: Eighty items, including the 60 original ones and 20 adapted items were administered to 739 healthy Brazilian subjects aged between 6 and 77 years who received 0 to 17 years of education. RESULTS: The coefficients of the General Linear Model estimation suggested that both age and education were statistically significant to predict total scores. In addition, score variances, justified by such predictors, were 41.20% in the original Boston Naming Test against 25.84% in the adapted Boston Naming Test. These results suggest that the scores from the original BNT are more dependent on age and education than those from the adapted Boston Naming Test. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated the suitability of the adapted Boston Naming Test version for the Brazilian population and described provisional norms for the original and adapted Boston Naming Test for Portuguese speakers.OBJETIVO: Apresentar o desenvolvimento de uma versão adaptada do Boston Naming Test para a língua portuguesa e investigar os efeitos da idade, escolaridade e gênero nas versões original e adaptada do Boston Naming Test. MÉTODO: 80 itens foram administrados incluindo os 60 originais e 20 itens adaptados em 739 brasileiros saudáveis com idades entre 6 e 77 anos e escolaridade entre 0 e 17 anos. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de estimação do Modelo Linear Geral sugeriram que a idade e escolaridade eram preditores significativos do resultado total. Além disto, as variâncias dos resultados explicadas por estes preditores no Boston Naming Test original era de 41,20%, enquanto que no adaptado era de 25,84%. Estes achados sugerem que os resultados do Boston Naming Test original são mais dependentes de

  5. Earth Sciences at Boston University: Reorientation and Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Simpson, C.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1994 with the renaming of its Department of Geology as the Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University has invested much effort into developing a modern, energetic department that excels in its dual research and teaching mission. These changes required strong leadership at the departmental and senior administrative level, but they have resulted in a moderately sized program (9.5 full time faculty) that is competing with "Top Ten" institutions for graduate students and faculty, and which is also placing its undergraduates in the leading graduate programs. Most of the revitalization was achieved over a 5-year period in which across the board changes occurred in our undergraduate curriculum and during which we recruited junior and mid-level faculty on the basis of their scholarly abilities and for their belief in the culture of our new mission and program. The undergraduate curriculum, which had been oriented towards traditional geologic offerings, was greatly increased in rigor (requiring a full year each of calculus, physics, and chemistry) and redesigned to expand flexibility in the broad field of earth sciences. During the evolution of the curriculum, it was extremely important not to confuse "tradition" with "rigor". Undergraduates became more critically involved with our research mission through senior theses, a formal Undergraduate Research Opportunities program, and by work-study participation in the laboratories. By making the program more challenging, over the period of 3 years we doubled the number of majors and minors and increased the average GPA by 0.5 units. Now, after 8 years, we have nearly tripled our overall number of students, with further improvements in quality and intellectual diversity. The opportunity to replace departing senior faculty was achieved through effectively arguing to the central administration that modern earth sciences are an essential component of any leading institution of higher education. By persuading the

  6. Dynamics of Community Participation, Student Achievement and School Management: The Case of Primary Schools in a Rural Area of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…

  7. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  8. Community development: an important way for coordinating development of population and social economy in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J

    1995-01-01

    This article explains how community development is important to rural socioeconomic development in China. Almost all rural socioeconomic activities occur at the community level. Community development encourages voluntarism and self-development, which contribute to adoption of more modern ideas, morals, and values. Community development stimulates changes that favor decreased childbearing and a high quality of child rearing. The special features of Chinese rural communities are identified as underdevelopment, population pressure and resource degradation, collective entities, greater social cohesion, flexibility, affiliations as government units, and access to other useful community organizations. The development model for communities varied over time from an emphasis on family planning to a focus on women's development, poverty alleviation, or economic development. Well-developed communities focused on social security systems, service networks, or environmental protection. Community development is tied to economic development. The growth of collectives played an important role in community development. Women's active and extensive participation and leadership by other influential persons were important forces in community development. Women served as agents of change. Mass participation is now a key feature of community development. Former communes did not include the same level of voluntarism. Community development directly supports increased incomes for families, which decreases the emphasis on children as a source of income. The economic value of children is reduced when communities provide social security. The greater value placed on males is reduced when women's income is increased. Community development lowers the social value of children by improving people's quality of life and by creating a modern social environment. PMID:12290858

  9. Reflections on the History of Ethnomethodology: The Boston and Manchester "Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psathas, George

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the development of programs in ethnomethodology at Boston University and Manchester University by offering comparisons with the ideal type model of "school," The Chicago School of Sociology. It focuses primarily on institutional structures and arrangements rather than shared theoretical or methodological…

  10. The Lowells of Boston and the Founding of University Extension at Harvard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author uses the occasion of the centennial of University Extension at Harvard to document how this unique educational institution came into being and why it became associated with Harvard University. He traces the prominent role played by the Lowell family in establishing the Lowell Institute of Boston in the late 1830s and…

  11. A Serotype VIII Strain among Colonizing Group B Streptococcal Isolates in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, Leanne J.; Bradford, Jessica; Paoletti, Lawrence C.

    1999-01-01

    Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a risk factor for neonatal GBS disease. Whereas serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are prevalent in the United States, types VI and VIII predominate in Japan. Recently, a serotype VIII strain was detected among 114 clinical GBS isolates from a Boston, Mass., hospital.

  12. The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    Dr. David Morens reads excerpts from his essay about Cotton Mather’s diary, which details the experience and tragedy of the measles outbreak in Boston, Massachusetts in 1713.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  13. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  14. 77 FR 34797 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  15. 77 FR 56115 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 78 FR 11747 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY:...

  17. 76 FR 4817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  18. 76 FR 72309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  19. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  20. 76 FR 7236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Release No. 59858 (May 4, 2009), 74 FR 22191 (May 12, 2009) (SR-NASDAQ-2009-039). Prior to the closing of... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange... is hereby given that on January 19, 2011, Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia, Inc....

  1. Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets alumnus Tom Roberts named Boston College game Hokie Hero

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets alumnus retired Col. James Tom Roberts, U.S. Army, who earned a degree in business administration from the Pamplin College of Business in 1962 has been selected as the Hokie Hero for the Virginia Tech versus Boston College game.

  2. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  3. Distance Learning at Boston University [and] Comments on McNamara, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    McNamara and others describe Boston University's off-campus graduate program in rehabilitation counseling, which uses distance learning methods such as videotapes and electronic bulletin boards. The intensive individualized advising and monitoring system is serving as a model for on-campus students. Comments by Ulicny and Rubin follow the article.…

  4. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the

  5. The bilingual effect on Boston Naming Test performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Montoya, Rosa I;

    2007-01-01

    ) in a community-based sample of elderly subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 976 subjects born in 1914, APOE genotype was determined and MRI examinations were carried out in 75 subjects. WMH were rated using a standard semi-quantitative method. ANOVA and regression analyses were conducted to explore...

  6. Impact Of Training On The Knowledge Of Community Health Guides In Some Selected Areas Of Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi R. R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study conducted in Kashi Vidyapeeth Block of Varanasi District, 20 Community Health Guides (CHGs were trained in order to strengthen their knowledge in some selected areas of Primary Health Care. Of the total score of 235, the mean score in pre-training was 115.65 (49.21%. During the first post-training assessment done after 3 months the mean score increased by 61.50 (26.17% which was statistically significant During the third post-training assessment after 9 months of training, the mean score increased significantly from the pre-training assessment by 38 (16.17%. Separate analysis for each item revealed significant improvements in the knowledge of CHGs after training. Age had no significant influence in the gain of knowledge. The increase in knowledge was significantly greater in CHGs with higher formal education. The “practitioner” group of CHGs could gain and retain more knowledge compared to the “non-practitioner” group.

  7. Restructuring the organizational culture of medical institutions: a study on a community hospital in the I-Lan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2008-09-01

    Launched in 1995, the National Health Insurance Program has imposed tremendous pressure on hospitals across Taiwan. As a result, most hospitals, especially those of small and medium scale, have gone to great lengths to restructure their organizations in order to continue operating under the new medical setting. Using a community hospital in I-Lan area as its focus, this study attempts to identify the process of organizational culture restructuring in medical institutions. This process includes the two phases of (1) analyzing difficulties faced, with particular emphasis on three problems associated with the existing organizational culture and (2) restructuring the organizational culture and evaluating the restructuring process, with emphasis on four strategies geared to modify the organizational culture and a pre-and-post quasi-experimental study to evaluate outcomes. This study uses a triangulated data collection approach comprising four qualitative data collection techniques that include semi-structured interviews, focus groups, reflective participant observation, and critical review of relevant organizational materials. The evaluation reveals a significant level of difference between employee perspectives on organizational culture before and after restructuring. In short, employees expressed that, after the restructuring, they feel more respected and recognized than before. Research results, based on an organization's cultural restructuring process, show the process by which a hospital successfully restructured its organizational culture. Empirical data derived from the restructuring process may serve as reference for other hospitals contemplating restructuring.

  8. Epipelagic mesozooplankton succession and community structure over a marine ouffall area in the northeastern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li Chun; Kumar, Ram; Dahms, Hans Uwe; Chen, Chun Te; Chen, Qing Chao; Hwang, Jiang Shiou

    2008-05-01

    This study analyses distribution and abundance patterns of mesozooplankton communities at 13 stations in the coastal waters over a marine outfall area in the northeastern South China Sea. Cruises were conducted in March, June and September 2002, and plankton samples were collected with a 333 microm North Pacific net. The Mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid Copepods, Cladocera, Chaetognatha and Pteropoda. Stations located near the entrance of the harbor provided a relatively higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians. In total, 20 zooplankton groups were identified in which, Calanoida, Cladocera, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda, Poecilostomatoida and Appendicularia comprised 92.77% of the total zooplankton abundance. Copepoda dominated in all three cruises, comprising 65.32% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Samples collected in June recorded higher mesozooplankton abundance than March and September samples. Onshore stations recorded higher BOD values, higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians and a relativelylower abundance of the overall mesozooplankton. Total mesozooplankton abundance did not correlate significantly with temperature, pH, or dissolved oxygen, but correlated negatively with BOD. PMID:18972677

  9. The impact of hydraulic blade dredging on a benthic megafaunal community in the Clyde Sea area, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.; Moore, P. G.

    2003-08-01

    A study was made of the impacts on a benthic megafaunal community of a hydraulic blade dredge fishing for razor clams Ensis spp. within the Clyde Sea area. Damage caused to the target species and the discard collected by the dredge as well as the fauna dislodged by the dredge but left exposed at the surface of the seabed was quantified. The dredge contents and the dislodged fauna were dominated by the burrowing heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum, approximately 60-70% of which survived the fishing process intact. The next most dominant species, the target razor clam species Ensis siliqua and E. arcuatus as well as the common otter shell Lutraria lutraria, did not survive the fishing process as well as E. cordatum, with between 20 and 100% of individuals suffering severe damage in any one dredge haul. Additional experiments were conducted to quantify the reburial capacity of dredged fauna that was returned to the seabed as discard. Approximately 85% of razor clams retained the ability to rapidly rebury into both undredged and dredged sand, as did the majority of those heart urchins Echinocardium cordatum which did not suffer aerial exposure. Individual E. cordatum which were brought to surface in the dredge collecting cage were unable to successfully rebury within three hours of being returned to the seabed. These data were combined to produce a model of the fate of the burrowing megafauna dredged and dislodged in order to collect 10 kg of marketable razor clams.

  10. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055

  11. Transformations of soils and forest communities in the areas of Early-Medieval strongholds (examples from Chełmno Land)

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Renata; Kamiński, Dariusz; Markiewicz, Maciej; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Zbyszewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research concerned transformations of soils in the areas of Early-Medieval strongholds and connected differences in floristic composition between forest communities from strongholds and non-synanthropic habitats. The study focused on two areas where Early-Medieval strongholds were situated – Gronowo and Płutowo (Chełmińska Upland, Northern Poland) – surrounded by various types of soils: rusty soils and black earths, respectively. Detailed pedological and floristicphytosociological investi...

  12. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Puerto Rico, and United States Virgin Islands. (b) The regional service areas are defined as follows: (1) Region 1 (Northeast): The Northeast Region consists of the following MTAs: Boston-Providence, Buffalo... Washington-Baltimore; and, Puerto Rico and United States Virgin Islands. (3) Region 3 (Midwest): The...

  13. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors. PMID:26320916

  14. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  15. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  16. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2013-01-01

    Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

  17. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  18. 77 FR 35965 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... AGENCY Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review AGENCY: Federal Housing... Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2010 sixth round review cycle under the FHFA...: Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston--District 1 The Community's Bank Bridgeport Connecticut. Charter...

  19. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  20. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Haug

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs. We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  1. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  2. Combining demographic and land-use dynamics with local communities perceptions for analyzing socio-ecological systems: a case study in a mountain area of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauteri M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities are facing increasing social heterogeneity and organization complexity consequently to land use changes, demographic dynamics and glo­balization processes. Members of the communities should have a direct perception of their own territories, recognizing any positive or negative change that may occur. A better knowledge of these processes may be achieved by investigating local community awareness and perspectives. A research was carried out in a rural and mountainous area of Central Italy with the following aims: (i to highlight demographic dynamics and land use changes that affected the area during the last decades; (ii to assess local communities’ perceptions and awareness of their own territories; (iii to verify and validate a research methodology by evaluating the resilience of socio-ecological systems. The study area involved four municipalities that were analyzed considering the historical changes of demographic data and land-use system. A questionnaire was submitted to a sample of local population. The questionnaire was aimed to investigate the following issues: (i level and quality of participation and communication within the community life; (ii awareness of environmental resources of the territories; (iii socio-cultural opportunities and expectations of future changes within the communities. In each municipality, different behaviors and needs emerged according to the age of the inhabitants. In spite of that, awareness of social, cultural and environmental constraints/potentialities emerged in all the communities. Communication capability seems a key factor to reinforce both the social capital and the resilience of the territories. Thus, sharing of experience and knowledge could play a major role in developing an efficient go­vernance of the occurring territorial changes. Finally, the study highlights that serious efforts should be spent especially to satisfy expectations of young people concerning the territorial

  3. Benthic-invertebrate, fish-community, and streambed-sediment-chemistry data for streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic-biology and sediment-chemistry data were collected at seven sites on the White River and at six tributary sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area of Indiana during the period 2009 through 2012. Data collected included benthic-invertebrate and fish-community information and concentrations of metals, insecticides, herbicides, and semivolatile organic compounds adsorbed to streambed sediments. A total of 120 benthic-invertebrate samples were collected, of which 16 were replicate samples. A total of 26 fish-community samples were collected in 2010 and 2012. Thirty streambed-sediment chemistry samples were collected in 2009 and 2011, of which four were concurrent duplicate samples

  4. Preliminary assessment of microbial communities and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in wetlands at Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.

  5. 76 FR 69622 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Captain of the Port Boston Zone, in the Federal Register (76 FR 37690). We did not receive any comments on... Displays (70-foot distance per inch of diameter of the fireworks mortars), and other pertinent...

  6. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  7. EASE-Grid Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice Masks Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice (LOCI) files provide land classification masks derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product...

  8. bh_1mBS.tif: Backscatter Imagery from Sidescan Sonar 1 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km²...

  9. The Means Analysis of Common Areas of Community%社区公共空间管理的Means分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀; 王卫红; 杨少飞

    2005-01-01

    Means Process provided by SPSS can provide the mean of every group mean, the degree of the material difference between groups, the degree of association between dependent variable and indepencent variable etc.. Now the management of the community public space is a hot social topic. Aim to the management system of the community public space, by an investigation, the writer did Means analysises to 49 questions of the questionnaire, and got the topics about which there is a great difference between different type , age and education level groups and an association with type, age and education, to guide the community management practice better.

  10. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  11. School Turnaround: Cristo Rey Boston High School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The mandates of the federal No Child Left Behind Law, including the threat of closing a school for underperformance, have led to multiple public school turnaround attempts. Because turnaround is a relatively new area of focus in education, there is limited research on what does and does not work, and even the definition of turnaround is a work in…

  12. The Elite Illusion: Achievement Effects at Boston and New York Exam Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadiroğlu, Atila; Angrist, Joshua David; Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    Talented students compete fiercely for seats at Boston and New York exam schools. These schools are characterized by high levels of peer achievement and a demanding curriculum tailored to each district's highest achievers. While exam school students do very well in school, the question of whether an exam school education adds value relative to a regular public education remains open. We estimate the causal effect of exam school attendance using a regression-discontinuity design, reporting bot...

  13. The Great Diseases Project: A Partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-01-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, impacting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston publ...

  14. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  15. Outcomes with the Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis at Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular IMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, Jose L.; Arcos, Edilio; Gris, Oscar; Aristizabal, Diego; Pacheco, Miguel; Sanchez, Claudia L.; Manero, Felicidad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcomes on the Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis at our institution. Design Retrospective analysis case series. Participants We analyzed 54 eyes of 53 patients who previously underwent Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis surgery at our institution from July 2006 to March 2011. Methods Preoperative and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and keratoprosthesis stability. Results Common preoperative diagnoses were penetrating keratoplasty failure in 49 eyes (90.7%), chronic keratitis in 2 eyes (3.7%), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid in 1 eye (1.85%), Stevens Johnson syndrome in 1 eye (1.85%) and corneal vascularization in 1 eye (1.85%). Additionally, 40 eyes (74%) had preoperative glaucoma, and an Ahmed valve was implanted in 55% of them. Preoperative BCVA ranged from 20/200 to light perception. At an average follow-up of 20.15 months ± 12.7 (range, 1–56), postoperative vision improved to ⩾20/200 in 18 eyes (33.3%) and ⩾20/50 in 4 eyes (7.4%). The graft retention was 96%. Conclusions The Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis is a valid option for high-risk patients. The design improvements in the Boston keratoprosthesis, as well as the daily implementation of the therapeutic methods, have notably diminished occurrence of the most serious complications, such as corneal necrosis and endophthalmitis. As such, glaucoma and its subsequent complications now stand as the most prevalent prognostic factor in the long term. PMID:23960937

  16. CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF LANDSAT-DERIVED OCEAN COLOUR PRODUCTS IN BOSTON HARBOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sheldon, Patrick; Peri, Francesco; Wei, Jianwei; Shang, Zhehai; Sun, Qingsong; Chen, Robert F.; Lee, ZhongPing; Schaaf, Crystal B.; John R. Schott; Loveland, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat data archive provides a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term evolution of coastal ecosystems at fine spatial scales that cannot be resolved by ocean colour (OC) satellite sensors. Recognizing Landsat’s limitations in applications over coastal waters, we have launched a series of field campaigns in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay (MA, USA) to validate OC products derived from Landsat-8. We will provide a preliminary demonstration on the calibration/validatio...

  17. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Thomas, Tinku; Raj, Tony; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods: The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of th...

  18. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  19. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; J. Mataix-Solera; Scow, K M; V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-Beneyto

    2009-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of ...

  20. 奇台县满营湖区荒漠植被群落稳定性%Community Stability of Desert Vegetation at Manyinghu Area of Qitai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚文婷; 安放舟

    2012-01-01

    以奇台县满营湖区荒漠植被为研究对象,结合研究区内37个样方调查资料,利用改进的M.Godron稳定性测定方法测定了群落稳定性.结果表明,叉毛蓬群落在研究区内稳定性最高,是演替的顶级群落.%According to the investigation data about 37 quadrats of desert vegetation in Manyinghu area of Qitai County, the modified method of M. Godron was used to measure the community stability. The results showed that Petrosimonia community had the highest stability, and was the climax community of succession.

  1. Boston Gas tackles leaks with unique drilling rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews a new drilling method and new drilling equipment used to pinpoint gas leaks in urban areas. It describes the drill spacing and drilling time involved in finding such leaks. It discusses the size of the drilling equipment and speed of penetration through various materials, including frozen soils. The use of this equipment has dramatically increased the speed necessary to identify the leak and instigate repairs

  2. Anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water and finished water of community water systems in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2004–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.; Stark, James R.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Smith, Erik A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, two Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) were conducted during 2004–05 in unconfined parts of the glacial aquifer system and in unconfined parts of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota and Wisconsin. SWQAs are two-phased sampling activities in the NAWQA Program. The first phase evaluated the occurrence of 265 (258 are included in this report) anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) through monitoring source water in 30 of the largest-producing community water system wells completed in the aquifers underlying the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area. The AOCs included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and other AOCs. During the second phase of the study, 15 of the original community water system wells, those with the greatest number of AOC detections, were resampled along with associated finished water.

  3. Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ingeborg Haug; Sabrina Setaro; Juan Pablo Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs ...

  4. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and practices assessment concerning community conservation and participatory rural appraisal in the areas that neighbour the Kisite Mpunguti Marine park and reserve.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwadzaya, H.; Ndung'u, M.; Sumba, D.

    1995-01-01

    This Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by Community Wildlife Programme of the Kenya Wildlife Service as part of the activities of the USAID funded Conservation of Biodiverse Resources Areas (COBRA) project. The survey and PRA methods were combined and carried out in August 1995 in all villages that neighbour the Kisite Mpunguti Marine Park and Reserve. A sample of 152 respondents were interviewed for the sur...

  6. 铅锌矿区土壤细菌群落多样性分析%Bacterial Community Diversitv in Mining Area Polluted by Lead and Zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任广明; 张琦; 曲娟娟; 闫立龙; 孙兴滨

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed to discuss the relationship between heavy metal contents and bacterial community diversity in the soil polluted by Pb and Zn in mining area of Heilongjiang Province. The soil physico-chemistry properties and enzyme activities were analyzed. The DGGE pattern, cluster analysis of DGGE and bacterial community richness showed that bacterial community structure changed with increasing contamination. Compared with non-mine soils, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the bacterial communities in the mining area decreased observably ( P<0. 01) . The soils in the mining area were severely polluted by Pb and Zn due to the obvious increase in Pb and Zn contents in the mining area as compared with those in the non-mine area. There were highly significant differences in soil enzyme activities between the mining soils and the non-mine soils (P<0.01). The soil heavy metal contents were significantly positively correlated with soil enzyme activities. Soil heavy metals in the mining area resulted in the change in environmental quality, which strongly influenced the structure of bacterial communities.%对黑龙江省铅锌矿区土壤重金属污染与土壤中细菌群落结构多样性间的关系进行了研究,并分析了土壤的理化性质和土壤酶活性.PCR-DGGE图谱、DGGE聚类分析图谱、细菌群落丰富度(S)均表明土壤细菌群落结构随着重金属污染程度的加剧发生了相应变化,Shannon-Weaver指数达极显著水平差异(P<0.01),且显著低于非矿区土壤.铅锌矿区土壤重金属污染严重,铅锌质量分数较非矿区有明显地增加;土壤酶活性与非矿区土壤酶活性均存在极显著差异(P<0.01),土壤重金属质量分数与土壤酶活性呈显著负相关.可见,铅锌矿区重金属污染导致土壤环境质量发生变化,严重影响着土壤中细菌群落结构多样性.

  7. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Community Growth Options: Vacant, Developed, and Constrained Areas; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2007); [developable

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS raster data set illustrates vacant, developed, and constrained areas for the 35 parishes in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan South Louisiana study area....

  8. Low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yoshito; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. [Subjects] The subjects were community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area of Japan. [Methods] One group (n = 50) performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. Another group (n = 37) performed group exercise only. Low-frequency group exercise (warm-up, exercises for motor functions, and cool-down) was performed in seven 40 to 70-minute sessions over 9 weeks by both groups. Five items of motor functions were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant interactions were observed between groups and assessment times for all motor functions. Improvements in motor functions were significantly greater in the group that performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring than in the group that performed group exercise only. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences in 3 items of motor functions. No significant improvements were observed in motor functions in the group that performed group exercise only. [Conclusions] Group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring improved motor functions in the setting of low-frequency group exercise for community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area. PMID:27065520

  9. Incidence and pattern of injuries among residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoaje Eme T

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of infectious diseases in developing countries, injuries still contribute significantly to the health burden. There are few reports of rural, community-based injury surveys in Nigeria. This study describes the incidence and pattern of injuries among the residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria. Methods It was a community based cross-sectional study. Two of six census areas were randomly selected and all households in the two areas visited. Information on the sociodemographic characteristics, individual injury events and outcomes was obtained with a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. Results Information was obtained on the 1,766 persons in 395 households. Fifty-nine injuries were recorded by 54 people, giving an injury incidence of 100 per 1,000 per year (95% CI = 91.4–106.9. Injury incidence among Conclusion Injuries were common in Igbo-Ora, though resultant disability and fatality were low. Males and those aged ≥ 30 years had significantly higher proportions of the injured. Falls and traffic injuries were the most commonly reported injuries. Appropriate interventions to reduce the occurrences of injuries should be instituted by the local authorities. There is also need to educate the community members on how to prevent injuries.

  10. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  11. Small Drones for Community-Based Forest Monitoring: An Assessment of Their Feasibility and Potential in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered through community-based forest monitoring (CBFM programs may be as accurate as those gathered by professional scientists, but acquired at a much lower cost and capable of providing more detailed data about the occurrence, extent and drivers of forest loss, degradation and regrowth at the community scale. In addition, CBFM enables greater survey repeatability. Therefore, CBFM should be a fundamental component of national forest monitoring systems and programs to measure, report and verify (MRV REDD+ activities. To contribute to the development of more effective approaches to CBFM, in this paper we assess: (1 the feasibility of using small, low-cost drones (i.e., remotely piloted aerial vehicles in CBFM programs; (2 their potential advantages and disadvantages for communities, partner organizations and forest data end-users; and (3 to what extent their utilization, coupled with ground surveys and local ecological knowledge, would improve tropical forest monitoring. To do so, we reviewed the existing literature regarding environmental applications of drones, including forest monitoring, and drew on our own firsthand experience flying small drones to map and monitor tropical forests and training people to operate them. We believe that the utilization of small drones can enhance CBFM and that this approach is feasible in many locations throughout the tropics if some degree of external assistance and funding is provided to communities. We suggest that the use of small drones can help tropical communities to better manage and conserve their forests whilst benefiting partner organizations, governments and forest data end-users, particularly those engaged in forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation projects such as REDD+.

  12. Assessment of the public health in the course of the Eurasian Economic Community programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inter-state target programme of the Eurasian Economic Community 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines' includes assessment of impact of these facilities on the public health at the adjacent areas and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases. This work will be carried out as follows: collection of indicators of the State medical statistic reporting by areas of natural uranium mining and milling waste storage to be reclaimed; data input to the database, data verification, calculation of relative indexes and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; comparative analysis of the public health at inspected and reference areas, estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; development of recommendations on enhancing medical service of the population. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre developed the method of data collection in order to assess and to perform the comparative analysis of the public health. At the early stage of the programme, for the purpose of the comparative analysis of the public health at the contaminated areas, we are going to identify areas affected by uranium plants and some reference areas with approximately same quality of health-care service. When collecting medical data of the public, the special attention will be paid to malignant neoplasm incidence, including trachea, bronchus, lung cancer and psycho-somatic diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and others). This kind of data will be collected as the number of registered patients by sex and age groups in the report of the state medical statistics 'Information on malignant neoplasm incidence over 1990 - 2014' (according to the reporting form 'Information on the number of diseases registered at the area under the clinic service'). The statistical bodies of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states will organize the

  13. Assessment of the public health in the course of the Eurasian Economic Community programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inter-state target programme of the Eurasian Economic Community 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines' includes assessment of impact of these facilities on the public health at the adjacent areas and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases. This work will be carried out as follows: collection of indicators of the State medical statistic reporting by areas of natural uranium mining and milling waste storage to be reclaimed; data input to the database, data verification, calculation of relative indexes and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; comparative analysis of the public health at inspected and reference areas, estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; development of recommendations on enhancing medical service of the population. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre developed the method of data collection in order to assess and to perform the comparative analysis of the public health. At the early stage of the programme, for the purpose of the comparative analysis of the public health at the contaminated areas, we are going to identify areas affected by uranium plants and some reference areas with approximately same quality of health-care service. When collecting medical data of the public, the special attention will be paid to malignant neoplasm incidence, including trachea, bronchus, lung cancer and psycho-somatic diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and others). This kind of data will be collected as the number of registered patients by sex and age groups in the report of the state medical statistics 'Information on malignant neoplasm incidence over 1990 - 2014' (according to the reporting form 'Information on the number of diseases registered at the area under the clinic service'). The statistical bodies of the Eurasian Economic Community

  14. Community Based Assessment of Biochemical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural and Tribal Area of Himalayan Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj; Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar Raina; Pradeep Bansal; Satya Bhushan; Vishav Chander

    2013-01-01

    Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis....

  15. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  16. The MOBILIZE Boston Study: Design and methods of a prospective cohort study of novel risk factors for falls in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Marian T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are the sixth leading cause of death in elderly people in the U.S. Despite progress in understanding risk factors for falls, many suspected risk factors have not been adequately studied. Putative risk factors for falls such as pain, reductions in cerebral blood flow, somatosensory deficits, and foot disorders are poorly understood, in part because they pose measurement challenges, particularly for large observational studies. Methods The MOBILIZE Boston Study (MBS, an NIA-funded Program Project, is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. Using a door-to-door population-based recruitment, we have enrolled 765 persons aged 70 and older. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2 segments: a 3-hour home interview followed within 4 weeks by a 3-hour clinic examination. Measures included pain, cerebral hemodynamics, and foot disorders as well as established fall risk factors. For the falls follow-up, participants return fall calendar postcards to the research center at the end of each month. Reports of falls are followed-up with a telephone interview to assess circumstances and consequences of each fall. A second assessment is performed 18 months following baseline. Results Of the 2382 who met all eligibility criteria at the door, 1616 (67.8% agreed to participate and were referred to the research center for further screening. The primary reason for ineligibility was inability to communicate in English. Results from the first 600 participants showed that participants are largely representative of seniors in the Boston area in terms of age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The average age of study participants was 77.9 years (s.d. 5.5 and nearly two-thirds were women. The study cohort was 78% white and 17% black. Many participants (39% reported having fallen at least once in the year before baseline. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY INVOLVED IN THE CARBON CYCLE IN DIFFERENT AREAS AND TYPES OF SOIL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Landi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the diversity of two soil bacterial groups involved in the biogeochemical carbon cycle: bacteria implicated in chitin degradation and methanotrophs. To evaluate the influence of soil physico-chemical and anthropic characteristics on the diversity of these microbial groups, total DNA was directly extracted from soils differently managed and sampled in central and south Italy. PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analyses targeting genes coding for chitinase (chiA, particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA and 16S rRNA from bacteria, actinomycetes and type I or II methanotrophs were used to fingerprint the soil bacterial communities. DGGE cluster analysis showed a clear separation of the bacterial communities on the basis of the sampling sites. The Canonical Corrispondance Analysis (CCA suggests that the edaphic factors such as granulometry and pH, could be responsible for determining the composition of these bacterial groups.

  18. The role of community organizations in the transformation of the health services delivery system in the Montreal metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R; Frohlich, K L

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the Montreal Regional Health and Social Services Board began a major process of change to its health care system. This transformation places particular emphasis on primary health care and increases the role of local community services centres (CLSCs) and community organizations (COs). In order to understand this process as experienced by COs, the present exploratory study was conducted during the summer and fall of 1996. We targeted 12 COs, 4 CLSCs, the Quebec Federation of CLSCs, and the Montreal CLSC Working Group. Semi-structured group interviews and CO documents were used as sources of information. Most participants believe in the need for change but feel that the strategies and implementation have been mismanaged. COs are feeling the pressure to professionalize and specialize current and future services. The "social economy" appears to be gaining momentum in the health sector. PMID:10910565

  19. Holding onto the Green Zone: A Youth Program for the Study and Stewardship of Community Riparian Areas. Leader Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kate; Wooster, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are an exciting and dynamic subject for study. These areas are valuable lands and important wildlife habitats, and they contribute greatly to the environmental health of an area. Definitions for the term "riparian" vary, but in this curriculum, the land called the "Green Zone" lies between flowing water and upland ecosystems.…

  20. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This study sought to take a close-up look at cross-border Mexican migration by collecting detailed information about one binational migratory village-based community. five major findings have resulted from this investigation: 1. Migrants are generally poor rural or urban dwellers who depend on reciprocity networks of mutual exchange with their friends and relatives and not on public institutions for their survival. 2. Migratory networks undergo a maturation process over time. 3. Job and so...

  1. Research on the Harmonious Development of New Rural Communities under the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of offering a definition of New Rural Communities (NRCs), the paper analyzes the values of New Rural Communities and argues that the construction of NRCs is able to contribute to the enhancement of the comprehensive agricultural production capability as well as the development of social productivity. Meanwhile the incomes of the rural residents can be boosted, which denotes the realization of a harmonious society where the achievements of China’s reform and development are shared by each citizen. Moreover, the construction of NRCs facilitates the economization of land use and thus improves the overall living standard of the residents, while helping to cut the administrative cost and promote democracy at the primary level. This paper also points out various problems arising during the construction of NRCS in China: blindly following suit in accordance with the modes of the urban communities; lack of funds, which leads to the absence of the supporting mechanisms of NRCs; vague positioning and the ensuing shortage of impetus for continued development. Finally, the paper raises the corresponding measures and suggestions: first, based on reality, make overall planning and scientific arrangement; second, the government should play the dominant role while respecting the principal position of the rural residents and introducing the market mechanism; third, increase science and technology input and attach equal importance to economic and social benefits; fourth, broaden fund-raising channels while completing the supervision mechanism.

  2. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  3. Ecological, economical and social impact of uranium mining activity on local communities in the area of Banat-Oravita branch of National Uranium Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the ecological, economical and social effects of uranium mining activity on environment and local communities in Caras Severin county are considered. 4412 radiochemical analyses and about 6730 radiometric measurements were made. The waters of local rivers were found to be contaminated with natural uranium and 226 radium, but the biological risk is not significant. Their concentrations and effective doses are presented in 8 tables referring to the rivers Lisava, Jitin, Caras. Also, samples of water from springs and wells in the Banat mining area were analysed for natural uranium and 226 Ra, their concentrations being found under the maximum permissible level. The air quality was not affected by accidental radon emissions. In order to limit the ecological impact on the environment, remedial action measures are proposed. The economic and social impact on the local communities are due mainly to the decline of activity, the most important effect being the unemployment

  4. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  5. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies.

  6. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies. PMID:27249614

  7. Parkways und Freeways in der Bestimmung der Landschaft der Amerikanischen Grossstaedte. Der Fall Boston.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Maria Brignoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Die Tradition der amerikanischen Landschaftarchitektur hatt aus Boston ein Planungsexperiment gemacht. Das Emerald Necklace, eine echte Ikone der Landschaftsarchitektur, bezeugt immer noch wirkungsvoll, wie die Landschaftsplanung die Struktur moderner Grossstaedte mit Raum zum wohnen staerken kann. Heute muss die Stadt mit ihren von der Central Artery hervorgerufenen Wunden fertigwerden, mit Risultaten, die wahrscheinlich nicht der Groesse ihrer Geschichte entsprechen. Der teilweise Erfolg der Rose Kennedy Greenway macht die Notwendigkeit klar, die Regelung fuer die Planung der offenen Gebiete neu zu bestimmen.

  8. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jinya Niu; Shivani Sahni; Susu Liao; Tucker, Katherine L.; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Xiang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d) and insomnia symptoms (difficulty ini...

  9. Beacon Hill Village in Boston: Ein erfolgreiches Beispiel einer Mitgliederorganisation auf Quartiersebene

    OpenAIRE

    Osl, Philipp; Benz, Alain; Österle, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Beacon Hill Village erbringt und koordiniert als Intermediär ein breites Spektrum von Dienstleistungen für ältere Menschen in Boston. Durch Kombination professioneller Dienstleister und Freiwilligenarbeit sowie alternative Preismodelle für finanzschwache Mitglieder ist es der Organisation gelungen, ein an den Kundenbedürfnissen orientiertes Angebot für (fast) alle Menschen zugänglich zu machen. Der Beitrag stellt das Geschäftsmodell von Beacon Hill Village vor und diskutiert die Umsetzbarkeit...

  10. A Tenor Analysis of Barack Obama's Speech on Boston Marathon Bombing Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骥

    2013-01-01

    Systemic-Functional Grammar is a sociologically oriented functional linguistic approach developed by M. A. K. Halli-day. One of the focuses of SFG is register, which is composed of field, tenor and mode. Halliday particularly developed these three main parameters, which are useful for characterizing the nature of the social transaction of the participants. In this essay, the method of tenor is used for analyzing Barack Obama's speech on Boston Marathon bombing event to explore how Obama trans-fers his ideas to audience in order to achieve his goals.

  11. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

  12. 76 FR 18573 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area... shopping and commercial space; and green infrastructure. Sunset Terrace's redevelopment provides...

  13. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  14. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  16. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content AreaCommunity Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  17. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  18. [ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDavid, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

  19. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  20. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  1. Distribution of the herpetofauna community associated to four areas with different interference degree in Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1840 individuals from 28 species (19 reptiles and 9 amphibians) were found in Gorgona Island, during June and July 2001. Based on 32 transects placed in four areas with different antropic perturbation degree (Prison, palm plantations, secondary forest and primary forest) it was found that the species richness was higher at the secondary forest. The species registered at primary and secondary forest where very similar as well as the species present at the prison and the palm plantations. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that Boa constricto1; Basiliscus galeritus. Ameiva bridgesii and Epipedobates boulengeri were found to be associated to open areas and their distribution was hardly affected by the environmental temperature. From the following species associated with forested areas, the canopy cover over the micro habitat influenced the distribution of Eleutherodactylus gularis. Eleutherodactylus achatinus and Bothrops atrox. While the understory cover influenced the distribution of Atelopus elegans. Bufo typhonius. Micrurus mipartitus y Enyalioides heterolepis

  2. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  3. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  4. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  5. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  6. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  7. Emergency medical consequence planning and management for national special security events after September 11: Boston 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, Kristy A; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Serino, Richard A; Savoia, Elena; Koh, Howard K

    2008-10-01

    The post-September 11 era has prompted unprecedented attention to medical preparations for national special security events (NSSE), requiring extraordinary planning and coordination among federal, state, and local agencies. For an NSSE, the US Secret Service (USSS) serves as the lead agency for all security operations and coordinates with relevant partners to provide for the safety and welfare of participants. For the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC), designated an NSSE, the USSS tasked the Boston Emergency Medical Services (BEMS) of the Boston Public Health Commission with the design and implementation of health services related to the Convention. In this article, we describe the planning and development of BEMS' robust 2004 DNC Medical Consequence Management Plan, addressing the following activities: public health surveillance, on-site medical care, surge capacity in the event of a mass casualty incident, and management of federal response assets. Lessons learned from enhanced medical planning for the 2004 DNC may serve as an effective model for future mass gathering events. PMID:18688202

  8. Calibration/validation of Landsat-Derived Ocean Colour Products in Boston Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sheldon, Patrick; Peri, Francesco; Wei, Jianwei; Shang, Zhehai; Sun, Qingsong; Chen, Robert F.; Lee, Zhongping; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.; Loveland, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The Landsat data archive provides a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term evolution of coastal ecosystems at fine spatial scales that cannot be resolved by ocean colour (OC) satellite sensors. Recognizing Landsat's limitations in applications over coastal waters, we have launched a series of field campaigns in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay (MA, USA) to validate OC products derived from Landsat-8. We will provide a preliminary demonstration on the calibration/validation of the existing OC algorithms (atmospheric correction and in-water optical properties) to enhance monitoring efforts in Boston Harbor. To do so, Landsat optical images were first compared against ocean colour products over high-latitude regions. The in situ cruise data, including optical data (remote sensing reflectance) and water samples were analyzed to obtain insights into the optical and biogeochemical properties of near-surface waters. Along with the cruise data, three buoys were deployed in three locations across the Harbor to complement our database of concentrations of chlorophyll a, total suspended solids (TSS), and absorption of colour dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The data collected during the first year of the project are used to develop and/or tune OC algorithms. The data will be combined with historic field data to map in-water constituents back to the early 1990's. This paper presents preliminary analysis of some of the data collected under Landsat-8 overpasses.

  9. Methane Emissions from Natural Gas in the Urban Region of Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, K.; Down, A.; Raciti, S. M.; Budney, J.; Hutyra, L.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Nehrkorn, T.; Jackson, R. B.; Phillips, N. G.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain must be quantified to assess environmental impacts of natural gas and to develop emission reduction strategies. We report natural gas emission rates for one year in the urban region of Boston, MA, using an atmospheric measurement and modeling framework. Continuous methane observations from four stations are combined with a high-resolution transport model to quantify the regional average emission rate, 20.6 ± 1.7 (95 % CI) g CH4 m-2 yr-1. Simultaneous observations of atmospheric ethane, compared with the ethane to methane ratio in pipeline gas, demonstrate that natural gas accounted for 58 - 100 % of methane emissions, depending on season. Using government statistics and geospatial data on energy consumption, we estimate the fractional loss rate to the atmosphere from all downstream components of the natural gas system, including transmission, distribution, and end-use, was 2.9 ± 0.3 % in the Boston urban region, compared to 1.1 % inferred by the Massachusetts greenhouse gas inventory.

  10. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  11. Opportunistic Research in Rural Areas through Community Health Worker Training: A Cost-effective method of Researching Medication Misuse in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Grills

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India it is estimated that one third of expenditure of households is spent on health related expenses, and medication purchases make up a large proportion of these costs. Objective: To investigate a novel methodology, which was cost effective, to collect large amounts of data to further understand medication purchases and misuse in rural India.Methods: This study explores the research approach that was conducted in 2012-13 by Layleaders enrolled in the Community Lay-Leaders’ Health Certificate Program initiative by Christian Medical College (CMC, Vellore, India.Results: The methodology demonstrated a large data collection capacity, where 100 Layleaders participated and collected over 5000 surveys across 515 villages in North, Central and North East India.Conclusions: Incorporating opportunistic research methods into community health worker training can be a cost effective way to collect meaningful and useful data in rural India. This study demonstrates a successful methodology that may be transferable to other rural areas and others conducting research training as part of community health worker training should consider such opportunistic research.

  12. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  13. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  14. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  15. The impact of implanted whale carcass on nematode communities in shallow water area of Peter the Great Bay (East Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.; Tarasov, Vitalyi G.

    2009-09-01

    In May, 2007 we sank the remains of a Minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea, Peter the Great Bay, at 30 m of water near the coast of Big Pelis Island. In the present study we describe the nematode communities in sediments under the implanted whale carcass. Abundance of nematodes increased with the distance from the carcass. Dominant trophic group was non-selective deposit feeders. The highest values of indexes of a specific diversity and evenness were noted in sediments under the whale, while domination index occurred at the highest distance from the whale. The suggestion is made that the cause of low density of nematodes in sediments under the whale is an extreme increase in number of macrofaunal animals, and predation and food competition between macro- and meiofauna. The changes noted in nematode assemblages living in an implanted whale in shallow waters are similar to those in deep-sea assemblages.

  16. Characterisation of the nematode community of a low-activity cold seep in the recently ice-shelf free Larsen B area, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent climate-induced ice-shelf disintegration in the Larsen A (1995 and B (2002 areas along the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula formed a unique opportunity to assess sub-ice-shelf benthic community structure and led to the discovery of unexplored habitats, including a low-activity methane seep beneath the former Larsen B ice shelf. Since both limited particle sedimentation under previously permanent ice coverage and reduced cold-seep activity are likely to influence benthic meiofauna communities, we characterised the nematode assemblage of this low-activity cold seep and compared it with other, now seasonally ice-free, Larsen A and B stations and other Antarctic shelf areas (Weddell Sea and Drake Passage, as well as cold-seep ecosystems world-wide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nematode community at the Larsen B seep site differed significantly from other Antarctic sites in terms of dominant genera, diversity and abundance. Densities in the seep samples were high (>2000 individuals per 10 cm(2 and showed below-surface maxima at a sediment depth of 2-3 cm in three out of four replicates. All samples were dominated by one species of the family Monhysteridae, which was identified as a Halomonhystera species that comprised between 80 and 86% of the total community. The combination of high densities, deeper density maxima and dominance of one species is shared by many cold-seep ecosystems world-wide and suggested a possible dependence upon a chemosynthetic food source. Yet stable (13C isotopic signals (ranging between -21.97±0.86‰ and -24.85±1.89‰ were indicative of a phytoplankton-derived food source. CONCLUSION: The recent ice-shelf collapse and enhanced food input from surface phytoplankton blooms were responsible for the shift from oligotrophic pre-collapse conditions to a phytodetritus-based community with high densities and low diversity. The parthenogenetic reproduction of the highly dominant Halomonhystera species is rather unusual

  17. Natural Communities and Rare Vascular Plants of West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge; Mapping, Description, and Ecological Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to apply a landscape-scale approach to management of the lands, natural communities of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin...

  18. The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu,1 Leiming Luo,1 Ping Ye,1 Yuan Liu,1 Bing Zhu,1 Yongyi Bai,1 Jie Bai2 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods: The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results: Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion: Overweight is common for both sexes in the People's Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. Keywords: anthropometric indices, residence area, lifestyle, cardiometabolic abnormalities, Chinese community-dwelling population

  19. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  20. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere. PMID:18237256

  1. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Dos Santos, Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-08-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored. PMID:27547346

  2. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  3. Protected Area Safeguard Tree and Shrub Communities from Degradation and Invasion: A Case Study in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Carter Ingram, J.; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Razafindrazaka, Rova; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina

    2009-07-01

    Despite their prevalence in both developed and developing countries, there have been surprisingly few field assessments of the ecological effectiveness of protected areas. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a key protected area in eastern Madagascar, Ranomafana National Park (RNP). We established paired 100 × 4-m vegetation transects (400 m2) within RNP and in remnant forests in the park’s peripheral zone. In each 400-m2 plot, all woody stems >1.5 cm in diameter at breast height were measured and identified to species. All species were also identified as native or non-native. We identified utilitarian species within all transects and they were sorted into use category. We calculated plot-level taxonomic biodiversity and functional diversity of utilitarian species; the latter was calculated by clustering the multivariate distances between species based on their utilitarian traits, and all metrics were tested using paired t-tests. Our results showed that there was significantly higher biodiversity inside RNP than in remnant forests and this pattern was consistent across all diversity metrics examined. Forests not located within the park’s boundary had significantly higher non-native species than within RNP. There was no statistically significant difference in functional diversity of utilitarian species inside RNP vs. remnant forests; however, the overall trend was toward higher diversity inside park boundaries. These findings suggested that RNP has been effective at maintaining taxonomic diversity relative to surrounding unprotected areas and restricting the spread of non-native plants. The results also suggested that low functional redundancy of forests outside of RNP might be of concern, because residents in surrounding villages may have few other substitutes for the services provided by species that are of critical importance to their livelihoods. This study highlights the challenges of trying to reconcile biodiversity conservation with human use

  4. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  5. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    OpenAIRE

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Roya Kelishadi; Mansour Siavash; Gholamhossein Sadri; Hossein Malekafzali; Masoud Pourmoghaddas; Shahin Shirani; Maryam Boshtam; Sedigheh Asgary; Noushin Mohammadifard; Ahmad Bahonar; Babak Eshrati; Farhad Ghamsari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Naja...

  6. Limited differences in fish and benthic communities and possible cascading effects inside and outside a protected marine area in Sagres (SW Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Fernández, C; Paulo, D; Serrão, E A; Engelen, A H

    2016-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a relatively recent fisheries management and conservation tool for conservation of marine ecosystems and serve as experimental grounds to assess trophic cascade effects in areas were fishing is restricted to some extent. A series of descriptive field studies were performed to assess fish and benthic communities between two areas within a newly established MPA in SW Portugal. We characterized benthic macroalgal composition and determined the size, density and biomass of the main benthic predatory and herbivorous fish species as well as the main benthic herbivorous invertebrates to assess indications of top-down control on the phytobenthic assemblages. Fish species were identical inside and outside the MPA, in both cases Sarpa salpa was the most abundant fish herbivore and Diplodus spp. accounted for the great majority of the benthic predators. However, size and biomass of D. spp. were higher inside than outside the MPA. The main herbivorous invertebrate was the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, which was smaller and predominantly showing a crevice-dwelling behaviour in the MPA. In addition, P. lividus size frequency distribution showed a unimodal pattern outside and a bimodal pattern inside the MPA. We found significant differences in the algal assemblages between inside and outside the MPA, with higher abundance of turf and foliose algae inside, and articulated calcareous and corticated macrophytes outside the MPA, but no differences in the invasive Asparagopsis spp. The obtained results show differences in predatory fish and benthic community structure, but not in species richness, inside and outside the MPA. We hypothesize these differences lead to variation in species interactions: directly through predation and indirectly via affecting sea urchins behavioural patterns, predators might drive changes in macroalgal assemblages via trophic cascade in the study area. However due to non-biological differences between the two areas it

  7. Very high resolution Earth observation features for monitoring plant and animal community structure across multiple spatial scales in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco; Tarantino, Cristina; Lucas, Richard M.; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the status and future trends in biodiversity can be prohibitively expensive using ground-based surveys. Consequently, significant effort is being invested in the use of satellite remote sensing to represent aspects of the proximate mechanisms (e.g., resource availability) that can be related to biodiversity surrogates (BS) such as species community descriptors. We explored the potential of very high resolution (VHR) satellite Earth observation (EO) features as proxies for habitat structural attributes that influence spatial variation in habitat quality and biodiversity change. In a semi-natural grassland mosaic of conservation concern in southern Italy, we employed a hierarchical nested sampling strategy to collect field and VHR-EO data across three spatial extent levels (landscape, patch and plot). Species incidence and abundance data were collected at the plot level for plant, insect and bird functional groups. Spectral and textural VHR-EO image features were derived from a Worldview-2 image. Three window sizes (grains) were tested for analysis and computation of textural features, guided by the perception limits of different organisms. The modelled relationships between VHR-EO features and BS responses differed across scales, suggesting that landscape, patch and plot levels are respectively most appropriate when dealing with birds, plants and insects. This research demonstrates the potential of VHR-EO for biodiversity mapping and habitat modelling, and highlights the importance of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis for specific taxonomic groups of interest. Further, textural features are important in the modelling of functional group-specific indices which represent BS in high conservation value habitat types, and provide a more direct link to species interaction networks and ecosystem functioning, than provided by traditional taxonomic diversity indices.

  8. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  9. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  10. Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Engel, Robin S.; Lovins, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Focused deterrence initiatives, including the most famous, Boston's Operation Ceasefire, have been associated with significant reductions in violence in several U.S. cities. Despite early successes, some cities have experienced long-term sustainability issues. Recent work in Cincinnati, Ohio, has focused on institutionalizing focused deterrence in…

  11. Effectively Working on Rehabilitation Goals: 24-Month Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trial of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Swildens; J.T. van Busschbach; H. Michon; H. Kroon; M.W.J. Koeter; D. Wiersma; J. van Os

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (PR) Approach on attainment of personal rehabilitation goals, social functioning, empowerment, needs for care, and quality of life in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in the Netherlands. Method: A 24-month, multicen

  12. Effectively working on rehabilitation goals : 24-month outcome of a randomized controlled trial of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, W.; van Busschbach, J.T.; Michon, H.; Kroon, H.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (PR) Approach on attainment of personal rehabilitation goals, social functioning, empowerment, needs for care, and quality of life in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in the Netherlands. Method: A 24-month, multicen

  13. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  14. 75 FR 38411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chelsea River, Chelsea and East Boston, MA, Event-Road Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Boston, MA, Event--Road Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Chelsea River Revel 5K Road Race. DATES: This deviation is effective from 8 a.m. through 5 p.m. on July 24... Race. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on July 24, 2010....

  15. Race and the Metropolitan Origins of Postsecondary Access to Four Year Colleges: The Case of Greater Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Smith, Suzanne M.; Coelen, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The inequities of residential segregation and their impact on educational opportunity are a national problem, but greater metropolitan Boston has a particularly problematic history in terms of the extent to which racial segregation has deeply divided the city into separate and unequal systems of opportunity. Despite decades of policy efforts to…

  16. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  17. Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    This book recounts the author's experience of teaching in a predominantly Negro elementary school in Boston as part of a program to upgrade segregated schools. He describes specific incidents to convey the bigoted attitudes of the teachers and other authorities, which he feels were manifest in their behavior and in the curriculum and activities of…

  18. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  19. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  20. The Sociology of the Deceased Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Many graduates of the Harvard Medical Unit (HMU) at Boston City Hospital, in either the clinical training/residency program or the research program at the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, contributed in major ways to the HMU and constantly relived their HMU experiences. The HMU staff physicians, descending from founder and mentor physicians Francis W. Peabody, Soma Weiss, and George R. Minot, were dedicated to the teaching, development, and leadership of its clinical and research trainees, whose confidence and dedication to patient care as a result of their mentorship led many to lifelong achievements as clinicians, teachers, and mentors. Their experience also led to a lifelong love of the HMU (despite its loss), camaraderie, happiness, and intense friendships with their associates.

  1. Researches regarding the Morton ether inhaler at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Rajesh P; Mifflin, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    The Morton ether inhaler in the possession of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, was traced back to 1906 when the earliest known photograph of it was published. The authors believe that the inhaler was given by William T. G. Morton, MD, to J. Mason Warren, MD, in January 1847. The inhaler was acquired by the Warren Anatomical Museum at an unknown date, loaned to Massachusetts General Hospital in October 1946, and placed on permanent loan to Massachusetts General Hospital in April 1948. Many documents relating to the inhaler have disappeared, and it was only identified in 2009 as the inhaler that probably belonged to J. Mason Warren, MD. The inhaler is not believed to be the one that Morton used on October 16, 1846, at Massachusetts General Hospital. It is the only known example of a Morton ether inhaler with valves (excluding replicas or reproduction inhalers) and is probably of similar design to the inhaler that Morton used on October 16, 1846.

  2. Quaternary geologic map of the Boston 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Thompson, W.B.; Chapman, W.F.; Black, R.F.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Grant, D.R.; Fullerton, David S.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Boston 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  3. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  4. EFISIENSI PERSAINGAN BANK UMUM SYARIAH: PENDEKATAN DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA DAN BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizqon Halal Syah Aji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking industry in Indonesia has begun dynamic. Product availability and standardization of Islamic banking products, the level of understanding by the public of products of Islamic banks and human resources. Market share of Islamic Banking in Indonesia to lock everything. Recent data Directorate of Islamic Banking in 2011 reached Rp 127,19 T, assets of BPRS amounting to Rp 3.35 T, can be calculated total Islamic banking assets as of October 2011 reached Rp 130,5 T. Financing very important factor, Data Envelopment Analisys (DEA is a measuring instrument of financing. Map of the Bank's performance in the competition between banks can be analyzed by matrix BCG (Boston Consulting Group. This matrix is used to describe the difference between the position of the relative market share of the Bank.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v3i1.2059

  5. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy.

  6. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  7. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  8. Upwelling and anthropogenic forcing on phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the Zhejiang coastal area over the last 100 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanshan; XING Lei; ZHANG Hailong; FENG Xuwen; YANG Haili; ZHAO Meixun

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton productivity and community structure in marginal seas have been altered significantly dur-ing the past three decades, but it is still a challenge to distinguish the forcing mechanisms between climate change and anthropogenic activities. High time-resolution biomarker records of two 210Pb-dated sediment cores (#34:28.5°N, 122.272°E;CJ12-1269:28.861 9°N, 122.515 3°E) from the Min-Zhe coastal mud area were compared to reveal changes of phytoplankton productivity and community structure over the past 100 years. Phytoplankton productivity started to increase gradually from the 1970s and increased rapidly after the late 1990s at Site #34;and it started to increase gradually from the middle 1960s and increased rapidly after the late 1980s at Site CJ12-1269. Productivity of Core CJ12-1269 was higher than that of Core #34. Phy-toplankton community structure variations displayed opposite patterns in the two cores. The decreasing D/B (dinosterol/brassicasterol) ratio of Core #34 since the 1960s revealed increased diatom contribution to total productivity. In contrast, the increasing D/B ratio of Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950s indicated in-creased dinoflagellate contribution to total productivity. Both the productivity increase and the increased dinoflagellate contribution in Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950-1960s were mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, as the location was closer to the Changjiang River Estuary with higher nutrient concentration and decreasing Si/N ratios. However, increased diatom contribution in Core #34 is proposed to be caused by increased coastal upwelling, with higher nutrient concentration and higher Si/N ratios.

  9. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  10. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Taylor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with dentifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  11. Extension for Community Health Outcomes-hepatitis C: Small steps carve big footprints in the allocation of scarce resources for hepatitis C virus treatment to remote developing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Veysel; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Kahveci, Ali M; Mutrux, Rachel; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2016-04-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major health problem throughout the world. HCV patients living in rural areas are less fortunate than their counterparts residing in populous urbanized regions. The lack of medical resources and properly trained medical personnel in rural regions make it especially burdensome for HCV patients seeking treatment. Dr. Sanjeev Arora at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center took initiative to resolve the issue at hand by developing a model named Project Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO). ECHO connects primary care providers (PCPs), usually family medicine physicians, in local communities with specialists. ECHO providers test the efficacy of treatment given using the ECHO model vs that at academic medical centers. The ECHO model has produced promising results such that the sustained virologic response rates for both types of sites were near-equivalent. Show Me ECHO was adapted from Project ECHO to train PCPs in Missouri and equip them with the tools and skills to properly treat and diagnose HCV in a timely manner. This healthcare model can be implemented for treating other common infections and chronic diseases. Telemedicine is the direction healthcare is headed for the next several decades. It has potential to be applied in developing countries to alleviate agony and despair resulting from limited resources and lack of access to expert medical care. PMID:27099651

  12. Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests. PMID:18284739

  13. Meta-analysis indicates habitat-specific alterations to primary producer and herbivore communities in marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben L. Gilby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in trophic group interactions following the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs is critical in understanding their success, or otherwise. A systematic review and meta-analysis was used to determine trends in the effects of MPAs on primary producers and herbivores from 57 locations throughout the world. On coral reefs, macroalgal coverage and sea urchin density were significantly (p<0.05 lower within MPAs, with 79% and 83% of MPAs reporting smaller populations of these groups, respectively. Conversely, in kelp/algal habitats, where habitat-forming macroalgae are beneficial, no statistical differences were found in either algal coverage or herbivore density, however, 70% of MPAs reported lower densities of urchins. Finally, we found that the literature conveyed a significant negative relationship between grazer density effect sizes and macroalgal coverage effect sizes. Our results indicate that the tropho-dynamics of recovering fish populations in disparate habitats is likely to be more complex than initially thought, and partly driven by differential fisheries and habitat effects. This study highlights the importance of selecting MPAs based on the processes that assist in the recovery of ecosystems in the aftermath of fishing, in addition to habitat quality and representativeness.

  14. 农村精神分裂症患者社区康复问题探讨%Community-based rehabilitation for schizophrenic patients in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启文; 肖水源; 周亮; 黄进弟; 符永健; 占达飞; 许开宁

    2010-01-01

    从社会文化、精神卫生防治体系、卫生资源配置公平性、专业人才匮乏、治疗信心及康复延误6个方面,分析了农村精神分裂症患者社区康复存在的问题,为政府制定农村精神卫生政策提供有效的决策依据.%The paper analyzed the challenges for community-based rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients in China' s rural areas,from such six aspects as culture, prevention and control system for mental health, fairness of health resources allocation, shortage of specialists, confidence in treatment,and delay in rehabilitation. These studies aim at providing the government with decision making evidence for enacting rural mental health policies and taking effective intervention measures.

  15. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  16. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  17. Evolution in microbiological results in food samples in a health area in the Community of Madrid, Spain (1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Fernández de Larrea Baz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the context of the increasing relevance of food security in the field of the Public Health, the present article try to evaluate the degree of microbiological contamination in foodstuffs, and to search improvement measures.Methods: Retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the samples of foodstuffs from industries and restauration establishements in the district 1 of the Area V of Madrid Autonomous Region between 1999 and 2002.To check the official minutes of inspections of social restauration establishements.Descriptive analysis of the data obtained.Results: The parameters in 116 of the 383 analysed samples (30 ́3% were higher than permitted by law. The percentage of correct samples in the collective lunchrooms went up from 62% in 1999 to 89 ́9% in 2001 (p<0 ́05.The 32 ́8% of the altered samples were caused by the presence of patogens.The foodsttufs with higher percentage of alteration were the dairy products, followed by the sausages. In the cooked foods, the percentage of alteration was higher in those of group A.The primary deficiences in the social restauration establishements were the absence of non-manual accion tap, the lack of bleach suitable for alimentary use and the inadequate protection of foods.Conclusions: In collective lunchrooms we can observe an improvement in the microbiological results; however, there are still structural and process deficiencies. The results of the other industries cannot be easily assessed due to scarcity of samples.To use bleach suitable for alimentary use in a routine way, can be a measure to reduce the high percentage of group A contaminated foodstuffs.

  18. Barriers to Repatriation of Afghan Refugees (A Case Study of Afghan Community at Shah and Khusar Colony Board Area Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the barriers to the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The data were collected from board area Peshawar from 76 respondents selected through simple random sampling technique and were interviewed. The study shows that Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan mainly due to Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in year 1979. Despite having stay of almost three decades in Pakistan they have to repatriate to Afghanistan, but a large majority of the respondents had no intentions to repatriate while small number of respondents reported intention to repatriate mainly due to strict policies of Pakistan government. Those had no intention pointed out the political reasons such as lack of peace and stability in Afghanistan and bad law and order situation, they had no property/ land in Afghanistan, supplemented by lack of job opportunities while they have livelihood sources and better socioeconomic conditions in Pakistan. Socially in Afghanistan a new culture has been developed mostly favoring those like war. Social services are completely destroyed and many refugees called the new culture as alien for them especially to the new generation of Afghan refugees who have been grown in Pakistan. Many of them especially women and children enjoyed a life style that did not exist even before 1979 in Afghanistan. Refugees consider themselves more the part of Pakistani culture and hesitate to go back home. The overall impact shows that those people who had intention to repatriate mainly due to the use of force by government, destruction of houses and shops in camps. Study recommends that the repatriation process can be enhanced if peace and stability in Afghanistan is improved along with the availability of social services and job opportunities.

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  20. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  1. The Impact of Cultural Environment on the Participation of Eco-immigrant Communities in Ecotourism in the Three Rivers’ Source Area. A Case Study of Mani Stone Project in Kunlun Eco-immigrant Village (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wen; Lan, Xu

    2016-01-01

    With participation in ecotourism, eco-immigrant communities in the Three Rivers’ Source area attempt to use abundant cultural resources in Tibetan region to make their own development path. As an example, the villagers of Kunlun eco-immigrant has attempted to develop tourism by producing and selling Mani stone (a Tibetan stone engraved of sacred Buddhist formulae). However, this practice is queried by some Tibetan intellectuals, community members, and relevant scholars. Besides, the complexit...

  2. 芬兰与浦东新区社区卫生服务的比较%Comparison of community health services in Finland and Pudong New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伟; 张韬

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the overview,internal collaboration and personnel training of primary health care in Finland and Pudong New Area and compared their important parameters. It put forward two points which could be learned from Finland. Firstly,optimizing and integrating the functions of general practitioners,community nurses, and public health personnel to work in collaboration. Secondly,using multi-channel and multilateral collaboration to educate and train the general practitioners in order to guarantee,develop and improve the general practitioner's quality and ability,and enhance their enthusiasm and responsibility to serve the people with good community health care.%对芬兰与上海浦东新区两地社区卫生保健体系的基本情况、内部协作与人才培养进行介绍和阐述,并抽取其中的重要参数进行比较,经分析提出可在两点上借鉴芬兰简便高效的运作模式:(1)医、护、防职能分工优化整合,紧密协作;(2)全科医师培养和进修多管齐下,多方协作,以充分保障全科医师的素质与能力,发展与提升,充分激发其职业热忱和为民服务的高度责任心,做好社区卫生保健工作。

  3. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of tertiary care hospital in Mumbai for one year. All study participants social demographic profile, diet history was collected. Findings of clinical examination, height and weight was recorded. Blood and stools samples were collected after obtaining verbal consent from their parents. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 11.5 version. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 78.3%. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 64.2%, 36.2% and 0.6% respectively. Study participants with BMI <18.5 Kg/M 2 had significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. 88.9% had no knowledge regarding anaemia. In logistic regression analysis body mass index, per capita income and intestinal parasites in stool were the variables independently associated with anaemia. Conclusions: The high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls indicates need for additional nutritional support, iron folic acid supplementation including prevention and control of worm infestation in urban communities. It would be desirable that action for improvement is initiated right at the adolescent stage, thereby ensuring adequate body stores of iron even before they marry and become pregnant.

  4. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  5. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  6. 1 meter resolution GeoTIFF image of the sidescan sonar backscatter imagery of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_1MBS.TIF, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km...

  7. Location of bottom photographs from the Mini-SeaBOSS sampling system from Boston Harbor and Approaches (USGS Field Activity 04019) (BOTTOMPHOTOS, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the locations and hotlinks to photographs of the seafloor in Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. The photos were taken...

  8. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice Masks Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These Land-Ocean-Coastline-Ice (LOCI) files provide land classification masks derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product...

  9. ArcInfo Grid of the 30 meter pixel Composite Bathymetry of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BH_30MBATH, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km square of...

  10. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  11. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  12. Epithelial growth over the optic surface of the type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis: histopathology and implications for biointegration

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    Yousuf M Khalifa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Yousuf M Khalifa, Don Davis, Nick Mamalis, Majid MoshirfarMoran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: We report the histopathology of epithelial overgrowth in the Boston type I keratoprosthesis. The epithelium shows an inconsistent number of layers and basement membrane and goblet cells are absent. Epithelialization of the keratoprosthesis optic would have multiple advantages, but the limitation of vision makes tolerating the overgrowth difficult.Keywords: keratoprosthesis, cornea, corneal transplant, biocompatibility, biointegration epithelium

  13. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  14. Advantages of microscope-integrated intraoperative online optical coherence tomography: usage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Steven, Philipp; Hos, Deniz; Hüttmann, Gereon; Lankenau, Eva; Bachmann, Björn; Cursiefen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) type I is a technique to treat patients with corneal diseases that are not amenable to conventional keratoplasty. Correct assembly and central implantation of the prosthesis are crucial for postoperative visual recovery. This study investigates the potential benefit of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to monitor KPro surgery. Retrospective case series are presented for two patients who underwent Boston KPro type I implantation. The surgery in both patients was monitored intraoperatively using a commercially available intraoperative OCT (iOCT) device mounted on a surgical microscope. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT was able to evaluate the correct assembly and implantation of the KPro. All parts of the prosthesis were visible, and interfaces between the corneal graft and titanium backplate or anterior optics were clearly depictable. Moreover, iOCT visualized a gap between the backplate and graft in one case, and in the other case, a gap between the anterior optic and graft. Neither gap was visible with a conventional surgical microscope. The gap between the anterior optic and the graft could easily be corrected. Microscope-integrated iOCT delivers enhanced information, adding to the normal surgical microscope view during KPro surgery. Correct assembly can be controlled as well as the correct placement of the Boston KPro into the anterior chamber.

  15. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  16. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  17. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in a Populus euphratica Community in the Ebinur Lake Area, a Desert Ecosystem of Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin He

    Full Text Available One of the primary limiting factors for biological activities in desert ecosystems is nitrogen (N. This study therefore examined the effects of N and investigated the responses of an arid ecosystem to global change. We selected the typical desert plant Populus euphratica in a desert ecosystem in the Ebinur Lake area to evaluate the effects of N deposition on desert soil respiration. Three levels of N deposition (0, 37.5 and 112.5 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1 were randomly artificially provided to simulate natural N deposition. Changes in the soil respiration rates were measured from July to September in both 2010 and 2013, after N deposition in April 2010. The different levels of N deposition affected the total soil N, soil organic matter, soil C/N ratio, microorganism number, and microbial community structure and function. However, variable effects were observed over time in relation to changes in the magnitude of N deposition. Simulated high N deposition significantly reduced the soil respiration rate by approximately 23.6±2.5% (P<0.05, whereas low N deposition significantly increased the soil respiration rate by approximately 66.7±2.7% (P<0.05. These differences were clearer in the final growth stage (September. The different levels of N deposition had little effect on soil moisture, whereas N deposition significantly increased the soil temperature in the 0-5 cm layer (P<0.05. These results suggest that in the desert ecosystem of the Ebinur Lake area, N deposition indirectly changes the soil respiration rate by altering soil properties.

  18. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P animal farms (P > 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease.

  19. Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Community Secondary Schools in Rural Areas of Central Tanzania: A Case of Bahi District in Dodoma Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Zakayo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the study area between July to August, 2010 with the aim of determining sexual behaviours among adolescents enrolled to community secondary schools. Quantitative data for the study were collected through interviews with 202 students using a pre-tested semi- structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight (8 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with students and in-depth interview with some key informants were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Findings from the study revealed that despite majority of adolescents were aware of some issues related to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH, however, levels of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours among them were unacceptably high. Sixty three percent of sampled adolescents had ever experienced sex, with age at first sex by half of them (51.2% being 15 years and below. Furthermore, of the respondents who had ever experienced sexual intercourse, 22% had multiple sexual partners, 21% had ever had sex with casual partner, and 36% didn’t use condom in their last sexual encounter Main factors for prevalence of sexual activity among adolescents in the study population included failure by adolescents to control their sexual emotions, peer pressure, financial/material gain, cultural practices, and living arrangement. Based on these findings, recommendations to improve the situation have been indicated.

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. PMID:26214299